US3744200A - Precast concrete building construction - Google Patents

Precast concrete building construction Download PDF

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US3744200A
US3744200A US3744200DA US3744200A US 3744200 A US3744200 A US 3744200A US 3744200D A US3744200D A US 3744200DA US 3744200 A US3744200 A US 3744200A
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slabs
vertical
tendons
legs
guideways
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/348Structures composed of units comprising at least considerable parts of two sides of a room, e.g. box-like or cell-like units closed or in skeleton form
    • E04B1/34815Elements not integrated in a skeleton
    • E04B1/34823Elements not integrated in a skeleton the supporting structure consisting of concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material
    • E04B1/06Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material the elements being prestressed
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/20Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stonelike material
    • E04B1/22Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stonelike material with parts being prestressed

Abstract

A building construction utilizing precast concrete building units which are positioned side-by-side and end-to-end as well as stacked to form a multistory structure; the units being secured together by tendons freely threaded through horizontal and vertical chases provided in the building units, placed under tension and anchored at their extremities. The building units may also include precast beams containing longitudinal catenary tendons anchored at the end extremities of each building unit, the units being bolted in end-to-end relation.

Description

United States Patent 1 1 Rice 5] July 10, 1973 [54] PRECAST CONCRETE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott [76] Inventor: Edward K. Rice, 2077 Linda Flora jif' i gz Rldglu Drive, Los Angeles, Calif. 90024 0mey [22] Filed: June 2, 1969 [2]] Appl. No.: 837,986 [57] ABSTRACT UOSI Cl- "I A construction precast concrete [51] Int. Cl. E04b l/343, E04c 3/20 buikiing units which are positioned side by side and [58] Field of Search ..52/227-229, 223, 236, end to end as we" as stacked to form a multistory 133435, 1 502 structure; the units being secured together by tendons freely threaded through horizontal and vertical chases References Clled provided in the building units, placed under tension UNITED STATES PATENTS and anchored at their extremities. The building units 1,477,665 12/1923 Richman 52/227 y also include Precast beams containing longitudinal 2,340,263 1 1944 Dodson 52/227 at na y t nd ns anch r d at th end xtremities of 3,260,025 7/1966 Van der Lely.... 52/228 each building unit, the units being bolted in end-to-end 3,503,170 3/1970 Shelley 52/227 relation. 3,495,367 2/1970 Kobayashi 52/223 865,652 2/1953 Germany 52/79 Lf o b o o o o j Z 20 3 32 20 Z 32 '3 l5 /6 Z l Z I g r f I I 5 5 /P /6 /a\- 5 4 5M0 1 /5 'i I6 4 5 5 4 4 l l l L WAM \WWWM Y W/W, MQWWX x XMO X A QW\ xveg,

PATENTEI] JUL I 0 I975 INVENTOR.

PRECAST CONCRETE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION I-Ieretofore it has been the practice to embed steel reinforcing in concrete and establish an intimate bond between the reinforcing and concrete throughout the entire surface of the reinforcing. This practice has been followed in the techniques of pretensioning and posttensioning of concrete. In the pretensioning technique, the reinforcing tendons are held in tension while the concrete is poured around the reinforcing. In the posttensioning technique, the reinforcing tendons are jacketed in sleeves large enough to permit sliding movement of the tendons. Then, after the concrete is set, the tendons are tensioned, grouting is forced between the tendons and the sleeves so that the grouting is bonded to the tendons and the tendons are anchored at their extremities.

In all cases, there is a continuous intimate bond between the reinforcing or tendon and the concrete or grouting. If the concrete or grouting cracks, localized stress is applied to the reinforcing or tendon; that is, the reinforcing or tendon is stressedover the width of the crack (plus some relatively small bond length at each side of the crack). As a result, the crack need only widen a small amount to stretch the short length of the reinforcing or tendon beyond the yield point of the steel. If the force which caused the crack is relieved, the reinforcing or tendon does not recover, and the reinforcing or tendon exerts at least a local force tending to widen the crack.

Should the force which creates the crack or a later force be of sufficient magnitude, the crack may widen sufficiently that the localized stress in the reinforcing or tendon exceeds ultimate strength of the steel and a rupture occurs.

This problem is fully recognized so that in designing a concrete structure using ordinary reinforcing or tendon reinforcing, care is taken that the expected loads will be insufficient to produce the cracks. This, of course, materially increases the cost of construction, especially if the designer must consider gross overloads such as produced, for example, by earthquakes or falling aircraft.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to a solution of the problem and involves other advantages as summarized in the following objects:

First, to provide a multistory building construction which utilizes precast building units arranged in end-toend and side-by-side relation as well as stacked, which are connected by horizontal and vertical tendons slidably received in passageways and anchored only at their ends. As a result, the tendons are free to distribute throughout their length the force resulting from any change due to a crack or series of cracks. Thus, a crack ofa width sufficient to fail a bonded tendon causes only minor stress change throughout the length of the unbonded tendon.

Second, to provide a multistory building structure as indicated in the preceding object which is portable; that is, the building structure may be so arranged that the horizontal and vertical tendons may be removed and the building units separated for removal to another site, reassembled and reconnected by tension elements.

Third, to provide a building structure of the type indicated in the preceding objects wherein the precast building units may include longitudinally extending beams containing tendons disposed in catenary like contour, anchored at the ends of the building units and free to slide therebetween, said units being bolted endto-end.

