CN101503318A - Organic and inorganic compound fertilizer - Google Patents

Organic and inorganic compound fertilizer Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101503318A
CN101503318A CN 200910080544 CN200910080544A CN101503318A CN 101503318 A CN101503318 A CN 101503318A CN 200910080544 CN200910080544 CN 200910080544 CN 200910080544 A CN200910080544 A CN 200910080544A CN 101503318 A CN101503318 A CN 101503318A
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China
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fertilizer
soil
phosphate
organic
inorganic
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张淑香
李桂花
胡玮
徐明岗
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of CAAS
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning of CAAS
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Abstract

The invention relates to an organic-inorganic composite fertilizer, which consists of straws, excrements and fertilizers. By weight, in the composite fertilizer, the ratio of N, P2O5 and K2O is 10 to 35:8 to 12:5 to 8, and the ratio of C and N is 10:15. The organic-inorganic composite fertilizer has very obvious effects for improving biomass of wheat and increasing readily available nutrient of soil, urease activity, microbial biomass in the carbon-nitrogen aspect.

Description

A kind of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer
[technical field]
The invention belongs to agricultural technology field, more specifically, the present invention relates to organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.
[background technology]
Tangerine bar of farm crop and animal excrements had both contained nutritive elements such as the essential carbon of a considerable amount of crops, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, have the physico-chemical property and the soil organisms proterties of improving the soil again, increase soil fertility, increase effects such as crop yield, so crop material and animal excrements are important organic fertilizer.China is the very abundant country of agricultural straw resource, organic fertilizer resource, according to investigations, in state-owned 6.5 * 10 8The t crop material, 26.1 * 10 8The t poultry manure, these organic materialss can be gathered materials on the spot, and direct returning to farmland is simple.Under the condition of China's arable land growing tension, the utilization ratio that how to improve various resources has become the key factor of excavating agricultural production potential.Though fertilizer provides a large amount of C source materials for plant growth, but the microbial life activity has certain requirement to carbon-nitrogen ratio, the Fertilizer Combination of different carbon-nitrogen ratios alternates betwwen good and bad to the influence of plant growth, seeks a rational carbon-nitrogen ratio and become a very important problem concerning utilizing organic fertilizer.CN 200510035626.7 relates to the method that a kind of worker of utilization, agricultural organic waste produce broad-spectrum organic substrate, is main raw material with the high worker of content of cellulose, agricultural organic waste, paper mill sludge 75~90; Nitrogenous waste liquid 5~10; Wood chip or organic mushroom slag 5~10; Ground phosphate rock 2~5 mixes described material, adjusts pH value, carbon-nitrogen ratio 25-35:1 and water content, forms through the blowing oven dry behind the microbe inoculation strain fermentation again.It can be used as organic fertilizer, soil redeposition, flower mud, mushroom rod, crop cultivation soil, seedling dish substratum or bacterium culture medium and uses.CN 01138982.6 relates to a kind of organic bio-fertilizer and preparation method thereof, this method is stalk is pulverized through pulverizer, is made into carbon-nitrogen ratio 30: 1, is piled into the ridge, with mix the bacterium instrument will ferment the heating bacterium evenly admix in the ridge, pulverize with turnover throwing machine and to turn over throwing, in the ridge, charge into fresh air, make that temperature is controlled at 32 ℃~60 ℃ in the ridge, relative humidity 40%~60%, become thoroughly decomposed through two to six time-of-weeks, its quick-acting organic carbons are reached more than 60%, be crushed to 40 orders after drying and form.US 6 231 631 relates to a kind of compost, and its carbon (C) is below 9.5 or 9.5 with the weight ratio (C/N) of nitrogen (N).Notice the carbon-nitrogen ratio problem when these patents or patent application are all just produced organic fertilizer, but in fact they do not consider the influence to plant growth, soil fertility and edatope etc. of the N-P-K content of these fertilizer and carbon-nitrogen ratio.Therefore, the inventor has made the present invention finally through a large amount of experimental studies.
[summary of the invention]
[technical problem that will solve]
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer, it had both contained suitable nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace element, have suitable carbon-nitrogen ratio again, thereby it has very obvious effects aspect raising crop biomass, the increase readily available nutrient of soil, urease activity, the microbes biomass.
