US1924801A - Concrete building - Google Patents

Concrete building Download PDF

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US1924801A
US1924801A US506067A US50606731A US1924801A US 1924801 A US1924801 A US 1924801A US 506067 A US506067 A US 506067A US 50606731 A US50606731 A US 50606731A US 1924801 A US1924801 A US 1924801A
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slabs
floor
course
building
courses
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US506067A
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Russell C Olmsted
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Russell C Olmsted
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/04Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements consisting of concrete, e.g. reinforced concrete, or other stone-like material

Description

Aug. 29, 1933. I

R. C. OLMSTED CONCRETE BUILDING Filed Jan. 2. 1931 5 Sheets-Sheet l Invenior @SJEZLC 04/ 76727).

A Iforney Aug. 29, 1933. R. c. OLMSTED CONCRETE BUJELDING 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 2. 1931 llisswwg a f E .7 n

f 0 i n e v n I Aug. 29, 1933, F}. COLMSTED 1,924,801

- I CONCRETE BUILDING Filed Jan. 2. 1931 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 $4 f illorney Aug. 29, 1933. R. c. OLMSTED CONCRETE BUILDING 5 Sheets-Sheet 4' I Filed Jan. 2. 1931 A llorney 163.3514 C 04 MQTE'Q 9, 1933. R. c. OLMSTED 1,924,801

CONCRETE BUILDING Filed Jan. 2 1931 5.$heets-Sheet 5 Z1 4 v Inventor [Fa- 2342 C 04 075750.

A llorney Patented Aug. 29, 193a CONCRETE BUILDING Russell C. Olmsted, Cliffside, N. J.

Application January 2, 1931.

3 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in concrete structures, and more particularly it pertains to a novel form of concrete building and method of constructing the same.

It is an object of the invention to improve the construction of concrete buildings and the method of their construction in a manner which will result in a substantial building at a relatively low cost of manufacture.

The present invention contemplates the construction of concrete buildings from pre-cast reinforced concrete slabs, and a feature of the invention resides in a novel/form of reinforcing elements for use in the manufacture and assembly of the slabs from which a building is constructed.

Another feature of the invention resides in anovel wall construction whereby rigidity of walls and partitions is obtainable.

Another feature of the invention resides in a novel method of securing together the several slabs from which the building is formed, whereby, a continuously connected building reinforcement, similar in effect to the fabricated steel structures of so-called modern fireproof buildings, is obtained.

Other features of the invention relate to certain novel and improved constructions, arrangements and combinations of parts hereinafter described and particularly pointed out in the claims, the advantages of which will be readily understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art.

The invention will be clearly understood from the accompanying drawingsillustrating the invention in a preferred form, and the following detailed description of the constructions therein shown. I

In the drawings;

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a building constructed in accordance with the present invention,

Figure 2 is a transverse sectional View taken on the line 22 of Figure 1,

Figure 3 is a detail plan view of a section of a building constructed in accordance with the present invention,

Figure 4 is a perspective view partly broken away of a building constructed in accordance with the present invention,

Figure 5 is a detail perspective view on an enlarged scale illustrating a corner construction of the building,

Figure 6 is a vertical detail sectional view taken on an enlarged scale showing the detail construciaion of the connections between two wall courses {and a floor course,

Serial No. 506,067

Figure '7 is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line 77 of Figure 6.

Figure 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of one form of floor slab,

Figure 9 is a similar View of another type of 9 floor slab,

Figure 10 is a perspective view partly in section illustrating the wall and floor construction upon the interior of a building constructed in accordance with the'present invention,

Figure 11 is a detail sectional view illustrating the connection between the ends of two floor slabs,

Figure 12 is a detail sectional view taken on the line 1212 of Figure 10,

Figure 13 is a detail horizontal sectional view taken on the line 13-13 of Figure 6,

Figure 14 is a detail vertical sectional view of a slightly modified form of the invention, I

Figure 15 is a detail vertical sectional view of a modified form of partition wall and floor course construction, and;

Figure 16 is a detail sectional view illustrating a slightly modified construction of floor slab.

