Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20080154246A1
US20080154246A1 US12016556 US1655608A US2008154246A1 US 20080154246 A1 US20080154246 A1 US 20080154246A1 US 12016556 US12016556 US 12016556 US 1655608 A US1655608 A US 1655608A US 2008154246 A1 US2008154246 A1 US 2008154246A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
grip
end
master
slave
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
US12016556
Other versions
US7778733B2 (en )
Inventor
William C. Nowlin
Gary S. Guthart
Robert G. Younge
Thomas G. Cooper
Craig Gerbi
Stephen J. Blumenkranz
Dean F. Hoornaert
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Intuitive Surgical Operations Inc
Original Assignee
Intuitive Surgical Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/70Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/76Manipulators having means for providing feel, e.g. force or tactile feedback
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/30Surgical robots
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/30Surgical robots
    • A61B34/37Master-slave robots
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/70Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1679Programme controls characterised by the tasks executed
    • B25J9/1689Teleoperation
    • G16H50/50
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00477Coupling
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/30Surgical robots
    • A61B2034/305Details of wrist mechanisms at distal ends of robotic arms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/50Supports for surgical instruments, e.g. articulated arms
    • A61B2090/506Supports for surgical instruments, e.g. articulated arms using a parallelogram linkage, e.g. panthograph
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • A61B90/361Image-producing devices, e.g. surgical cameras
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/36Nc in input of data, input key till input tape
    • G05B2219/36455Sensor, tactile feedback, operator feels forces of tool on workpiece
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/37Measurements
    • G05B2219/37396Tactile feedback, operator feels reaction, force reflection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/40Robotics, robotics mapping to robotics vision
    • G05B2219/40146Telepresence, teletaction, sensor feedback from slave to operator
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/45Nc applications
    • G05B2219/45169Medical, rontgen, x ray

Abstract

Surgical robots and other telepresence systems have enhanced grip actuation for manipulating tissues and objects with small sizes. A master/slave system is used in which an error signal or gain is artificially altered when grip members are near a closed configuration.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    The present application claims the benefit of provisional application No. 60/128,157, filed Apr. 7, 1999, under 37 C.F.R. §1.78, the full disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention is related to medical devices, systems, and methods, and is also relevant to robotic devices, systems, and methods for their use in medical and other robotic applications. In one embodiment, the invention provides a grip actuation system within a master/slave robot arrangement to give a system operator tactile feedback of grip strength when gripping small objects.
  • [0003]
    Minimally invasive surgical techniques are intended to reduce the amount of an extraneous tissue which is damaged during diagnostic or surgical procedures. By reducing the trauma to surrounding tissues, patient recovery time, discomfort, and deleterious side effects can be reduced. While many surgeries are performed each year in the United States, and although many of these surgeries could potentially be performed in a minimally invasive manner, only a relatively small percentage of surgeries currently use the new minimally invasive techniques now being developed. This may be in part due to limitations in minimally invasive surgical instruments and techniques, as well as the additional surgical training involved in mastering these techniques.
  • [0004]
    While known minimally invasive surgical techniques hold great promise, there are significant disadvantages which have, to date, limited the applications for these promising techniques. For example, the standard laparoscopic instruments used in many minimally invasive procedures do not provide the surgeon the flexibility of tool placement found in open surgery. Additionally, manipulation of delicate and sensitive tissues can be difficult while manipulating these long-handled tools from outside the body. Many surgical procedures are complicated by the limited access provided to the surgical site, in which tools and viewing scopes are often inserted through narrow cannulae, all while viewing the procedure in a monitor which is often positioned at a significantly different angle than the patient.
  • [0005]
    To overcome these disadvantages, minimally invasive telesurgical systems are now being developed. These systems will increase a surgeon's dexterity and effectiveness within constrained internal surgical sites. In a robotic surgery system, an image of the surgical site can be displayed adjacent master input devices. The system operator will manually manipulate these input devices, thereby controlling the motion of robotic surgical instruments. A servomechanism will generally move surgical end effectors in response to the operator's manipulation of the input devices, ideally providing translation, rotation, and grip actuation modes. As the servomechanism moves the surgical end effectors in response to movement of the input devices, the system operator retains control over the surgical procedure. The servomechanism may move the devices in position and orientation, and a processor of the servomechanism can transform the inputs from the system operator so that the end effector movements, as displayed to the system operator at the master control station, follow the position and orientation of the input devices as perceived by the system operator. This provides the system operator with a sense of “telepresence” at the internal surgical site.
  • [0006]
    The robotic surgical systems now being developed show tremendous promise for increasing the number and types of surgeries which may be performed in a minimally invasive manner. Nonetheless, these known systems could benefit from still further improvements. For example, although force feedback systems for robotic surgery have been proposed, the added cost and complexity of these proposed force feedback systems has often limited their implementation. Additionally, work in connection with the present invention has shown that known force reflecting master/slave robotic arrangements without force sensors may not be ideal for implementation of tactile feedback to the system operator in all the actuation modes within a telesurgical system, particularly in grip.
  • [0007]
    In light of the above, it would be desirable to provide improved surgical devices, systems, and methods. It would also be desirable to provide improved robotic devices, systems, and methods, both for use in robotic surgical systems and other robotic applications. It would be beneficial if these improvements enhanced the operator's control over, and tactile feedback from, the robotic end effectors. It would further be desirable if these improvements did not unnecessarily complicate the system, and if these improved techniques recognized differences between grip and other actuation modes that might justify specialized grip systems.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention provides improved robotic devices, systems, and methods, particularly for use in telesurgical systems. In general, the invention provides an improved master/slave arrangement for enhanced telepresence, particularly for grip actuation within a multiple degree of freedom telepresence system. By applying the present invention, slave grip strength can be enhanced and/or tailored when master grip elements approach their closed configuration, rather than relying on gripping forces which are only a function of position error.
  • [0009]
    The invention provides an enhanced sense of feel by using a programmable grip strength amplification, generally without having to resort to slave force sensors. Instead, a grip error signal can be artificially altered beginning at a predetermined grip configuration. For example, where a grip input handle includes first and second grip members that move relative to each other to define a variable grip separation, and where an end effector similarly includes first and second elements defining a variable end effector separation, when above a predetermined grip separation, actuation of the grip members will preferably result in one-to-one corresponding actuation of end effector elements. This allows, for example, a robotic surgical system operator to change the separation angle of the jaws of a surgical forceps by corresponding changes to a separation angle of an input handle. In many embodiments, contact between the elements of the forceps may begin just as the gripping members pass the predetermined grip member separation (assuming the jaws are free to move with negligible tissue or other matter between the jaw elements). Continuing to squeeze the grip members beyond this predetermined point can quickly impose the maximum allowable gripping force on the jaws, thereby allowing the jaws to squeeze very small or thin objects such as sutures, tissue membranes, and the like, without having to push the grip members to an unnatural angle. In the exemplary embodiment, a biasing spring assembly may be provided between the grip members, with the grip members beginning to compress the spring assembly just as they pass the predetermined grip enhancement point. This provides tactile feedback to the robotic system operator indicating that the enhanced grip strength is being applied, and can simulate the resilient deflection of handles (such as the handles of a medical forceps or hemostat) felt when squeezing a small object using a traditional surgical tool.
  • [0010]
    In a first aspect, the invention provides a method comprising squeezing first and second grip members together with a hand of an operator. First and second end effector elements are moved in response to the squeezing of the grip members according to a control relationship. The control relationship is altered when the grip members are near a closed configuration.
  • [0011]
    The end effectors will often be moved by applying following forces in response to a misalignment between a grip separation (between grip members) and an end effector separation (between end effector elements). The separations may comprise angles, linear distances, vectors, or the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the moving step can be effected by measuring separations between the grip members and between the instrument elements. The end effector elements can then be moved by producing an error signal from a comparison between the measured grip separation and the measured instrument separation. The error signal will typically be enhanced when the grip members are adjacent a closed configuration. More specifically, the error signal may be enhanced by artificially altering the measured grip separation, preferably according to a continuous invertible function By selecting a function which only alters the measured grip separation below a predetermined value, the end effector elements can follow the grip members with a one-to-one correspondence when the grip members are relatively wide open. In this relatively wide configuration, while it is generally desirable to have one-to-one following when no forces are applied against the end effectors, it may be acceptable to have significant angular misalignment (for example) between the grip members and the end effector elements when imposing high gripping forces. However, by increasing the sensitivity of the system to misalignment (and hence the grip strength) once the grip members come closer together, the instrument elements can apply the maximum gripping forces against a very small gripped object (such as a suture) without requiring the system operator to push the gripping elements together to an unnatural “overclosed” configuration.
  • [0012]
    Tactile feedback to the system operator of the altered gripping forces may be provided by driving the gripping members in response to the member/element misalignment using a reciprocal master/slave arrangement, and by altering the master error signal when the slave is nearer the closed position, ideally so as to provide a servo-mechanism with overall stiffness matching that of a desired tool. Alternatively, a simple feed forward system can provide tactile feedback to the operator by including a biasing mechanism in the gripping structure. This biasing mechanism can impose different reactive forces against the operator's hand beginning at the predetermined force enhancement point or biasing transition point.