[technical scheme]
The present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions.
The present invention relates to a kind of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.This compound manure is made up of stalk, animal excrement and chemical fertilizer, and the N:P in this compound manure 2O 5: K 2O is 10-35:8-12:5-8 than by weight, and the ratio of C:N is 10:15.
Preferably, the N:P in this compound manure 2O 5: K 2That O is 10-35:10:6 than by weight, and the ratio of C:N is 12:14.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention a, described stalk is selected from wheat, barley, paddy rice, corn, jowar, sesame, soybean, broad bean, pea, mung bean, cotton, millet and/or sunflower stalk.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, described straw powder granularity is the 0.1-2 millimeter.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, described ight soil is selected from the ight soil of pig, ox, sheep, horse, chicken, duck and/or dog.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, described chemical fertilizer is selected from nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and/or contains trace element fertilizer.
Preferably, described nitrogenous fertilizer is one or more nitrogenous fertilizer that are selected from urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, carbon ammonium, monoammonium phosphate and/or diammonium phosphate.
Described phosphate fertilizer is that one or more are selected from the phosphate fertilizer that monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, calcium superphosphate, fusion contain magnesium-phosphorus fertilizer, secondary calcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, sintering sintered calcium sodium phosphate fertilizer, calcium metaphosphate, thomas phosphate or active phosphorus breeze.
Described water soluble potassic fertilizer is one or more potash fertilizer that are selected from Repone K, vitriolate of tartar, saltpetre or potassium primary phosphate.
The described trace element fertilizer that contains is selected from zinc sulfate, manganous sulfate, copper sulfate, sal epsom, boric acid, Sodium Tetraborate, ammonium molybdate, ferrous sulfate and/or rare earth nitrate.
The present invention will be described in detail belows.
People know by stalk, animal excrement can make organic fertilizer, the important part of application of organic fertilizers material is the organic substance that has increased soil, organic substance is the essential substance basis of soil fertility, and structure, nutrient, energy, enzyme, moisture, ventilation and the microorganism active etc. of soil are had crucial influence.The fertilizer of being made by stalk contains a large amount of nutritive ingredients of plant needs, also contains various saccharides, and they are the energy of soil microorganisms growth, growth, breeding activity.
Ight soil contains the various enzymes of various organized enzymes of animal digestive tract excretory and microorganisms.Use the enzymic activity that the fertilizer of being made by ight soil can improve soil greatly, help improving absorptive character, shock-absorbing capacity and the anti-adversity of soil.The application of organic fertilizers material has increased the organic colloid in the soil, and the soil particle gluing is got up, and becomes stable crumb structure, has improved physics, chemistry and the biological nature of soil, has improved soil water-retaining, has protected fertilizer and permeability.For good edatope is created in plant-growth.
Simultaneously, these fertilizers decompose in soil, transform to form various humic acid substances.They can promote synthesizing, transport and accumulation of the intravital enzymic activity of plant, material.Humic acid is a kind of polymer substance, and the cation exchange capacity height has good cnmplexation adsorbability, and heavy metal ion is had good complexing adsorption, can alleviate heavy metal ion effectively to Toxicity in Crops, and stop it to enter in the plant.
But, use organic fertilizer also to have the nutrient content of existence low, be difficult for decomposing, can not in time satisfy the requirement of high crop yield.
People can be known that by Plant Nutrition all crop growths need a large amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium nutrition element, also need micronutrient element in many kinds simultaneously.
Nitrogen is the macronutrient of general crop demand, and nitrogenous fertilizer can obviously promote plant growth, increases protein content in the seed, improves the nutritive value of agricultural-food, is the most widely used chemical fertilizer.Phosphate fertilizer also is the macronutrient of general crop demand, and phosphate fertilizer can improve the drought resisting of crop, cold-resistant and saline-alkaline tolerance, and premature ripening is arranged, increase output and improve the effect of quality.The main effect of potash fertilizer is the resistance that improves quality of agricultural product and crop.
