US3260025A - Precompressed vertically stacked, prefabricated building elements - Google Patents

Precompressed vertically stacked, prefabricated building elements Download PDF

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US3260025A
US3260025A US11037661A US3260025A US 3260025 A US3260025 A US 3260025A US 11037661 A US11037661 A US 11037661A US 3260025 A US3260025 A US 3260025A
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edges
fastening
roof
floor
rods
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Lely Cornelis Van Der
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C van der Lely NV
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • E04B1/06Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material the elements being prestressed
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/0007Base structures; Cellars
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/66Sealings
    • E04B1/68Sealings of joints, e.g. expansion joints
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/66Sealings
    • E04B1/68Sealings of joints, e.g. expansion joints
    • E04B1/6812Compressable seals of solid form

Description

July 12, 1966 c. VAN DER LELY 3,260,025

PRECOMPRESSED VEHTICALLY STACKED, PREFABRICATED BUILDING ELEMENTS INVENTOR. ORNEL/ VAN 7E/Q EL l aen/E VJ July 12, 1966 c. VAN DER LELY 3,250,025

PRECOMPRESSED VERTICALLY STACKED, PREFABRICATED BUILDING ELEMENTS Filed May 16, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 l 'I4-ffm En IN V EN TOR.

opNEL/S VAN pE/P Z V July 12, 1966 c. VAN DER LEI. 3,260,025

PRECOMPRESSED VERTICALLY Ac EFABRICATED BUILDING ME Filed May 16, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. ORNEL/. VAN DEP ELP ale/VE H5 July 12, 1966 Filed May 16, 1961 PRECOMPRESSED VE' C VAN DER LELY RTICALLY STACKED, PREFABRICATED BUILDING ELEMENTS 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. 50p/V505 l/A/v 05x? 54V WMZ, V//a/w men/SP5 United States Patent O 3,260,025 PRECOMPRESSED VERTICALLY STACKED, PREFABRICATED BUILDING ELEMENTS Cornelis van der Lely, Zug, Switzerland, assigner to C. van der Lely N.V., Maasland, Netherlands, a limitedliability company of the Netherlands Filed May 16, 1961, Ser. No. 110,376 Claims priority, applicatiixzlleherlands, May 30, 1960, 3 claims. (c1. sz-zzs) This invention relates to building structures such as Walls, floors and roofs of the kind formed from a plurality of interengaging elements.

It is an object of the invention to provide prefabricated elements for this purpose which are such that, when assembled, the resulting building structure is ready for immediate use.

According to the invention there is provided a build- `ing structure of the kind set forth, wherein at least each of a majority of the elements is provided with a facing on at least one surface thereof, the said facings being placed in position during the manufacture of the elements.

For a better understanding `of the invention, and to show how the same may be carried into effect, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a sectional elevation of part of a building structure in accordance with the invention,

FIGURE 2 is a section taken on the line II-II of FIGURE 1,

FIGURE 3 is a section taken on the line III-III of FIGURE 1,

FIGURE 4 is a section, to an enlarged scale, taken on the line IV--IV of FIGURE 2,

FIGURE 5 is a section, to an enlarged scale, taken on the line V-V of FIGURE 1,

FIGURE 6 is a perspective view, to an enlarged scale, of parts of the structure shown in FIGURES 1 to 4,

FIGURE 7 is a perspective view of one of the elements of a building structure in accordance with the invention,

FIGURE 8 is a view, to an enlarged scale and partly in section, of part of the element shown in FIGURE 7,

FIGURE 9 is a sectional elevation, to an enlarged scale, showing a junction between two elements,

FIGURE 10 is a sectional elevation, to an enlarged scale, showing an alternative embodiment of part of the arrangement shown in FIGURE 9,

FIGURE 11 corresponds to FIGURE 9 but shows an alternative arrangement,

FIGURE 12 corresponds to FIGURE 10 and shows a further alternative arrangement,

FIGURE 13 corresponds to FIGURES 10 and 12 and and shows a further alternative arrangement,

FIGURE 14 corresponds to FIGURES l0, 12 and 13 and lshows a still further alternative arrangement,

FIGURE 15 is a diagrammatic plan view showing means by which a number of elements are fastened to one another,

FIGURE 16 is a plan view, to an enlarged scale, showing the fastening means of FIGURE 15 in greater detail, and

FIGURE 17 is a section, to an enlarged scale, taken on the line XVII-XVII of FIGURE 16.

Referring `to FIGURES 1 to 3 of the drawings, the part of a building which is shown comprises two parallel longitudinally extending foundation beams 1 and 2 of triangular cross-section, the said beams supporting a floor 3 in spaced relationship with the surface of the ground. Walls 4 and 5 are mounted vertically above the foundation beams 1 and 2 and their uppermost edges support a roof 9. A further oor 6 is supported by rice the walls 4 and 5 at a location midway between the floor 3 and the roof 9.