Fourth, to provide a building structure in which the building units may be portions of dwelling assemblies as exemplified in my copending application, Ser. No. 662,602, filed Aug. 23, 1967, for BUILDING STRUC- TURE AND MEANS AND METHOD OF ITS MANU- FACTURE, and in my copending application, Ser. No. 817,372, filed Apr. 18, 1969, for BUILDING ASSEM- BLY AND METHOD, modified so as to be joined in the manner set forth in the other objects presented herein.

Fifth, to provide a building structure which may utilize 'novel building units especially adapted to produce a multideck parking structure.

Sixth, to provide a building structure wherein precast concrete building units involving a first set of slabs having marginal beams, a second set of slabs which further includes legs at the corners thereof and a third set of beam structures having a leg at each end thereof, the second set of slabs forming decks vertically spaced by said corner legs, the third set of slabs forming vehicle passageways between their end legs, and the first set of slabs forming decking bridging between said third set of slabs.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a plan view, showing a deck of the building construction as adapted for use as a multistory parking structure.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view, taken in part through 2-2 of FIG. 1 rotated 90, the

view, illustrating a two-story parking structure.

FIG. 3 is a further enlarged fragmentary sectional view, taken through 33 of FIG. 2, portions being shown in plan.

FIG. 4 is an enlarged sectional view, taken through 44 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is another sectional view, taken through 55 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary elevationsl view, taken from 66 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view, taken through 7-7 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary plan view of the portion of the building structure shown in FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is,an enlarged fragmentary sectional view, taken through 99 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 10 is a side view of one of the anchor plates.

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view, showing one of the building units used in the building construction.

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary perspective view, showing another of the building units.

FIG. 13 is a fragmentary sectional view, showing another of the building units.

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary perspective view, showing a supporting leg and a portion of the foundation as well as a vertical tendon, the leg being separated from the foundation to illustrate the construction.

FIG. 15 is an enlarged fragmentary sectonal view, taken through 15-15 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 16 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view, taken through 16-16 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 17 is an enlarged fragmentary sectionalview, taken through l7l7 of FIG. 2.

The building construction illustrated is a multilevel parking garage, and is constructed principally by the assembly of three sets of building units. The first set of building units, designated 1, includes an elongated rectangular slab or deck member 2, formed of reinforced concrete. The slab may also be termed a floor-ceiling slab, as it forms the ceiling of the level below and the floor of the level above. Depending from the slab, along the longer margins thereof, is pair of longitudinal beams 3. Transverse beams 4 are provided at the ends of the slab. Extending downwardly from the beams, at the corners of the slab, are legs 5.

The slab is provided with a set of transverse tendon passages 6. The legs are provided with vertical tendon passages 7. The longitudinal beams 3 are provided with tendon passages 8.

Several tendon passages may be provided in each beam and may merge at their central portions. The passages are curved, essentially in catenary profile. Each passage 8 receives a tendon 9, in the form of a steel cable, which extends through anchor plates 10 set in the ends of the longitudinal beams. The anchor plates are provided with tapered openings which receive anchor wedges 11 that grip the ends of the tendons.

The passages 8 may be formed in several ways, such as by 'a sleeve or liner cast in place, or by a rod of elastomeric material capable of being extracted after the concrete has been cast and set; or, the tendon itself may be coated with a lubricant, or encased in a sleeve. Regardless of the method employed, the tendon remains slidable in the passage so that the tendon may be posttensioned by use of conventional pulling tools applied to the exposed extremities of the tendons. Later, the tendons are cut so that grout 12 may fill the recess in which the anchor plate is located.

In order to handle the building unit, each anchor plate may be provided with a lifting boss 13, which may be grasped by a suitable lifting fitting, or may be internally screwthre'aded to receive a lifting bolt. Alternatively, before the grout is applied, and the ends of the tendons trimmed, the protruding ends may receive lifting plates 14, held in place by removable clamping collars 15, all as indicated in FIG. 16.

Each of the second set of building units, designated 16, includes a beam 17, similar in depth but of greater width than the longitudinal beams of a first'building unit. Each beam 17 is provided with longitudinal tendon passages, tendons and anchor plates as described in connection with the longitudinal beam 3. Each beam 17 is provided with end legs 18, similar to the corner legs 5, but having approximately twice'the cross section. Also, each beam 17 is provided with side notches l9, intended to accommodate the ends of third building units 20. Each building unit includes a slab 2, corresponding to the first building unit, as well as longitudinal beams 3; that is, the transverse end beams 4 and corner legs 5 are omitted. Also, the ends of thelongitudinal beams are notched, as indicated by 21, in order to fit the notches 19 of the building unit 16.

The three sets of building units are assembled by placing members of the first set of building units in endto-end and side-by-side relation. It is impractical to make the building units 1 of sufficient width to provide space for vehicles between the corner legs at each end. However, the length of each building unit 1 is sufficient to accommodate two rows of parked cars and a passageway therebetween. In order to provide passageways parallel to the longitudinal axes of the building units 1, the second building units 16 are placed in lateral alignment with the adjacent ends of selected building units 1, and the building units 20 are placed between the beams l7 of the building units 16 and suitably secured thereto, thereby forming a deck which is a continuation of the deck formed by the slabs 2 of the first building units, as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3.

