CN103880257B - The ecologic assemblage treatment process of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage and device - Google Patents

The ecologic assemblage treatment process of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage and device Download PDF

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CN103880257B
CN103880257B CN201410148248.2A CN201410148248A CN103880257B CN 103880257 B CN103880257 B CN 103880257B CN 201410148248 A CN201410148248 A CN 201410148248A CN 103880257 B CN103880257 B CN 103880257B
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water
biological filter
sewage
plant
pond
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CN201410148248.2A
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CN103880257A (en
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刘锋
吴金水
肖润林
李红芳
王毅
张树楠
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中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses ecologic assemblage treatment process and the device of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage, step is: A, country sewage are collected and pre-treatment; B, biological filter process; C, artificial swamp and stabilization pond process; D, ecology landscape configure.Water inlet manifold road is connected with equalizing tank with grid pond respectively, equalizing tank is connected with horizontal flow biological filter through water distributor, horizontal flow biological filter after filtration screen cloth-water distributor is connected with vertical current biological filter, vertical current biological filter is connected with one-level artificial swamp through the perforation header of horizontal positioned, one-level artificial swamp is connected with secondary artificial swamp through overflow weir, secondary artificial swamp is connected with stabilization pond through direct drainage pipe, at stabilization pond end, main discharge pipe is housed.The method is easy without the need to energy consumption, operation and maintenance, has landscape effect and economic return, and structure is simple, reduced investment, and realize the high-efficient purification to the life of rural area distributing and aquaculture wastewater, the clearances such as treated sewerage nitrogen and phosphor and COD are all more than 80%.

Description

The ecologic assemblage treatment process of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage and device
Technical field
The invention belongs to ecological wastewater processing technical field.More specifically relate to the ecologic assemblage treatment process of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage, also relate to the device of the ecologic assemblage process of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage simultaneously, be suitable for rural area distributing life and aquaculture wastewater process, can Ecological Environment be improved.Particularly can utilize the natural difference of elevation of landform at hilly region in South China, whole waste disposal plant realizes zero power and runs, and is convenient to rural area and applies.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the continuous propelling with urbanization that develops rapidly of China's rural economy, the life of rural area distributing and aquaculture wastewater quantity discharged constantly increase, and cause severe contamination to periphery natural water, soil.Meanwhile, decentralized type sewage discharge in rural area is just becoming the main pollution source in basin, also day by day becomes the main nitrogen phosphorus source in river mouth, downstream and lake, causes body eutrophication.Therefore, effectively process country sewage just becomes problem demanding prompt solution.And the capital construction of municipal sewage treatment treatment plant and working cost high, complex management, the sewage treatmentmethod of this high investment is difficult to promote in the vast Rural areas of China.Ecological Disposal pattern comprises the multiple technologies such as artificial swamp, soil seepage treatment technique, oxidation pond, biological filter, has the advantages such as construction cost is low, manageability, good sewage processing effect, for rural sewage treatment provides new outlet.But the shortcomings such as treatment effect instability, floor space be large may be there is in single eco-treatment technology.Therefore, based on village economic condition and local physical environment, suit measures to local conditions to research and develop a kind of there is Low investment, less energy-consumption and convenient operation and management, stability and high efficiency ecologic assemblage formula treatment process that working cost is low realize the important leverage that country sewage effectively controls.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the ecologic assemblage treatment process that there are provided a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage, the environmental problems such as the method is low for Rural Areas at Present decentralized type sewage processing horizontal, widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area is increasingly serious, explore utilize pipe network to concentrate, ecologic assemblage treatment system that grid pond, equalizing tank, horizontal flow biological filter, vertical current biological filter and two-stage surface current artificial wetland, stabilization pond build rural area decentralized type sewage, realize effective process of rural area distributing life and aquaculture wastewater, realize sewage purification and safety dumping.The method is easy without the need to power consumption, operation and maintenance, also has certain landscape effect and economic return simultaneously.
Another object of the present invention is the device of the ecologic assemblage process that there are provided a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage, this apparatus structure is simple, reduced investment, zero power runs, convenient management, the high-efficient purification to the life of rural area distributing and aquaculture wastewater can be realized, the clearances such as treated sewerage nitrogen and phosphor and COD are all more than 80%, in the artificial swamp of the second stage, plant aquatic economic vegetables simultaneously, realize the recycling of nitrogen phosphorus nutrient in sewage, resource utilization, the aquatic economic vegetables of output, breed fish in stabilization pond, all economic return can be obtained, and then improve the enthusiasm that peasant adopts this technology.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical measures:
The present invention utilizes the natural difference of elevation of hilly region in South China landform, rural area distributing life and sewage of raising pigs is concentrated by pipe network system, sewerage ecological combined treatment device is built at physical features lower, comprise grid pond, equalizing tank, horizontal flow biological filter, vertical current biological filter, first step surface current artificial wetland and second stage surface current artificial wetland, stabilization pond, above-mentioned processing unit organically combines, and forms the rural sewage treatment process of complete set.
An ecologic assemblage treatment process for rural area decentralized type sewage, the steps include:
1, country sewage is collected and pre-treatment: live by rural area distributing with pvc pipe and aquaculture wastewater is collected, and sets up country sewage collection pipe network, then is incorporated into grid pond by aggregation waterpipe by concentrated for sewage.Primary deposition for filtering, retaining the suspended substance or floating matter that are greater than 2 centimetres, and is carried out to sewage in grid pond.At hilly region in South China, be distributed in the life in the peasant household population center on the foot of the hill or limit, mountain or aquaculture wastewater and imported by flow by gravity by pipeline at different levels and be built in lower, grid pond.The water outlet of grid pond enters equalizing tank, partial organic substances in solid particulate, microbiological anaerobic degradation of sewage in the further sedimentation sewage of equalizing tank.Then horizontal flow biological filter is entered through parallel multi-pipeline (more than 3) water distribution system overflow.