As can be seen in FIGURE 2, the foundation beams, walls, floors and roof are each built up from interengaging elements. The part of the foundation beam 1 which can be seen -in FIGURE 2 is built up from two adjoining open-ended box-shaped foundation elements 10 and 11 of triangular cross-section and part of a further adjoining foundation element 12. The floor 3 is built up from rectangular floor elements 13, 14 and 15 which engage one another by their longer edges and from similar door elements 16, 17 and 18 Whose shorter edges engage corresponding edges of the elements 13', 14 and 15. The part of the wall shown in FIGURE 2 is composed of three rectangular wall elements 19, 20 and 21 which engage each other by their longer edges and by three similar rectangular Wall elements 22, 23 and 24 which engage each other in a similar manner and each of which is in vertical alignment With a corresponding one of the wall elements 19, 20 and 21. The wall 5 is similar to the wall 4, three wall elements 25, 26 and 27 being located at the same level as the wall elements 19 to 21, visible lin FIGURE 3. A further element 28 of the wall 5 located at the same level as the wall elements 22 to 24 is visible in FIGURE 1.

The floor 6 is of Isimilar construction to the floor 3 and the part of it shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 is composed of four rectangular floor elements 29, 30, 31 and 34, see FIGURE 2. One end of the floor element 29 is disposed between the elements 19 and 22 of the wall 4 and the opposite end of the floor element 29 is disposed between the elements 25 and 28 of the wall 5. The other elements 30, 31 and 34 are arranged in a similar manner with respect to -other wall elements.

The roof 9 is of similar construction to the floors 3 and 6 and the part thereof which can be seen in FIG- URES 1 and 2 Iis comprised by four interengaged rectangular roof elements 35, 36, 37 and 38. As can be seen in FIGURE 1, the roof element 35 is laid upon the uppermost edges of the Wall elements 22 and 28.' The other roof elements 36 and 38 are arranged on the uppermost edges of further wall elements in a similar way. The elements which form the wall 4 are secured to one another by a plurality of vertically disposed fastening means 39 as seen in FIGURE 4 which extend parallel to the longer edges of the rectangular wall elements and by a plurality of horizontally disposed fastening means 40 which extend parallel to the shorter sides of the said elements. The elements which form the floor 3 are also secured to one lanother by two series of fastening means, each fastening means 41 of one series extending par-allel to the longer sides of the rectangular floor elements whereas each fastening means 42 of the other series extends parallel to the shorter sides of the said elements.

The elements composing the floor 6 and the roof 9 are secured to one another by fastening means arranged in the same manner as the fastening means of the iloor 3 and, accordingly, are designated by the same reference numerals.

The fastening means used to secure the elements of the wall 5 to one another 'are the same -as those used in respect of the wall 4 and, once again, the same reference numerals are used in both cases. The foundation elements of the two foundation beams 1 yand 2 are secured to one 'another in a similar manner by means of horizontally disposed fastening means 43 and 44 which extend longitudinally of the said beams.

Referring to FIGURES 4 and 5 of the drawings, the connections between the oor, wall and roof elements can be seen in greater detail. The fastening means 39 consist of a plurality of rods arranged to co-operate with mem- E bers anchored in the foundation, floor, wall and roof elements to clamp these elements securely to one another.

A member 46 in the form a square plate is anchored in the material of the upper part 45 of the foundation element and is integral with a cylindrical part 48 arranged in a vertical hole 48A in the said upper part 45 in such a way that it projects a short distance above the upper surface of the foundation element 10. The cylindrical part 48 has a vertical screw-threaded bore 47, The horizontally disposed floor element 13, one end of which rests upon the upper surface of the foundation element 10, is formed with a vertical hole 49 similar to, and in alignment with, the aforementioned hole 48A. Towards the upper surface of the floor element 13, a member in the form `of a square plate 50 is embedded in the material of the element 13 in such a way that a central hole 51 thereof lies coaxially in the hole 49. The hole 51 is of such a diameter that a rod 52 can be entered therein without engaging its walls. The lower end of the rod 52 is formed with a screwthreaded portion 53 which is received in the screwthreaded bore 47 of the cylindrical part 48 of the member 46, a collar 53A being formed at the upper end of the screw-threaded portion 53 to act as a stop limiting the length of the rod 52 which can be entered in the bore 47. The upper end of the rod 52 is formed with a further screw-threaded portion 54 which projects through the hole 51 and is entered in a screw-threaded sleeve 55 whose outer diameter is greater than the diameter of the hole 51 but less than the diameter of the hole 49. The lower end of the sleeve 55 bears against the upper face of the member 50 around the hole 51.