In Figures 1 to 4 inclusive of the drawings,v there is illustrated in a more or less diagrammatic manner, a building constructed in accordance with the present invention. The building chosen to illustrate the invention is of the two story dwelling type, and consists of a foundation A, a lower floor course B, a lower wall course C, an upper floor course D, an upper wall course E, a roof course F, and an ornamental course G, which is herein illustrated as a wall of the parapet type.

The foundation A may be in the form of a plurality of pre-formedblocks, or if desired it may be of the molded type. The wall courses, and the floor courses together with the roof course are formed from pre-cast reinforced concrete slabs which are retained in position by connecting the reinforcing elements of the slabs which consti tute one of the wall courses, with the reinforcing elements in the slabs of the adjacent Wall course in a manner to be hereinafter described.

The outside walls of the building are designated 20, and by reference to Figure 2 it will be noted that these outside walls consist essentially of corner members 21, fiat slabs 22, and relatively narrow T-shaped slabs 23. The corner members 21 are angular in cross sectional form, and are reinforced by means of rods or the like 24 which extend longitudinally thereof, which rods, however, preferably terminate short of the ends of the corner members.

The slabs 22 are relatively flat and thin, and are reinforced by means of longitudinally extending bars 25, similar to the bars 24 heretofore mentioned, and upon their inner faces, these slabs 26 may be provided with nailing strips of wood or other suitable material to which lathing or suitable interior finishing material may be secured. Certain of these slabs 22 may be provided with window or door openings 27 and 28 respectively.

The partition walls are designated 29 and are preferably formed from relatively thin rectangular slabs 30, which slabs may or mayv not be reinforced as desired, and they may be provided upon their opposite side faces with nailing strips such as 31, if desired, although in the case of very thin slabs, these nailing strips may be omitted, and lathing or wall finishing 'material nailed directly to the slabs.

- The relatively narrow slabs 23, which as heretofore mentioned are T-shaped in cross section, which construction of slabs gives maximum strength to the walls. These slabs 23 may be so positioned and spaced, that the stem of the T is disposed inwardly of the outside walls of the building to form anchoring means for the partition walls, and members similar to the slabs 23, and designated 32 may be employed where partition walls meet as indicated in Figure 2 of the drawings.

The floor slabs are designated 33 and 34, and these floor slabs are illustrated in detail in Figures 8 and 9 respectively.

-The floor slabs 33 are those slabs which lie next to, and extend parallel with one of the outside walls of the building, while the floor slabs 34 are those slabs which span the space between a partition wall and an outside wall, or between two partition walls it being understood that all fioor slabs are supported at their ends either by two outside walls, one outside wall and a partition wall, or by two partition walls, as the case may be. Openings 35 pass through the floor slabs for a purpose to be hereinafter pointed out.

As best illustrated in Figure 12, the floor slabs are reinforced as at 36 and they are preferably formed on their under face with depending flanges 37 which define the side and end edges of the slabs. Nailing strips 38 may be carried by the bottom faces of the flanges 37, and said flanges may also be formed with openings 39 which extend therethrough, and the top face of the floor slabs may be rabbeted out as indicated at 40.

In erecting a building in accordance with the present invention, the floor slabs which form I the first floor course of the building rest directly upon the foundation A and may be secured thereto. The slabs which form the wall course C rest upon the floor course B, with the slabs which form the floor course D resting directly upon the upper ends of the slabs which form the wall course C, with the slabs which form the wall course E resting directly upon the slabs which form the fioor course D. This general arrangement of the several wall and fioor courses is preferable but in some instances, as for example, where no lower floor course such as B is desired, the slabs which form the wall course C may rest directly on and be secured to the foundation A.

Means is provided for securing the wall courses and the floor courses together in a rigid unitary structure, and this means preferably consists of means for connecting the reinforcing elements of the slabs of one wall course with the reinforcing elements of the slabs which form the next adjacent wall course or directly with the slabs which form the floor courses in such a manner that the connecting means per se is exterior of the slabs forming the wall courses.