2, biological filter process: equalizing tank water outlet enters horizontal flow biological filter, and straw is inserted in horizontal flow biological filter, green watermifoil is cultivated on upper strata, composition straw-green watermifoil bacteria filter system.A large amount of anaerobism-amphimicrobe and the effect of green watermifoil plant rhizosphere aerobic degradation of straw surface attachment are passed through in horizontal flow biological filter, and green watermifoil self growth absorption nutrient fast, high loading nitrogen phosphorus, COD and heavy metal etc. in sewage can be removed, also can cover, absorb and remove stink in sewage.
The water outlet of horizontal flow biological filter enters top layer, vertical current biological filter by single passage water distributor.Vertical current bacteria filter system is made up of wood fragments block layer, paddy shell, straw layer and Arid Red Soil layer from the bottom up, meanwhile, and pedosphere plantation Canna generalis Bailey, iris, fishscale bamboo waterplant.Biological material (straw in vertical current biological filter process engineering unit, rice hulls, wood fragments, wood shavings) there is good voidage and water permeable ability, wood fragments block (size 0.5-10cm) simultaneously, rice hulls, these biological materials of straw are that microbial growth provides enabling environment, the abundant microorganism in biological material surface can effective degradation of contaminant, purify water, pedosphere and Canna generalis Bailey, iris, fishscale bamboo plant can be adsorbed and absorbed nitrogen respectively, phosphorus and heavy metal etc., four different material layers are set in vertical current biological filter simultaneously and can greatly reduce floor space.Bottom vertical current biological filter, arrange horizontal perforated pipe with the wood fragments block layer that wood fragments block (size 0.5-10cm) is filled catchment, the ruckle parcel anti-clogging plug of 10 ~ 30mm particle diameter of this header, be connected with oblique top aqueduct, vertical current biological filter enters first step surface current artificial wetland by this outlet system water discharge simultaneously.
3, artificial swamp and stabilization pond process: this grade of artificial swamp is surface stream, and Wetland Substrate is soil, and wetland plant selects mullet grass and green watermifoil.Wetland water-in first plants emergent mullet grass, the green watermifoil of mullet grass rear kind planting submerged plant.Mullet grass and green watermifoil have the features such as anti-pollution, biomass is large, vegetative period is long.First step artificial swamp can tolerate about 400mg/L ammonia and nitrogen pollution, the 5-30cm depth of water surface stream and mullet grass and green watermifoil plant rhizosphere secrete oxygen formation aerobic environment, further promotion organic pollutant decomposes and the Nitrification, meanwhile, quick growth of plant can the nutritive element such as a large amount of absorbed nitrogen phosphorus.First step artificial wetland effluent enters second stage surface current artificial wetland through overflow weir.Overflow weir can increase dissolved oxygen content in water body, ensures that COD in water body, nitrogen, phosphorus are better removed at second stage artificial swamp.Nitrogen and the phosphorus nutrient of appropriate concentration (<20mg/L ammonia nitrogen and <2mg/L phosphoric acid salt) is contained, for economic vegetable growing aquatic in the artificial swamp of the second stage provides nutrient from the water body of first step artificial swamp discharge.Can plant in the surface current artificial wetland of the second stage that applicable local environment, biomass are large, the aquatic vegetable of convenient management, as planted swamp cabbage, Chinese celery, wild rice stem, green water cress and water chestnut at south China.After second stage artificial swamp is to the further deep purifying process of water body nitrogen and phosphorus pollution, then enter stabilization pond.In stabilization pond, first half section arranges that water is more shallow is about 0.4-0.7m, and the second half section depth of water is 0.9-1.1m, and front and back end is planting aquatic plants calamus and water lily respectively, and after stabilization pond process, water outlet reaches safety dumping water quality requirement.
4, ecology landscape configuration: rural area of the present invention decentralized type sewage concentrate with treatment process in consider promote Ecological Environment beautification of landscape design, accomplish that sewage is can't see on treatment zone earth's surface, can't smell peculiar smell, realize the effect that Rural Human Settlements beautifies.
First, country sewage is all collected with pvc pipe net, and ground surface environment can't see sewage.Secondly, ecologic assemblage process engineering system each processing unit has done the process such as corresponding leakproof, deodorizing, beautification of landscape, as: grid pond and equalizing tank surrounding seal, surface coverage, can't see sewage and can't smell stink; 3rd is plant green watermifoil on upper strata, horizontal flow biological filter, covers sewage deodorizing simultaneously; 4th is at vertical current biological filter upper layer of soil layer plantation Canna generalis Bailey collocation iris and fishscale bamboo; 5th is first step surface current artificial wetland, and planted and grown vegetative period and the green watermifoil that the mullet bloomed is careless, green is in blocks, second stage surface current artificial wetland spring, summer, autumn plant swamp cabbage, wild rice stem, water chestnut, winter planting's green water cress, Chinese celery; 6th is stabilization pond periphery plantation calamus, plants water lily in the pool.Above-mentioned these plants collocation plantation, has beautified local environment, has improved human settlement.
