CN100398465C - Composite artificial marshland water quality clarification system in north low-temperature area - Google Patents

Composite artificial marshland water quality clarification system in north low-temperature area Download PDF

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CN100398465C
CN100398465C CNB2007101306635A CN200710130663A CN100398465C CN 100398465 C CN100398465 C CN 100398465C CN B2007101306635 A CNB2007101306635 A CN B2007101306635A CN 200710130663 A CN200710130663 A CN 200710130663A CN 100398465 C CN100398465 C CN 100398465C
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water
wetland
subsystem
break
current
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CN101081713A (en
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李其军
刘培斌
段伟
黄炳彬
智泓
关卓今
刘操
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北京市水利科学研究所
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The composite water-purifying wetland system for northern low temperature region consists of three serially connected subsystems, including one stabilizing pond subsystem, one undercurrent wetland subsystem and one water draining pond subsystem. The stabilizing pond subsystem has one flexible partitioning wall to separate the pond into one front reservoir and one purifying area, and planted emergent vegetation zones and submerged plant zones. The undercurrent wetland subsystem consists of sand filtering modules, wetland modules and aerating water-distributing wells. The water draining pond subsystem consists of water draining canals and serially connected biological ponds. The present invention has well combined engineering measures and ecological measures to purifying polluted water for several times, saving in investment, high water purifying effect and high economic and ecological benefits.

Description

Composite artificial marshland water quality clarification system in north low-temperature area
One, technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of Sewage treatment systems, particularly a kind of compound type constructed wetland system that contaminated source, northern low temp area river course water is carried out purifying treatment.
Two, background technology
Because urban population growth and rapid economic development, the city also increases gradually to the demand of water.In China, most of Urban water supply relies on reservoir filling, especially dry area in north china, and water resources shortage, reservoir become the indispensable important water source of water-supply systems.Yet, along with high development of social economy, stream pollution is serious day by day, have all dirty situation of water, the river has become the blowdown ditch in city along the river, and drought and water shortage is put source quality in storage and worsened serious in addition, reservoir is degenerated day by day as urban drinking water water source function, and the Urban water supply safety control is subjected to serious threat.Purifying river (reservoir) water quality, recover the vital task that river basin ecological has become the current water ecological environment comprehensive regulation, also is the important behave that reservoir tap water function ensures.
Natural wetland is as a kind of resource of preciousness, not only have important ecological functions, simultaneously, be called " kidney of the earth " with its water quality purification function and obtain great attention, artificial swamp is natural wetland function intensified aspect purification of water quality, be the stronger water quality purification function of tool, again good ecological effect arranged, from the seventies in 20th century since German Research is used, become the research focus of various countries as a kind of novel water purifying process.Artificial wet land water quality purification system effects of purification quality is good, construction investment is economized, running cost is low, management is simple, be a kind of comparatively ideal sewage disposal technology, applied and test in processing such as sanitary sewage, trade effluent, urban storm runoff and agricultural effluent and management aspect.But utilize artificial swamp purifying treatment river course (or warehouse-in) contaminated source water still for rare at northern low temp area.
Three, summary of the invention
The present invention makes full use of the natural feature in reservoir or river course, make up compound type constructed wetland system, contaminated source water to reservoir or river course carries out purifying treatment, can be used as the pre-treating technology of Urban water supply, also can be used as the important means of river course or reservoir water ecological environment treatment, the latter builds compound type constructed wetland system and purifies the base flow heavily contaminated and come water to be advisable to site in river course control section or reservoir warehouse-in section.
Technical scheme of the present invention is, a kind of compound type constructed wetland system is provided, and is composed in series by stabilization pond subsystem, current wetland subsystem and water-break pool subsystem three parts:
Wherein, the stabilization pond subsystem can be fully in conjunction with local condition by natural arm, choke water the section or the flood land excavation forms, the storage capacity of stabilization pond should satisfy the current that enter stabilization pond can stop 6~8 days, the depth of water generally greater than 2m in the pool; The stem of stabilization pond is laid the shunting permeable dike, makes the upland water uniform distribution enter stabilization pond; At the stabilization pond middle part flexible bulkhead is set, the pool is divided into preposition storehouse and purifying area, current are from flexible bulkhead top overcurrent, and the flexible bulkhead top is lower than the water surface 10~30cm or average for many years ice thickness.Preposition storehouse is mainly used in precipitation and stagnates to hold pollutent and to make the top layer obtain surface water that aeration aerating and biological decomposition purify and crosses the flexible bulkhead top and enter purifying area and further purify.The stabilization pond periphery is laid emergent vegetation zone and submerged plant band from shallow to deep respectively, and emergent vegetation zone is good with reed, and the plantation depth of water is less than 50cm; Submerged plants such as leaf Herba potamogetonis distincti are with and plant black algae, Herba potamogetonis distincti, worn to submerged plant, and the plantation depth of water is 50~100cm (but the also natural propagation of submerged plant band is newly excavated 1 year ability of stabilization pond and grown up naturally).