Trace element is calcium, magnesium, sulphur, boron, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, iron, copper and mickel in described, and beneficial element silicon etc.Calcium is the constituent of cell walls, to proteinic synthetic having certain effect, it also is the cofactor of some enzymatic reaction, and the physiological equilibrium of regulating medium is had special effect, and therefore, plant is short and small during the crop calcium deficiency, root system development is bad, the cell walls calcium deficiency is easily invaded by virus, can perish when serious.Magnesium is that chlorophyll constitutes element, is the activator of a lot of enzymes, can also promote the synthetic of fat, also participates in the metabolism of nitrogen.Blade reticulattion is yellow or white during the crop magnesium deficiency, and even overstrike even necrosis.It is sick that the herbage of magnesium deficiency can cause that livestock twitches.Sulphur is the component of protein and enzyme, also is present in some physiologically active substance, also is an integral part of nitrogenase system.During the crop a lack of sulfur, growth is subjected to serious hindrance, blade chlorisis or yellow.Though silicon is not the essential nutrient element of crop, crop lacks silicon lodging and virus intrusion superficial cell easily takes place.Therefore, silicon is to many crops, and paddy rice, sugarcane, bamboo of particularly liking silicon etc. is important beneficial element.
Trace element integral part of enzyme or coenzyme often in plant materials has very strong specificity, is that crop growth is indispensable and can not be displaced mutually.
People know that fertilizer can provide a large amount of C source materials for the growth of crop, and during the microbiological degradation organism, need to assimilate 1 part of nitrogen when assimilating 5 parts of carbon approximately and constitute it self cell paste, because the carbon-nitrogen ratio of microorganism self approximately is 5:1.Obtain energy and when 1 part of carbon of assimilation, need consume 4 parts of organic carbons, utilize 25 parts of organic carbons so microorganism need consume when absorbing 1 part of nitrogen.The active microorganism requires to have certain carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) to its living environment in soil, therefore, in organic-inorganic compound fertilizer, select suitable carbon-nitrogen ratio to help to improve microorganism active, help to improve edatope, therefore, plant growth also had great influence.
In the present invention, carbon-nitrogen ratio should be appreciated that it is the ratio of total carbon and nitrogen total content by weight in this organic-inorganic compound fertilizer usually.
The present invention relates to a kind of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer.This compound manure is made up of stalk, animal excrement and chemical fertilizer, and the N:P in this compound manure 2O 5: K 2O is 10-35:8-12:5-8 than by weight, and the ratio of C:N is 10:15.
Preferably, the N:P in this compound manure 2O 5: K 2That O is 10-35:10:6 than by weight, and the ratio of C:N is 12:14.
Stalk is the general name of ripe farm crop cauline leaf part.Be often referred to wheat, paddy rice, corn, potato class, oil plant, cotton and other farm crop remainder behind the results seed.The photosynthetic product of farm crop has over half being present in the stalk, and stalk is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and organic matter etc., is a kind of multiduty reproducible Biological resources that have.
In broad terms, described in the present invention stalk should be appreciated that it is the remainder that is rich in organic matter that is produced in agriculture production, food-processing industry etc., the slag dregs of rice of acquisition, the vinasse of brewageing processing, domestic waste etc. after for example the tankage of food-processing industry, oleaginous seed deoil through squeezing.Before using described remainder, should carry out necessary processing, eliminate deleterious virulence factor.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention a, described stalk is selected from wheat, barley, paddy rice, corn, jowar, sesame, soybean, broad bean, pea, mung bean, cotton, millet and/or sunflower stalk.
In the present invention, above-mentioned stalk uses the agricultural mill of selling on market at present to pulverize after cold is dried through nature, obtains the straw powder of its size 0.01-4 millimeter.Preferably, described straw powder degree is the 0.1-2 millimeter.
In the present invention, can use a kind of straw powder or two or more straw powder mixture with any mixed.
Ight soil contains indigestible Mierocrystalline cellulose in the food, reticular tissue, upper gastrointestinal secretory product, and as the relic that mucus, bile pigment, Saliva Orthana, Digestive system, gastrointestinal mucosal come off, epithelial cell and bacterium are a kind of manure resources of excellence.
In broad terms, described in the present invention animal excrement should be appreciated that it is people, the fowl livestock products ight soil of giving birth to and barnyard manure, pond sludge etc., and their need by fermentation or the system of macerating is become thoroughly decomposed and just can be used.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, described animal excrement are selected from pig, ox, sheep, horse, chicken and/or duck ight soil.
