WO2016045440A1 - 一种采矿方法 - Google Patents

一种采矿方法 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2016045440A1
WO2016045440A1 PCT/CN2015/084749 CN2015084749W WO2016045440A1 WO 2016045440 A1 WO2016045440 A1 WO 2016045440A1 CN 2015084749 W CN2015084749 W CN 2015084749W WO 2016045440 A1 WO2016045440 A1 WO 2016045440A1
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Prior art keywords
mining
pit
area
zone
joint
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PCT/CN2015/084749
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English (en)
French (fr)
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赵峡
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海西博奥工程有限公司
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Application filed by 海西博奥工程有限公司 filed Critical 海西博奥工程有限公司
Priority to EA201690486A priority Critical patent/EA029617B1/ru
Priority to DE112015000180.8T priority patent/DE112015000180T5/de
Priority to CA2929663A priority patent/CA2929663C/en
Priority to US15/109,268 priority patent/US9739146B2/en
Priority to AU2015320268A priority patent/AU2015320268B2/en
Publication of WO2016045440A1 publication Critical patent/WO2016045440A1/zh

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/32Reclamation of surface-mined areas
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/26Methods of surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/26Methods of surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/28Methods of surface mining; Layouts therefor for brown or hard coal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F15/00Methods or devices for placing filling-up materials in underground workings