As shown in FIG. 15, the first building units are secured in end-to-end relation by' tie bolts 22,. which extend through openings 23 provided in the end beams 4. The tie bolts receive load distributing flanges 24. Before applying nuts to the ends of the tie bolts 22, grout 25 is forced in the space between the ends of adjacent units. It is preferred to provide such grout space rather than placing the building units in abutting relation as such spacing compensatesfor tolerance variations.

The building units 1 as well as the building units 20 are placed in side-by-side relationship in such a manner that their transverse tendon passages 6 are placed in alignment. The passages 6 may be circular, but to provide tolerance compensation, they may be oval or rectangular. Each aligned row of passages 6 receives a transverse tendon 27, which extends continuously from one outside edge to the opposite outside edge of the building structure. The building units forming such edges are provided with exposedmetal channel members 28 bonded to the concrete as well as secured by suitable reinforcing, not shown. Each end channel is perforated to receive an end of the corresponding tendon. An anchor plate 29, perforated to receive the corresponding tendon, overlies the end channel 28. Mounted on each anchor plate or arranged to bear thereagainst'is a wedge collar 30, which receives a set of conical wedges 31 adapted to grip and hold the ten. don under tension.

As is the case between the ends of the buidling units, the sides thereof are not placed in mutual contacting relation, but space is provided therebetween to compensate for tolerance variations. Such spaces also aid in insertion or threading of the tendons 27 into the passages 6. For, in the case of partial misalignment, the end of the tendon may be guided into alignment with a succeeding passage. After thetendons 27 have been inserted, and before tension is applied, grout 32 is forced into the spaces between the sides of the building units. Temporary forms may be inserted upwardly between adjacent longitudinal beams 3 so as to retain the grout 32 in the space provided. It should be noted that the tendons 27 are thoroughly greased or otherwise coated so that any bond between the tendons 27 and the grout is minimized.

It should be further noted that the grout 25 and 12 preferably contains an expansive cement, such as the cement disclosed in US. Pat. Nos. 3,215,701 and 3,303,037. The grout mixture is compounded so that it swells slightly or at least compensates for any shrinkage that would otherwise occur so that on tensioning the tendons 27, there is no significant reduction in the overall distance between the extreme building units.

Each anchor plate 29 may also serve to support in part a fence wall unit 33, each fence wall unit consisting essentially of a rectangular concrete slab having sockets 34 to clear the wedge collars 30, and also provided with mounting bolts 35 which are received in slots provided in upper portions of the anchor plates 29, which portions project above the slab 2. At the end extremities of the building units forming the ends of the building, mounting plates identical to the anchor plates 29 may be used and may be bolted to the end channel members 28, as indicated in FIG. 9.

The buidling units legs 5 and 18 of the lower or first level of building units rest on appropriate foundation piers 36, indicated in FIG. 14. Vertical tendons 37,

. havingconventional fixed anchorages, are secured in the foundation piers 36 and extend upwardly therefrom. The vertical tendons 37 are anchored at thetime the foundation is poured, and are initially formed in coils until assembly of the building construction is undertaken. The buidling units 1 and 16 are poised above the foundation piers and the vertical tendons are threaded therethrough; that is, the end legs 18 and corner legs 5 are threaded downward on the vertical tendons, the tendons being received in the vertical tendon passages 7. After the building units have been assembled, anchor plates 38 are fitted over the protruding upper ends of the vertial tendons and appropriate wedge collars 39 and wedges 40 are applied, and the tendons are tensioned in a conventional manner. It is preferred, of course, to place the anchor plates 38, wedge collars 39 and wedges 40 below the upper surface of the upper deck of the structure so that the upper deck is free for use for parking purposes.

The parking structure includes appropriately located ramps 41 which may be formed of modifications of the building units described, or may be conventional in construction. Also, suitable stairways 42 and elevator shafts 43 are provided.

It should be noted that each of the buiding units contain conventional reinforcing, not shown, in addition to the tendon reinforcing described. Also, if desired, the building units may contain expansive cement capable of stressing the reinforcing, or to compensate for shrinkage, or conventional cement may be used. While use in the individual units of reinforcing bonded to the concrete does create a localized stress condition in the reinforcing, the problem is not as severe as would be the case with the building as a whole.

It will also be noted that where the ramps 41 would interfer, the tendons 27 terminate at the ramps.

While a two story parking structure is indicated, the structure may be extended to greater height.

Should it be desired to do so, the building construction may be disassembled. That is, the tendons 27 may be removed as well as the bolts 22, and the top anchors 39. Then, the building units may be removed, those units having legs being raised from the tendons 37. The grout 25 and 32 is first removed, or, if it is intended to provide for later disassembly, the contacting surfaces of the building units are provided with a suitable parting agent; or, a non-adhering material is substituted for the grout. In this regard, it should be noted that the grout is maintained under compression so that there is no need for a bond with the building units.

A known property of conventional concrete has been that if a concrete slab is sufficiently compressed in two directions within the plane defined by the slab, the slab becomes waterproof; that is, water does not penetrate from one surface through the slab to the opposite surface. The required compressive force has been determined to be about 300 psi in each direction. Such compression has been attained by sets of tendons extending in each direction, which have been posttensioned. If expansive cement, such as that disclosed in US. Pat. Nos. 3,215,701 and. 3,303,037, is used, part of such compression is attained by the interaction of the reinforcing as more fully disclosed in the aforementioned patent application, Ser. No. 662,602. In this case, less supplementary posttensioning force, for example, is required in order to attain the waterproof condition.