The ecologic assemblage treatment unit of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage, this device comprises: rural area decentralized type sewage collects pipe network, grid pond, equalizing tank, three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution is held concurrently water sampling pipe, horizontal flow biological filter, filter screen and water distributor, vertical current biological filter, straw, rice hulls, wood fragments block and wood shavings, the perforation header (ruckle parcel) of horizontal positioned and 45 ° water shoot obliquely, first step surface current artificial wetland, high-biomass waterplant mullet grass and green watermifoil, overflow weir, second stage surface current artificial wetland, aquatic cash crop (swamp cabbage, Chinese celery, wild rice stem, green water cress and water chestnut), "-" shape direct drainage pipe, stabilization pond, calamus, water lily, “ ∟ " shape relief sewer.It is characterized in that: distributing villager life and aquaculture wastewater are concentrated by pipe network and be connected with equalizing tank with grid pond respectively with water inlet manifold road, equalizing tank is connected with horizontal flow biological filter through three way type water distribution water sampling pipe of holding concurrently, filter tank is filled with straw and cultivates green watermifoil on upper strata, forms straw-green watermifoil bacteria filter system.Horizontal flow biological filter after filtration screen cloth-water distributor is connected with vertical current biological filter,
This vertical current bacteria filter system is made up of wood fragments block layer, paddy shell, straw layer and Arid Red Soil layer from the bottom up, wherein, and pedosphere plantation Canna generalis Bailey, iris, fishscale bamboo waterplant.Vertical current biological filter is connected with first step surface current artificial wetland with 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes through the perforation header of horizontal positioned, and wetland water-in first plants emergent mullet grass, the green watermifoil of mullet grass rear kind planting submerged plant.First step surface current artificial wetland is connected with second stage surface current artificial wetland through overflow weir, mainly plants aquatic vegetable in this grade of wetland, the swamp cabbage of planting as applicable south China, Chinese celery, wild rice stem, green water cress and water chestnut.Second stage surface current artificial wetland's warp-shape direct drainage pipe is connected with stabilization pond, and stabilization pond is divided into rear and front end, according to the waterplant calamus of plantation and the difference of water lily, arranges different water depth.Stabilization pond end, Zhuan You ∟ shape overflow main discharge pipe.
Grid pond and the equalizing tank degree of depth are respectively 0.5m and 1.0m.Equalizing tank can the dark 0.4 ~ 1.0m of retaining, three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution is held concurrently on water sampling pipe and switch is housed for the depth of water in regulating and controlling pond, when biological filter in technical process and artificial swamp will manage, temporarily deposited in equalizing tank by sewage by closing switch, do not enter horizontal flow biological filter, sewage carries out preliminary anaerobic degradation at equalizing tank.One of the water sampling pipe outlet of holding concurrently of three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution connects horizontal flow biological filter, and the dark 0.7m in horizontal flow biological filter, can control water depth 0.6m.Pollute the sewage alleviated enters vertical current biological filter straw layer (below pedosphere) through filter screen and water distributor, the dark 1.5m in vertical current biological filter, fill 0.3m red soil successively, 0.3m straw layer, 0.4m rice husk layer and 0.4m wood fragments block layer, can control water depth about 1.1m, deployment tube and header all adopt UPVC to manage, water distributor is directly connected to straw layer below pedosphere, header is the surrounding perforate straight tube (surrounding parcel gravel stacks blocking) of horizontal positioned, be placed in wood fragments block layer, what be connected with header is aqueduct, aqueduct becomes the laying of 45 °, oblique upper, aqueduct connects a craspedodrome water shoot after in the middle part of straw layer, water shoot will be disposed of sewage and directly be entered artificial swamp.First step surface current artificial wetland is reconstructed by rice field and bottom land and comes, wholely, after digging about 0.1m under, under the soil that digs to bank up periphery, widen Wetland boundary and prevent seepage, mullet grass and green watermifoil is planted respectively at leading portion and back segment, two kind of plant planted area are than being about 1:3, and the front and back plant section depth of water all can control about 0.3m.First step artificial swamp leading portion plantation plantation emergent mullet grass is planted green watermifoil (absorb nitrogen and phosphorus pollution to be removed suspended substance and silt, back segment, carry out oxygen enrichment to flowing through sewage simultaneously), wetland variation water outlet enters second stage horizontal flow artificial wetland along overflow weir gravity flow and carries out advanced treatment.Second stage surface current artificial wetland also by rice field and bottom land reconstruct come whole, under dig about 0.1m (namely it determines with the high level of first step artificial swamp is poor by landform to dig the degree of depth under field), ensure the natural-drop keeping more than 0.1m with first step artificial swamp, the depth of water can be controlled in about 0.3m, the concrete depth of water determines according to the aquatic vegetable of plantation, when plantation Chinese celery, green water cress, swamp cabbage, the depth of water is at 0.1 ~ 0.2m, and during plantation wild rice stem, the depth of water can reach about 0.3m.Stabilization pond digs 0.5m and 1m down respectively by front and rear sections, and front and back section area ratio is 1:1, and lower shoveling earth stacks surrounding, and widen pool base, anti-sealing seepage outward, stabilization pond leading portion periphery and centre plant emergent calamus respectively, back segment plantation submerged plant water lily.
In addition, the long-width ratio of grid pond, equalizing tank, horizontal flow biological filter and vertical current biological filter is all about 1.5-2:1, and grid pond and equalizing tank area press 1:10 design; Equalizing tank, horizontal flow biological filter and vertical current biological filter area ratio are 2.5:2.5:1; The first step and second stage surface current artificial wetland's long-width ratio are about 3:1, area ratio 1:1.5; Stabilization pond long-width ratio is 3:1, presses 1:1 design with second stage surface current artificial wetland's area ratio.The country sewage total amount that concrete size processes as required and lineament slightly adjust.