Definitions

  • This application relates to a mining method.
  • the open-pit mining methods currently widely used have the advantages of sufficient resource utilization, low cost, high recovery rate, fast mining, large output, good working conditions and safe production; It is the exploitation of open-pit coal mines that is severely restricted by natural conditions.
  • the process of mining not only the large-scale farmland is invaded, but also the artificial environment of the mining area is quite changed. It is concentrated in the destruction of topography and landform, heavy metal pollution, and increased soil erosion.
  • underground mining is more environmentally friendly, it is more difficult to mine than the open pit mine, and the operating environment is harsh. It has higher requirements for mining equipment, operator quality and mining technology.
  • permafrost is widely distributed, and its frozen soil is composed of Quaternary humus, sand and some bedrock, and the thickness will reach at least about 50-98 m, which is prone to poor engineering geological problems.
  • the construction period of the well construction in this mining area will take at least 5 years, and the input cost is high, which is difficult for enterprises to maintain.
  • traditional underground mining generally requires the excavation of main, auxiliary and wind wells, and the underground roadways are criss-crossed.
  • the present application is directed to the problem of destructive landform and environmental pollution caused by coal mining in the prior art.
  • a safe and efficient mining method is proposed.
  • the mining method proposed by the present application may include: dividing the mining area into a plurality of joint mining areas; performing mining and forming pits in each of the joint mining areas; and performing well extraction and forming multiple in the slope of the mining pit The goaf roadway; and the stripping waste from the next joint mining area is backfilled into the pit of the previous joint mining area.
  • the stripping waste of the first combined mining zone may be filled into the last combined mining zone after the mining work of the last combined mining zone is completed.
  • the slope of the pit can be formed as a stepped platform.
  • the order in which the plurality of goafs are formed may be sequential or non-sequential.
  • the method may further include: processing the stripping waste into a paste, and filling the paste into the gobway by filling pump and/or gravity
  • the safety angle of the slope of the pit may be no greater than about 40°.
  • well mining may be performed in a manner that is end-mining.
  • horizontal mining and up and down mining may be arranged according to the distribution structure of the ore layer of the associated mining area.
  • the above method may further include performing surface greening after completing the backfilling of the joint mining zone.
  • the abandoned rock soil and waste generated in the zone may be filled into the previous combined mining zone.
  • the abandoned rock and waste generated in the zone can be filled into the first combined mining zone, and so on.
  • the original landform of the previous joint mining area can be restored in time during the mining process, and trees and other vegetation can be planted in the filled joint mining area when the other areas are mined, thereby further greening and protecting the environment.
  • FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary mining area to which a mining method in accordance with an embodiment of the present application is applied;
  • FIG. 2 is a top plan view of an exemplary mining area to which a mining method in accordance with an embodiment of the present application is applied;
  • Figure 3 is a schematic view of the well mining by using the end coal mining machine
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a filling paste processing method according to an embodiment of the present application.
  • FIG. 5 is a diagram schematically showing the sequence of hopping and filling in an established pit according to an embodiment of the present application.
  • the mining area of an open pit mine is first divided into several small mining units, that is, multiple joint mining areas, and in each joint mining area, for example, excavators, mine cards, etc. are used for exposure and formation.
  • Pit For example, for the minefield, the coal seam of the minefield is inclined in a V-shape in the north-south direction, and the coal belt is 1Km wide in the north and south, and the mining area of 5Km in the east and west can form the upper mouth of the open mining pit to be 600m ⁇ 600m, covering an area of 0.36km2.
  • the depth of the slope is 200m
  • the safety angle of the slope is 40° or not more than 40°
  • the foundation pit is 120m wide.
  • the slope of the pit can be formed as a stepped platform. as shown in picture 2, A specific size security platform can be built for each height drop. For example, a safety platform of 10 to 20 m wide can be built for every 10 m drop.
  • the safety platform can be used to establish a transport corridor, while also preserving production operations locations for, for example, end state wells.
  • the end state equipment can be placed at the front end of the mining layer to be used, and the well mining operation equipment can be used to complete the well mining work in the surrounding mine layer.
  • the specific construction plan of the well mining is determined according to the area of the ore layer, the orientation of the ore layer and the dip angle of the ore layer; It can also be mined up and down, and only coal can be mined in the mining process. It should be noted that regardless of the steeply inclined coal seam or the near horizontal coal seam, each end roadway layout is mining in a near horizontal direction. The difference is that the mining position of the next lane of a roadway can be taken horizontally or vertically. The horizontal arrangement or the upper and lower arrangement mentioned here refers to the position layout of the end state. However, the mining direction in each roadway must be near-level excavation, and only the coal mining does not strip the rock when mining in Duanbang.
  • each joint mining area is first open-pit mining and then end-harvest mining.
  • Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of mining using an end coal mining machine.
  • the end coal mining area is used to draw a predetermined depth on the upper and lower sides of the coal seam area on a certain working platform (for example: 120m upper mining surface)
  • the lower mining face is 600m).
  • the stripping waste generated by the mining work in the second joint mining area such as geotechnical and waste slag, is filled into the pit of the first joint mining area, so that the original landform can be restored in time during the mining process. .
  • the stripping waste of the first joint mining area is filled into the last joint mining area, thereby completely restoring the original surface appearance.
  • the stripping slag of the first joint mining area can be piled up in a temporary dumping site as the backfill of the last joint mining area.
  • vegetation such as trees can be planted after filling the pits.
  • the stripping waste can also be processed into a paste.
  • the paste is filled into the goaf through a filling pump and/or gravity.
  • solid waste such as coal gangue and rock is processed into a paste slurry on the ground, and then, as shown in FIG. 4, the paste is filled into the goaf of the pit by filling pump and/or gravity.
  • the paste is conveyed to the well through a pipeline, and the gob is filled in time, thereby supporting and controlling the movement of the overburden by the paste filling, thereby ensuring that the coal roadway always has a safe surrounding rock environment and improves The recovery rate of coal resources.
  • paste filling is generally used in thick coal seams or inclined coal seams (considered as super thick coal).
  • the horizontal thin coal seam can also be filled without filling, and the rectangular arrangement of the end state wells can be retained by temporary coal pillars and permanent coal pillars.
  • the order of formation of the multiple goafs may be sequential or non-sequential.
  • the mining sequence of the hopping shown in Figure 5 can be used for well mining.
  • the mining method provided by the present application adopts a scheme of circulating well construction, multilateral mining, alternate backfilling, and organically combines coal mining and paste filling technology with gully mining to complete backfilling while achieving higher mine recovery rate. Greening and protecting the ecological environment of the mining area.
  • the mining method provided by the present application reduces both the transport distance and the amount of excavation. Thereby reducing the production costs of mining enterprises.
  • the reduction multi-well combination method can not only provide an effective technical way to crack the contradiction between resource exploitation and environmental protection, but also provide a demonstration for building an environmentally friendly mining area in the country, and a technology to promote resource development and environmental protection in China's ecologically fragile areas. Progress has important strategic implications.

Abstract

一种采矿方法,包括:将开采区划分为多个联采区;在每个所述联采区进行露采并形成采坑;在所述采坑的边坡进行井采并形成多个采空巷道;以及将下一联采区的剥离废弃物回填至上一联采区的采坑中。所述采矿方法有利于保护环境,节约成本、操作简便,生产安全。