  • [0013]
    In another aspect, the invention provides a robotic system comprising a master controller having a biasing system and first and second grip members defining a grip separation. The biasing system urges the grip members apart (typically with a varying force) so as to define a predetermined grip separation. A slave has first and second end effector elements, and defines an end effector separation therebetween. A servomechanism couples the end effector elements to the grip elements and applies a following force to the end effector elements. The servomechanism applies a first following force when the grip is wider than the predetermined separation, and a second following force when narrower than the predetermined grip separation. The biasing system thereby provides tactile feedback to the operator of a change in grip strength. In some embodiments, the biasing system comprises a variable rate spring which provides a varied tactile feedback at a biasing transition point.
  • [0014]
    The master controller will often be moveable with a plurality of positional and/or orientational degrees of freedom. The servomechanism may move the slave in a corresponding plurality of degrees of freedom in response to the positional and/or orientational movement of the master. In many embodiments, the positional and orientational force rates imposed by the servomechanism may remain substantially uniform throughout positional and orientational ranges of motion, the forces typically being based on the master/slave misalignment, or positional and orientational difference between the master and slave. In other words, the enhanced grip of the present invention may be specifically applied to actuation in the gripping mode.
  • [0015]
    The separation between the grip members and/or end effector elements will often comprise angular openings, although they may alternatively comprise linear separations between parallelogram linkages, or the like. These enhanced grip force techniques are particularly useful for actuating the jaws of surgical instruments such as forceps, scissors, clip appliers, clamps, or the like. Advantageously, the system may be capable of applying enhanced following forces which are tailored to the strengths and/or intended uses of these differing surgical tools, allowing these differing end effectors to be detached and sequentially secured to the servomechanism without having to alter the master controller.
  • [0016]
    In yet another aspect, the invention provides a robotic system comprising a master controller producing a master position signal in response to a position of the master along a first degree of freedom. A slave end effector produces a slave position signal in response to a position of the end effector along a first degree of freedom. The slave has a constraint limiting movement in the first slave degree of freedom. The end effector moves in response to an error signal; The error signal is defined at least in part by a difference between the master position signal and the slave position signal. A processor couples the master to the slave. The processor enhances the error signal when the slave is adjacent the constraint.
  • [0017]
    In another aspect, the invention provides a surgical robotic system comprising a master controller having first and second grip members defining a grip separation. An end effector having first and second end effectors is coupled to an actuator such that actuation of the end effector decreases the end effector separation. A processor is operatively coupled to the master controller and to the actuator such that when the amount of end effector separation is above a certain separation value, a decrease in the grip separation of the master controller controls the amount of end effector separation When the end effector separation reaches a certain separation value, a further decrease in the grip separation controls the amount of force applied by the end effector.
  • [0018]
    In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a surgical robotic system comprising a master controller having first and second grip members that define a grip separation. An end effector having first and second end effectors and an end effector separation between the first and second end effectors is coupled to an actuator such that actuation of the end effector decreases the end effector separation. A processor is operatively coupled to the master controller and to the actuator such that when the end effector separation is above a certain separation value, a decrease of the grip separation of the master controller controls the amount of end effector separation. Upon the grip separation reaching a certain separation value, a further decrease of the grip separation controls the amount of force applied by the end effector.
  • [0019]
    Other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0020]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a master controller workstation according to the principles of the present invention.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 2 is a front view of a master controller input device for use in the workstation of FIG. 1.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a gimbal supporting and providing orientational degrees of freedom to first and second grip members of the input device illustrated in FIG. 2.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 4 is a patient side robotic surgical slave including first and second robotic arms for first and second surgical tools and a third arm for an endoscope, for use with the workstation of FIG. 1.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 5 schematically illustrates a parallelogram linkage providing a remote center of spherical rotation using the slave of FIG. 4.
  • [0025]
    FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a surgical manipulator incorporating the linkage of FIG. 5 for use in the robotic slave of FIG. 4.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 7 is an endoscopic tool for use by the slave of FIG. 4.
  • [0027]
    FIGS. 8A through F are perspective views of a variety of alternative end effectors for the tool of FIG. 7.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 9A is a functional block diagram schematically illustrating a master/slave arrangement for manipulating the position and orientation of robotic end effectors.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 9A i through 9Aiv schematically illustrate master/slave following forces applied to grip different size objects.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 9B is a functional block diagram schematically illustrating a master/slave arrangement providing an enhanced grip strength according to the principles of the present invention, in which the master is driven so as to provide tactile feedback to the system operator of the enhanced grip forces.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 9C is an alternative functional block diagram schematically illustrating an enhanced grip force master/slave arrangement in which the mechanical biasing mechanism provides tactile feedback to the system operator.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 10 graphically illustrates a function for artificially enhancing an error signal when the grip members are below a predetermined position.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 10A graphically illustrates a function for enhancing tactile feedback using the reciprocal master/slave arrangement of FIG. 9B.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 10B graphically illustrates corresponding grip and end effector forces.
  • [0035]
    FIGS. 11A through 11B schematically illustrate the use and design of a biasing system to provide tactile feedback of an enhanced grip actuation force.
  • [0036]
    FIGS. 11C i and 11Cii illustrate the biasing system having two springs for providing tactile feedback of an enhanced grip actuation force.
  • [0037]
    FIGS. 11D i and 11Dii illustrate the biasing system having a variable rate spring for providing tactile feedback of an enhanced grip actuation force.
  • [0038]
    FIGS. 11E i and 11Eii illustrate an alternative biasing system having a variable rate spring for providing tactile feedback of an enhanced grip actuation force.
  • [0039]
    FIGS. 11F i and 11Fii illustrate yet another biasing system having a variable rate spring for providing tactile feedback of an enhanced grip actuation force.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 12 schematically illustrates a master/slave control system according to the principles of the present invention.
  • [0041]
    FIGS. 13A through C are graphic representations of computer code for implementing the control system of FIG. 12.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS
  • [0042]
    This application is related to the following patents and patent applications, the full disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference: PCT International Application No. PCT/US98/19508, entitled “Robotic Apparatus”, filed on Sep. 18, 1998, U.S. application Ser. No. 09/418,726, entitled “Surgical Robotic Tools, Data Architecture, and Use”, filed on Dec. 6, 1999; U.S. application Ser. No. 09/398,507, entitled “Master Having Redundant Degrees of Freedom”, filed Sep. 17, 1999, U.S. application Ser. No. 09/457,406, entitled “Image Shifting Apparatus & Method for a Telerobotic System”, filed on Dec. 7, 1999; U.S. application Ser. No. 09/378,173 entitled “Stereo Imaging System for Use in Telerobotic Systems”, filed on Aug. 20, 1999; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,808,665, entitled “Endoscopic Surgical Instrument and Method for Use”, issued on Sep. 15, 1998; the full disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0043]
    The present invention provides improved robotic and surgery devices, systems and methods. The invention will find application in a wide variety of robotic systems, particularly those which include master/slave arrangements. The techniques of the present invention allow an operator to control the angle (or other separation measurement) between end effector elements by manually gripping an input device so as to vary the angle (or other separation measurement) between the input members. Advantageously, the invention allows a standard input device to drive a variety of end effector jaws, providing both a one-to-one angular correspondence throughout much of the travel and a programmable following force when the jaws are in a closed configuration, without having to over actuate the gripping members to an unnatural angle. The invention may also find applications for actuation in other modes in which motion of the slave is constrained, for example, movement of a single pinching element against a static structure. In other words, the invention may find application in providing enhanced telepresence for manufacturing, operation in hazardous environments such as nuclear power plants, chemical or biochemical processing, mining, or other robotic applications. Nonetheless, the invention will find its most immediate application to enhance robotic assisted surgery or telesurgery, in which the system operator manipulates tissues at an internal surgical site from outside the body.
  • [0044]
    The following preferred embodiments generally describe a master-slave relationship in which slave actuation is controlled by a master controller. For a portion of the actuation range of the slave (e.g., end effectors), the slave's position is controlled by the master controller with substantially no change in applied force. At a certain point, whether a predetermined threshold position of the master or slave or a sensed position of the slave against an object, the master slave control regime can shift from position control (or following control) to force control, in which the force applied by the slave increases in response to further actuation of the master without substantially changing the position of the slave.
  • [0045]
    Referring now to FIG. 1, an exemplary surgical workstation 10 includes workspace 12 disposed adjacent a display 14. In this embodiment, the display comprises a binocular stereoscopic viewing system which superimposes a view of the internal surgical site (taken through an endoscope) over workspace 12. The surgeon or other system operator manually manipulates input devices by moving and repositioning input devices within workspace 12. In addition to the primary master control input devices moveably supported within workspace 12, workstation 10 may include buttons mounted on support 16, foot pedals 18, voice recognition input microphones, or the like.