It has been accepted that in order to attain such waterproof condition the compression loads must be applied simultaneously or nearly so and soon after the concrete has attained proper strength.

It has been found in the course of developing the present inveniton, that the compression loads need not be applied as nearly simultaneously as possible or as soon as possible after casting. Instead, it has been found that the longitudinal tendons 9 in each building unit may be post-tensioned at any convenient time; further, the building units may be stored for a long period before being assembled into the building structure and subjected to the transverse compression force exerted by the tendons 27 and when finally comp-essed in the order of 300 psi in the two axes, the slab becomes watertight.

Also previously it has been considered essential that the compressive forces be confined to a single monolithic unit; whereas, it has been found that a large number of slabs placed side-by-side may be compressively stressed by a series of tendons threaded therethrough and be rendered watertight.

With regard to the grout, if this includes a conventional portland cement base with or without expansible ingredients, it has been found that if compressed in the order of 300 psi in a single transverse axis between the ends or the sides of the slabs, it as well as the interfaces between the grout and the slabs becomes watertight.

While particular embodments of this invention have been shown and described, it is not intended to limit the same to the details of the constructions set forth, but instead, the invention embraces such changes, modifications and equivalents of the various parts and their relationships as come within the purview of the appended claims.

I claim:

l. A multiple story garage structure, comprising:

a. a first set of precast concrete building units, each unit thereof including an elongated rectangular slab and legs at the ends thereof, the slabs being arranged in side-by-side and end-to-end relation and the legs disposed in rows under the ends of the slabs, the rows of legs defining therebetween rows of parking spaces adjacent the legs and access lanes between the parking spaces;

b. a second set of precast concrete building units, each unit of the second set including a beam and a leg at each end thereof, the members of the second set of building units being disposed in longitudinal alignment with the rows of legs of the first set at the ends thereof to define transversely extending corridors connecting the access lanes;

c. a third set of precast concrete building units, each unit of the third set including a slab and at least one beam thereunder, the ends of the members of the third set of building units resting on the beams of the second set of building units and continuing in side-by-side and end-to-end relation from the slabs of the first set of building units;

d. and means securing the sets of building units in their assembled relation. 2. A building construction, as defined in claim 1, wherein:

a. said building units are adapted to be stacked to form a multideck structure; b. said legs are provided with vertical tendon guideways adapted to be aligned when said building units are stacked;

c. and said securing means includes vertical tendons slidably received in said aligned vertical guideways, and anchor means are provided at the extremities of said tendons to hold said vertical tendons under tension, thereby to exert a compressive force between the vertically stacked building units, said vertical tendons being freely movable in their respective passageways between their respective anchors whereby tension loads thereon are uniformly distributed along the length of each vertical tendon.

3. A building construction, as defined in claim 1,

wherein:

a. each slab defines a plurality of horizontal tendon guideways, disposed in alignement with guideways of adjacent slabs, when the slabs are assembled in side-by-side relation;

b. and said securing means includes tendons slidably received in the guideways of a plurality of slabs, and anchors at the remote ends of the tendons to hold said tendons under tension thereby to exert a compressive force between slabs located between said anchors, said tendons being freely movable in said guideways between said anchors whereby tension loads are uniformly distributed along the length of each tendon.

4. A building construction, as defined in claim 3,

wherein:

a. the slabs of said building units are initially disposed in spaced relation;

b. grout including expansive cement occupies said spaces to exert an expansive force between said slabs;

c. and said tendons exert a compressive force on the grout compensating for the expansive force of said grout. Y 5. A horizontal multiple deck construction, comprismg: 7 a. a set of elongatedconcrete slabs for each deck arranged in coplanar relation with their side edges in contiguous relation to form a plurality of continuous junctures between their side edges;

b. deflection resisting beams integral with corresponding slabs;

c. integral legs at the ends of the beams for supporting each deck above the deck below;

d. each set of slabs having a plurality of horizontal transversely extending parallel guideways disposed in alignment across the junctures and through a plurality of slabs;

e. a plurality of continuous slab connecting flexible tendons, slidable in and coextensive with the guidelengths of the tendons thereby to maintain corresponding compression loads distributed throughout the slabs disposed between the anchors as well as the junctures between contiguous slabs, the tension loads being of sufficient magnitude to secure the slabs against relative movement at their junctures, thereby to cause the slabs to resist deflecting forces as a unit;

g. the legs extending between the decks being disposed in vertically aligned groups and each leg forming a juncture with a slab of the deck below;

h' a pier below the lowermost leg of each group and forming a horizontal juncture therewith;

i. each group of legs, the corresponding ends of the beams and the slabs therebetween having vertical guideways extending from the piers therethrough;

j. flexible tendons extending through the vertical guideways;

k. and anchoring means in said piers and bearing against the slabs of the top deck secured to the vertical tendons to maintain a predetermined uniformity distributed tension loads throughout the lengths of the vertical tendons thereby to maintain compression loads distributed throughout the legs, beam ends and slabs disposed between the anchors as well as the horizontal junctures therebetween to cause the decks to resist deflection forces as a unit.