The vertically disposed wall element 19 which lies against the upper face of the floor element 13 is formed with a vertical hole 56 similar to, and in alignment with, the holes 48A and 49. A member 57 of similar construction to the member 50 previously described and formed with a central hole 58 similar to the hole 51 previously described is embedded in the material of the wall element 19 close to the uppermost edge thereof. A vertical rod 59 is disposed in the hole 56, the lowermost end being provided with a screw-threaded portion 60 which is engaged in the upper end of the internally screw-threaded sleeve 55, while its upper end is formed with a screwthreaded portion 61 which projects through the hole 58 and is entered in the lower end of a sleeve 62 whose lower end bears against the upper face of the member 57 and which has screw-threaded ends in the same manner as the sleeve 55.

The oor element 29, wall element 22 and roof element which are disposed one above the other above the wall element 19 are formed with aligned vertical holes 63, 72 and 77 respectively and have members 64, 70 and 78 respectively embedded in the material thereof towards their uppermost faces or edges. These elements are connected to one another by means of a series of rods and sleeves in a manner substantially identical to that previously described. The members 64, 70 and 78 are formed With central holes 65, 71 and 79 respectively through which project the upper screw-threaded portions 68, 75 and 82 of three vertical rods 66, 73 and 80 respectively. These three rods have l-oWer screw-threaded portions 67, 74 and 81 respectively, the rods being interconnected by means of internally screw-threaded sleeves similar to the sleeves 55 and 62 previously described. The portion 67 of the rod 66 is screwed into the sleeve 62 previously mentioned while the portions 68 and 74 are screwed into a sleeve 69 bearing against the member 64 and the portions 75 and 81 are screwed into a sleeve 76 bearing against the member 70. The upper screw-threaded portion 82 of the uppermost rod 80 is screwed into a sleeve 83 which is of shorter axial length than the other sleeves 55, 62, 69 and 76 and whose lowermost end bears against the member 78 embedded in the material of the roof element 35. The uppermost end of the sleeve 83 is disposed below the upper face of the roof element 35 and thus does not project therefrom.

FGURE 5 shows the horizontally disposed fastening means 40 by which the three laterally adjoining wall elements 19, 20 and 21 are secured to one another. A member 85 in the form of 1a square plate is embedded in the material of the element 19 close to one edge thereof, the member 85 being formed integrally with a central cylindrical part 86 which is disposed in a horizonta-l bore 88 formed in the material of the element 19 in such a way that its end projects from the aforementioned edge of the element. The parlt 86 has a horizontal screw-threaded bore 87. The adjoining element 29 is formed with a horizontal hole 89 of the same diameter as, and in alignment with, the hole 88. A member 99 in the form of a square plate is embedded in the material of the element 20 at a location close to the edge of the element remote from the edge in abutting engagement with the element 19. The member 90 is formed with a central hole 91 having a diameter a little greater than that of a horizontally disposed rod 92 which projects therethrough. The rod 92 has a screw-threaded portion 93 at one end, which portion is enteredin the bore 87 of the part 86 and a screw-threaded portion 94 at the other end, the latter portion being received within one end of the screwthreaded bore of a sleeve 95. One end of the sleeve 95 bears lagainst the face of the member 90 remote from the element 19 whereas the opposi-te end of the sleeve lies within a hole 96, similar to the holes 88 and 89, formed in the element 21. The element 21 is formed in a similar manner to the element 20 and is provided with a member in the form of a square plate corresponding to -the member 90 previously described. The screw-threaded end 98 of a rod 97 correspon-ding yto the end 93 of the rod 92 can be seen in FIGURE 5.

The vertically disposed fastening means 39 lie wholly in the holes formed in the wall element so that the said means are completely surrounded by the material of these elements. The fastening means 39 extend from locations in the foundation of the building structure to further locations in the roof of the structure and `all the elements disposed between these vertically `spaced points are secured to one another, including elements of the floor 3, floor 6 and roof 9. Upon tightening the sleeves 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83 shown in FIGURE 4, the rods 52, 59, 66, 73 and 80 will be tensioned thus tending to compress the elements 10, 13, 19, 29, 22 and 35 so that they are clamped firmly against one another. The tension in the aforementioned rods will be transmitted to the aforementioned elements by way of the members 46, 59, 57, 64, 70 and 78 embedded in these elements. The material of which the various elements is compo-sed is capable of standing considerably less pressure per unit area than the material of which the fastening means is composed.

As can be seen in FIGURE 5, the wall elements 19, 2t) and 21 are similarly compressed into intimate lateral engagement with one another by means of the tension generated in the rods 92 and 97 by tightening the sleeve 95 and further similar sleeves. The arrangement is again such that the horizontally extending fastening means 40 are completely surrounded by the material of which the wall elements are composed. It will be seen that the various elements composing the wall 4 are secured to one another by a network of fastening means composed principally of rods surrounded by the material of which the elements are composed.