The current wetland subsystem is arranged between the stabilization pond downstream and the water-break pool, and the stabilization pond water outlet is flow automatically or entered the current wetland subsystem by water pump lifting.Described current wetland subsystem is taked the modular design pattern, is constituted by sand filtering modules, wetland module and aeration distributing well, has the advantage that flexible arrangement, series-parallel connection are freely used.The preferred integrated mode of the present invention is to be made of two sand filtering modules in parallel, three grades of aeration distributing wells and three grades of placed in-line wetland units, each aeration distributing well control one-level wetland unit, every grade of wetland unit 2 wetland modules in parallel, the height of water is 40~80cm between adjacent two-stage wetland unit, successively decrease successively, wetland units at different levels can carry out serial or parallel connection by the aeration distributing well again and apply in a flexible way.
Described sand filtering modules is the sand filtration unit, comprise central distributing flue and monosymmetric multistage sand filtration district, the wide about 17.6m in sand filtration unit, dark 1~2m, each sand filtration unit by grade III steel muscle gabion, (particle diameter is respectively 10~20mm to two-stage particle diameter difference, 5~10mm) sandstone filtrating area and cobble catchment area constitute, current divide water by central distributing flue to the both sides level, the floral tube of being buried underground by both sides after the sandstone filtrating area filters that catchments converges discharge, enter next stage again and handle, sand filtering modules length is calculated according to required water amount.
Described wetland module can be considered one, and independently horizontal drowned flow is wetland bed, is made of cobble cloth pool (including the water distribution floral tube), wetland bed filler (10~30mm metaling or other filler), cobble catchment area (including the floral tube that catchments), water-break regulation of level well and the reed planted.The wetland bed dark 1~2m of each wetland module, about 2: 1~1: 2 of long-width ratio, base slope 0.2% require 4~8 hours current residence time in each wetland module.
Described aeration distributing well is made of water inlet surge chamber, solarization air cell and water-break surge chamber, and the water inlet surge chamber is regulated the water flow that enters solarization air cell by stoplog regulation and control water level and by the adjustable flow weir; The long 2m of solarization air cell, wide 2m, dark 3m, in aerator is housed, play the aeration aerating effect, requiring aeration rate is 1.5m 3/ min; The water-break surge chamber is established three communication passage, be respectively the withdrawal nozzle that is connected with the water-break of higher level's wetland unit, the bottom gate that is connected with solarization air cell, with the regulation of level pipe of total water-break pipe coupling; The water-break of higher level's wetland unit can directly be discharged by the regulation of level pipe, also can enter solarization air cell by bottom gate and carry out next stage series connection processing.
Water-break pool subsystem is laid in current wetland subsystem downstream, constitute by water-break open channel and some series connection biological ponds according to landform, the depth of water 0.8~1.5m, plantation reed and submerged plant, form the surface-flow pool, help improving ecological effect and further purify water, be particularly conducive to current wetland water-break in winter reoxygenation, stagnate and hold and purify.
The present invention makes up the compound type constructed wetland system of being made up of stabilization pond, current wetland and the water-break pool according to existing topographical condition, engineering measure and ecological measure organically combine, come water to carry out multiple purifying to contaminated, both reached the purpose that purifies water, also improved simultaneously the ecotope of river, reservoir, initial cost is economized, treatment effect is good, management is simple, working cost is low, once invest, be benefited throughout the year, have remarkable economic efficiency and ecological benefits.
Four, description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the compound type constructed wetland system rough package drawing
Fig. 2 is the current wetland subsystem enlarged view among Fig. 1
Fig. 3 is a sand filtration unit sectional drawing
Fig. 4 is a current wetland bed sectional drawing
Fig. 5 is an aeration distributing well structure iron
Fig. 6 is the compound type constructed wetland system process flow diagram
Among Fig. 1, Fig. 2,1 is the river course major trough, and 2 for choking water overfall dike in the river course, 3 is flume, and 4 are the shunting permeable dike, and 5 is flexible bulkhead, 6 is preposition storehouse, and 7 is purifying area, and 8 is overfall dike, 9 are the submerged plant band, and 10 is emergent vegetation zone, and 11 secretly contain for the current wetland diversion, 12 are the sand filtration unit, and 13 to 15 is one, two, three aeration distributing well, and 16 to 18 is one, two, three wetland unit, 19 are the water-break pool, and 20 is the water surface;
Among Fig. 3,30 is central distributing flue, and 31 is the one-level reinforced gabion, and 32 is the secondary reinforced gabion, and 33 is grade III steel muscle gabion, and 34 is one-level sandstone filtrating area, and 35 is secondary sandstone filtrating area, and 36 is the catchment area, and 37 are the floral tube that catchments;
Among Fig. 4,40 is the cloth pool, and 41 is wet land filler, and 42 is the catchment area, and 43 is the water distribution floral tube, and 44 are the floral tube that catchments, and 45 is reed, and 46 is non-woven fabrics.