In the present invention, above-mentioned animal excrement through the processing of sterilising method such as heap fermentation sterilization, high-temperature sterilization after, dry again, pulverize and obtain animal excrement in small, broken bits.Described sterilizing device, drying plant, disintegrating apparatus all are the equipment that now uses on fertilizer industry.
According to another preferred embodiment of the invention, described chemical fertilizer is selected from nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and/or contains trace element fertilizer.
Preferably, described nitrogenous fertilizer is one or more nitrogenous fertilizer that are selected from urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, carbon ammonium, monoammonium phosphate and/or diammonium phosphate.
Described phosphate fertilizer is that one or more are selected from the phosphate fertilizer that monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, calcium superphosphate, fusion contain magnesium-phosphorus fertilizer, secondary calcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, sintering sintered calcium sodium phosphate fertilizer, calcium metaphosphate, thomas phosphate or active phosphorus breeze.
Described potash fertilizer is one or more potash fertilizer that are selected from Repone K, vitriolate of tartar, saltpetre or potassium primary phosphate.
The described trace element fertilizer that contains is selected from zinc sulfate, manganous sulfate, copper sulfate, sal epsom, boric acid, Sodium Tetraborate, ammonium molybdate, ferrous sulfate and/or rare earth nitrate.
In the present invention, described N content is that the method that adopts Nanjing Soil Inst., Chinese Academy of Sciences to compile " soil physical analysis " record is measured.
Described P 2O 5Content is that the method that adopts Nanjing Soil Inst., Chinese Academy of Sciences to compile " soil physical analysis " record is measured.
Described K 2O content is that the method that adopts Nanjing Soil Inst., Chinese Academy of Sciences to compile " soil physical analysis " record is measured.
Described micronutrient levels is
Described composite organic-inorganic fertilizer can be powdery, sheet or column, particulate state etc.The production method of described composite organic-inorganic fertilizer can be the method that adopts usually in existing compound manure is produced, for example disk granulation, extruding pelletization etc.
The application process of described composite organic-inorganic fertilizer is before crop sowing, disposablely applies with the base manure form, comprising the side deep placement or spread fertilizer over the fields.
Described composite organic-inorganic fertilizer can be used for the crop-planting of lean soil or the low soil of fertility, for example plantation of wheat, corn, Soybean and Other Crops.
[beneficial effect]
Application of organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer all can obviously improve wheat yield and soil fertility, and fertilizer and chemical fertilizer are joined and executed effect than single better effects if to fertilize, and wherein stalk, ight soil and chemical fertilizer are used raising wheat yield and soil nutrient effect the most obvious.The control carbon-nitrogen ratio is that the organic and inorganic fertilizer of 10-15 is combined in the raising crop biomass, and the increase readily available nutrient of soil, urease activity, microbes biomass carbon nitrogen aspect effect have very obvious effects.
[description of drawings]
Fig. 1: the different organic fertilizer combination of moisture soil wheat biomass (g/ basin harvesting time)
Fig. 2: the different organic fertilizer combination of red soil wheat biomass (g/ basin harvesting time)
Fig. 3 different soils different treatment is to the influence of soil urease liveness
The content of soil quick-effective phosphor under Fig. 4 different soils different treatment
The content of soil available potassium under Fig. 5 different soils and the different treatment
Fig. 6 different treatment harvesting time soil microorganisms nitrogen content
Fig. 7 different treatment harvesting time soil microorganisms carbon content
[embodiment]
Embodiment 1: different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention are to the influence of wheat biomass
Material
Test in Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences greenhouse and carry out.For the examination wheat breed is stone wheat 15.Soil is qiyang,hunan red soil and Hebei moisture soil, and used fertilizer of embodiment and stalk are respectively pig manure and maize straw.Concrete soil property and fertilizer, stalk nutrient content see Table 1.
Table 1 is for the essential property of examination material
Experimental design
Potted plant mode is adopted in this experiment, and every basin is adorned native 2.5kg.Be divided into two ones in moisture soil and red soil
Divide 8 processing of every part, CK, F, SF (40), SF (25), SF (12.5), SMF (40), SMF (25), SMF (12.5), wherein the CK representative does not have the fertilizer processing, and alphabetical F represents to fertilize, and straw is executed in alphabetical S representative, and pig manure is executed in alphabetical M representative, and the carbon-nitrogen ratio of following target digitized representation different treatment several letters occur and has used several fertilizer with regard to representing, as SMF (40)Just represent straw, pig manure to add chemical fertilizer, carbon-nitrogen ratio is 40 processing, and each handles 6 repetitions, and district's group is arranged at random.