The fastening means 43 and 44 which are used to interconnect the elements 10, 11 and 12 of the foundation `beam 1 are of simil-ar construction -to the fastening means 40 previously described. The foundation elements are compressed into intimate engagement with one another by tensioning of the fastening members 43 and 44. The elements of the floor 3, the oor 6 and the roof 9 are all secured to one lanother by networks of horizontally disposed fastening means 41 and 42, the

f'zslening means 41 and 42 being of substantially the same construction as the fastening means 40 pfVOlISly described. It will be realized that, 1n the case of the vertically disposed fastening means 39, the rods 59 and 73 are of much greater length than the rods 52, 66 Iand so, the latter rods being of ia length only substantially equivalent to the thickness of the corresponding elements 13, 29 and 3S. However, in the case of the horizontally disposed fastening means 40, 41 and 42, the provision of these short rods is not required since in all cases, the rods are disposed parallel Ito either the length or the breadth of the elements and not to their thickness. The wall 5 shown in FIGURE 2 of the drawings has its elements secured to one another and to the floors 3 and 6 and roof 9 by yfastening means 39 and 40 arranged in a similar manner to those of the wall 4. The rooms formed by the Walls, floors and roof are thus each `surroui'ided by a cage of rods afforded by the various fastening means. A building construction embodying a plurality of rooms can be built up in the manner described labove from elements all of which can be prefabricated by machinery. In no case is it necessary to use sticking materials, such as cement, to fasten the various elements to one another to form the rooms.

In order to ensure that the various elements shall be secured to one another in perfect alignment, the edges and With reference to FIGURE 5, the relatively long vertically disposed edges of the Wall elements 19 and 20 which are in lateral engagement are formed with matching waveshaped profiles and 116 respectively. These profiles are such as to prevent any relative movements between the elements 19 and `20 in directions prependicular to the length of the fastening -means 40. The prole 115 is provided With a lay-er 117 of organic or inorganic synthetic plastic material and the pr-ole 116 is simillarly provided with a layer 118. Thus, upon tensioning the fastening means 40, a sealing engagement between the profiles 115 and 116 is provided. The relatively long ed-ges of the oor and roof elements are also provided with waveshaped profiles similar to the profiles 115 and 116 just described.

The elements 19 to 24 of the Wall 4 are provided, as shown `in FIGURE 4, with a facing 120 of weatherproof material on that surface or side thereof which faces out- Wardly of the building. The material should be of a kind which is impervious to moisture. The edges of the elements 13, 14 and 15 of the oor 3 and of the elements 29, 30 and 31 of the 'floor 6 are provided with a facing 121 of identical formation to the facing 120. The Wall elements 19 to 24 are provided lon that side thereof which faces inwardly of the building with a facing 122 which may, if desired, be of an ornamental nature, such as wall- SLGIOIth l' i -uvo .e

veniently be 1.2 meters and 2.7 meters respectively. The dio-or elements and roof elements preferably have a width of 1.0 .to 1.5 meters and a length of 3.() -to 4.0 meters. The actual dimensions are conveniently 1.2 meters and 3.6 meters, it being noted that the width of 1.2 meters is the same las that chosen for the wall elements. The thickness tof the wall, oor and roof elements is conveniently about cms. in each case. The dimensions of rooms formed from wall, floor and roof elements of fthe kind previously described will be multiples of the dimensions of the separate elements, the dimensions of individual elements being chosen with this factor in mind. For example, the dimensions of elements to be used for the construction of dwelling houses may differ somewhat from the dimensions of elements to be used for the construct-ion of oces and the like.

In a building construction in accordance with Ithe invention, the walls, floor and ceiling of each room are very strong and have a high resista-nce to mechanical shocks and abnormal pressures such as accompany earthquakes and Very high winds. The elements them-selves are preferably made yof a bonded material which i-S capable of resisting pressures exerted thereon while the fastening members are made of a material such as metal which is capable Vof resisting high tensile forces. The material of the elements may, if desired, be formed with cavities.

The facings may be formed by foils which are stuck -to the surfaces of the elements during the prefabrication thereof, or, altematively, :they may be formed by painting or spraying material on the surface of the elements.