  • [0046]
    Workstation 10 can house a processor that interprets the inputs from the system operator and provides signals directing movement of the surgical end effectors. Preferably, the processor maintains registration between the position and orientation of the master controller moving within workspace 12 and the end effectors as displayed by display 14, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,808,665, the full disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. Although registration between the master input controllers and the images of the end effector shown in display 14 enhances the operator's control and dexterity during delicate procedures, the present invention encompasses systems in which the display is offset from workspace 12.
  • [0047]
    A master control input device 20 for use in workspace 12 is illustrated in FIG. 2. For understanding the present invention, master controller 20 may be considered to generally include three components. First, an arm 22 has a base 24 which is mounted to a housing of workstation 10. Arm 22 includes a series of linkages coupled by joints allowing a platform 26 of the arm to move in the three-dimensional workspace 12. In other words, arm 22 moves with three positional degrees of freedom, allowing the system operator to position a surgical end effector.
  • [0048]
    The second major component of the master input device 20 is a gimbal assembly 28. The gimbal assembly is mounted to platform 26, and supports an input handle 30 having first and second grip members 30 a, 30 b. Gimbal 28 generally accommodates changes in orientation of handle 30 with three orientational degrees of freedom.
  • [0049]
    Handle 30, and in particular, gripping members 30 a and 30 b (see FIG. 3) represent the third major component of master input device 20. In the exemplary embodiment, motors of arm 22 and gimbal 28 are capable of actively applying positional and orientational forces to handle 30, thereby providing tactile feedback to the operator using a reciprocal master/slave arrangement as described hereinbelow.
  • [0050]
    Gimbal 28 and handle 30 are illustrated more clearly in FIG. 3. In this exemplary embodiment, gimbal 28 includes links 32 a, 32 b, and 32 c. Gimbal 28 is mounted to platform 26 so as to rotate about axis 34 a, and links 32 define additional axes 34 b and 34 c. Handle 30 is mounted to gimbal 28 by yet another actively driven joint for motion about axis 34 d. Hence, gimbal 28 provides four driven orientational degrees of freedom, including a redundant orientational degree of freedom. Gimbal 28, arm 22, and the driving motors for these joints are described in more detail in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/398,507, entitled “Master Having Redundant Degrees of Freedom”, filed Sep. 17, 1999, the full disclosure of which was previously incorporated by reference.
  • [0051]
    Unlike the joints of gimbal 28 and arm 22, grip members 30 a and 30 b of handle 30 pivot passively about an axis 36 with no drive motor provided for feedback from the slave. In the exemplary embodiment, a Hall effect transducer is mounted in one of the grip members and a magnet is mounted in the other, so that handle 30 generates a grip signal indicating the angular separation between grip members 30 a and 30 b. A biasing system urges the grip members apart, and the grip members may include loops of Velcro™ or the like to more firmly position the gripping members relative to a thumb and finger of the system operator. A wide variety of grip member structures might be used within the scope of the invention, including any surgical instrument handles, optionally including rigid or flexible loops for the thumb and/or fingers.
  • [0052]
    An exemplary embodiment of a patient-side robotic slave assembly is illustrated in FIG. 4. A patient-side cart 40 here includes three independent set-up joints 42 supporting robotic manipulators 44 relative to a base 46. Set-up joints 42 include arms which move vertically and horizontally to position manipulators 44 relative to the patient. Set-up joints 42 further include orientational degrees of freedom for orienting the manipulators. The set-ups joints will generally be manually positioned and then locked during manipulation of tissue.
  • [0053]
    The use and structure of manipulators 44 can be understood with reference to FIGS. 4 through 6. Manipulators 44 move surgical tools 46 (see FIG. 7) about a fixed location or remote center of spherical rotation 48 using a parallelogram linkage arrangement. Remote center 48 remains at a fixed location relative to a base of the manipulator. By aligning remote center 48 with a cannula or other small axis point into an internal surgical site, and by mounting tool 46 onto manipulator 44 so that the tool can slide along shaft 50 of the tool, the manipulator can position a distal end 52 of the tool within the internal surgical site with three positional degrees of freedom. The use and structure of manipulator 44 is further explained in U.S. Pat. No. 5,800,423, the full disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0054]
    While a manipulator 44 providing a remote center of rotation is included in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it should be understood that a wide variety of alternative robotic arms and actuation mechanisms might be provided For example, a slightly different manipulator 45 supports endoscope 47 in the slave system illustrated in FIG. 4. Endoscope manipulator 45 need not include actuation motors for actuation of the wrist and end effector elements. Still further alternatives are possible, including systems making use of a natural center, a passive joint which allows rotation about the cannula through the abdominal wall, as illustrated in the U.S. Pat. No. 5,184,601, the full disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0055]
    An exemplary robotic surgical tool is illustrated in FIG. 7. Tools 46 includes a proximal housing 54 which interfaces with manipulator 44. Housing 54 includes mechanical interface elements for actuation of a surgical end effector 56 using motors mounted on the manipulator and cables extending along shaft 50. End effector 56 is coupled to distal end 52 of shaft 50 by a wrist 58. Preferably, wrist 58 provides at least two degrees of freedom, while shaft 50 is rotatable about its axis relative to housing 54, thereby providing three orientational degrees of freedom for surgical end effector 56 within the internal surgical site.
  • [0056]
    A variety of alternative end effectors for alternative tools are illustrated in FIGS. 8A through 8F. Several of these end effectors, including DeBakey forceps 56 i, microforceps 56 ii, Potts scissors 56 iii, and clip applier 56 iv include first and second end effector elements 56 a, 56 b which pivot relative to each other so as to define a pair of end effector jaws. Other end effectors, including scalpel 56 v and electrocautery probe 56 vi have a single end effector element. While the varying actuation force of the present invention may find applications with end effectors having a single element, particularly where the element will be used at or near a constraint of movement of the element, the enhanced following forces of the present invention are particularly advantageous for use with end effectors defined by multiple end effector elements. In some embodiments, the tools or end effectors can be recognized by the system through reading of a memory mounted on the tool. make use of a memory structure mounted on the tool. The memory can perform a number of important functions when the tool is loaded on the tool manipulator. First, the memory can provide a signal verifying that the tool is compatible with that particular robotic system. Second, the tool memory may identify the tool-type (whether it is a scalpel, needle grasper, jaws, scissors, clip applier, electrocartery blade, or the like) to the robotic system so that the robotic system can reconfigure its programming to take full advantage of the tools' specialized capabilities. Exemplary surgical robotic tools, tool/manipulator interface structures, and data transfer between the tools and servomechanism is more fully described in U.S. patent application No. 09/418,726, entitled “Surgical Robotic Tools, Data Architecture, and Use”, filed on Dec. 6, 1999, the full disclosure of which was previously incorporated by reference.
  • [0057]
    Referring now to FIG. 9A, a reciprocal master/slave arrangement is used for actuation of manipulator 44 to provide orientation and positioning of end effector 56 in response to movement of handle 30 of the input controller 20. It should be understood that the various master and slave positions θ may comprise vectors (in Cartesian space, polar space, joint space, or the like) as well as simple angles or linear separations, and the kinematic chains of the master and slave may be quite different, often even having different degrees of freedom. To provide force feedback to the operator, the master input device is actively driven by its motors toward alignment with the position occupied by slave 44. The amount of following force applied by the operator on the slave (and the reciprocal feedback on the operator's hand) are a function of a misalignment between a position (and orientation) of the master input device and a position (and orientation) of the slave end effector.
  • [0058]
    As illustrated schematically in FIG. 9A, master input device 20 defines an actual master position θm a. This actual position of the master is fed into the slave portion of the controller as a desired slave position θs d. The amount of force applied by the end effectors of the slave will vary with the difference between the desired position of the slave θs d and the actual position of the slave θs a, with the following force on the end effectors increasing with increasing misalignment between the actual and desired positions, often with a proportional relationship.
  • [0059]
    To provide force feedback to the operator manipulating the master input device 20, the actual slave position θs d is fed back into the motors of the input device as a desired master position θm d. Once again, the amount of force imposed by the motors of the master on the operator through the input device will vary with the misalignment or positional separation between the desired master position and the actual master position. This allows the operator to apply varying amounts of force through the servomechanism using the end effectors, and to have tactile feedback regarding the amount of force that has been applied.