The present invention compared with prior art, has the following advantages and effect:
The correlation theory of the design reference hydro project of the inventive method technical process, ecological engineering, sewage treatment project and technology, and in conjunction with factors such as sewage generation, distribution situation and the development programs in the regional extent of Serving for Rural, the feature that country sewage complicated component is changeable can be adapted to, realize rural area distributing life and aquaculture wastewater high-efficient purification.
1. processing efficiency is high: enter equalizing tank after the foreign material that the inventive method is large in interception sewage, utilize the initial breakdown processes such as physics sedimentation, microbial process to remove certain suspended substance and COD etc.; Horizontal flow biological filter, vertical current biological filter and first step artificial swamp, as intensive treatment unit, remove most COD, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution; Second stage artificial swamp and stabilization pond, as advanced treatment unit, realize standard water discharge discharge.This treatment process avoids the sewage disposal pattern that single process type can only process the pollution substance of some pollution substance or certain concentration range, and water outlet is clean, stable.Process water outlet is transparent, limpid, free from extraneous odour, more than 80% is remained on to Pollutant Treatment efficiency entirety in water body, namely in draining COD, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen respectively lower than 60mg/L, 1mg/L, 20mg/L and 8mg/L, effluent quality index reaches " urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard " (GB 18918-2002) one-level B standard, reaches advanced treatment removal effect to nitrogen phosphorus in country sewage.
2. " zero power " runs: in conjunction with local natural background condition (land area, landform, meteorology, hydrologic factor etc.), and choosing has the field of nature difference of elevation, depression or the pool, and the treatment process system of structure reaches " zero power " operating requirement.
3. Construction and operation expense is low, management is simple: according to the feature of different processing units in technical process, and use process material mostly to be material that rural area easily obtains is as straw, rice hulls, wood fragments bits, red soil etc., and construction cost is low.The management of whole technical process mainly regulates the periodic cleaning of settling tank silting, the plant periodical reaping, deinsectization etc. of artificial swamp, and management is simple.To build the treatment process system of the present invention of a daily handling ability 30t/d, need to utilize land area to be about 1500m 2, front-end investment expense about about 50,000 yuan.After engineering operation starts, expenditure on power is 0 yuan/year, and labour cost and Renovation expense mainly comprise needs that routine maintenance personnel are responsible for silt displacement, plant is reseeded, gather in management etc., monthly salary 300 yuan/month), it is little that whole combination process runs total cost in 1 year.
4. good Impacts on ecology and environment, social effect: rural sewage treatment system of the present invention can be accomplished to allow process rural areas earth's surface lose sewage, and after rural sewage treatment, qualified discharge enters downstream river course, effectively can control widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area; Simultaneously the processing unit such as horizontal flow biological filter, vertical biological filter, artificial swamp, stabilization pond is all arranged in pairs or groups planting aquatic plants, has good ornamental value; In addition, when cultivating wastewater purification is up to standard, artificial swamp, stabilization pond can plant harmless aquatic vegetable, create economic benefit, are convenient to this invention technology and apply in rural area.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of combined biological treatment process purification process schematic diagram of country sewage.
Fig. 2 is the ecologic assemblage treatment unit schematic diagram of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage.
Wherein: 1. water inlet manifold road, 2. grid pond, 3. equalizing tank, 4. three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution is held concurrently water sampling pipe, 5. horizontal flow biological filter, 6. straw, 7. green watermifoil, 8. filter screen-water distributor (the screen filtration anti-clogging plug of water distributor leading portion), 9. vertical current biological filter, 10. red soil, 11. rice hulls, 12. wood fragments blocks, the perforation header of 13. horizontal positioned and 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes, 14. first step horizontal flow artificial wetlands, 15. mullet grass, 16. discharge channels, 17. overflow weirs, 18. second stage horizontal flow artificial wetlands, 19. economic aquatic plant (Chinese celeries, swamp cabbage, wild rice stem, green water cress etc.) 20. "-" shape direct drainage pipe, 21. stabilization ponds, 22. waterplant (calamus, water lily etc.), 23. “ ∟ " shape overflow main discharge pipe, 24a. first straw layer, 25. red soil layers, 24b. second straw layer, 26. paddy shells, 27. wood fragments block layers, 28a. first farmland soil layer, 28b. second farmland soil layer, 29. stabilization pond bed muds.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1 (as depicted in figs. 1 and 2):
In Ge Jia mountain village, Kai Hui town, Changsha County, life of farmers and the aquaculture wastewater of choosing this village one villager group are handling object, this section have 13 families other, resident population 48 people, the most major part number about about 1000 of pig-breeding, each pig farmer has the methane-generating pit running several years, but methane-generating pit operating performance is unstable, aquaculture wastewater is almost directly outer row, and partial trench draining is all Heisui River throughout the year.This region is typical southern hills landform, and Land-Use is followed successively by forest land, civil construction land used, farmland from high in the end with physical features, and peasant house and pig fence truncation are in the higher hillside-area, the foot of the hill of physical features.Be based upon near the low farmland of physical features by country sewage built-up type process engineering of the present invention, practicable like this pipe network concentrates life in the countryside and aquaculture wastewater methane-generating pit process water outlet self-flowing pastefill (not needing to provide power).Rural area decentralized type sewage ecological demonstration project process is set up: design engineering accepts total nitrogen and is about 8000g/d, and total phosphorus is about 600g/d, and waterpower total load is about 25m by the present invention 3/ d, effluent quality performs " urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard " (GB18918--2002) one-level B standard).An ecologic assemblage treatment process for rural area decentralized type sewage, the steps include:
1, section, rural area sewage collecting and pre-treatment is studied:
The pipeline (water supply and drainage design manual the 5th) of suitable dimension is selected to connect the sewage outlet of every family according to study area quantity of wastewater effluent, Material selec-tion performs according to relevant criterion, the selection of pipe pvc pipe (performing by GB/T13663 regulation).Study area sewage focuses on by pipe network grid pond (long 2m × wide 1m × dark 0.6m, area 2m that a total collection pipe (pipe diameter 250mm) is admitted to process engineering 2).Grid pond is carried out just precipitation and is removed macrobead foreign material and grid to entering sewage and retain and remove large suspended substance or floating matter.In succession equalizing tank in grid pond, from the overflow water outlet of grid pond, particulate form suspended substance and silt are at equalizing tank (long 6m × wide 4m × dark 0.8m, area 24m 2) physical sedimentation occurs further retain, equalizing tank can the dark 0.7m of retaining, and if any Special Circumstances, the external water yield is excessive, exceed horizontal flow biological filter and the vertical current biological filter water handling capacity of below, then unnecessary water will enter first step surface current artificial wetland by upflow tube.