6. A multiple story building construction, comprising:

a. at least four building units forming a lower story;

each unit including a horizontal rectangular concrete slab having a major longitudinal and a minor lateral dimension underlying supporting beams extending longitudinally of the slabs between the ends thereof and spaced vertical concrete legs fixed to the ends of the slabs;

b. the four units being assembled with the slabs in a common horizontal plane and with the ends of the slabs in abutting relation on first vertical planes, the adjacent longitudinal edges of adjacent slabs likewise being in abutting relation on second vertical planes at right angles to the first named planes;

c. foundation means serving to engage and support the lower ends of the vertical legs;

d. at least four building units assembled upon the first four units and forming a second story;

e. the units of the second story likewise each including a horizontal rectangular concrete slab having a major longitudinal and a minor lateral dimension underlyingsupporting beams extending longitudinally of the slabs between the ends thereof and spaced vertical concrete legs fixed to the end portions of the slabs;

f. the four units of the second story being assembled with their slabs in a common horizontal plane and with the adjacent ends of the slabs in abutting relation on said first vertical planes and the longitudinal edges of adjacent slabs being in abutting relation on said second vertical plane;

g. the vertical legs for the upper story having their lower ends seated upon end portions of an underlying slab and in vertical alignment with legs for the lower story;

h. the space between vertical legs of a story as measured longitudinally of the units being substantially unobstructed to form free corridors;

i. the legs for adjacent ends of units for the second story being disposed adjacent and on opposite sides of a corresponding first plane;

j. the slabs of the units forming both the lower and upper stories having aligned horizontal tendon accommodating guideways extending laterally through the same from one remote longitudinal side edge of a slab to the remote other side edge;

k. the end portion of each slab of the units forming both the lower and upper stories having a vertical tendon accommodating guideway extending through the same and through a corresponding vertical leg;

. the vertical guideways of the units forming the upper floor being aligned with the vertical guideways of the units forming the lower story;

In. tensioned horizontal tendons extending through the horizontal guideways of the slabs and tendon anchors at the remote side edges of the slabs thereby serving to apply forces in compression to the slabs causing mutual engagement of their inter mediate longitudinal edges;

n. tensioned vertical tendons extending through the aligned vertical guideways and tendon anchors in the foundation means and upper story serving to apply forces in compression to the vertical legs and to the corresponding portions of the slabs engaged thereby;

o. the portions of the horizontal tendons intermediate their extremities being free of force transmitting attachment with the slabs through which they extend;

p. the portions of the vertical tendons intermediate the foundation means and their upper extremities being free of force transmitting attachment with the legs and slabs through which they extend;

q. and means securing adjacent ends of the slabs to gether.

7. A multiple deck structure comprising:

a. a set of elongated concrete modules, each module including a horizontally extending slab, at least one beam extending between the ends of the slab, at least onevertically extending leg adjacent each end of the beam;

b. each module having a vertical tendon guideway extending continuously through each leg, beam and slab, the modules being stacked with their respective vertical guideways in vertical alignment, and the modules having areas of mutual engagement between the extremities of their legs and the slabs of vertically adjacent modules;

c. continuous vertical tendons slidable in the aligned guideways;

d. and tendon anchoring means at the upper and lower extremities of the guideways bearing against the modules for applying vertical tension 'to the tendons and vertical compression loads to the extremitites of the slabs and beams and longitudinally of the legs as well as the areas of mutual engagement, thereby securing said areas against relative displacement and increasing resistance of the slabs, beams and legs to bending loads.

8. A multiple deck structure, as defined in claim 7,

wherein:

a. the lower tendon anchoring means includes foundation piers disposed under the legs of the lowermost modules;

b. and the tendons for each stack of modules are adapted to be threaded through the guideways in sequence as the modules are placed in stacked relation.

9. A horizontal deck construction, comprising:

a. a set of elongated concrete slabs arranged in coplanar relation with their side edges in contiguous relation to form a plurality of junctures coextensive with the side edges;

b. the slabs having a plurality of parallel, aligned tendon guideways extending continuously through the set of slabs transverse to said junctures;

c. a plurality of continuous slab connecting flexible tendons slidable in and coextensive with the guideways;

d. anchoring means engaging the tendons and fixed to the slabs at-the ends of the guideways the anchoring means maintaining predetermined tension loads on the tendons and corresponding compression loads in the slabs, including the junctures therebetween, of sufficient magnitude to secure the slabs against relative movement at their junctures thereby to cause the slabs to resist deflection forces as a unit;

e. and a set of deflection resisting slab supporting beams underlying the slabs and extending parallel to the junctures, the beams being in rigid relation to the slabs and cooperating therewith to support loads as a unit.

10. A construction, as defined in claim 9, wherein:

a. said anchoring means are removable from the tendons and the tendons are removable from the slabs to permit disassembly of the slabs thereby to permit removal to another site for reassembly.

11. A construction, as defined in claim 9, wherein:

a. supporting legs extend vertically from the ends of each beam to form with the set of beams and corresponding set of slabs a set of coplanar building units;

b. and the sets of buidling units are stacked vertically to form a multiple story structure.

12. A multiple story structure, as defined in claim 1 1,

wherein:

a. a first set of tendon anchoring means underlie the supporting legs of the lowermost set of building units;

b. junctures are formed between the members of each stack of building units;

c. the supporting legs, beamsand slabs of each stack of building units have vertical tendon guideways extending continuously between the tendon anchoring means and the top of the multiple story structure;

d. a plurality of vertical tendons are secured to the first set of tendon anchoring means and are slidable in the vertical guideways;

e. and a second set of tendon anchoring means en gage the upper ends of the tendons and are fixed to the top of the multiple story structure to maintain vertical tension loads on the tendons and corresponding vertical compression loads on the members of each stack of building units as well as the junctures therebetween to secure the members against relative movement at their junctures thereby to cause the members of each stack of building units to resist deflection forces as a unit.