  • [0060]
    It should be understood that the schematic representation provided in FIG. 9A of the servomechanism used to effect positional and orientational movement of the surgical end effector may appear quite different in its structural embodiment. For example, a single controller may be used to process both the master and slave signals. The controller can calculate error signals based on the difference between the actual and desired positions in space, and will generate servomotor torque controlling signals based on those error signals. As the master input controller and surgical end effector are moveable in a plurality of orientational and positional degrees of freedom, the calculation of these motor torques may involve vector coordinate transformations such as those described in more detail in copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/37 3,678, filed Aug. 13, 1999, the full disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0061]
    In general, the actual configuration of the master and slave will be measured using potentiometers, encoders, or other position, velocity, and/or acceleration sensors affixed to rotational joints of the input control devices and slave manipulator. Position information may also be provided by encoders and/or potentiometers affixed to the set-up joints 42, which may include both rotational joints and linear sliding joints (particularly for the vertical axis). A variety of alternative configuration input mechanisms might be used, including stepper motors, optical configuration recognition systems (for example, using light emitting diodes mounted to the surgical tools and a CCD/frame grabber optical processing system coupled to the endoscope), and the like. It should also be understood that this direct master/slave arrangement will often provide uniform following forces throughout the range of the motion of the master and/or slave, regardless of whether the following forces are applied using a system having a single degree of freedom, or a complex input control device and slave mechanism having six degrees of freedom for both the master and slave (optionally even including redundant degrees of freedom for the master and/or slave to avoid singularities).
  • [0062]
    While the reciprocal master/slave arrangement of FIG. 9A may be implemented to actuate end effector 56 in response to manipulation of handle 30 for gripping of objects between end effector elements 56 a and 56 b, the uniform following forces provided by this arrangement can have disadvantages which can be understood with reference to FIGS. 9A i through 9Aiv. End effector 56 is first shown engaging a relatively large tissue T1 with no gripping force. The master position θm is equal to the slave position θs. As there is no difference between the signals generated to measure these positions, the positional error signal, separation misalignment, and following forces are all zero.
  • [0063]
    Referring now to FIG. 9A ii, as the operator imposes squeezing forces on handle 30 to bring gripping members 30 a, 30 b closer together (and thereby reducing the separation angle), the servomechanism begins to apply the following forces against end effector 56. As the difference between the grip angle and end effector angle increases, the following forces imposed by the end effector elements against the large tissue T1 (and the reactive forces of the tissue against the end effector) increase. Eventually, the following forces reach a maximum Fm, which may be determined by a strength of the surgical tool, a limitation of the motor torque, or a limitation based on the intended uses of the tool (for example, to avoid severing of tissues with forceps). Regardless, the servomechanism will preferably limit the following forces before irreparable damage is inflicted on the robotic system.
  • [0064]
    To implement maximum following forces Fm, the operator has squeezed gripping members 30 a, 30 b well beyond the separation angle between the end effector elements. While it is generally preferable to maintain a one-to-one correlation between the angles of the gripping members and end effector elements, having a significant misalignment to effect the maximum following forces is generally acceptable when the separation angle of the gripping members remains significantly above zero when the maximum following force Fm is imposed. Optionally, handle 30 may impose reciprocal forces Fr against the hand of the operator to provide a tactile indication of the strength with which thick tissue T1 is being gripped to the operator.
  • [0065]
    As illustrated in FIGS. 9A iii and 9Aiv, the situation is less acceptable when a thin tissue T2 of negligible thickness is gripped. When just engaging the tissue with the elements of end effector 56, the gripping members of handle 30 again define a separation angle that is substantially equal to the separation angle defined by the end effector elements. However, as this gripping configuration provides a quite small angular separation between the gripping members, imposition of maximum following forces Fm against small tissue T2 only results when the gripping members are pushed beyond each other to define a negative gripping angle. This unnatural gripping actuation detracts from the operator's ability to accurately control the end effectors, particularly during delicate telepresence procedures involving the gripping of small objects, such as sutures, needles, and small tissues during telesurgery.
  • [0066]
    Referring now to FIGS. 9B and 10A, an alternative servomechanism arrangement artificially alters the actual master position θm a according to a function f to derive a desired slave position θs d. Function f takes the form θs d=f(θm a), and is preferably an invertible (monotonic) and continuous function of the actual master position, optionally such as that illustrated in FIG. 10. Function f artificially increases (or in some cases, may decrease) the calculated error signal once the grip separation drops below a predetermined point O. This effectively increases (or decreases) the motor torque signals sent from the controller to the motors of the slave. Examples of when it may be desired to decrease grip strength include the use of low strength delicate tools in which a very small misalignment can produce the maximum following force, so that there would be little tactile indication of grip without decreasing the slope of f.
  • [0067]
    To provide feedback to the operator in this reciprocal master/slave arrangement, the actual slave position θs a may also be manipulated according to a function g: θm d=g(θs a) to derive a desired master position θm d from which the master motor torques can be calculated. Function g will preferably also comprise a continuous, invertible function. Where implemented, g may comprise a coupling of the lever arm of the master grip members, the particular end effector, and the compliance of the tool drive system, including the servomotor compliance and the tool transmission system. Preferably g will provide one-to-one actuation when open, will have the slave just closed when the master is just closed (shown as O), and will have a slope below the “just closed” point so that the restoring force applied against the operator's hand matches that of a conventional tool, thereby providing feedback to the operator accurately reflecting the enhanced forces provided when the end effector and handle are near their closed configurations.
  • [0068]
    As can be understood with reference to FIGS. 9B, 9Aiii, and 10, once the separation between the gripping members drops below a predetermined point (arbitrarily indicated at the origin O in FIG. 10) a small additional decrease in gripping member separation θm a will result in a significantly larger change in the desired position of the slave θs s. Above the predetermined point, the actual master position and desired slave position can remain the same, thereby providing the greatest dexterity for the system operator's control over the end effector.
  • [0069]
    Referring now to FIG. 9C, an alternative servomechanism arrangement according to the principles of the present invention makes use of function f to alter the actual position of the grip members so as to generate the desired position of the slave end effector, as described above. However, rather than relying on a reciprocal master/slave arrangement to provide feedback of the augmented end effector forces as the grip members and end effector elements approach their closed configuration, the system of FIG. 9C relies on a biasing system 60 which interacts with the operator's hand 62 to provide tactile feedback to the operator with a feed forward system, as can be understood with reference to FIGS. 10, and 11A to 11F.
  • [0070]
    FIG. 11A illustrates end effector 56 just engaging a suture S but not yet applying significant forces against the suture. As the cross-sectional thickness of suture S is quite small, the separation between the end effector elements is effectively zero. As no forces are being imposed by the servomechanism, the grip separation angle of handle 30 is also substantially equal to zero. Note that the grip elements need not exactly define a zero angle. At this nominal position, grip elements 30 a and 30 b are just beginning to engage a biasing mechanism 60 a of biasing system 60. Biasing mechanism 60 a is here illustrated as a elastomeric bushing surrounding a grip return spring 60 b. A variety of biasing structures might be used in place of biasing mechanism 60 a, including springs, magnets, or the like. Ideally, the biasing mechanism will define a predetermined biasing transition point. As can be understood with reference to FIG. 10B, the force applied to the master F increases at predetermined master separation O′. This biasing system transition point will preferably occur just as the end effector elements touch, and will thereby indicate to the operator the enhanced grip strength being applied by the servomechanism. In FIG. 10B, the end effector grip force g is illustrated for corresponding grip actuation by the master when gripping an object of negligible thickness.
  • [0071]
    As illustrated in FIG. 11B, operator's hand 62 can squeeze handle 30 beyond the nominal zero angle by compressing bushing 60 a between the grip members. Once the operator squeezes the handle sufficiently to engage stops 64 of the grip members, end effector 56 will preferably be imposing the maximum following force Fm against suture S. This maximum gripping force configuration is designated by the point P along function f illustrated in FIG. 10. Advantageously, the reactive forces provided by bushing 60 a against operator's hand 62 provide tactile feedback to the operator of the enhanced following forces below the predetermined position. As described above, function f preferably comprises the identity function above the predetermined position O. It should be understood that the predetermined position need not define any actual dimensions or forces. Where a maximum force Fm is imposed beginning at a maximum force misalignment angle such as that illustrated in FIG. 9A ii, the predetermined point will preferably be within that maximum force misalignment angle from a fully closed configuration of handle 30 as defined by grip members 30 a and 30 b.
  • [0072]
    As shown in FIG. 11C, the biasing system may comprise two biasing springs to define the biasing transition point: a soft spring 60 c which is easily compressed by the operator, and a stiff spring 60 d. The stiff spring 60 d may have a relaxed length which is less than a maximum grip separation, so that the stiff spring 60 d does not impose any force when the grips 30 a, 30 b are in an open gripping range. The soft spring 60 c has a relaxed length greater than the maximum separation, so that the soft spring 60 c always provides a gentle return force to aid opening the grips 30 a, 30 b. When the grips 30 a, 30 b are closed to the predetermined biasing transition point, the stiff spring 60 d (which may ride within or over the soft spring) engages the grip members 30 a, 30 b, and begins to add significantly to the return force. Hence, the grip motion range may be separated into a grip open range, a just closed point, and a squeezed grip range.