Each level of handling sees Table 2.
Table 2 test is handled
All are handled required fertilizer and all are manured into soil as base manure is disposable.Every basin is planted 4 strain wheats.Guarantee in time to water in wheat growth, optimum period, prevent disease, worm, crop smothering.Handle 6 for guaranteeing that carbon-nitrogen ratio is not less than 40, do not apply nitrogenous fertilizer.
Sample collecting
Take a sample altogether in phase three times at wheat growth, first inferior to getting wheat plant over-ground part in tillering phase (each processing is all got) on March 6th, 2008, May 21 second time, get ground and underground part (three repetitions are got in each processing), got ground and underground part (each processing is all got) for the third time on June 20, all get a certain amount of bright soil (three repetitions are got in each processing) during each simultaneously the sampling, it is to be measured to put into subzero 4 degree refrigerators, in addition the air-dry available nutrient that is used to analyze soil of some pedotheque.
Analysis project and method
(1) wheat biomass: pulverize the wheat oven dry back after will at every turn taking a sample, and measures its dry matter weight.
(2) soil urease: adopt phenol-clorox colorimetry colorimetric estimation.
(3) mensuration of soil quick-effective phosphor and available potassium: adopt routine analysis, see Nanjing Soil Inst., Chinese Academy of Sciences's volume " soil physical analysis ".
(4) the FE method of soil microorganisms carbon: Vance, referring to Vance E D, Brookes P C, Jenkinson D S.An extraction method formeasuring soil microbialbiomass C[J] .Soil Biol.Biochem., 1987,19 (6): 703~707.
(5) the stifling extraction of soil microorganisms nitrogen: Brookes-full nitrogen increment assay method, referring to Brookes P C, Landman A, Pruden G, et al.Chloroform fumigation andthe release of soil nitrogen:A rapid direct extraction method to measuremicrobial biomass nitrogen in soil.Soil Biol.Biochem., 1985,17 (6): 837-842.
Data processing: the SAS6.1 version statistical analysis software that adopts SAS INSTITUTE INC company to sell carries out data processing.
Result and analysis
The carbon-nitrogen ratio of Fertilizer Combination directly influences the fixing and release of soil microorganisms to the fertilizer nitrogen, promptly directly influences the supply of soil nitrogen, and therefore different carbon-nitrogen ratio Fertilizer Combination are manured into soil and certainly will produce different influences to wheat growth.Test-results is seen attached Fig. 1 and 2.Do not compare with there being fertile contrast, remove the moisture soil list and handle to fertilize the biomass of comparison photograph hangs down, the biomass of other each fertilizer treatment all is significantly higher than not fertilizer treatment.Its biomass of processing that organic-inorganic fertilizer cooperates is significantly higher than single processing to fertilize, and it is high by 26.7% that wherein the organic-inorganic fertilizer of moisture soil cooperates the processing to fertilize of processing biomass average specific list, and wanting of red soil is high by 29.4%.The processing that the stalk chemical fertilizer cooperates is compared with the processing that stalk, pig manure, chemical fertilizer cooperate, and the biomass of wheat does not have significant difference.Stalk cooperates with chemical fertilizer and stalk, pig manure and chemical fertilizer are engaged under lower carbon-nitrogen ratio (12.5) condition, no matter be red soil or moisture soil, its biomass all has higher level in each is handled, especially moisture soil is more obvious, be significantly higher than other and handle, and this effect is along with postponing of wheat growth stage is more obvious.Under the certain condition of organic materials, increase along with carbon-nitrogen ratio, the biomass of wheat is certain downtrending, in carbon-nitrogen ratio is 40 o'clock, stalk, pig manure with and chemical fertilizer cooperate processing, the wheat biomass is minimum, significantly is lower than other processing, be starkly lower than single processing to fertilize, approaching with the biological yield of the processing of not applying fertilizer.By above analysis as can be known, under the situation of other term harmonizations, lower carbon-nitrogen ratio level, organic, stalk cooperates with chemical fertilizer that wheat yield is had significant production-increasing function than high carbon-nitrogen ratio.