13. A construction, as defined in claim 12, wherein:

3,744,200 1 1 12 a. the anchoring means for the slab connecting tendisassembly of each stack of building units,

dons are removable therefrom, and the tendons are removable from the slabs to permit disassembly; b. at least the second set of anchoring means for the vertical tendons are removable therefrom to permit whereby the building units may be removed to another site for reassembly.

Claims (13)

1. A multiple story garage structure, comprising: a. a first set of precast concrete building units, each unit thereof including an elongated rectangular slab and legs at the ends thereof, the slabs being arranged in side-by-side and endto-end relation and the legs disposed in rows under the ends of the slabs, the rows of legs defining therebetween rows of parking spaces adjacent the legs and access lanes between the parking spaces; b. a second set of precast concrete building units, each unit of the second set including a beam and a leg at each end thereof, the members of the second set of building units being disposed in longitudinal alignment with the rows of legs of the first set at the ends thereof to define transversely extending corridors connecting the access lanes; c. a third set of precast concrete building units, each unit of the third set including a slab and at least one beam thereunder, the ends of the members of the third set of building units resting on the beams of the second set of building units and continuing in side-by-side and end-to-end relation from the slabs of the first set of building units; d. and means securing the sets of building units in their assembled relation.
2. A building construction, as defined in claim 1, wherein: a. said building units are adapted to be stacked to form a multideck structure; b. said legs are provided with vertical tendon guideways adapted to be aligned when said building units are stacked; c. and said securing means includes vertical tendons slidably received in said aligned vertical guideways, and anchor means are provided at the extremities of said tendons to hold said vertical tendons under tension, thereby to exert a compressive force between the vertically stacked building units, said vertical tendons being freely movable in their respective passageways between their respective anchors whereby tension loads thereon are uniformly distributed along the length of each vertical tendon.
3. A building construction, as defined in claim 1, wherein: a. each slab defines a plurality of horizontal tendon guideways, disposed in alignement with guideways of adjacent slabs, when the slabs are assembled in side-by-side relation; b. and said securing means includes tendons slidably received in the guideways of a plurality of slabs, and anchors at the remote ends of the tendons to hold said tendons under tension thereby to exert a compressive force between slabs located between said anchors, said tendons being freely movable in said guideways between said anchors whereby tension loads are uniformly distributed along the length of each tendon.
4. A building construction, as defined in claim 3, wherein: a. the slabs of said building units are initially disposed in spaced relation; b. grout including expansive cement occupies said spaces to exert an expansive force between said slabs; c. and said tendons exert a compressive force on the grout compensating for the expansive force of said grout.
5. A horizontal multiple deck construction, comprising: a. a set of elongated concrete slabs for each deck arranged in coplanar relation with their side edges in contiguous relation to form a plurality of continuous junctures between their side edges; b. deflection resisting beams integral with corresponding slabs; c. integral legs at the ends of the beams for supporting each deck above the deck below; d. each set of slabs having a plurality of horizontal transversely extending parallel guideways dIsposed in alignment across the junctures and through a plurality of slabs; e. a plurality of continuous slab connecting flexible tendons, slidable in and coextensive with the guideways in each deck; f. anchoring means secured to the ends of the tendons of each deck to maintain predetermined uniformity of distributed tension loads throughout the lengths of the tendons thereby to maintain corresponding compression loads distributed throughout the slabs disposed between the anchors as well as the junctures between contiguous slabs, the tension loads being of sufficient magnitude to secure the slabs against relative movement at their junctures, thereby to cause the slabs to resist deflecting forces as a unit; g. the legs extending between the decks being disposed in vertically aligned groups and each leg forming a juncture with a slab of the deck below; h. a pier below the lowermost leg of each group and forming a horizontal juncture therewith; i. each group of legs, the corresponding ends of the beams and the slabs therebetween having vertical guideways extending from the piers therethrough; j. flexible tendons extending through the vertical guideways; k. and anchoring means in said piers and bearing against the slabs of the top deck secured to the vertical tendons to maintain a predetermined uniformity distributed tension loads throughout the lengths of the vertical tendons thereby to maintain compression loads distributed throughout the legs, beam ends and slabs disposed between the anchors as well as the horizontal junctures therebetween to cause the decks to resist deflection forces as a unit.
6. A multiple story building construction, comprising: a. at least four building units forming a lower story; each unit including a horizontal rectangular concrete slab having a major longitudinal and a minor lateral dimension underlying supporting beams extending longitudinally of the slabs between the ends thereof and spaced vertical concrete legs fixed to the ends of the slabs; b. the four units being assembled with the slabs in a common horizontal plane and with the ends of the slabs in abutting relation on first vertical planes, the adjacent longitudinal edges of adjacent slabs likewise being in abutting relation on second vertical planes at right angles to the first named planes; c. foundation means serving to engage and support the lower ends of the vertical legs; d. at least four building units assembled upon the first four units and forming a second story; e. the units of the second story likewise each including a horizontal rectangular concrete slab having a major longitudinal and a minor lateral dimension underlying supporting beams extending longitudinally of the slabs between the ends thereof and spaced vertical concrete legs fixed to the end portions of the slabs; f. the four units of the second story being assembled with their slabs in a common horizontal plane and with the adjacent ends of the slabs in abutting relation on said first vertical planes