For the purpose of better illustration of the Invention, let us assume that the first wall course has been placed in position upon the foundation, either with or without the floor course B. After this has been done, angle bars are secured to the upper ends of the slabs 22 which form the outside walls of the building, and these angle bars serve properly to position the slabs, and to secure them against movement relatively to one another. The angle bars 45 are secured in position by headed bolts 46 which are received in internally threaded recesses in suitable attaching means in the form of inserts 47, which project in a lateral plane through the wall slabs to one of the side faces thereof. These inserts 47 are attached to the reinforcing elements in the slabs in which they are embedded, preferably by flattening the inner end of the inserts as at 48, and providing an opening through which the reinforcing element may be passed as best illustrated in Figure 5. Nuts such as 49 may be threaded upon the ends of the reinforcing elements 24 to determine the position of the inserts 47, or the reinforcing elements may be bent over, or even headed for this purpose if desired.

It is to understood that the inserts are connected with, and positioned relatively to the reinforcing elements during the molding of the slab, and that when the slab is molded, the in serts will project through one of the faces of the slab to present the screw threaded recesses upon the face of the slab, in position to receive the bolts 46' which secure the angle bars 45 in position.

As best illustrated in Figure 6, the outer ends I of the floor slabs project beyond the outer face of the outer walls of the building as at 50 and these projecting ends 50 may be so formed as to present ornamental effects if desired.

As will be apparent by reference to Figure 6, each floor course rests upon the wall course below it, with the wall course above, resting upon the floor course, and as illustrated in this figure, the floor slabs are notched or recessed as at 51 to receive the angle bars 45. Passing through the floor slabs, and serving to connect the angle bars 45 of one floor course with those of an adjacent floor course, there are bolts 52 which also pass through the angle bars 45, and which are secured in position by means of nuts or the like 53. By

this construction, the wall courses, and the fioor courses are tied together in a unitary structure by connecting the reinforcing elements of one wall course with those of the other wall course by means which occupies a position upon the 'exterior of the slabs instead of extending through the ends of the slabs.

In Figure 14, there is illustrated a modified form of the invention in which the reinforcing elements of the wall courses are not connected as heretofore described, and in which the upper wall course is not positioned directly over the lower wall course.

In this form of the invention the floor slabs 1%:-

are designated 200 and each slab is formed to provide a projecting portion 201 which extends the desired distance beyond the lower wall course here designated as 202, the upper wall course being designated 203.

Angle bars 204 and headed bolts 205 are employed to secure the floor slabs to the lower wall course, and similar angle bars 206 and headed bolts 20'? are employed to secure the slabs of the upper wall course to the slabs of the floor course, and the angle bars arepreferably set in recesses such as 208 as in the heretofore described form of the invention.

The upper ends of the slabs which form in the wall courses may be provided with a projecting head or the like 54 which is adapted for reception within a groove or the like in the under face of the floor slabs, and interposed between the upper ends of the slabs of the lower wall course and under face of the several floor slabs there is inserted a layer 56 of suitable waterproofing material such as tarred paper or the like.

The lower ends of the wall slabs may be formed in their end face with a groove or the like 57 which receives a bead 58 upon the upper faces of the floor slabs, and interposed between the lower ends of the slabs of the upper wall course and the upper face of the slabs of the floor course, there is a layer 60 of suitable waterproofing material such as tar paper. This construction provides a weatherproof joint between the upper faces of the floor slabs and the lower ends of the wall slabs where they engage the floor slabs.

The joints between the wall slabs are best illustrated in Figure '7 and as will be noted by reference to this figure, each of the side edges of the wall slabs 22 is formed with relatively deep grooves 60 which are substantially centrally disposed, and upon each side of each of the grooves 60 in each slab, there is a relatively smaller or shallower groove 61.

When the wall slabs 22 are placed in wall forming position, the several grooves 60 and 61 in one slab coincide with those in the adjacent slab to form substantially circular channels extending along the meeting faces of the edges of the wall slabs, the centrally disposed circular channel being the largest in diameter.

The wall slabs being placed in position, and held by the angle bars 45, dams 62 in the form of plugs preferably of wood are driven into the channels formed by the grooves 61, and these dams close the ends of the space between the meeting edges of two slabs. Grout or similar sealing medium is now poured into the space between the meeting edges of the wall slabs, which sealing medium forms a lock between the individual wall slabs, and also secures the dams 62 against accidental displacement. In some cases, it may be desirable to insert a reinforcing element in the form of a rod or the like 63 in the space formed by the larger grooves 60, for the purpose of packing the sealing medium more thoroughly into place.