2, biological filter process: (this water pipe is set to three-way cock to water sampling pipe to adopt the three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution of 6 road located side by side to hold concurrently, three-way cock water outlet directly can gather equalizing tank water outlet water sample) equalizing tank is gone out water-dispersion input level stream biological filter (long 7m × wide 3.5m × dark 0.6m, area 24.5m 2).Horizontal flow biological filter is established two-layer, and lower floor fills out and puts the dark straw layer of 40cm, the green watermifoil of mulching plant above straw.Straw-green watermifoil system exists 3 containing oxygen characteristic layer: bottom straw is anaerobic layer, and the green watermifoil in middle layer is secreted the approach such as oxygen and forms layer of oxygen deficient by growth metabolism, rhizosphere, upper strata mainly green watermifoil plant grows at water surface, is rendered as aerobic layer.By a large amount of anaerobism-amphimicrobe of straw surface attachment and the aerobic microbiological metabolism of green watermifoil plant rhizosphere surface in horizontal flow biological filter, the nitrogen of high loading, COD can be removed, and fixing phosphorus, heavy metal etc.Green watermifoil growth simultaneously can absorb nutrient, the more important thing is and can remove stink in sewage.Dispose of sewage from horizontal flow biological filter and enter 3 independently vertical current bacteria filter systems side by side respectively by 3 road located side by side filter screens and water distributor.3 independently filter tank consistent size (long 4m × wide 2.5m × dark 1.5m, area 10m side by side 2) fill 0.4m wood fragments block layer, 0.4m rice husk layer, 0.3m straw layer, 0.3m red soil layer from the bottom up all successively, meanwhile, pedosphere plantation Canna generalis Bailey.The water outlet of horizontal flow biological filter by perforation horizontal positioned header (ruckle parcel) and 45 ° obliquely water shoot directly access the straw layer below pedosphere.The water exhaust system of vertical current biological filter arranges as follows: boring aperture, diameter in wood fragments block layer horizontal positioned surrounding is 15cm header, blocking is prevented at this perforate straight tube surrounding parcel 10-30mm particle diameter ruckle, what be connected with header is aqueduct, aqueduct becomes the laying of 45 °, oblique upper, aqueduct is upward to the water shoot being communicated with a level after in the middle part of straw layer again and keeping straight on, water shoot will be disposed of sewage and directly be entered first step surface current artificial wetland, and the water outlet height of water shoot arranges the position being positioned at the depth of water 1.1m controlling vertical biological reaction tank.The microorganism being attached to biological material surface at this processing unit mainly carries out biological denitrificaion and solid phosphorus effect, the adsorbable phosphorus of pedosphere and heavy metal etc.
3, artificial swamp and stabilization pond process:
First step surface current artificial wetland is entered from the water outlet of vertical current biological filter, this artificial swamp is reconstructed by rice terrace, rice terrace has good plough sole, the vertical seepage of dirty water pollutant can be prevented, this grade of artificial swamp divides two sections, leading portion is plantation emergent mullet grass (formative plant plant height reaches about 1m) district (long 6m × wide 10m), can the water outlet of buffering vertical biological reaction tank, remove part N, P, COD by plant absorption; Back segment is the green watermifoil district of plantation (long 20m × wide 10m), and green watermifoil biomass is large, growth cycle is long, effectively can absorb and remove N, P, COD higher in sewage.The front and back section depth of water as required the most deeply can control 0.3m.First step surface current artificial wetland processes rear water outlet by overflow weir from flowing to second stage surface current artificial wetland.
Second stage surface current artificial wetland (long 30m × wide 10m) also by rice field reconstruct come whole, under dig about 0.1m (namely it determines with the high level of first step artificial swamp is poor by landform to dig the degree of depth under field), ensure the natural-drop keeping more than 0.1m with first step artificial swamp, the depth of water can control about 0.2 ~ 0.3m, the concrete depth of water determines according to the aquatic vegetable of plantation, when plantation Chinese celery, green water cress, swamp cabbage, the depth of water is at 0.1-0.2m, and during plantation wild rice stem, the depth of water can reach about 0.3m.Second stage free water surface wetland water outlet enters stabilization pond by "-" shape direct drainage pipe.The length and width of stabilization pond are about 30m × 10m, dig 0.5m and 0.9m down respectively by front and rear sections, and front and back section area ratio is 1:1, lower shoveling earth stacks surrounding, and widen pool base, anti-sealing side is oozed, stabilization pond leading portion periphery and centre plant emergent calamus respectively, back segment plantation submerged plant water lily.Reach the water outlet Tong Guo “ ∟ of emission standard after stabilization pond process " shape relief sewer overflow enter farmland, side.