  • [0073]
    As shown in FIGS. 11D to 11F, the biasing system 60 may comprise a single variable rate spring 60. Because the two concentric springs of FIG. 11C can become tangled, a preferred embodiment of the biasing system comprises a variable rate spring formed from a single coil to indicate the biasing transition point to the user. In an embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 11D i and 11dii, the variable rate spring 60 has two sections of spring which have a similar diameter. A first section 60 e has coils that are spaced farther apart than the coils of a second section 60 f. As shown in FIG. 11D ii, as the grips 30 a, 30 b are squeezed together, both sections of the coil 60 e, 60 f deflect a similar amount until the spring section in the second section 60 f bottoms out at a “solid height.” Consequently, any further squeezing of the grips 30 a, 30 b are biased only by the first section 60 e and the resulting biasing spring rate is higher. Accordingly, the user is provided tactile feedback to indicate the biasing transition point.
  • [0074]
    In another embodiment shown in FIG. 11E ii and 11Eii, the variable rate spring 60 comprises three sections. A first section 60 g and third section 60 i have coils that are spaced farther apart than a second section 60 h. As the grips 30 a, 30 b are squeezed together the grips are initially biased by all three sections 60 g, 60 h, 60 i of the coil. When the grips 30 a, 30 b hit a point where second section 60 h is fully compressed, (i.e. the biasing transition point) the grips will be biased by only the first and third section of the coil. The spring constant provided by the first section 60 g and third section 60 i of the coil provide tactile feedback to the operator of the enhanced following forces below the predetermined transition point.
  • [0075]
    Another embodiment of the biasing system 60 is illustrated in FIG. 11F i and 11Fii. The variable rate spring 60 comprises a first section 60 j which has a first diameter and a second section 60 k which has a second, larger diameter. The first section and second section can have the same coil distance or a different coil difference. In most implementations, a spud 61 is positioned within the coils of the second section for guiding the coils and for acting as a stop for the smaller diameter spring 60 j. Accordingly, when the grips 30 a, 30 b are squeezed together, the spring sections 60 j, 60 k compress until the second section compresses to the biasing transition point. At the biasing transition point, the spud 61 contacts the first section of the spring 61 j and acts as a stop for the first section 61 j to vary the spring rate and to provide tactile feedback to the user.
  • [0076]
    In general, a fully closed end effector configuration is defined by engagement between the end effector elements. This may occur just as the end effector elements come into contact, as in the case of forceps. Alternatively, this may occur after some sliding engagement between the end effector elements, as in the case of scissors. Advantageously, the reactive forces applied by biasing system 60 against the operator's hand 62 as the jaws gradually close harder and harder can substantially mimic the resilience provided by the mechanical deflection of open or endoscopic surgical handles, such as when a surgeon manually clamps or squeezes the handles together beyond the initial engagement of the standard end effector elements.
  • [0077]
    Referring once again to FIG. 10, the predetermined force enhancement initiation point O is determined by the configuration of handle 30 and biasing system 60. Similarly, the fully closed or “slammed” configuration of the handle is determined by stop 64 of the handle. Hence, the lateral position (corresponding to θm a) of points O and P will preferably remain unchanged for a variety of different end effectors when different tools are attached to a surgical robotic system. However, as noted above, the actual strengths and intended maximum forces of these different tools may be significantly different. To allow a variety of different tools to be used with the system, the processor of the servomechanism may revise function f to an alternative maximum force position points P′ or P″. This allows the servomechanism to adapt to a wide variety of tools without having to revise the mechanical configuration of the master controller when tools are changed. For example, the tools can make use of a chip or other memory structure mounted on the tool. The memory can provide a signal verifying that the tool is compatible with that particular robotic system or the tool memory may identify the tool-type (whether it is a scalpel, needle grasper, jaws, scissors, clip applier, electrocartery blade, or the like) to the robotic system so that the robotic system can reconfigure its programming to take full advantage of the tools' specialized capabilities.
  • [0078]
    It will be recognized that a wide variety of functions might be applied to enhance grip strength. In the exemplary embodiment, function f comprises a linear function directly connecting the maximum force/slam point P with the predetermined force enhancement position O. This allows directly proportional control over the following forces of the slave, and can be substantially reproduced by a biasing structure to provide accurate tactile feedback. Alternatively, more complicated functions might be used. Preferably, the function will be continuous so as to avoid “jumps” in gripping force. Function f will preferably be monotonic and invertible, particularly where force feedback is to be effected using a reciprocal master/slave system, as described above.
  • [0079]
    To accurately model the forces applied by the end effectors, it should be recognized that the slave position will often be measured remotely (at the motor/sensor location), rather than at the end effector joint. Hence, the compliance of the system will reflect the compliance of a portion of the transmission system. This can be accommodated using the formula
  • [0000]
    F S = K servo * K mech K servo + K mech θ s d
  • [0000]
    where Fs is the end effector gripping force, Kservo is the effective spring constant of the motor, and Kmech is the spring constant of the mechanical transmission elements. This equation may allow the robotic system to mimic the stiffness of a particular tool when grip separation is at a minimum. Surgical tools often flex when fully squeezed. By properly compensating for the spring constant of the motor and mechanical transmission elements, the overall servomechanism can transition from a relationship determined from servomechanism design considerations (when wide open) to a surgical tool-like relationship (when clamped closed).
  • [0080]
    The signal processing used to provide the enhanced grip following forces described above is illustrated in more detail in FIG. 12. A Hall effect transducer 66, 68 measures the handle separation θm by sensing the distance between the transducer (which is mounted on grip member 30 a) and a magnet (mounted on grip member 30 b). The actual master grip separation θm a is processed to provide the desired slave separation as described above. The actual slave separation θs a (as measured by an encoder or potentiometer of motor 70) is subtracted from the desired slave separation θs d to provide a slave error signal es. Optionally, the grip separation velocity {dot over (θ)}m a may also be modified according to function f, with the actual slave velocity {dot over (θ)}s a subtracted therefrom to provide a velocity error signal ės. The error signal and velocity error signal are amplified by associated factors, Kp and Kd, respectively, and are added together to produce a motor torque signal τ. Motor 70 produces a torque in response to torque signal τ. While the preferred embodiments vary θs d produce the motor torque signal τ, it will be appreciated that instead of varying θs d, the Kp and Kd factors can be varied to produce the motor torque signal τ.
  • [0081]
    The use of positional velocity and velocity error signals may help inhibit excessive cycling of the system as the slave attempts to follow the master. Hence, these velocity signals represent a viscosity of the system. Their use may not be necessary, particularly for effecting grip, in light of the small masses and high friction and grip forces that are involved. Once again, it should be understood that this illustration is a simplification. For example, two or more motors may be energized to provide following grip forces, often with a motor dedicated to each end effector element.
  • [0082]
    The system of FIG. 12 enables the servomechanism to be designed so that it feels like a system having both position sensors in conjunction with force sensors to create the signals which are translated into forces under certain circumstances. The use of force sensors at the distal end of the slave mechanism can enable the designer to measure, and hence control, the force applied by the slave to the tissue. Additionally, the use of force sensor at the grip element of the master manipulator can enable the designer to measure, and hence command to the slave, the force being applied by the operator on the handle. The benefits of such a configuration are as follows: First, the master return springs are accurately modeled as linear. Second, the appropriate model for the force applied at the end effector is generated. Third, the objects being grasped are small compared to the range of motion of the slave grip (so that the grip enhancement can be enabled at the time when gripping should begin), and fourth, the restoring force from the master grip's return springs is a good model for what the user expects to feel using a conventional tool. Although the accuracy with which this last condition is met may not be exact when only one set of return springs is used for different tools with different allowed grip strengths a good approximation is created and many of the benefits of a full force sensing system are provided with this simple feed-forward system.
  • [0083]
    Referring now to FIG. 13A, a top level block diagram illustrates that input to the controller may arrive from a large number of individual encoders, potentiometers, and the like. These diagrams are printouts of the programming code using the Simulink™ programming language, commercially available from The Mathworks of Natick, Mass. As described above, both the master input device and robotic slave may have a significant number of joints, so that movement of an end effector in a single mode (such as grip or straight line translation) may actually change the configuration of several individual joints. The input information is routed, as appropriate, to a subroutine dedicated to a particular master/slave pair. For example, when changing the angle of gripping members held by the right hand of the operator, the robotic slave system illustrated in FIG. 4 will often vary the separation between end effector elements of a slave tool which is temporarily designated the right slave. Input for both the right master input controller device and right slave arm are directed to a right pair subroutine 74. Similar subroutines may be provided for the left pair, and for manipulation of the endoscopic camera by one or both master input devices. Output from, for example, the right pair control subroutine 74, is directed to an output router 76, which directs the torque signals to the appropriate motors of the slave system.
  • [0084]
    Referring now to FIG. 13B, the data processing performed within the right pair subroutine is illustrated in more detail. Position information from the encoders and potentiometers is demultiplexed and sent to a master controller subroutine 78 and/or slave controller subroutine 80. The actual master grip separation θm a is operated upon by function F within a grip subroutine 82 so as to generate the desired slave separation θs a, as described above regarding FIGS. 9B and C. Optionally, the actual slave separation θs a may be modified according to function g to determine the master desired separation θm d, as was described above regarding FIG. 9B.