In a similar manner, the vertical joints between the floor slabs may be weatherproofed, and this feature of the invention is illustrated in Figure 13. Referring to said figure, 65 designates the joint between the floor slabs 33, and at a point which falls beneath the wall slabs, as indicated by the dotted lines 66, the side edges of the floor slabs are provided with a relatively large groove 67, and relatively smaller grooves 68, which, when the floor slabs are properly positioned, form one relatively large channel, and two relatively small channels which extend vertically of the side edges of the slabs. Dams 69 are inserted in the relatively small channels, and suitable sealing medium such as grout poured into the space between the side edges of the floor slabs to fill the space betweenthe meetingfaces of the floor slabs, and forming a key to lock the same together. The dams 69 are preferably left in position and they also serve as keys between the floor slabs, they being held against movement by the sealing medium.

The inner ends of the floor slabs rest on top of the partitions, and where the ends of two floor slabs meet, they may be secured together by means of bolts. This construction is illustrated in Figures 10 and 11 and preferably consists of a T-beam '70 mounted on the upper edge of the partition in inverted position. The ends of the floor slabs rest upon the arms of the beam, and the stem '71 of the beam extends upwardly between the floor slabs. Grout or similar sealing medium '72 is then filled in between the ends of the floor slabs to fill the joint. A bolt '73 is preferably passed through the alined openings 39 to secure the ends of the floor slabs and the T-beam '70 together as a unitary rigid structure.

In Figure 15 there is illustrated a slightly modified form of partition wall and floor slab construction, and in this form of construction, the T-beams '70 are eliminated, the floor slabs resting directly upon the upper ends of the slabs which form the partition walls, angle bars 210 being also employed. The angle bars 210 may be secured to the partition walls 211 by bolts 212, and to each other through the floor slabs by bolts 214. Suitable sealing medium such as 215 may also be employed in this form of the invention.

The rabbeted edges 40 heretofore described form grooves for the reception of a suitable sealing medium '74 which together with the sealing medium 72 serves to provide a smooth floor surface upon the upper face of the floor course.

A bolt 73 may be inserted in each set of alined openings 39, or if desired, certain of these bolts may be omitted in which case the openings 39 may be employed, to receive and support electricity conducting cables, and thus keep said cables within the thickness of the floor course.

In Figure 16 there is illustrated a slightly modified form of floor slab in which nailing strips 300 and 301 are provided. The nailing strips 300 are seated in recesses formed in the abutting edges of floor slabs and held in position by wood screws or the like 302 which are positioned between theabutting edges of the floor slabs, and which may have their heads covered with grout or the like 303. The nailing strips 301 are secured in position by threaded bolts or the like 304 which are threaded into internally threaded metallic inserts 305 carried in the floor slabs.

The roof course it is to be understood will be preferably flat, and is not herein illustrated since it is of substantially the same construction as a floor course and is formed of slabs which are secured in position as are the slabs which form the floor courses, and the parapet wall may be formed of slabs which are secured in position in the same manner as are the wall forming slabs.

Thus it will be apparent that the present invention provides a novel construction of 'concrete building in which the building is formed for pre-cast slabs, which may be manufactured at a point remote from the building location, transferred to the building and readily erected to form a building in comparatively little time, and which building will be both substantial and attractive.

While the invention has been herein illustrated in a preferred form, it is to be understood that it is not to be limited to the exact construction and details herein illustrated, and that it may be practiced in many other forms which fall within the perview of the appended cl ims.

Having thus described the vention, what is claimed as new, and what it is desired to secure by United States Letters Patent, is;

1. A concrete building construction comprising a foundation course, reinforcing elements in said foundation course, attaching elements connected to said reinforcing elements and projecting through the foundation in a lateral plane, angle bars extending along the upper edge of said foundation, a wall course formed of reinforced pre-cast slabs, resting on end on said foundation, means for connecting the reinforcing elements of the foundation with the reinforcing elements of the slabs of the wall course through said attaching elements, a floor course supported upon the upper edge of the wall course, a second wall course formed of reinforced pre-cast slabs supported on said floor course, and means for connecting the reinforcing elements of the slabs of the wall courses through said floor course.