4, ecology landscape configuration: rural area of the present invention decentralized type sewage is concentrated and considered that improvement beautifies Ecological Environment in treatment process enforcement, adds part landscape design.
First, all collect with pvc pipe the life of rural area distributing and cultivation draining, namely ensure country sewage not by the outdoor discharge of earth's surface irrigation canals and ditches, therefore, addle is can't see on earth's surface.Simultaneously, ecologic assemblage process engineering system each processing unit has suitable leakproof, deodorizing, beautification of landscape process: specifically grid pond and equalizing tank surrounding and sealed bottom, above also seal except reserved sludge discharging port, sludge discharging port covers with steel plate at ordinary times, prevents stink from overflowing; Green watermifoil is planted on upper strata, horizontal flow biological filter, and the green watermifoil density grown up to is large, as a slice green carpet; Plant tall and big Canna generalis Bailey at vertical current biological filter pedosphere to arrange in pairs or groups medium fishscale bamboo, short iris, form high, medium and low level stereoscopic landscape; First step surface current artificial wetland, plant respectively vegetative period long, open pale reddish brown emergent mullet grass and green in flakes like the green watermifoil of blanket; Second stage surface current artificial wetland spring, summer, autumn plant swamp cabbage, wild rice stem and water chestnut, winter planting's green water cress, Chinese celery; The periphery plantation calamus of stabilization pond, in the pool, plant water lily.Above-mentioned these plants collocation plantation, has beautified local environment, has improved human settlement.
A kind of ecologic assemblage treatment unit for realizing a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage, it comprises: water inlet manifold road 1, grid pond 2, equalizing tank 3, three way type water distribution is held concurrently water sampling pipe 4, horizontal flow biological filter 5, straw 6, green watermifoil 7, filter screen-water distributor 8, vertical current biological filter 9, red soil 10, rice hulls 11, wood fragments block 12, the perforation header of horizontal positioned and 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes 13, artificial swamp 14 mullet grass 15, discharge channel 16, overflow weir 17, second stage horizontal flow artificial wetland 18, economic aquatic plant 19 (Chinese celery, swamp cabbage, wild rice stem, green water cress etc.),-shape direct drainage pipe 20, stabilization pond 21, waterplant 22 (calamus, water lily etc.), ∟ shape overflow main discharge pipe 23, first straw layer 24A, red soil layer 25, second straw layer 24B, paddy shell 26, wood fragments block layer 27, first farmland soil layer 28A, second farmland soil layer 28B, stabilization pond bed mud 29.
Its annexation is: distributing villager life and aquaculture wastewater are concentrated by pipe network and be connected with equalizing tank 3 with grid pond 2 respectively with water inlet manifold road 1, equalizing tank 3 is connected with horizontal flow biological filter 5 through three way type water distribution water sampling pipe 4 of holding concurrently, horizontal flow biological filter 5 after filtration screen cloth-water distributor 8 is connected with vertical current biological filter 9, vertical current biological filter 9 is connected with first step surface current artificial wetland 14 with 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes 13 through the perforation header of horizontal positioned, first step surface current artificial wetland 14 is connected with second stage surface current artificial wetland 18 through overflow weir 17, second stage surface current artificial wetland 18 is connected with stabilization pond 21 through "-" shape direct drainage pipe 20, at stabilization pond 21 end Zhuan You “ ∟ " shape overflow main discharge pipe 23, equalizing tank 3 sewage enters horizontal flow biological filter 5 through six road placed horizontallys three way type water distribution side by side water sampling pipe 4 of holding concurrently, enter vertical current biological filter 9 by filter screen-water distributor 8 again, enter first step surface current artificial wetland 14 by the perforation header of horizontal positioned and 45 ° of up hydraulic pipe 13 vertical current biological filter water outlets, dispose of sewage and enter second stage surface current artificial wetland 18 through overflow weir 17 again, pollute water outlet after removing and enter stabilization pond 21 through "-" shape direct drainage pipe 20, finally, water outlet is through “ ∟ " shape overflow main discharge pipe 23 discharges and enters the farmland of periphery.The particular combination of said apparatus is: water inlet manifold 1 is that life in the countryside and aquaculture wastewater are concentrated and entered total pipeline; Grid pond 2 and equalizing tank 3 carry out primary precipitation, filtration to the life in the countryside of collecting and aquaculture wastewater; Horizontal flow biological filter 5, vertical current biological filter 9, first step surface current artificial wetland 14, second stage surface current artificial wetland 18, stabilization pond 21 are sewage purification functional units; In horizontal flow biological filter 5, lower floor places on straw, straw and plants green watermifoil, and vertical current biological filter 9 is filled out successively from the bottom up and put 0.4m wood fragments block layer, 0.4m rice husk layer, 0.3m straw layer, 0.3m red soil layer, meanwhile, and pedosphere plantation Canna generalis Bailey; First step surface current artificial wetland 14 leading portion plantation mullet grass, back segment plant green watermifoil, and according to seasonal variation in second stage surface current artificial wetland 18, spring, summer, autumn plant swamp cabbage, wild rice stem, water chestnut, winter planting's green water cress, Chinese celery; The periphery plantation calamus of stabilization pond, in the pool, plant water lily.Each purification function unit by different connecting modes as three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution hold concurrently water sampling pipe 4, filter sieve plate-hydraulic pipe 8, horizontal positioned perforation header be communicated with 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes 13, overflow weir 17, "-" shape direct drainage pipe.Three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distribution water sampling pipe 4 of holding concurrently arranges three links: link of trade, travel and post pattern, a passage is equalizing tank 3 water input level stream biological filter 5, another outlet is for gathering equalizing tank water sample, meanwhile, reach by arranging 6 three links: link of trade, travel and post formula water distributions water sampling pipe 4 of holding concurrently equalizing tank water is linked into horizontal flow biological filter 5 more uniformly; Filter sieve plate-hydraulic pipe 8 front end and connect horizontal flow biological filter 5, rear end is placed in below the red soil layer of vertical current biological filter 9, and water is directly inputted to below pedosphere; The perforation header of horizontal positioned and 45 ° of up hydraulic pipe 13 front ends are passed through the collection of a punching " transverse tube " and are filtered the rear sewage of denitrification pond process, by 45 ° of inclined tubes, water extraction are entered surface current artificial wetland 14; The overflow weir 17 of long 10m, wide 0.4m inputs second stage surface current artificial wetland 18 equably for first step surface current artificial wetland 14 is processed rear sewage; Finally, through 1 "-" shape direct drainage pipe 20 second stage surface current artificial wetland 18 water outlet access stabilization pond 21, finally by 1 Gen “ ∟ " shape overflow main discharge pipe 23 discharges and enters the farmland of periphery.