FIGUR-E 9 is a sectional view showing the engagement between the edges of -two roof elements 1301and 131 similar to, for example, the roof elements and 36 previously described. The edge of the element 130 is provided with recesses `132, l133, |134 and 135 while corresponding the engaging edge of the elements 131 is provided with recesses 136, 137, 138 and 139. The edge of the element 1301 also has projections 140, 1411, '142 and 143 while the edge of the element 131 has projections 144, 145 and 146. Thus, each edge has a zig-zag profile, the apices of .the various projections land recesses extending parallel to one another along the length of the various edges in the manner which can be seen in perspective in FIGURES 7 and 8. yReferring again to FIG- URE 9, the projections and recesses along the edges of lthe two elements are partly in matching engagement but, between the recess 134 of the element 130 and the recess 138 of the element i131, a cavity 147 of square cross-section is formed. The two profiled edges are formed with layers 148 land 149 respectively of a plastic or other compressible material to ensure a seal between the two elements when the said elements are clamped against one another by means of the tensioned fastening members. The cavity 1147 is filled, to improve the seal, by a length of plastic material 1150 which may conveniently be secured to the layer 149 i-n the recess 138 so that it forms a further projection disposed midway between the projections 145 and 146. The lowermost faces of both the elements 1341` and 131 have facings 1151 similar to thefacings 125 vand 126 previously described. The uppermost faces of both the elements have facings 152 of waterproof material, which in this case Iare of one piece with .the layers 148 and 149. In this particular case, further additional facings 153 of waterproof material, such as roofing felt, are provided on top of the facings 152. Waterproof filling material 154 is placed in a V- shaped groove formed between the bevelled recesses 132 and -136 of the elements 130` and 131 respectively. The filling material 154 form-s a seal between :the contacting edges of the layers 148 and 149 and the facings 152 and 1153 and thus prevents water from seeping downwardly between the elements 130 a-nd 1311.

FIGURE l() shows an alternative arrangement for preventing seepage of water between the ,two adjoining elements 155 and 156 which are of similar formation to the .previously described elements and 131. The elements and 156 have contacting bevelled edges 1611 .and 162 respectively, these edges being provided with layers 157 and 158 respectively which, in this case, are continuous with the facings provided on the upper surface `of the elements. However, the said upper surface have additional facings 159 and 160 respectively of waterproof material, such as roofing felt, the additional facings being continued downwardly for `a short distance over the edges 161 and i162. Waterproof fill-ing material 163 is provided in a V-shaped groove between the bevelled edges 161 and (162 and effectively seals the additional facings 159 and 160' against the seepage of water therebetween.

yFIGURE 11 shows ltwo elements 164 and 165 having edges 166 and 167 respectively in contact with one another. The edges 166 and i167 have zig-zag profiles and are so arranged that two cavities 168 and 169 of square cross-section are formed between them. If desired, one cavity m-ay be filled with waterproof material whereas the other is filled with sound absorbing material or, alternatively, one of the cavities may be left empty as is shown in the drawing. As in the previous cases, the edges 166 and 167 are provided with plastic layers 166A and 167A respectively in order that a satisfactory seal may be effected between them. The lowermost surfaces of the elements 164` and 165 are provided with facing-s 170 similar to the facings 125 and |126 previously described and the uppermost surfaces of the elements are provided with facings 171 of waterproof material, such las roofing felt.

FIGURE 12 shows two elements 164A and 165A having contacting edges 166B and 167B respectively. The uppermost faces of these elements are provided with facings 172 and 173 respectively which facings are continued for a short distance onto the edges 166B and 167B to form portions 174 and 175 respectively. These portions are clamped firmly against one another between the edges 166B and 167B when the fastening means corresponding to the elements 164A and 165A are tensioned.

FIGURE 13 shows an arrangement in which two elements 176 and 177 have upper surface facings 178 and 179 which are integral with the layers formed on the two contacting edges 180 and 181 of the elements 176 and 177.

FIGURE 14 shows the contacting edges 184 and 185 of two elements 182 and 183. The edges 184 and 185 are provided with layers 186 and 187 respectively, these layers having projections 188 and 189 on one side and being secured to the material of the elements 182 and 183 by anchoring the projections 188 and 189 in the material of the respective elements. The margins of the layers 186 and 187 are continued for a short distance on to the surfaces of the elements where they afford marginal portions 1911 and 190A respectively. Shallow recesses are formed around the edges of the said surfaces of the elements 182 and 183 to receive the portions 1911 and 190A in order that these portions shall be flush with the plane of the outer element.

It will be clear that the prefabricated elements described Iabove permit the rapid formation of various forms of building constructions. Since it is unnecessary for any setting materials to be used to interconnect the various elements, the erection of building constructions need not be delayed due to the atmospheric temperature falling below the freezing point of water.