Embodiment 2: the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention are to the influence of soil urease
The embodiment of this embodiment is identical with embodiment 1, and this embodiment has studied the influence of the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention to soil urease.Existing studies show that, soil fertility level are limited by the influence of soil enzyme to a great extent, and exist close correlationship between the soil enzyme vigor.Urase in the soil plays important effect for the circulation and the conversion of nitrogen, estimates the soil fertility situation with urease activity and has obtained extensively admitting.As seen from Figure 3, no matter be at red soil or in moisture soil, the urease activity of fertilizer treatment is significantly higher than the urease activity that does not apply fertilizer, and has on average improved nearly 38.5%.The processing of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer of the present invention, urease activity are significantly higher than single processing to fertilize, and it is nearly 27.9% that moisture soil has improved, and red soil has improved nearly 38.5%.The processing that the stalk chemical fertilizer cooperates is compared with the processing that stalk, pig manure, chemical fertilizer cooperate, and urease activity does not have significant difference.Carbon-nitrogen ratio is that 12.5 stalk adds pig manure and adds chemical fertilizer and handle, and urease activity is significantly higher than other, and each is handled.Also have certain difference in the same processing between the different soils type, the urease activity of red soil is significantly higher than moisture soil in the present embodiment, and this physicochemical property difference with soil is relevant.Experimental data explanation is under higher carbon-nitrogen ratio condition, and the relative deficiency of nitrogen can make the activity inhibited of urase, make soil to plant for the nitrogen ability drop.This result with different carbon-nitrogen ratio fertilizers combination wheat biomasss echoes mutually, illustrate urase activity influence crop yield.Higher carbon-nitrogen ratio makes the microorganism in the soil produce the fixing effect to nitrogen, and the available nitrogen in the soil is reduced.The reflection substrate of urase has reduced, and its activity has also just reduced accordingly.By influencing the conversion of nitrogen, the difference of urease activity makes the output of crop produce difference.
Embodiment 3: the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention are to the influence of soil quick-effective phosphor and potassium content
The embodiment of this embodiment is identical with embodiment 1, and this embodiment has studied the influence of the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention to soil quick-effective phosphor and potassium content.Rapid available phosphorus in the soil, potassium provide necessary available nutrient for crop, and the growth of crop is had tremendous influence.It characterizing crop can be from soil the amount of the phosphorus potassium that can directly obtain, be that weighing soil nutrient status the most direct also is most important index.From the impact analysis (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5) of each carbon-nitrogen ratio fertilizer combined treatment to soil quick-effective phosphor and potassium, the rapid available phosphorus of fertilizer treatment, potassium content on average are higher than rapid available phosphorus, the potassium level that does not apply fertilizer.But adding between chemical fertilizer processing soil quick-effective phosphor and the non-fertilizer treatment, the stalk of moisture soil do not have significant difference.Compare to fertilize with single, processing soil quick-effective phosphor, potassium level that organic-inorganic fertilizer cooperates increase significantly, and it is nearly 37.5% that the rapid available phosphorus moisture soil has improved, and it is nearly 41.2% that red soil has improved, and the available potassium moisture soil has improved 51.9%, and red soil has improved 59.42%.Processing rapid available phosphorus, potassium content that stalk, pig manure, chemical fertilizer cooperate are significantly higher than the processing that the stalk chemical fertilizer cooperates, and phosphorus has on average improved 87.2%, and potassium has on average improved 78.3%.No matter moisture soil or red soil, stalk, pig manure, chemical fertilizer cooperate the soil quick-effective phosphor handled and soil available potassium all to be higher than stalk and cooperate with chemical fertilizer, singly to fertilize and the processing of not applying fertilizer, this is because pig manure, stalk and chemical fertilizer are engaged on the structure of whole nutrient supply, help soil nutrient effectuation process, that is to say that it is the effective measure of increasing soil fertility that stalk, pig manure cooperate with chemical fertilizer.The content of different sorts soil quick-effective phosphor potassium is also inequality, and the rapid available phosphorus and the potassium content of red soil are significantly higher than moisture soil.In different carbon-nitrogen ratio was handled, carbon-nitrogen ratio was that 40 stalk adds pig manure to add rapid available phosphorus, the potassium content that chemical fertilizer handles be the highest.