Among Fig. 5,50 are the water inlet surge chamber, and 51 is solarization air cell, and 52 are the water-break surge chamber, and 53 is adjustable V-notch weir, 54 is wooden stoplog, and 55 is aeration tube, and 56 is bottom gate, and 57 are the water-break adjustable pipe, 58 water inlets, 59 is the water outlet of higher level's wetland unit, and 60 for advancing subordinate's wetland unit, and 61 are water-break.
Five, embodiment
As shown in Figure 1, build one at river course major trough 1 and choke water overfall dike 2 (directly diversion person can not need build a dam), river water level is raised, repair a flume 3 diversions in the overfall dike upstream and go into stabilization pond.Be used for river course or reservoir water correction purpose, should control the position in key and be provided with and choke water overfall dike and heavily contaminated base flow full dose is imported stabilization pond as far as possible and purify (for example reservoir warehouse-in section); Be used for regional water supply pre-treatment purpose, can directly draw the design discharge water source according to condition.The storage capacity of stabilization pond should satisfy the current that enter stabilization pond and can stop in the pool 6~8 days, and shape is good with long strip type, current is distributed evenly lack the slough as far as possible.The stem of stabilization pond is laid shunting permeable dike 4 (build to exceed design water surface 300mm get final product with particle diameter 50~200mm cobble or piece clitter), makes the upland water uniform distribution enter stabilization pond.At the stabilization pond middle part flexible bulkhead 5 is set, the pool is divided into preposition storehouse 6 and purifying area 7, flexible bulkhead can be by PVC plastic-coated fabric, cursory, the bottom nylon rope net gabion making of upper plastic foam, current are from flexible bulkhead top overcurrent, and the flexible bulkhead top is lower than the water surface 10~30cm or average for many years ice thickness.Preposition storehouse is mainly used in precipitation and stagnates to hold pollutent and to make the top layer obtain surface water that aeration aerating and biological decomposition purify and crosses the flexible bulkhead top and enter purifying area and further purify.The stabilization pond periphery is laid emergent vegetation zone 10 and submerged plant from shallow to deep respectively and is with 9, utilizes the absorption transformation function of waterplant to water pollutant, comes purifying polluted source water, and emergent vegetation zone is good with reed, and the plantation depth of water is less than 50cm; The submerged plant band plantation depth of water is 50~100cm (but also natural propagation of submerged plant band, new excavation stabilization pond submerged plant gets 1 year ability and grows up naturally), plantation should be guaranteed stable level vegetative period, avoids the stormy waves scour, and stormy waves washes away plants after balance should be waited to wash away in serious position again.
The function of stabilization pond subsystem is mainly: as the pretreatment technology of artificial current wetland.Make full use of the stagnant storage capacity and the purification function of holding of stabilization pond, make and contaminatedly come water in the pool, to stagnate to hold for some time, come that contained silt and pollutent will fully be precipitated and decompose in the water, remove the suspended substance that influences artificial swamp operation steady in a long-term to greatest extent, and, alleviate the pollution load of artificial current wetland by multiple biopurification decomposing pollutant in the pool.
The current wetland subsystem is arranged between the stabilization pond downstream and the water-break pool, and the stabilization pond water outlet is flow automatically or entered the current wetland subsystem by water pump lifting.Described current wetland subsystem is taked the modular design pattern, can be by sand filtering modules, wetland module and aeration distributing well combining and configuring.
The effect of described sand filtering modules is to utilize sand filter blanket to remove suspended matter most possibly, and the content that makes suspended substance in the water prevents that less than 20mg/l wetland from stopping up, and also has certain purification degradation effect simultaneously.Each sand filtering modules is a sand filtration unit 12, comprise central distributing flue 30 and monosymmetric multistage sand filtration district, the about 17.6m of beam overall, dark 1~2m, each sand filtration unit is by grade III steel muscle gabion 31~33, two-stage particle diameter difference 34,35 (particle diameter is respectively 10~20mm, 5~10mm) sandstone filtrating area and cobble catchment area 36 constitute, the cobble of dress particle diameter 40~80mm in the reinforced gabion, play fixed frame and the effect of secondary uniform water distribution, be convenient to routine cleaning sandstone filter material, current divide water by central distributing flue to both sides sand filtration unit horizontal, the floral tube of being buried underground by both sides after the sandstone filtrating area filters 37 that catchments converges discharge, enter next stage again and handle, sand filtering modules length is calculated according to required water amount.