2. In a building construction, superimposed wall courses, a floor course interposed between said superimposed wall courses, reinforcing elements extending vertically of the wall courses, inserts extending laterally of the wall courses to the edge, floor course supporting elements, means for securing the floor course supporting elements tosaid inserts and means for securing the floor course to said floor course supporting elements.

3. In a building construction, superimposed wall courses, a floor course, reinforcing elements embedded in said wall courses, socketed inserts connected to and extending angularly from the reinforcing elements to the outer edge of the wall courses, angle irons between which the floor course is positioned, means engaging the socketed inserts for securing the angle irons to their respective wall course, and means for securing said floor course to said angle irons.

' RUSSELL C. OLMSTED.

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Cited By (30)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2490537A (en) * 1942-02-27 1949-12-06 Wilbur V Myer Building construction
US2497887A (en) * 1943-06-30 1950-02-21 Hilpert Meler George Paneled building construction
US2499886A (en) * 1945-05-24 1950-03-07 Grace M Stevens Concrete building construction
US3258888A (en) * 1962-06-13 1966-07-05 Quon C Lum Building structure and method of erecting same
US3260025A (en) * 1960-05-30 1966-07-12 Lely Nv C Van Der Precompressed vertically stacked, prefabricated building elements
US3323265A (en) * 1963-08-02 1967-06-06 Kongskilde Maskinfabrik As Container with connecting elements for the wall portions
US3377755A (en) * 1963-01-24 1968-04-16 Stucky Fritz Christoph Prefabricated building units including prestressed floor panels with upstanding end members connected by tension means
US3436892A (en) * 1966-01-07 1969-04-08 Haim Slavin Method of producing concrete panel assemblies
US3643814A (en) * 1969-09-12 1972-02-22 Mcneil Corp Storage racks
US3736709A (en) * 1971-07-13 1973-06-05 Techcrete Inc Building system
FR2163334A1 (en) * 1971-12-14 1973-07-27 Louise Gerard
US3984956A (en) * 1973-12-20 1976-10-12 Pont-A-Mousson S.A. Casing voussoir
US4211043A (en) * 1978-01-06 1980-07-08 Coday Jerry F Precast concrete building module form
US4646495A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-03-03 Rachil Chalik Composite load-bearing system for modular buildings
US4697398A (en) * 1985-11-25 1987-10-06 Luigi Granieri Multistoried aseismic building made of modular panels
US5283999A (en) * 1991-06-14 1994-02-08 Novatek International, Inc. Prefabricated panel for building construction
US5473849A (en) * 1992-05-28 1995-12-12 Materials Technology, Limited Building wall and method of constructing same
US5660020A (en) * 1994-08-26 1997-08-26 Engineering Certifiers Limited Method of construction using pre-cast floor units
US5887405A (en) * 1994-09-22 1999-03-30 Carranza-Aubry; Rene Precast integral structure elements and procedure for the fast construction of buildings with such elements
US6076319A (en) * 1995-10-03 2000-06-20 Hendershot; Gary L. Precast concrete construction and construction method
US6223480B1 (en) * 1995-09-08 2001-05-01 O-Stable Panel Sdn Bhd Pre-cast concrete panels for construction of a building
US20020000506A1 (en) * 1998-04-30 2002-01-03 Tian Khoo Pre-cast concrete panels for construction of a building
US20040139674A1 (en) * 1998-06-09 2004-07-22 Dilorenzo Nick Concrete panel construction system
US20060137269A1 (en) * 2004-11-26 2006-06-29 Nick Di Lorenzo Concrete panel construction system and method of making panels
US20060150550A1 (en) * 2005-01-12 2006-07-13 Summers Thomas S Fully integrated precast concrete construction including provisions for insulation and all services-HVAC, plumbing, lighting etc.
GB2441134A (en) * 2006-08-23 2008-02-27 Mehdi Robert Teers Pre-cast concrete building system with dry-form assembly methods
US20100050547A1 (en) * 2004-07-05 2010-03-04 Sota Glazing, Inc Hybrid window wall/curtain wall system and method of installation
US20120005976A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2012-01-12 Michael Leonard Modular foundation system and method
US9399867B2 (en) 2009-04-07 2016-07-26 Millwick Acquisition Corp. Concrete panel corner connection
WO2020038871A1 (en) * 2018-08-23 2020-02-27 Laing O'rourke Plc Precast building construction system

Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2490537A (en) * 1942-02-27 1949-12-06 Wilbur V Myer Building construction
US2497887A (en) * 1943-06-30 1950-02-21 Hilpert Meler George Paneled building construction
US2499886A (en) * 1945-05-24 1950-03-07 Grace M Stevens Concrete building construction
US3260025A (en) * 1960-05-30 1966-07-12 Lely Nv C Van Der Precompressed vertically stacked, prefabricated building elements
US3258888A (en) * 1962-06-13 1966-07-05 Quon C Lum Building structure and method of erecting same
US3377755A (en) * 1963-01-24 1968-04-16 Stucky Fritz Christoph Prefabricated building units including prestressed floor panels with upstanding end members connected by tension means
US3323265A (en) * 1963-08-02 1967-06-06 Kongskilde Maskinfabrik As Container with connecting elements for the wall portions
US3436892A (en) * 1966-01-07 1969-04-08 Haim Slavin Method of producing concrete panel assemblies
US3643814A (en) * 1969-09-12 1972-02-22 Mcneil Corp Storage racks
US3736709A (en) * 1971-07-13 1973-06-05 Techcrete Inc Building system
FR2163334A1 (en) * 1971-12-14 1973-07-27 Louise Gerard
US3984956A (en) * 1973-12-20 1976-10-12 Pont-A-Mousson S.A. Casing voussoir
US4211043A (en) * 1978-01-06 1980-07-08 Coday Jerry F Precast concrete building module form
US4646495A (en) * 1984-12-17 1987-03-03 Rachil Chalik Composite load-bearing system for modular buildings
US4697398A (en) * 1985-11-25 1987-10-06 Luigi Granieri Multistoried aseismic building made of modular panels
US5283999A (en) * 1991-06-14 1994-02-08 Novatek International, Inc. Prefabricated panel for building construction
US5473849A (en) * 1992-05-28 1995-12-12 Materials Technology, Limited Building wall and method of constructing same
US5660020A (en) * 1994-08-26 1997-08-26 Engineering Certifiers Limited Method of construction using pre-cast floor units
US5887405A (en) * 1994-09-22 1999-03-30 Carranza-Aubry; Rene Precast integral structure elements and procedure for the fast construction of buildings with such elements
US6223480B1 (en) * 1995-09-08 2001-05-01 O-Stable Panel Sdn Bhd Pre-cast concrete panels for construction of a building
US6076319A (en) * 1995-10-03 2000-06-20 Hendershot; Gary L. Precast concrete construction and construction method
US20020000506A1 (en) * 1998-04-30 2002-01-03 Tian Khoo Pre-cast concrete panels for construction of a building
US7121520B2 (en) 1998-04-30 2006-10-17 O-Stable Panel Sdn. Bhd. Pre-cast concrete panels for construction of a building
US20040139674A1 (en) * 1998-06-09 2004-07-22 Dilorenzo Nick Concrete panel construction system
US20100050547A1 (en) * 2004-07-05 2010-03-04 Sota Glazing, Inc Hybrid window wall/curtain wall system and method of installation
US7827746B2 (en) * 2004-07-05 2010-11-09 Sota Glazing, Inc. Hybrid window wall/curtain wall system and method of installation
US20060137269A1 (en) * 2004-11-26 2006-06-29 Nick Di Lorenzo Concrete panel construction system and method of making panels
US20060150550A1 (en) * 2005-01-12 2006-07-13 Summers Thomas S Fully integrated precast concrete construction including provisions for insulation and all services-HVAC, plumbing, lighting etc.
GB2441134A (en) * 2006-08-23 2008-02-27 Mehdi Robert Teers Pre-cast concrete building system with dry-form assembly methods
US20120005976A1 (en) * 2009-02-25 2012-01-12 Michael Leonard Modular foundation system and method
US8627623B2 (en) * 2009-02-25 2014-01-14 Michael Leonard Modular foundation system and method
US9399867B2 (en) 2009-04-07 2016-07-26 Millwick Acquisition Corp. Concrete panel corner connection
WO2020038871A1 (en) * 2018-08-23 2020-02-27 Laing O'rourke Plc Precast building construction system

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