Description

一种采矿方法 技术领域
本申请涉及一种采矿方法。
背景技术
在采矿领域,与井工开采相比,目前普遍采用的露天开采方式具有的优点是资源利用充分、成本低、回采率高、建矿快、产量大、劳动条件好、生产安全;但其缺点是露天煤矿开采受自然赋存条件限制严重,开采过程中不仅侵占大面积良田,而且对开采区生态环境的人为改变相当大,集中表现在地形地貌的破坏、重金属污染、水土流失加重等,加之露天煤矿大多处于干旱、半干旱的生态脆弱地区,使得露天矿区生命支持系统功能丧失,特别是植被系统遭到破坏,加剧了生态环境的脆弱程度和退化速度,矿区生态安全受到严重威胁。
井工开采虽然较为环保,但与露天煤矿相比,开采难度大、作业环境恶劣,对开采设备、作业人员素质和开采工艺等方面都有更高的要求。例如,在一些煤矿区,多年冻土广布,其冻土由第四系腐殖土、砂土和部分基岩等组成,厚度会达到至少约50~98m,容易产生不良的工程地质问题,导致在此矿区内的井工建设周期至少需要5年,且投入成本高,企业难以维持。此外,传统井工开采一般要开掘主井、副井、风井,地下巷道纵横交错。采掘后的地下破坏无法恢复,采空区沉降带来的次生灾害无法规避。特别是排矸场对草原地貌的破坏无法复原,只能永久性的将渣山留在木里矿区,不利生态的恢复。井工开采还容易引发瓦斯、煤尘、冒顶、片帮、透水等次生灾害。
因此,研发出一种既有利于环境保护,同时又节约成本、操作简便、生产安全的煤矿开采方式成为亟待解决的难题。
发明内容
针对现有技术中的煤矿开采破坏地貌、污染环境的问题,本申请 提出了一种安全高效的采矿方法。
为此,本申请提出的采矿方法可包括:将开采区划分为多个联采区;在每个联采区进行露采并形成采坑;在采坑的边坡进行井采并形成多个采空巷道;以及将下一联采区的剥离废弃物回填至上一个联采区的采坑中。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,可以当完成最后一个联采区的采矿工作后,将第一个联采区的剥离废弃物填充至最后一个联采区中。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,可将采坑的边坡形成为阶梯状平台。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,多个采空巷道的形成顺序可以是依次或非依次的。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,上述方法还可包括:将剥离废弃物加工成膏体,并通过填充泵和/或重力作用将膏体填入至采空巷道中
在本申请的一个实施方式中,采坑的边坡的安全夹角可不大于约40°。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,可以端邦开采的方式进行井采。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,可根据联采区的矿层分布结构布置水平开采和上下开采。
在本申请的一个实施方式中,上述方法还可包括在完成联采区的回填之后进行地表绿化。
根据上述方法,在对下一联采区进行开采时,可将该区内的产生的废弃岩土和废渣填充到上一联采区内。例如,在开采第二个联采区时,可将该区中产生的废弃岩土和废渣填充到第一个联采区,以此类推。这样可以在开采的过程当中及时恢复上一联采区的原始地貌,并且还可以在开采其它区域时,在经过填充的联采区域种植树木等植被,从而进一步绿化和保护环境。
附图说明
附图是用来提供对本申请要求保护的方案的进一步理解,并且构成说明书的一部分,与本申请的具体实施方式一起用于解释本发明,但并不构成对本申请要求保护的方案的限制。在附图中:
图1是根据本申请实施方式的采矿方法所适用的示例性矿区的剖视图;
图2是根据本申请实施方式的采矿方法所适用的示例性矿区的俯视图;
图3是通过使用端帮采煤机进行井采的示意图;
图4为根据本申请一个实施方式的填充膏体处理方法的示意图;以及
图5是示意性地示出了根据本申请一个实施方式的在建立的采坑内跳采和充填的顺序。
附图标记
1  露天开采区域  2  端帮采煤机开采区域
3  端帮采煤机    4  膏体浆液
5  植被          6  表土层
7  接充填站      8  填充体
9  填充管        10 挡墙
11 井采序号
具体实施方式
以下结合附图对本发明的具体实施方式进行详细说明。应当理解的是,在本文中所描述的具体实施方式仅用于说明和解释本发明,并不用于限制本发明。
如图1所示,首先将一个露天矿的开采区划分为若干个小的开采单元,即多个联采区,在每个联采区中例如利用挖掘机、矿卡等进行露采并形成采坑。例如,对于矿区的井田煤层南北向中间倾斜呈V字型,并且煤带南北宽1Km,东西长5Km的矿区,可以将露采采坑的上口形成为600m×600m,占地0.36km2,降深200m,边坡的安全夹角为40°或不大于40°,且基坑下宽120m。