  • [0085]
    Referring now to FIG. 13C, a more detailed view of the operations performed by the grip subroutine 82 is illustrated. In the exemplary embodiment, handle 30 is unpowered so that function g is not implemented. To calculate the desired slave separation from the actual master separation, grip 82 determines whether the actual master separation is below predetermined point O (often arbitrarily set numerically equal to zero) at switch 84. If the master separation is greater than the predetermined amount, the master separation remains unchanged along path 84A. Otherwise, the master separation signal is modified according to path 84B, which changes the signal to enhance the error signal in following forces according to the slam slope SS. As described above, the slam slope is calculated based on the difference between maximum force point P and the predetermined point O (see FIG. 10). The slam offset is added so that the function f is continuous at predetermined point O.
  • [0086]
    It should be noted that both position and velocity are modified by the bottom path. More specifically, when the position is modified, the velocity signal is also multiplied by the slam slope. Nonetheless, only position is used to determine which path to choose. Additionally, only position is adjusted to make the two paths match up continuously, as shown by the addition of offset to the position signal θ, but not to the velocity signal {dot over (θ)}.
  • [0087]
    In addition to implementing function f, the grip subroutine 82 also includes programming 84 to limit movement of the slave according to the particular mechanical configuration or use of a tool end effector, or according to the slave system capabilities and limits. This may be used, for example, to prevent inadvertent actuation of tools such as the clip applier illustrated in FIG. 8D from minor movement of the master grip elements.
  • [0088]
    While the preceding exemplary embodiments have been described in some detail, byway of example and for clarity of understanding, it should be noted that a variety of changes, modifications, and adaptations will be obvious to those of skill in the art. For example, although the embodiments of this invention have generally been described by focusing on predetermined master grip separation as a key to shifting from a position following type of control to force application control, the invention also has application by sensing the degree of separation of the slave end effectors, and switching control regimes upon the slave reaching a certain separation. The point of shifting control again could be determined by reaching a predetermined separation value. Alternatively, the end effector could be constructed with a sensing apparatus that senses when the end effectors contact an object to be gripped. At that point the control regime could shift from position control to force control, to better grip the object contacted. Moreover, much of the above description has assumed perfect transmission of forces based on motor torque signals, and the like. In truth, torques imposed by the motor will encounter significant “give” along the transmission system to end effector 56, so that additional spring-like resilience will be present in the system. Additionally, the enhanced grip forces described above may be applicable to a variety of master/slave robotic situations, particularly where the slave will be operating adjacent a movement constraint. Hence, the invention is limited solely by the appended claims.

Claims (21)

1-47. (canceled)
48. In a medical robotic system, a handle coupled to first and second end effector elements through a processor so as to manipulate a separation between the first and second end effector elements through operator manipulation of the handle, the handle comprising:
first and second grip elements coupled together at conjoining ends of the first and second grip elements and defining a separation between free ends of the first and second grip elements; and
at least one spring coupled to at least one of the first and second grip elements, wherein the at least one spring exhibits a first spring constant while the separation exceeds a separation transition point that corresponds to the free end of the first end effector element making contact with the free end of the second end effector element and exhibits a second spring constant greater than the first spring constant when the separation is less than the separation transition point.
49. The handle according to claim 48, wherein the at least one spring comprises:
first and second springs, wherein the first and second springs are configured so that the first spring is compressible throughout a full range of the separation and the second spring is compressible while the separation is less than the separation transition point.
50. The handle according to claim 49, wherein the first and second springs have different coil diameters so that one of the first and second springs is disposed within the coil of the other of the first and second springs.
51. The handle according to claim 50, wherein one end of the first spring is coupled to the first grip element and the other end of the first spring is coupled to the second grip element, and one end of the second spring is left free and the other end of the second spring is coupled to the second grip element so that the second spring is not compressed until after the first spring has been compressed to a point where the free end of the second spring makes contact with the first grip element.
52. The handle according to claim 48, wherein the at least one spring comprises:
a variable rate spring having first and second sections, wherein the first section has a first coil spacing and the second section has a second coil spacing that is larger than the first coil spacing.
53. The handle according to claim 52, wherein the first section is no longer compressible at the separation transition point and the second section is compressible at the separation transition point.
54. The handle according to claim 53, wherein the first section comprises a plurality of sections and the second section is coupled to and disposed between two of the plurality of sections.
55. The handle according to claim 48, wherein the second grip element has a stop and the at least one spring comprises:
a variable rate spring having first and second sections, wherein the first section has a first coil diameter smaller than a diameter of the stop and the second section has a second coil diameter that is larger than the diameter of the stop so that the first section compresses against the stop when the stop is disposed within the second section and the variable rate spring is compressed to at least the separation transition point.
56. A method for a robotic system to automatically configure its programming for controlling movement of a tool, the method comprising:
retrieving a tool-type identification code stored in a memory attached to the tool; and
configuring the programming of the robotic system according to the tool-type identification code.
57. The method according to claim 56, wherein the configuring of the programming of the robotic system comprises:
modifying a control relationship between a sensed position of a master manipulator and a desired position of a slave manipulator according to the tool-type identification code, wherein the tool is manipulated by the slave manipulator in response to operator manipulation of the master manipulator according to the control relationship.
58. The method according to claim 57, wherein the control relationship is characterized by a first function operative up to a transition point for determining the desired position of the slave manipulator in response to the sensed position of the master manipulator and a second function operative past the transition point for determining the desired position of the slave manipulator in response to the sensed position of the master manipulator.
59. The method according to claim 58, wherein the first function remains fixed regardless of the tool-type identification code and the second function changes depending upon the tool-type identification code.
60. The method according to claim 58, wherein the first function is a continuous, invertible function.
61. The method according to claim 58, wherein the tool includes first and second end effector elements and the transition point corresponds to a point where the first end effector element contacts the second end effector element in response to operator manipulation of the master manipulator.
62. A robotic system comprising:
a tool coupled to a slave manipulator;
a master manipulator; and
a processor configured to retrieve a tool-type identification code stored in a memory attached to the tool, configure programming of the robotic system according to the tool-type identification code, and control movement of the slave manipulator and the tool in response to movement of the master manipulator according to the configured programming.
63. The robotic system according to claim 62, wherein the processor is configured to modify a control relationship between a sensed position of the master manipulator and a desired position of the slave manipulator according to the tool-type identification code.
64. The robotic system according to claim 63, wherein the control relationship is characterized by a first function operative up to a transition point for determining the desired position of the slave manipulator in response to the sensed position of the master manipulator and a second function operative past the transition point for determining the desired position of the slave manipulator in response to the sensed position of the master manipulator.
65. The robotic system according to claim 64, wherein the first function remains fixed regardless of the tool-type identification code and the second function changes depending upon the tool-type identification code.
66. The robotic system according to claim 64, wherein the first function is a continuous, invertible function.
67. The robotic system according to claim 64, wherein the tool includes first and second end effector elements and the transition point corresponds to a point where the first end effector element contacts the second end effector element in response to the movement of the master manipulator.