Embodiment 4: the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention are to the influence of soil microorganisms nitrogen content
The embodiment of this embodiment is identical with embodiment 1, and this embodiment has studied the influence of the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention to the soil microorganisms nitrogen content.Soil microbial biomass not only plays main effect to the circulation of the soil organism and nutrient, is an important activity nutrient pool simultaneously, and maintenance and the release and the plant availability thereof of soil nutrient (as nitrogen, p and s etc.) in direct regulation and control.Over nearly 40 years, the research of soil microbial biomass has become one of soil science research focus.Soil microorganisms is meant that volume is less than 5X10 in the soil 3The biology of μ m (not containing the live plant root system), its main biological group has bacterium, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and protozoon etc. and microbes biomass is these biological total masses. and microorganism is " the conversion person " who enters the organic substance of earth, is again particularly " source " and " storehouse " of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur etc. of active nutrient.Soil microorganisms nitrogen (Microbial biomass N) typically refers to the nitrogenous total amount of all living microorganism cells that are present in the soil.It is a most active nitrogen component in the soil, and its turnaround speed is fast, for the plant availability of regulating and control soil nitrogen important effect is arranged.As seen from Figure 6, use chemical fertilizer and organic-inorganic and cooperate the content that all can obviously improve soil microorganisms nitrogen.The soil microorganisms nitrogen content of fertilizer treatment is significantly higher than the processing of not applying fertilizer, and on average improves 60.1%.The processing soil microorganisms nitrogen biomass that organic-inorganic fertilizer cooperates is significantly higher than single processing to fertilize, on average improves 27.4%.The processing soil microorganisms nitrogen content that stalk, pig manure, chemical fertilizer cooperate is significantly higher than the processing that the stalk chemical fertilizer cooperates, and on average improves 29.4%.The soil microorganisms nitrogen that cooperates (C/N is 12.5) to handle with chemical fertilizer with stalk, pig manure in each carbon-nitrogen ratio level is the highest, reaches conspicuous level on the statistics with other processing. and secondly be that stalk, pig manure cooperate (C/N is 25) processing and stalk to cooperate (C/N is 25) with chemical fertilizer with chemical fertilizer.The soil microbial biomass nitrogen mean level (ML) of moisture soil is significantly higher than red soil.By above analysis as can be known, lower carbon-nitrogen ratio level is organic--and mineral manure cooperates to be handled, and its Soil microbial biomass nitrogen has higher level.
Embodiment 5: the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention are to the influence of soil microorganisms carbon content
The embodiment of this embodiment is identical with embodiment 1, and this embodiment has studied the influence of the different carbon-nitrogen ratio composite organic-inorganic fertilizers of the present invention to the soil microorganisms carbon content.Though soil microorganisms carbon only accounts for the 2%-4% of soil organic carbon, it is a most active part in the soil organic carbon, its mineralization ability size that how much has reflected soil.Can learn that by Fig. 7 the soil microorganisms carbon content of fertilizer treatment is significantly higher than the processing of not applying fertilizer, and on average improves 23.1%.But to add the processing and the contrast difference of chemical fertilizer (the C/N ratio is 40,25) not remarkable with stalk to fertilize.The processing soil microorganisms carbon biomass that organic and inorganic fertilizer cooperates is significantly higher than single processing to fertilize, on average improves 18.4%.The processing soil microorganisms carbon content that stalk, pig manure, chemical fertilizer cooperate is significantly higher than the processing that the stalk chemical fertilizer cooperates, and on average improves 26.1%.The soil microorganisms carbon content that cooperates (C/N is 12.5) to handle with chemical fertilizer with stalk, pig manure in each carbon-nitrogen ratio level is the highest, is significantly higher than other processing.Next is that stalk, pig manure cooperate (C/N is 25) processing and stalk to cooperate (C/N is 12.5) with chemical fertilizer with chemical fertilizer.Difference is not remarkable between each processing of moisture soil and red soil.Experimental result shows that the Changing Pattern of soil microorganisms carbon and soil microorganisms nitrogen is consistent, and correlativity between them has reached conspicuous level, and this and former research results match, and has illustrated that also soil microorganisms carbon and nitrogen maintains close ties with.Prior art shows that microbes biomass carbon and nitrogen and Fertilizer Combination carbon-nitrogen ratio have close getting in touch in the soil.In certain hour, the Fertilizer Combination carbon-nitrogen ratio is high more, and the microbial biomass nitrogen in the soil and the level of carbon are high more, and this result of study with present embodiment is different.This be because their experiment mostly be after fertilizer or straw are manured into soil short duration with interior soil microbes biomass carbon nitrogen, and present embodiment at be harvesting time, that is to say that fertilizer and the stalk resolving time in soil is long.As time goes by, the microorganism in the soil slowly reduces nitrogen fixation, nitrogen is discharged be made for the thing growth.At this moment, the processing that carbon-nitrogen ratio is high is because fixed nitrogen has discharged in earlier stage, and the processing that the relative carbon-nitrogen ratio of being executed simultaneously of nitrogenous fertilizer is low is few, so the value of Soil microbial biomass nitrogen is lower.