In order to minimize the likelihood of elements becoming damaged or their facings becoming dirty during transport to, and erection at, a building site, a protective layer may be provided on each element before it leaves the place at which it is made. The protective layer is applied in such a way that it can readily be removed when required. The layer may conveniently be formed from a material such as strong paper,

FIGURE 15 is an elevation of part of a wall in which the elements are secured to one another by fastening means of a different kind to that previously described. The fastening means by which ve elements 191 to 195 shown in FIGURE 15 are secured to one another is shown in greater detail in FIGURES 16 and 17. The element 192 is provided with four holes in which rods 196, 197, 198 and 199 are mounted. The four holes meet at the center of the element 192 at which point provision is made of a member 200 having four hook-shaped arms 201 to 204. Each of the arms 201 to 204 engages in an eye 205 formed at the adjacent end of the corresponding one of the rods 196 to 199. The inner edge 206 of each arm 201 is curved in such a way that the distance from this edge to the center line 207 of the member 200 slowly decreases from the tip of the arm to the root thereof. Thus, when the member 200 is turned about the. center line 207 in the direction indicated by the arrow 208, the eyes 20S in engagement with the edges 206 are drawn inwardly towards the relatively perpendicular center line 207, this movement tensioning the rods 196 to 199. The opposite ends of the rods 196 to 199 may be secured in a similar manner to members disposed centrally of the elements 191, 193, 194 and 195. However, if desired, the opposite ends of the rods 196 to 199 may be anchored in these elements in some other manner in which case the rods will be tensioned solely by turning the member 200 in the direction indicated by the arrow 208 in the manner previously described.

Although in the arrangement just described, four rods are connected to a member 200 in such a way that, upon tensioning the rods, the forces exerted on the member 200 are balanced, use may be. made of Ia member provided with only three hook-shaped arms. For example, a member of this kind disposed towards one end of the element 192 can be arranged to tension three rods connected to the elements 191, 194 and 193 respectively, while a further similar member disposed towards the opposite end of the element 192 could be arranged to tension three rods connected to the elements 193, 195 and 191 respectively. Due to the fact that the forces exerted on such members by the tensioned elements are not selfbalancing, it is essential that the members should be securely anchored in the material of the element 192.

What I claim is:

1. A building structure which comprises: a plurality of vertically stacked prefabrica-ted elements; said elements including a foundation element, a floor element, a wall element, and a roof element; said said elements each composed of bonded material; said elements each including an elongated icavity, said cavities being in vertical alignment and providing a continuous passageway through said elements; said elements including embedded anchor plates; screw-threaded rod means received in said cavities and extending through said continuous passageway provided thereby; said screw-threaded elements adjustably retained by said anchor plates in tension with said elements thereby in opposed compressionyplastic sealing material interposed substantially continuously between said elements, said sealing material being in compression opposed to the tension of said rod means; and a facing of paper-like material integral with the surfaces of the vertical sides of said elements.

2. A building structure in accordance with claim 1 wherein the connecting horizontal edges of said elements have matching tongue and groove means extending parallel to the vertical sides of said wall element on each side of said cavities.

3. A building structure which comprises: a plurality of vertically stacked prefabricated elements; said elements arranged in the order of the foundation element on the bottom, next a floor element, next at least one vertical wall element, next a horizontal element, next at least one further vertical wall element, and next a horizontal element; said elements each composed of bonded material; said elements each including an elongated cavity, said cavities being in vertical alignment and providing a continuous passageway through said elements; anchor pla-tes firmly attached to said elements; screw-threaded rod means received in said cavities; said screw-threaded rod means adjustably retained by said anchor plates in tension with said elements in opposed compression; the connecting horizontal edges of said elements having matching tongue and groove means extending parallel to the vertical sides of said wall elements on each side of said cavities; and a facing of paperalike material integral with the surfaces of the exposed vertical sides of said elements.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,385,606 7/1921 Christensen 52-227 1,441,156 1/1923 Kindstrom 52-595 1,499,483 7/ 1924 Simms 52436 1,734,771 11/ 1929 Mitchell ',52--227 1,863,734 6/1932 Venzie 52-489 1,924,801 8/1933 Olmsted 52-236 1,939,624 12/1933 Cohan 52,-242 2,040,578 5/ 1936 Venzie 52-243 2,142,305 1/1939 Davis 52-589 2,309,149 1/1943 Wood et al 52-285 2,741,909 4/ 1956 Hartlmair 52-384 2,751,775 6/ 1956 Sergovic 52-596 X 2,896,271 7/ 1959 Kloote et al. 52-63 2,963,825 12/ 1960 Douglas 52-94 2,966,009 12/1960 Koch et al. 52-584 2,971,295 2/ 1961 Reynolds 52-228 3,000,144 9/1961 Kitson 52-309 3,031,043l 4/ 1962 Dresser et al. 52-90 X 3,064,321 11/1962 Rose 52-584 FOREIGN PATENTS 474,524 6/1951 Canada. 1,083,109 6/1954 France. 1,149,004 7/ 1957 France.

124,566 3/ 1919 Great Britain. 184,561 8/ 1922 Great Britain. 23 8,948 8/192l5 Great Britain. 603,695 6/ 1948 Great Britain. 664,735 1/ 1952 Great Britain.

RICHARD W. COOKE, JR., Primary Examiner.

WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, JACOB L. NACKENOFF, HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, FRANK L. ABBOTT,

Examiners.