5. operating performance:
Designed according to the inventive method by the Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, with " 13 " national science and technology supporting plan project for supporting, build " life in the countryside and aquaculture wastewater Ecological Disposal Test and pilot project " end of the year 2012 and be positioned at Ge Jia mountain village, Kai Hui town, in March, 2013 normally comes into operation.The sanitary sewage of this rural area one, demonstration project process Ge Jia mountain section peasant household and distributing aquaculture wastewater.Run during 1 year, influent quality COD, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus each index monthly average concentration are respectively 362mg/L, 197mg/L, 133mg/L and 20.15mg/L, horizontal flow biological filter is to COD, total phosphorus, the clearance of total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen is 50% ~ 60%, through the further advanced treatment of vertical current biological filter and surface current artificial wetland, final stabilization pond water outlet COD, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus mean concns are respectively 43mg/L, 5.58mg/L, 1.37mg/L and 0.59mg/L, the average removal rate of each index reaches 88%, 97%, 98% and 97%, wastewater treatment efficiency stably reaching standard.Whole engineering possesses " zero power " and " clean and safe " feature, and operational management is simple and convenient.The present invention has the advantages such as strong to country sewage detergent power, stable, reduced investment, convenient management, be applicable to rural area distributing life and cultivation blowdown feature, can be used as a kind of environmental friendliness pattern of the innoxious and resource utilization of rural pollution to be applied, improve Ecological Environment.
6. working cost
(1) expenditure on power is 0 yuan/year; (2) labour cost and Renovation expense: labour cost about 0.36 ten thousand yuan/year (needs routine maintenance personnel 1, responsible silt displacement, plant are reseeded, are gathered in management etc., monthly salary 300 yuan/month), it is about 0.5 ten thousand yuan that whole combination process runs total cost in 1 year.

Claims (7)

1. an ecologic assemblage treatment process for rural area decentralized type sewage, the steps include:
A, country sewage is collected and pre-treatment: to be lived by rural area distributing with pvc pipe and aquaculture wastewater is collected, set up country sewage and collect pipe network, grid pond is incorporated into by concentrated for sewage again by aggregation waterpipe, grid pond is used for filtering, retain and be greater than 2 centimetres of suspended substances or floating matter, just precipitation is carried out to sewage simultaneously, at hilly region in South China, the life or the aquaculture wastewater that are distributed in the peasant household population center on the foot of the hill or limit, mountain are imported the grid pond being built in lower by flow by gravity by pipeline at different levels, the water outlet of grid pond enters equalizing tank, solid particulate in the further sedimentation sewage of equalizing tank, partial organic substances in microbiological anaerobic degradation of sewage, horizontal flow biological filter is entered through parallel pipeline,
B, biological filter process: equalizing tank water outlet enters horizontal flow biological filter, straw is inserted in horizontal flow biological filter, green watermifoil is cultivated on upper strata, composition straw-green watermifoil bacteria filter system, a large amount of anaerobism-amphimicrobe and the effect of green watermifoil plant rhizosphere aerobic degradation of straw surface attachment are passed through in horizontal flow biological filter, and green watermifoil own growth absorbs nutrient, remove high loading nitrogen phosphorus, COD and heavy metal in sewage, cover, absorb and remove stink in sewage;
The water outlet of horizontal flow biological filter enters top layer, vertical current biological filter by single passage water distributor, and vertical current bacteria filter system is from the bottom up by wood fragments block layer, paddy shell, straw layer and Arid Red Soil layer are formed, meanwhile, and pedosphere plantation Canna generalis Bailey, iris, fishscale bamboo waterplant, biological material in vertical current biological filter process engineering unit: straw, rice hulls, wood fragments block, wood shavings, simultaneously wood fragments block: size 0.5-10cm, rice hulls, these biological materials of straw are that microbial growth provides enabling environment, and the abundant microorganism in biological material surface can effective degradation of contaminant, purify water, pedosphere and Canna generalis Bailey, iris, fishscale bamboo plant is adsorbed and absorbed nitrogen respectively, phosphorus and heavy metal, four different material layers are set in vertical current biological filter simultaneously and decrease floor space, wood fragments block is used: the wood fragments block layer that size 0.5-10cm fills arranges horizontal perforated pipe and catchments bottom vertical current biological filter, the ruckle parcel anti-clogging plug of 10 ~ 30mm particle diameter of this header, be connected with oblique top aqueduct, vertical current biological filter enters first step surface current artificial wetland by this outlet system water discharge simultaneously,