and the longitudinal edges of adjacent slabs being in abutting relation on said second vertical plane; g. the vertical legs for the upper story having their lower ends seated upon end portions of an underlying slab and in vertical alignment with legs for the lower story; h. the space between vertical legs of a story as measured longitudinally of the units being substantially unobstructed to form free corridors; i. the legs for adjacent ends of units for the second story being disposed adjacent and on opposite sides of a corresponding first plane; j. the slabs of the units forming both the lower and upper stories having aligned horizontal tendon accommodating guideways extending laterally through the same from one remote longitudinal side edge of a slab to the remote other side edge; k. the end portion of each slab of the units forming both the lower and upper stories having a vertical tendon accommodating guideway extending through the saMe and through a corresponding vertical leg; l. the vertical guideways of the units forming the upper floor being aligned with the vertical guideways of the units forming the lower story; m. tensioned horizontal tendons extending through the horizontal guideways of the slabs and tendon anchors at the remote side edges of the slabs thereby serving to apply forces in compression to the slabs causing mutual engagement of their intermediate longitudinal edges; n. tensioned vertical tendons extending through the aligned vertical guideways and tendon anchors in the foundation means and upper story serving to apply forces in compression to the vertical legs and to the corresponding portions of the slabs engaged thereby; o. the portions of the horizontal tendons intermediate their extremities being free of force transmitting attachment with the slabs through which they extend; p. the portions of the vertical tendons intermediate the foundation means and their upper extremities being free of force transmitting attachment with the legs and slabs through which they extend; q. and means securing adjacent ends of the slabs together.
7. A multiple deck structure comprising: a. a set of elongated concrete modules, each module including a horizontally extending slab, at least one beam extending between the ends of the slab, at least one vertically extending leg adjacent each end of the beam; b. each module having a vertical tendon guideway extending continuously through each leg, beam and slab, the modules being stacked with their respective vertical guideways in vertical alignment, and the modules having areas of mutual engagement between the extremities of their legs and the slabs of vertically adjacent modules; c. continuous vertical tendons slidable in the aligned guideways; d. and tendon anchoring means at the upper and lower extremities of the guideways bearing against the modules for applying vertical tension to the tendons and vertical compression loads to the extremitites of the slabs and beams and longitudinally of the legs as well as the areas of mutual engagement, thereby securing said areas against relative displacement and increasing resistance of the slabs, beams and legs to bending loads.
8. A multiple deck structure, as defined in claim 7, wherein: a. the lower tendon anchoring means includes foundation piers disposed under the legs of the lowermost modules; b. and the tendons for each stack of modules are adapted to be threaded through the guideways in sequence as the modules are placed in stacked relation.
9. A horizontal deck construction, comprising: a. a set of elongated concrete slabs arranged in coplanar relation with their side edges in contiguous relation to form a plurality of junctures coextensive with the side edges; b. the slabs having a plurality of parallel, aligned tendon guideways extending continuously through the set of slabs transverse to said junctures; c. a plurality of continuous slab connecting flexible tendons slidable in and coextensive with the guideways; d. anchoring means engaging the tendons and fixed to the slabs at the ends of the guideways the anchoring means maintaining predetermined tension loads on the tendons and corresponding compression loads in the slabs, including the junctures therebetween, of sufficient magnitude to secure the slabs against relative movement at their junctures thereby to cause the slabs to resist deflection forces as a unit; e. and a set of deflection resisting slab supporting beams underlying the slabs and extending parallel to the junctures, the beams being in rigid relation to the slabs and cooperating therewith to support loads as a unit.
10. A construction, as defined in claim 9, wherein: a. said anchoring means are removable from the tendons and the tendons are removable from the slabs to permit disassembly of the slabs thereby to permit removal to another site for reassembly.
11. A construction, as defineD in claim 9, wherein: a. supporting legs extend vertically from the ends of each beam to form with the set of beams and corresponding set of slabs a set of coplanar building units; b. and the sets of building units are stacked vertically to form a multiple story structure.
12. A multiple story structure, as defined in claim 11, wherein: a. a first set of tendon anchoring means underlie the supporting legs of the lowermost set of building units; b. junctures are formed between the members of each stack of building units; c. the supporting legs, beams and slabs of each stack of building units have vertical tendon guideways extending continuously between the tendon anchoring means and the top of the multiple story structure; d. a plurality of vertical tendons are secured to the first set of tendon anchoring means and are slidable in the vertical guideways; e. and a second set of tendon anchoring means engage the upper ends of the tendons and are fixed to the top of the multiple story structure to maintain vertical tension loads on the tendons and corresponding vertical compression loads on the members of each stack of building units as well as the junctures therebetween to secure the members against relative movement at their junctures thereby to cause the members of each stack of building units to resist deflection forces as a unit.
13. A construction, as defined in claim 12, wherein: a. the anchoring means for the slab connecting tendons are removable therefrom, and the tendons are removable from the slabs to permit disassembly; b. at least the second set of anchoring means for the vertical tendons are removable therefrom to permit disassembly of each stack of building units, whereby the building units may be removed to another site for reassembly.
US3744200D 1969-06-02 1969-06-02 Precast concrete building construction Expired - Lifetime US3744200A (en)

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CA (1) CA918948A (en)
DE (1) DE2025471A1 (en)
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NL (1) NL7008003A (en)