A. C. PERHAM, Assistant Examiner,

Claims (1)

1. A BUILDING STRUCTURE WHICH COMPRISES: A PLURALITY OF VERTICALLY STACKED PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS; SAID ELEMENTS INCLUDING A FOUNDATION ELEMENT, A FLOOR ELEMENT, A WALL ELEMENT, AND A ROOF ELEMENT; SAID SAID ELEMENTS EACH COMPOSED OF BONDED MATERIAL; SAID ELEMENTS EACH INCLUDING AN ELONGATED CAVITY, SAID CAVITIES BEING IN VERTICAL ALIGNMENT AND PROVIDING A CONTINUOUS PASSAGEWAY THROUGH SAID ELEMENTS; SAID ELEMENTS FINCLUDING EMBEDDED ANCHOR PLATES; SCREW-THREADED ROD MEANS RECEIVED IN SAID CAVITIES AND EXTENDING THROUGH SAID CONTINUOUS PASSAGEWAY PROVIDED THEREBY; SAID SCREW-THREADED ELEMENTS ADJUSTABLY RETAINED BY SAID ANCHOR PLATES IN TENSION WITH SAID ELEMENTS THEREBY IN OPPOSED COMPRESSION; PLASTIC SEALING MATERIAL INTERPOSED SUBSTANTIALLY CONTINUOUSLY BETWEEN SAID ELEMENTS, SAID SEALING MATERIAL BEING IN COMPRESSION OPPOSED TO THE TENSION OF SAID ROD MEANS; AND A FACING OF PAPER-LIKE MATERIAL INTEGRAL WITH THE SURFACES OF THE VERTICAL SIDES OF SAID ELEMENTS.
US11037661 1960-05-30 1961-05-16 Precompressed vertically stacked, prefabricated building elements Expired - Lifetime US3260025A (en)

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US3392496A (en) * 1961-05-26 1968-07-16 Adrianus E.Q. Van Hezik Building skeleton of precast modular units with assembly adjunct
US3402515A (en) * 1965-10-07 1968-09-24 Rainaut Marc Pierre Folding multi-storeyed buildings
US3420016A (en) * 1967-02-06 1969-01-07 Robert L Findlay Building construction
US3429092A (en) * 1966-05-26 1969-02-25 Dyna Structures Structural frames and methods and means therefor
US3514910A (en) * 1968-02-14 1970-06-02 Dano Modules Inc Modular building construction
US3640038A (en) * 1969-09-19 1972-02-08 Pre Load Co Inc The Concrete structures
US3680275A (en) * 1968-12-11 1972-08-01 Leon Ballot Sa Des Entreprises Underwater storage tanks
US3688457A (en) * 1970-03-16 1972-09-05 Stanley A Sherno Building foundation with frost deflector
US3744200A (en) * 1969-06-02 1973-07-10 E Rice Precast concrete building construction
US3772835A (en) * 1971-10-21 1973-11-20 Hb Zachry Co Housing
US3952474A (en) * 1969-06-02 1976-04-27 Rice Edward K Method of assembling building structures
US4023315A (en) * 1968-07-26 1977-05-17 Elcon A.G. Prefabricated buildings
US4024687A (en) * 1975-06-26 1977-05-24 John Kozak Architectural system having post-tensioned elements
USRE29249E (en) * 1969-06-02 1977-06-07 Unicon Parking Structures, Inc. Precast concrete building construction
US4144687A (en) * 1970-07-01 1979-03-20 Brunes Tons J Self-supporting girder structure
US4464877A (en) * 1981-11-12 1984-08-14 Ryan Homes, Inc. Method of assembling multi-unit, party wall residential buildings and fire-resistant party wall structure
FR2551485A1 (en) * 1983-09-02 1985-03-08 Planquavoile DEVICE FORMING OUTDOOR STORAGE CAB
US4961293A (en) * 1989-01-10 1990-10-09 Randall House Precast, prestressed concrete secondary containment vault
DE19653362A1 (en) * 1996-12-20 1998-06-25 Albert Kobler Concealed fixing between two parts or elements
US8011158B1 (en) 2007-04-27 2011-09-06 Sable Developing, Inc. Footing for support of structure such as building