US12016556 1999-04-07 2008-01-18 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery Active 2020-10-18 US7778733B2 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12815799 true 1999-04-07 1999-04-07
US09544153 US6594552B1 (en) 1999-04-07 2000-04-06 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US10437771 US6879880B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2003-05-13 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US11074372 US7373219B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2005-03-07 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US12016556 US7778733B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2008-01-18 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12016556 US7778733B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2008-01-18 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20080154246A1 true true US20080154246A1 (en) 2008-06-26
US7778733B2 US7778733B2 (en) 2010-08-17

Family

ID=26826329

Family Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09544153 Active US6594552B1 (en) 1999-04-07 2000-04-06 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US10437771 Active US6879880B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2003-05-13 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US11074372 Active 2021-03-26 US7373219B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2005-03-07 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US12016556 Active 2020-10-18 US7778733B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2008-01-18 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery

Family Applications Before (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09544153 Active US6594552B1 (en) 1999-04-07 2000-04-06 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US10437771 Active US6879880B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2003-05-13 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US11074372 Active 2021-03-26 US7373219B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2005-03-07 Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (4) US6594552B1 (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080221732A1 (en) * 2004-05-04 2008-09-11 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Tool memory-based software upgrades for robotic surgery
US20100178644A1 (en) * 2009-01-15 2010-07-15 Simquest Llc Interactive simulation of biological tissue
US20100332031A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US20120150347A1 (en) * 2009-09-24 2012-06-14 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Robot controlling device
US20120191247A1 (en) * 2011-01-20 2012-07-26 Olympus Corporation Master-slave manipulator and medical master-slave manipulator
US20120209314A1 (en) * 2011-02-15 2012-08-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and Systems for Indicating a Clamping Prediction
WO2014004114A1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Haptic feedback devices for surgical robot
EP2743801A2 (en) 2012-12-13 2014-06-18 How to Organize (H2O) GmbH Handle element and input gripper module for a haptic input system
US9043027B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2015-05-26 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Positive control of robotic surgical instrument end effector
US20150165620A1 (en) * 2013-12-13 2015-06-18 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Robot apparatus, robot controlling method, program and recording medium
US9314307B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2016-04-19 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Grip force control for robotic surgical instrument end effector
DE102014115600A1 (en) 2014-10-27 2016-04-28 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg A surgical instrument having a manual control device
WO2016171757A1 (en) * 2015-04-23 2016-10-27 Sri International Hyperdexterous surgical system user interface devices
KR101825720B1 (en) 2009-06-30 2018-02-06 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument

Families Citing this family (313)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5762256A (en) * 1995-08-28 1998-06-09 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical stapler
US5782396A (en) 1995-08-28 1998-07-21 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical stapler
US6786896B1 (en) * 1997-09-19 2004-09-07 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Robotic apparatus
US5865361A (en) 1997-09-23 1999-02-02 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical stapling apparatus
US7766894B2 (en) 2001-02-15 2010-08-03 Hansen Medical, Inc. Coaxial catheter system
US8303576B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2012-11-06 Hansen Medical, Inc. Interchangeable surgical instrument
US7758569B2 (en) 1998-02-24 2010-07-20 Hansen Medical, Inc. Interchangeable surgical instrument
US20030135204A1 (en) 2001-02-15 2003-07-17 Endo Via Medical, Inc. Robotically controlled medical instrument with a flexible section
US20090182226A1 (en) * 2001-02-15 2009-07-16 Barry Weitzner Catheter tracking system
US8414505B1 (en) 2001-02-15 2013-04-09 Hansen Medical, Inc. Catheter driver system
US7775972B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2010-08-17 Hansen Medical, Inc. Flexible instrument
US7901399B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2011-03-08 Hansen Medical, Inc. Interchangeable surgical instrument
US7713190B2 (en) 1998-02-24 2010-05-11 Hansen Medical, Inc. Flexible instrument
US7169141B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2007-01-30 Hansen Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument
US7214230B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2007-05-08 Hansen Medical, Inc. Flexible instrument
US7789875B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2010-09-07 Hansen Medical, Inc. Surgical instruments
US8414598B2 (en) 1998-02-24 2013-04-09 Hansen Medical, Inc. Flexible instrument
US20080177285A1 (en) * 1998-02-24 2008-07-24 Hansen Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument
US7297142B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2007-11-20 Hansen Medical, Inc. Interchangeable surgical instrument
US7699835B2 (en) 2001-02-15 2010-04-20 Hansen Medical, Inc. Robotically controlled surgical instruments
US8944070B2 (en) 1999-04-07 2015-02-03 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Non-force reflecting method for providing tool force information to a user of a telesurgical system
US8945095B2 (en) * 2005-03-30 2015-02-03 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Force and torque sensing for surgical instruments
US6594552B1 (en) * 1999-04-07 2003-07-15 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
DE60029234D1 (en) 1999-05-10 2006-08-17 Brock Rogers Surgical Inc A surgical instrument
US6626899B2 (en) 1999-06-25 2003-09-30 Nidus Medical, Llc Apparatus and methods for treating tissue
JP2004504095A (en) * 2000-07-20 2004-02-12 ティヴァ メディカル インコーポレイテッドTiva Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument for articulation by hand operated
JP4014792B2 (en) * 2000-09-29 2007-11-28 株式会社東芝 manipulator
DE60226410D1 (en) * 2001-01-29 2008-06-19 Acrobot Co Ltd Robot with active restrictions
JP4739556B2 (en) * 2001-03-27 2011-08-03 株式会社安川電機 Remote adjustment and abnormality determination apparatus for a control object
US9002518B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2015-04-07 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Maximum torque driving of robotic surgical tools in robotic surgical systems
JP3926119B2 (en) * 2001-08-10 2007-06-06 株式会社東芝 Medical manipulator
JP4252454B2 (en) 2001-10-05 2009-04-08 タイコ ヘルスケア グループ エルピー Surgical stapling device
JP4032410B2 (en) * 2001-11-09 2008-01-16 ソニー株式会社 The information processing system and information processing method, program and recording medium, and an information processing apparatus
US6793653B2 (en) 2001-12-08 2004-09-21 Computer Motion, Inc. Multifunctional handle for a medical robotic system
KR100500964B1 (en) * 2002-05-14 2005-07-14 한국과학기술연구원 Apparatus for measuring and fixing spatial position of medical instrument
DE10226853B3 (en) * 2002-06-15 2004-02-19 Kuka Roboter Gmbh A method for limiting the force action of a robot part
JP2004042230A (en) * 2002-07-15 2004-02-12 Kawasaki Heavy Ind Ltd Remote control method and remote control system of robot controller
US6925357B2 (en) * 2002-07-25 2005-08-02 Intouch Health, Inc. Medical tele-robotic system
US20040162637A1 (en) 2002-07-25 2004-08-19 Yulun Wang Medical tele-robotic system with a master remote station with an arbitrator
US7593030B2 (en) * 2002-07-25 2009-09-22 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Tele-robotic videoconferencing in a corporate environment
EP2070487B1 (en) 2002-08-13 2014-03-05 NeuroArm Surgical, Ltd. Microsurgical robot system
US20040176751A1 (en) * 2002-08-14 2004-09-09 Endovia Medical, Inc. Robotic medical instrument system
US7331967B2 (en) * 2002-09-09 2008-02-19 Hansen Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument coupling mechanism
EP1545332B1 (en) 2002-10-04 2007-08-22 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Tool assembly for surgical stapling device
ES2348273T3 (en) 2002-10-04 2010-12-02 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical stapling device.
EP1702568B1 (en) 2002-10-04 2008-07-23 Tyco Healthcare Group LP Surgical stapler with universal articulation and tissue pre-clamp
US9138226B2 (en) 2005-03-30 2015-09-22 Covidien Lp Cartridge assembly for a surgical stapling device
US7158859B2 (en) * 2003-01-15 2007-01-02 Intouch Technologies, Inc. 5 degrees of freedom mobile robot
US7171286B2 (en) * 2003-02-24 2007-01-30 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Healthcare tele-robotic system with a robot that also functions as a remote station
US7158860B2 (en) * 2003-02-24 2007-01-02 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Healthcare tele-robotic system which allows parallel remote station observation
US7262573B2 (en) 2003-03-06 2007-08-28 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Medical tele-robotic system with a head worn device
JP3680064B2 (en) * 2003-04-21 2005-08-10 ファナック株式会社 Numerical control device
US20040243151A1 (en) 2003-04-29 2004-12-02 Demmy Todd L. Surgical stapling device with dissecting tip
US9597078B2 (en) 2003-04-29 2017-03-21 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling device with dissecting tip
JP4202188B2 (en) * 2003-05-22 2008-12-24 カルソニックカンセイ株式会社 Control device for a servo motor for automobiles
US8007511B2 (en) * 2003-06-06 2011-08-30 Hansen Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument design
EP1635713B1 (en) 2003-06-17 2012-04-11 Tyco Healthcare Group LP Surgical stapling device
DE602004019781D1 (en) * 2003-06-20 2009-04-16 Fanuc Robotics America Inc Multiple robot arm-tracking and mirror-jog
US7042184B2 (en) 2003-07-08 2006-05-09 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Microrobot for surgical applications
US7126303B2 (en) * 2003-07-08 2006-10-24 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Robot for surgical applications
US7960935B2 (en) 2003-07-08 2011-06-14 The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Robotic devices with agent delivery components and related methods
JP4696307B2 (en) * 2003-07-24 2011-06-08 学校法人慶應義塾 Position and force control device
CA2542532C (en) 2003-10-17 2012-08-14 Tyco Healthcare Group, Lp Surgical stapling device with independent tip rotation
US7813836B2 (en) * 2003-12-09 2010-10-12 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Protocol for a remotely controlled videoconferencing robot
US20050204438A1 (en) 2004-02-26 2005-09-15 Yulun Wang Graphical interface for a remote presence system
US7972298B2 (en) * 2004-03-05 2011-07-05 Hansen Medical, Inc. Robotic catheter system
US7976539B2 (en) 2004-03-05 2011-07-12 Hansen Medical, Inc. System and method for denaturing and fixing collagenous tissue
US7386365B2 (en) 2004-05-04 2008-06-10 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Tool grip calibration for robotic surgery
US8353897B2 (en) * 2004-06-16 2013-01-15 Carefusion 2200, Inc. Surgical tool kit
US7241290B2 (en) 2004-06-16 2007-07-10 Kinetic Surgical, Llc Surgical tool kit
US8077963B2 (en) 2004-07-13 2011-12-13 Yulun Wang Mobile robot with a head-based movement mapping scheme
US7594912B2 (en) * 2004-09-30 2009-09-29 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Offset remote center manipulator for robotic surgery
US9261172B2 (en) 2004-09-30 2016-02-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Multi-ply strap drive trains for surgical robotic arms
EP1809194B1 (en) 2004-10-20 2012-04-25 AtriCure Inc. Surgical clamp
US8876820B2 (en) * 2004-10-20 2014-11-04 Atricure, Inc. Surgical clamp
US20060087746A1 (en) * 2004-10-22 2006-04-27 Kenneth Lipow Remote augmented motor-sensory interface for surgery
US6981945B1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-01-03 Artann Laboratories, Inc. Colonoscope handgrip with force and torque monitor
DE102004054866B3 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-08-03 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Non-laparoscopic or laparoscopic instrument connecting device for use during robot-supported minimal invasive surgery, has segment in form of flange provided at end surface of another segment over roller link
JP4261470B2 (en) * 2004-11-30 2009-04-30 ファナック株式会社 Control device
US7222000B2 (en) * 2005-01-18 2007-05-22 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Mobile videoconferencing platform with automatic shut-off features
US7837674B2 (en) * 2005-01-24 2010-11-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Compact counter balance for robotic surgical systems
US7763015B2 (en) * 2005-01-24 2010-07-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Modular manipulator support for robotic surgery
US8375808B2 (en) * 2005-12-30 2013-02-19 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Force sensing for surgical instruments
US7780055B2 (en) 2005-04-06 2010-08-24 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Loading unit having drive assembly locking mechanism
US20060259193A1 (en) * 2005-05-12 2006-11-16 Yulun Wang Telerobotic system with a dual application screen presentation
US20070005002A1 (en) 2005-06-30 2007-01-04 Intuitive Surgical Inc. Robotic surgical instruments for irrigation, aspiration, and blowing
WO2007005976A1 (en) 2005-07-01 2007-01-11 Hansen Medical, Inc. Robotic catheter system
US9198728B2 (en) 2005-09-30 2015-12-01 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Multi-camera mobile teleconferencing platform
US20070078484A1 (en) * 2005-10-03 2007-04-05 Joseph Talarico Gentle touch surgical instrument and method of using same
US20070078565A1 (en) * 2005-10-03 2007-04-05 Modjtaba Ghodoussi Telerobotic system that transmits changed states of a subsystem
CA2563147C (en) 2005-10-14 2014-09-23 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical stapling device
JP2007125674A (en) * 2005-11-07 2007-05-24 Nisca Corp Micromanipulator
FR2895071B1 (en) * 2005-12-19 2008-01-18 Giat Ind Sa debounce device for locking a deployable fin of a projectile.