Use some other straw, ight soil and the fertilizer mentioned in this manual to carry out the test same, all obtain very similarly result with the foregoing description 1-5.
Therefore, the contriver thinks that organic fertilizer is not only increasing crop yield, and there is significant effect the aspect of increasing soil fertility, and for utilizing again of agricultural resource huge meaning is arranged.And correct application process is particularly important for the application of organic fertilizer.In the present embodiment by different soils type, different organic fertilizer combined treatment studies show that to wheat yield and soil nutrient content: application of organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizer all can obviously improve wheat yield and soil fertility, and fertilizer and chemical fertilizer are joined and are executed effect than single better effects if to fertilize, and wherein stalk, pig manure and chemical fertilizer are used raising wheat yield and soil nutrient effect the most obvious.Fertilizer is manured into soil and improves wheat yield and improve soil nutrient status and carbon-nitrogen ratio has certain relation, can draw according to the embodiment of the invention, the organic-inorganic compound fertilizer of carbon-nitrogen ratio (10-15) is improving the wheat biomass, and it is much more obvious than carbon-nitrogen ratio big (25,40) to increase the readily available nutrient of soil, urease activity, microbes biomass carbon nitrogen aspect effect.

Claims (10)

1, a kind of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer is characterized in that this compound manure is made up of stalk, ight soil and chemical fertilizer, and the N:P in this compound manure by weight 2O 5: K 2The ratio of O is 10-35:8-12:5-8, and the ratio of C:N is 10:15.
2, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 1 is characterized in that the N:P in this compound manure by weight 2O 5: K 2The ratio of O is 10-35:10:6, and the ratio of C:N is 12:14.
3, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 1 is characterized in that described stalk is selected from wheat, barley, paddy rice, corn, jowar, sesame, soybean, broad bean, pea, mung bean, cotton, millet and/or sunflower stalk.
4, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 3 is characterized in that described straw powder granularity is the 0.1-2 millimeter.
5, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 1 is characterized in that described ight soil is selected from the ight soil of pig, ox, sheep, horse, chicken and/or duck.
6, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 1 is characterized in that described chemical fertilizer is selected from nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and/or contains trace element fertilizer.
7, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 6 is characterized in that described nitrogenous fertilizer is one or more nitrogenous fertilizer that are selected from urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, carbon ammonium, monoammonium phosphate and/or diammonium phosphate.
8, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 6 is characterized in that described phosphate fertilizer is that one or more are selected from the phosphate fertilizer that monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, calcium superphosphate, fusion contain magnesium-phosphorus fertilizer, secondary calcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, sintering sintered calcium sodium phosphate fertilizer, calcium metaphosphate, thomas phosphate or active phosphorus breeze.
9, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 6 is characterized in that described water soluble potassic fertilizer is one or more potash fertilizer that are selected from Repone K, vitriolate of tartar, saltpetre or potassium primary phosphate.
10, composite organic-inorganic fertilizer according to claim 6 is characterized in that the described trace element fertilizer that contains is selected from zinc sulfate, manganous sulfate, copper sulfate, sal epsom, boric acid, Sodium Tetraborate, ammonium molybdate, ferrous sulfate and/or rare earth nitrate.
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