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US1385606A (en) * 1916-10-16 1921-07-26 Christensen Jorgen An Frederik Device for joining concrete blocks disposed in a pillar or in series
GB124566A (en) * 1918-03-26 1919-03-26 Thomas Ernest Hawkins Improvements in or relating to Concrete or similar Slab or Block Buildings.
US1441156A (en) * 1920-11-02 1923-01-02 Lean Ab Hollow building block
GB184561A (en) * 1921-05-12 1922-08-14 Luis Alwyn Improvements in and connected with buildings
US1499483A (en) * 1923-02-13 1924-07-01 James H Simms Wall construction
GB238948A (en) * 1924-05-27 1925-08-27 Novocrete And Cement Products Improvements in or relating to the construction of buildings, dwelling houses and similar structures
US1734771A (en) * 1928-04-04 1929-11-05 Refrigeration Corp Of America Refrigerator construction
US1924801A (en) * 1931-01-02 1933-08-29 Russell C Olmsted Concrete building
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US1939624A (en) * 1932-06-29 1933-12-12 Reliance Specialties Mfg Co In Partition slab
US2142305A (en) * 1932-09-13 1939-01-03 American Cyanamid & Chem Corp Building unit and construction
US2040578A (en) * 1933-12-19 1936-05-12 Veco Corp Building construction
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GB603695A (en) * 1944-11-03 1948-06-21 Carlos Wets Improvements in frameworks and process of making frameworks of concrete or like stony material
US2966009A (en) * 1948-10-01 1960-12-27 Koch Adolf Construction units
GB664735A (en) * 1949-07-22 1952-01-09 Mccalls Macalloy Ltd Improvements relating to floor, wall or like constructions
US2741909A (en) * 1950-01-13 1956-04-17 Hartlmair Willibald Tile panel
FR1083109A (en) * 1953-09-07 1955-01-05 prefabricated constructive elements through their assembly armed prestressed orthogonal lattice
US2896271A (en) * 1955-01-31 1959-07-28 Haskelite Mfg Corp Enclosures for refrigerated areas
US2971295A (en) * 1955-03-21 1961-02-14 Phillips Petroleum Co Prestressed concrete units and structures
FR1149004A (en) * 1955-04-09 1957-12-19 Dyckerhoff & Widmann Ag Cooling tower in reinforced concrete
US2751775A (en) * 1955-07-12 1956-06-26 Burns & Russell Co Masonry block having an integral molded facing layer and method of making same
US2963825A (en) * 1955-09-20 1960-12-13 Jr David D Douglas Prefabricated house construction
US3000144A (en) * 1956-03-07 1961-09-19 Casavan Ind Composite panels for building constructions
US3031043A (en) * 1957-07-26 1962-04-24 R N Howton Building construction
US3064321A (en) * 1957-10-14 1962-11-20 Homer C Rose Fastenings

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3392496A (en) * 1961-05-26 1968-07-16 Adrianus E.Q. Van Hezik Building skeleton of precast modular units with assembly adjunct
US3402515A (en) * 1965-10-07 1968-09-24 Rainaut Marc Pierre Folding multi-storeyed buildings
US3429092A (en) * 1966-05-26 1969-02-25 Dyna Structures Structural frames and methods and means therefor
US3420016A (en) * 1967-02-06 1969-01-07 Robert L Findlay Building construction
US3514910A (en) * 1968-02-14 1970-06-02 Dano Modules Inc Modular building construction
US4023315A (en) * 1968-07-26 1977-05-17 Elcon A.G. Prefabricated buildings
US3680275A (en) * 1968-12-11 1972-08-01 Leon Ballot Sa Des Entreprises Underwater storage tanks
USRE29249E (en) * 1969-06-02 1977-06-07 Unicon Parking Structures, Inc. Precast concrete building construction
US3744200A (en) * 1969-06-02 1973-07-10 E Rice Precast concrete building construction
US3952474A (en) * 1969-06-02 1976-04-27 Rice Edward K Method of assembling building structures
US3640038A (en) * 1969-09-19 1972-02-08 Pre Load Co Inc The Concrete structures
US3688457A (en) * 1970-03-16 1972-09-05 Stanley A Sherno Building foundation with frost deflector
US4144687A (en) * 1970-07-01 1979-03-20 Brunes Tons J Self-supporting girder structure
US3772835A (en) * 1971-10-21 1973-11-20 Hb Zachry Co Housing
US4024687A (en) * 1975-06-26 1977-05-24 John Kozak Architectural system having post-tensioned elements
US4464877A (en) * 1981-11-12 1984-08-14 Ryan Homes, Inc. Method of assembling multi-unit, party wall residential buildings and fire-resistant party wall structure
FR2551485A1 (en) * 1983-09-02 1985-03-08 Planquavoile DEVICE FORMING OUTDOOR STORAGE CAB
EP0140733A1 (en) * 1983-09-02 1985-05-08 Planquavoile Appliance constituting a storage shed in the open air
US4961293A (en) * 1989-01-10 1990-10-09 Randall House Precast, prestressed concrete secondary containment vault
DE19653362A1 (en) * 1996-12-20 1998-06-25 Albert Kobler Concealed fixing between two parts or elements
US8011158B1 (en) 2007-04-27 2011-09-06 Sable Developing, Inc. Footing for support of structure such as building

Also Published As

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GB991753A (en) 1965-05-12
GB991752A (en) 1965-05-12
DE1459995A1 (en) 1968-11-28
DE1409990A1 (en) 1968-11-14
GB991754A (en) 1965-05-12

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