The effect of described wetland module is the characteristic that makes full use of filler and plant, degraded organic nutrient substance, denitrogenation dephosphorizing.Each wetland module can be considered one, and independently horizontal drowned flow is wetland bed, is made of cobble cloth pool 40 (including water distribution floral tube 43), wet land filler 41 (10~30mm metaling or other filler), cobble catchment area 42 (including the floral tube 44 that catchments), water-break regulation of level well and the reed planted.Wetland bed dark 1~2m, about 2: 1~1: 2 of long-width ratio, base slope 0.2% require 4~8 hours current residence time in each wetland module.
Described aeration distributing well is made of water inlet surge chamber 50, solarization air cell 51 and water-break surge chamber 52, and the water inlet surge chamber is regulated the water flow that enters solarization air cell by wooden stoplog 54 regulation and control water levels and by adjustable V-notch weir 53; The long 2m of solarization air cell, wide 2m, dark 3m, in aerator is housed, play the aeration aerating effect, requiring aeration rate is 1.5m 3/ min; The water-break surge chamber is established three communication passage, be respectively the withdrawal nozzle that is connected with the water-break of higher level's wetland unit, the bottom gate 56 that is connected with solarization air cell, with the water-break adjustable pipe 57 of total water-break pipe coupling; The water-break of higher level's wetland unit can directly be discharged by the water-break adjustable pipe, also can enter solarization air cell by bottom gate and carry out next stage series connection processing.
The current wetland subsystem can be constituted by sand filtering modules, wetland module and aeration distributing well, has the advantage that flexible arrangement, series-parallel connection are freely used.General integrated mode such as accompanying drawing 2, constitute by two sand filtering modules in parallel, three grades of aeration distributing wells and three grades of placed in-line wetland units, each aeration distributing well control one-level wetland unit, every grade of wetland unit can 2 wetland modules in parallel, the height of water is 30~50cm between adjacent two-stage wetland unit, successively decrease successively, wetland units at different levels can carry out serial or parallel connection by the aeration distributing well again and apply in a flexible way.Its technical process (seeing accompanying drawing 6) is generally: stabilization pond comes water to enter the distributing flue of two sand filtering modules in parallel respectively, rob except that filtering suspended substance through the sandstone filter material, the water inlet surge chamber of back by water pipe series connection access aeration distributing wells at different levels converged in water outlet, and the water yield that sand filtering modules comes water to enter wetland units at different levels is jointly controlled by stoplog and adjustable V-notch weir in the water inlet surge chamber.When adopting parallel running, sand filtering modules comes water to enter the solarization air cell of each aeration distributing well respectively, behind aeration, be assigned to corresponding wetland module and carry out purifying treatment by hydraulic pipe and water distribution floral tube, handle the back current and collect remittance water-break surge chamber by the floral tube that catchments, import the water-break surge chamber of subordinate's aeration distributing well again, directly enter total water-break pipe through the water-break adjustable pipe; When adopting series operation, then with current wetland as a multiple-stage treatment process, sand filtering modules comes the water major part directly to enter the solarization air cell and the one-level wetland unit of one-level aeration distributing well, bottom gate through secondary aeration distributing well enters secondary aeration distributing well solarization air cell again after the one-level wetland unit is handled, and behind aeration, import the row processing again of secondary wetland unit from water inlet surge chamber remittance part source water simultaneously, just enter total water-break pipe until satisfying the effluent quality requirement.
Each sand filtering modules, wetland intermodule can be by earth embankment or other segmentation of structures, require waterproof each other, Stability Analysis of Structures, the anti-freezing destructiveness of tool, and wetland bed and sand filter filler is isolated by non-woven fabrics and basis and side slope, need do the antiseepage processing in case of necessity.
The cobble of wetland bed stem cloth pool filling particle diameter 40~80mm is wherein buried the water distribution floral tube underground, buried depth 0.5~1m; Wetland bed terminal catchment area is loaded the cobble of particle diameter 40~80mm equally, wherein buries the floral tube that catchments, buried depth underground apart from end 0.5m.Wetland plant is based on reed, and its growth is very fast, can absorb nutritive substance in the water in a large number, and its root can reach about 0.6~1m deeply, can set up air and water surrounding exchange process preferably.