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US3835601A (en) * 1971-08-31 1974-09-17 E Kelbish Modular construction system
US3879914A (en) * 1969-09-23 1975-04-29 Hans Haller Method of making a platform structure
US3882649A (en) * 1971-03-05 1975-05-13 Francis Mah Interlocked modular building system
US3903667A (en) * 1973-06-18 1975-09-09 Lev Zetlin Associates Inc Structural floor system accomodating multi-directional ducts
US4023315A (en) * 1968-07-26 1977-05-17 Elcon A.G. Prefabricated buildings
US4059931A (en) * 1976-01-29 1977-11-29 Mongan William T Building framing system for post-tensioned modular building structures
US4068425A (en) * 1977-04-05 1978-01-17 Permacrete Products Corporation Modular mausoleum
US4144692A (en) * 1977-05-03 1979-03-20 Jonas Gerald L Building unit
EP0009515A1 (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-04-16 Ballast-Nedam Groep N.V. Method of erecting a building structure and building structure erected by the same
US4211043A (en) * 1978-01-06 1980-07-08 Coday Jerry F Precast concrete building module form
US4368607A (en) * 1978-05-16 1983-01-18 Boonman Cornelis J F Anchor construction for prestressing members
US4640070A (en) * 1986-03-21 1987-02-03 Ian Moffat Method of adding extra floors on existing buildings
WO1993003243A1 (en) * 1991-08-06 1993-02-18 Christian Memorial Cultural Center Modular crypt assembly
US5660020A (en) * 1994-08-26 1997-08-26 Engineering Certifiers Limited Method of construction using pre-cast floor units
US6389764B1 (en) * 1998-02-27 2002-05-21 Freyssinet International (Stup) Method for making prefabricated structural elements, and prestressed structure produced with the structural
EP1405958A2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-07 Benito Zambelli Device for connecting a beam to pillars or similar supporting structural elements for erecting buildings
US20080016805A1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Richard Walter Truss lock floor systems and related methods and apparatus

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FR2550816B1 (en) * 1983-08-18 1986-01-31 Freyssinet Int Stup Methods of pre-stress assembly of prefabricated elements of which at least some are concrete, and constructions obtained by such methods
DE3932058A1 (en) * 1989-09-26 1991-04-04 Martin Becker Mfg. prefab, flat, ceiling and wall slabs - uses continuous slab mfr. of preset width, sizing, and reinforcement insertion into slab cavities
CN103659351B (en) * 2012-09-07 2016-12-28 安溪县景宏技术咨询有限公司 Retaining mechanism
GB201813794D0 (en) * 2018-08-23 2018-10-10 Laing Orourke Plc Precast building construction system

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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4023315A (en) * 1968-07-26 1977-05-17 Elcon A.G. Prefabricated buildings
US3879914A (en) * 1969-09-23 1975-04-29 Hans Haller Method of making a platform structure
US3882649A (en) * 1971-03-05 1975-05-13 Francis Mah Interlocked modular building system
US3835601A (en) * 1971-08-31 1974-09-17 E Kelbish Modular construction system
US3903667A (en) * 1973-06-18 1975-09-09 Lev Zetlin Associates Inc Structural floor system accomodating multi-directional ducts
US4059931A (en) * 1976-01-29 1977-11-29 Mongan William T Building framing system for post-tensioned modular building structures
US4068425A (en) * 1977-04-05 1978-01-17 Permacrete Products Corporation Modular mausoleum
US4144692A (en) * 1977-05-03 1979-03-20 Jonas Gerald L Building unit
US4211043A (en) * 1978-01-06 1980-07-08 Coday Jerry F Precast concrete building module form
US4368607A (en) * 1978-05-16 1983-01-18 Boonman Cornelis J F Anchor construction for prestressing members
EP0009515A1 (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-04-16 Ballast-Nedam Groep N.V. Method of erecting a building structure and building structure erected by the same
US4640070A (en) * 1986-03-21 1987-02-03 Ian Moffat Method of adding extra floors on existing buildings
WO1993003243A1 (en) * 1991-08-06 1993-02-18 Christian Memorial Cultural Center Modular crypt assembly
US5243794A (en) * 1991-08-06 1993-09-14 Christian Memorial Cultural Center Modular crypt assembly
US5660020A (en) * 1994-08-26 1997-08-26 Engineering Certifiers Limited Method of construction using pre-cast floor units
US6389764B1 (en) * 1998-02-27 2002-05-21 Freyssinet International (Stup) Method for making prefabricated structural elements, and prestressed structure produced with the structural
EP1405958A2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-07 Benito Zambelli Device for connecting a beam to pillars or similar supporting structural elements for erecting buildings
US20040065030A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-08 Sergio Zambelli Device for connecting a beam to pillars or similar supporting structural elements for erecting buildings
EP1405958A3 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-12-08 Benito Zambelli Device for connecting a beam to pillars or similar supporting structural elements for erecting buildings
US7287358B2 (en) 2002-10-04 2007-10-30 Sergio Zambelli Device for connecting a beam to pillars or similar supporting structural elements for erecting buildings
US20080016805A1 (en) * 2006-07-19 2008-01-24 Richard Walter Truss lock floor systems and related methods and apparatus

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GB1287399A (en) 1972-08-31
NL7008003A (en) 1970-12-04
JPS5030933B1 (en) 1975-10-06
FR2049750A5 (en) 1971-03-26
CA918948A (en) 1973-01-16
DE2025471A1 (en) 1970-12-10
CA918948A1 (en)

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