接下来,在采坑的边坡进行井采并形成多个采空巷道。根据本申请的一种实施方式,可以将采坑的边坡形成为阶梯状平台。如图2所示, 可每下降一定的高度建一个特定大小的安全平台。例如,每下降10m可建一个10~20m宽的安全平台。该安全平台可以被用于建立运输通道,同时也为例如端邦井采预留了生产作业位置。可将例如端邦设备安置在待开采矿层的前端,利用井工开采设备完成采坑内四周矿层的井采工作,井采的具体施工方案根据矿层面积、矿层走向和矿层倾角确定;既可水平开采,也可上下开采,在开采过程中可只采煤不剥岩。需要说明的是无论急倾斜煤层还是近水平煤层,每个端邦巷道布置都是近水平方向开采。所不同的是采完一个巷道下一个巷道的采掘位置,可以是水平布置也可以是上下布置。这里说的水平布置或上下布置指的是端邦井采的位置布局。但每个巷道内的开采方向一定是近水平掘进,端邦开采时一般只采煤不剥岩。
通常,每个联采区都是先露天开采再端邦井采。然而,根据实际开采状况,既可以露天开采结束之后端邦井采,也可露采到一定深度开始端邦同步开采,即″多井联采″。
图3示出了使用端帮采煤机进行开采的示意图,在图3中,使用端帮采煤系统在一定的工作平台上对煤层区上下面各采预定的深度(例如:上采面120m、下采面600m)。
在完成第一个联采区内的开采之后,在第二个联采区内建立露采采坑和井巷并执行类似的采矿工作。
接下来,将第二个联采区内的采矿工作产生的剥离废弃物,例如岩土和废渣等填充到第一个联采区的采坑中,从而在开采的过程当中能够及时恢复原始地貌。
接下来继续按照上述的方式对第三个联采区进行开采,将第三个联采区的开采中产生的剥离物填充至第二个联采区的采空区内,以此类推直到全部采煤作业完成。当完成最后一个联采区的采矿工作后,将第一个联采区的剥离废弃物填充至最后一个联采区中,从而完全恢复地表原貌。其中,第一个联采区的剥离矿渣可以被堆放在一个临时排土场,以做为最后一个联采区的回填物。为了进一步绿化和保护环境,可以在填充采坑之后种植树木等植被。
根据本申请的一种实施方式,还可以将剥离废弃物加工成膏体, 并通过填充泵和/或重力作用将膏体填入至采空巷道中。例如将煤矸石、岩土等固体废物在地面加工成膏状浆体,并且在接下来,如图4所示,通过填充泵和/或重力作用将该膏体填充至采坑的采空巷道中。在一种实施方式中,通过管道将膏体输送到井下,适时填充采空区,从而通过膏体充填支撑和控制上覆岩层移动,保证了采煤巷道始终有一个安全的围岩环境,提高煤炭资源的采出率。同时规避了其它采掘工艺无法避免的地表沉降,以及由此可能产生的次生地质灾害。需要注意的是膏体充填一般用在厚煤层或倾斜煤层(视同超厚煤)。水平薄煤层也可以不用充填,矩形布置端邦井采留有临时煤柱和永久性煤柱既可。
为了保证充填体发挥作用前有足够的凝固时间,多个采空巷道的形成顺序可以是依次或非依次的。例如,可以采用图5中所示的跳采的开采顺序来进行井采。
本申请提供的采矿方法采用了循环建井,多边开采,轮流回填的方案,并且把采煤和膏体充填技术与沟壑开采有机地结合起来,在实现较高的矿井回采率的同时,完成回填、绿化保护矿区生态环境。此外,本申请提供的采矿方法既缩短了运输距离又也减少了开挖量。从而减少了矿山企业的生产成本。
因此,还原式多井联采法不仅可为破解资源开采和环境保护矛盾提供有效技术途径,也为全国建设环境友好型矿区提供示范,对推动我国生态环境脆弱地区的资源开发与环境保护的技术进步具有重要的战略意义。
以上结合附图详细描述了本发明的优选实施方式,但是,本发明并不限于上述实施方式中的具体细节,在本发明的技术构思范围内,可以对本发明的技术方案进行多种简单变型,这些简单变型均属于本发明的保护范围。

Claims (9)

  1. 一种采矿方法,包括:
    将开采区划分为多个联采区;
    在每个所述联采区进行露采并形成采坑;
    在所述采坑的边坡进行井采并形成多个采空巷道;以及
    将下一联采区的剥离废弃物回填至上一个联采区的采坑中。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,当完成最后一个联采区的采矿工作后,将第一个联采区的剥离废弃物填充至所述最后一个联采区中。
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,将所述采坑的边坡形成为阶梯状平台。
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,所述方法还包括:
    将所述剥离废弃物加工成膏体,并通过填充泵和/或重力作用将所述膏体填入至所述采空巷道中。
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,所述多个采空巷道的形成顺序是依次或非依次的。
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,所述采坑的边坡的安全夹角不大于约40°。
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,以端邦开采的方式进行所述井采。
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的采矿方法,其中,根据所述联采区的矿层分布结构布置水平开采和上下开采。
  9. 根据权利要求1-8中任一权利要求所述的采矿方法,还包括在完成联采区的回填之后进行地表绿化。
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