Water-break pool subsystem is laid in current wetland subsystem downstream, constitute by water-break open channel and some series connection biological ponds according to landform, the depth of water 0.8~1.5m, plantation reed and submerged plant, form the surface-flow pool, help improving ecological effect and further purify water, be particularly conducive to current wetland water-break in winter reoxygenation, stagnate and hold and purify.

Claims (2)

1. a compound type constructed wetland system is characterized in that, is composed in series by stabilization pond subsystem, current wetland subsystem and water-break pool subsystem three parts; Wherein, the stabilization pond subsystem in conjunction with local condition by natural arm, choke water section or flood land excavation and form, the storage capacity of stabilization pond should satisfy the current that enter stabilization pond and can stop in the pool 6~8 days, the depth of water is greater than 2m; The stem of stabilization pond is laid the shunting permeable dike, makes the upland water uniform distribution enter stabilization pond; At the stabilization pond middle part flexible bulkhead is set, the pool is divided into preposition storehouse and purifying area, current are from flexible bulkhead top overcurrent, and the flexible bulkhead top is lower than the water surface 10~30cm or is lower than average for many years ice thickness; Preposition storehouse is mainly used in precipitation and stagnates to hold pollutent and to make the top layer obtain surface water that aeration aerating and biological decomposition purify and crosses the flexible bulkhead top and enter purifying area and further purify; The stabilization pond periphery is laid emergent vegetation zone and submerged plant band from shallow to deep respectively, and the emergent vegetation zone plantation depth of water is less than 50cm, and the submerged plant band plantation depth of water is 50~100cm;
The current wetland subsystem is arranged between the stabilization pond downstream and the water-break pool, and the stabilization pond water outlet is flow automatically or entered the current wetland subsystem by water pump lifting; The current wetland subsystem is made of two sand filtering modules in parallel, three grades of aeration distributing wells and three grades of wetland units, each aeration distributing well control one-level wetland unit, every grade of wetland unit 2 wetland modules in parallel, the height of water is 40~80cm between adjacent two-stage wetland unit, successively decreases successively; Described sand filtering modules is the sand filtration unit, comprise central distributing flue and monosymmetric multistage sand filtration district, the wide 17.6m in sand filtration unit, dark 1~2m, each sand filtration unit is made of sandstone filtrating area and the cobble catchment area that grade III steel muscle gabion, two-stage particle diameter are respectively 10~20mm and 5~10mm, current divide water by central distributing flue to the both sides level, the floral tube of being buried underground by both sides after the sandstone filtrating area filters that catchments converges discharge, enter next stage again and handle, sand filtering modules length is determined according to required water amount; Described wetland module is exactly one, and independently horizontal drowned flow is wetland bed, is made of cobble cloth pool, wetland bed filler, cobble catchment area, water-break regulation of level well and the reed planted, and described wetland bed filler is particle diameter 10~30mm metaling or other filler; The wetland bed dark 1~2m of each wetland unit, long-width ratio 2: 1~1: 2, base slope 0.2% requires 4~8 hours current residence time in each wetland module;
Described aeration distributing well is made of water inlet surge chamber, solarization air cell and water-break surge chamber, and the water inlet surge chamber is regulated the water flow that enters solarization air cell by stoplog regulation and control water level and by the adjustable flow weir; The long 2m of solarization air cell, wide 2m, dark 3m, in aerator is housed; The water-break surge chamber is provided with three communication passage, be respectively the withdrawal nozzle that is connected with the water-break of higher level's wetland unit, the bottom gate that is connected with solarization air cell, with the regulation of level pipe of total water-break pipe coupling; The water-break of higher level's wetland unit is directly discharged by the regulation of level pipe, or enters solarization air cell by bottom gate and carry out next stage series connection and handle;
Water-break pool subsystem is laid in current wetland subsystem downstream, constitutes by water-break open channel and some series connection biological ponds according to landform, and the depth of water 0.8~1.5m, plantation reed and submerged plant form the surface-flow pool.
2. compound type constructed wetland system according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described flexible bulkhead by the PVC plastic-coated fabric, the upper plastic foam is cursory and bottom nylon rope net gabion is made.
CNB2007101306635A 2007-07-13 2007-07-13 Composite artificial marshland water quality clarification system in north low-temperature area CN100398465C (en)

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Title
官厅水库人工湿地系统水质净化效果研究. 袁博宇,李运来,李长利.北京水务,第2期. 2007
官厅水库人工湿地系统水质净化效果研究. 袁博宇,李运来,李长利.北京水务,第2期. 2007 *

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