C, artificial swamp and stabilization pond process: this grade of artificial swamp is surface stream, Wetland Substrate is soil, wetland plant selects mullet grass and green watermifoil, wetland water-in first plants emergent mullet grass, the green watermifoil of mullet grass rear kind planting submerged plant, first step artificial swamp ability 400mg/L ammonia and nitrogen pollution, the 5-30cm depth of water surface stream and mullet grass and green watermifoil plant rhizosphere secrete oxygen formation aerobic environment, further promotion organic pollutant decomposes and the Nitrification, simultaneously, plant-growth a large amount of absorbed nitrogen phosphorus nutrition element, first step artificial wetland effluent enters second stage surface current artificial wetland through overflow weir, overflow weir increases dissolved oxygen content in water body, ensure COD in water body, nitrogen, phosphorus obtains the degree of depth at second stage artificial swamp and removes, the water body of discharging from first step artificial swamp is containing appropriate concentration: 20mg/L ammonia nitrogen and the phosphatic nitrogen of 2mg/L and phosphorus nutrient, for economic vegetable growing aquatic in the artificial swamp of the second stage provides nutrient, aquatic vegetable is planted in the surface current artificial wetland of the second stage, plantation swamp cabbage, Chinese celery, wild rice stem, green water cress and water chestnut, through second stage artificial swamp to water body nitrogen, after the further deep purifying process that phosphorus pollutes, enter stabilization pond again, in stabilization pond, first half section arranges the depth of water is 0.4-0.7m, second half section depth of water 0.9-1.1m, front and back end is planting aquatic plants calamus and water lily respectively, after stabilization pond processes further, water outlet reaches safety dumping water quality requirement,
D, ecology landscape configure: rural area decentralized type sewage concentrate with treatment process in promote Ecological Environment beautification of landscape design, accomplish that sewage is can't see on treatment zone earth's surface, can't smell peculiar smell, realize Rural Human Settlements and beautify:
First, country sewage is all collected with pvc pipe net, and ground surface environment can't see sewage; Secondly, ecologic assemblage process engineering system each processing unit has done leakproof, deodorizing, beautification of landscape process, and grid pond and equalizing tank surrounding seal, surface coverage, can't see sewage and can't smell stink; 3rd is plant green watermifoil on upper strata, horizontal flow biological filter, covers sewage deodorizing simultaneously; 4th is at vertical current biological filter upper layer of soil layer plantation Canna generalis Bailey collocation iris and fishscale bamboo; 5th is first step surface current artificial wetland, and planted careless, the green green watermifoil in blocks of the long mullet bloomed in vegetative period, second stage surface current artificial wetland spring, summer, autumn plant swamp cabbage, wild rice stem, water chestnut, winter planting's green water cress, Chinese celery; 6th is stabilization pond periphery plantation calamus, plants water lily in the pool, and above-mentioned plant collocation plantation, has beautified local environment, improved human settlement.
2. one kind adopts the ecologic assemblage treatment unit of method process rural area decentralized type sewage described in claim 1, it comprises: water inlet manifold road (1), grid pond (2), equalizing tank (3), horizontal flow biological filter (5), filter screen-water distributor (8), vertical current biological filter (9), the perforation header of horizontal positioned and 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes (13), first step horizontal flow artificial wetland (14), overflow weir (17), second stage surface current artificial wetland (18), stabilization pond (21), ∟ shape overflow main discharge pipe (23), it is characterized in that: distributing villager life and aquaculture wastewater are concentrated by pipe network and be connected with equalizing tank (3) with grid pond (2) respectively with water inlet manifold road (1), equalizing tank (3) is connected with horizontal flow biological filter (5) through three way type water distribution water sampling pipe (4) of holding concurrently, horizontal flow biological filter (5) after filtration screen cloth-water distributor (8) is connected with vertical current biological filter (9), vertical current biological filter (9) is connected with first step surface current artificial wetland (14) with 45 ° of up hydraulic pipes (13) through the perforation header of horizontal positioned, first step surface current artificial wetland (14) is connected with second stage surface current artificial wetland (18) through overflow weir (17), second stage surface current artificial wetland (18) warp-shape direct drainage pipe (20) is connected with stabilization pond (21), at stabilization pond (21) end Zhuan You ∟ shape overflow main discharge pipe (23).
3. the ecologic assemblage treatment unit of a kind of rural area according to claim 2 decentralized type sewage, is characterized in that: in described horizontal flow biological filter (5), lower floor places on straw, straw and plants green watermifoil.
4. the ecologic assemblage treatment unit of a kind of rural area according to claim 2 decentralized type sewage, it is characterized in that: described vertical current biological filter (9) is filled out successively from the bottom up and put 0.4m wood fragments block layer, 0.4m rice husk layer, 0.3m straw layer, 0.3m red soil layer, pedosphere plantation Canna generalis Bailey.
5. the ecologic assemblage treatment unit of a kind of rural area according to claim 2 decentralized type sewage, is characterized in that: described first step surface current artificial wetland (14) leading portion plantation mullet grass, back segment plant green watermifoil.
6. the ecologic assemblage treatment unit of a kind of rural area according to claim 2 decentralized type sewage, it is characterized in that: in described second stage surface current artificial wetland (18), spring, summer, autumn plant swamp cabbage, wild rice stem, winter planting's green water cress, Chinese celery.
7. the ecologic assemblage treatment unit of a kind of rural area according to claim 2 decentralized type sewage, is characterized in that: the periphery plantation calamus of described stabilization pond (21), plants water lily in the pool.
CN201410148248.2A 2014-04-14 2014-04-14 The ecologic assemblage treatment process of a kind of rural area decentralized type sewage and device CN103880257B (en)

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