WO2007111749A3 (en) 2005-12-20 2008-01-03 Intuitive Surgical Inc Method for handling an operator command exceeding a medical device state limitation in a medical robotic system
US7453227B2 (en) * 2005-12-20 2008-11-18 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Medical robotic system with sliding mode control
JP5152993B2 (en) 2005-12-30 2013-02-27 インテュイティブ サージカル インコーポレイテッド Modular force sensor
US7752920B2 (en) * 2005-12-30 2010-07-13 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Modular force sensor
US20070156207A1 (en) * 2006-01-04 2007-07-05 Sridhar Kothandaraman Expanding single channel stimulator capability on multi-area stimulation programs
US8219178B2 (en) 2007-02-16 2012-07-10 Catholic Healthcare West Method and system for performing invasive medical procedures using a surgical robot
US7769492B2 (en) * 2006-02-22 2010-08-03 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Graphical interface for a remote presence system
US8620473B2 (en) 2007-06-13 2013-12-31 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Medical robotic system with coupled control modes
US9138129B2 (en) 2007-06-13 2015-09-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Method and system for moving a plurality of articulated instruments in tandem back towards an entry guide
US20090192523A1 (en) 2006-06-29 2009-07-30 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Synthetic representation of a surgical instrument
CN104688349B (en) * 2006-06-13 2017-05-10 直观外科手术操作公司 Minimally invasive surgery system
US9469034B2 (en) 2007-06-13 2016-10-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Method and system for switching modes of a robotic system
US8444631B2 (en) * 2007-06-14 2013-05-21 Macdonald Dettwiler & Associates Inc Surgical manipulator
CA2655431C (en) * 2006-06-14 2014-10-21 Benny Hon Bun Yeung Surgical manipulator
US20070291128A1 (en) * 2006-06-15 2007-12-20 Yulun Wang Mobile teleconferencing system that projects an image provided by a mobile robot
US8834488B2 (en) 2006-06-22 2014-09-16 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Magnetically coupleable robotic surgical devices and related methods
US8679096B2 (en) 2007-06-21 2014-03-25 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Multifunctional operational component for robotic devices
US9789608B2 (en) 2006-06-29 2017-10-17 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Synthetic representation of a surgical robot
US9718190B2 (en) 2006-06-29 2017-08-01 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool position and identification indicator displayed in a boundary area of a computer display screen
DE502006003271D1 (en) * 2006-08-18 2009-05-07 Brainlab Ag Adapter for attaching a reference array to a medical instrument having one functional direction or plane
US7761185B2 (en) * 2006-10-03 2010-07-20 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Remote presence display through remotely controlled robot
US8708210B2 (en) 2006-10-05 2014-04-29 Covidien Lp Method and force-limiting handle mechanism for a surgical instrument
US7845535B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2010-12-07 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical instrument having a plastic surface
US20080083807A1 (en) 2006-10-06 2008-04-10 Beardsley John W Surgical instrument including a locking assembly
US7866525B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2011-01-11 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical instrument having a plastic surface
US8584921B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2013-11-19 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument with articulating tool assembly
US8608043B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2013-12-17 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument having a multi-layered drive beam
US20100241136A1 (en) * 2006-12-05 2010-09-23 Mark Doyle Instrument positioning/holding devices
DE102006059952B3 (en) * 2006-12-19 2008-06-19 Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. robot structure
US20080167662A1 (en) * 2007-01-08 2008-07-10 Kurtz Anthony D Tactile feel apparatus for use with robotic operations
US9579088B2 (en) 2007-02-20 2017-02-28 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Methods, systems, and devices for surgical visualization and device manipulation
US8226675B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2012-07-24 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments
US8142461B2 (en) 2007-03-22 2012-03-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments
US7950560B2 (en) * 2007-04-13 2011-05-31 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Powered surgical instrument
US9160783B2 (en) 2007-05-09 2015-10-13 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Robot system that operates through a network firewall
US20110046659A1 (en) * 2007-07-09 2011-02-24 Immersion Corporation Minimally Invasive Surgical Tools With Haptic Feedback
WO2009014917A3 (en) 2007-07-12 2009-12-30 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Methods and systems of actuation in robotic devices
US8523889B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2013-09-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic end effectors with increased active length
US8882791B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2014-11-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8808319B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2014-08-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments
US8430898B2 (en) 2007-07-31 2013-04-30 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8512365B2 (en) 2007-07-31 2013-08-20 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments
JP5475662B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2014-04-16 ボード オブ リージェンツ オブ ザ ユニバーシティ オブ ネブラスカ Modular and segmenting the medical device and associated system
US8116910B2 (en) * 2007-08-23 2012-02-14 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Telepresence robot with a printer
US20090062813A1 (en) * 2007-08-29 2009-03-05 Intuitive Surgical Inc. Medical robotic system with dynamically adjustable slave manipulator characteristics
US8061576B2 (en) 2007-08-31 2011-11-22 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical instrument
US8073528B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2011-12-06 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool tracking systems, methods and computer products for image guided surgery
US9050120B2 (en) * 2007-09-30 2015-06-09 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and method of user interface with alternate tool mode for robotic surgical tools
EP2217157A2 (en) 2007-10-05 2010-08-18 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ergonomic surgical instruments
US7954685B2 (en) 2007-11-06 2011-06-07 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Articulation and firing force mechanisms
US8057498B2 (en) 2007-11-30 2011-11-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic surgical instrument blades
US8561473B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Force sensor temperature compensation
US8496647B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-07-30 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ribbed force sensor
US8473031B2 (en) * 2007-12-26 2013-06-25 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Medical robotic system with functionality to determine and display a distance indicated by movement of a tool robotically manipulated by an operator
US8170241B2 (en) 2008-04-17 2012-05-01 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Mobile tele-presence system with a microphone system
US7789283B2 (en) 2008-06-06 2010-09-07 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Knife/firing rod connection for surgical instrument
US7942303B2 (en) 2008-06-06 2011-05-17 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Knife lockout mechanisms for surgical instrument
US8701959B2 (en) 2008-06-06 2014-04-22 Covidien Lp Mechanically pivoting cartridge channel for surgical instrument
US9089256B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2015-07-28 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Medical robotic system providing an auxiliary view including range of motion limitations for articulatable instruments extending out of a distal end of an entry guide
US8864652B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2014-10-21 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Medical robotic system providing computer generated auxiliary views of a camera instrument for controlling the positioning and orienting of its tip
US8398619B2 (en) * 2008-06-27 2013-03-19 Carefusion 2200, Inc. Flexible wrist-type element and methods of manufacture and use thereof
US9193065B2 (en) * 2008-07-10 2015-11-24 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Docking system for a tele-presence robot
US9842192B2 (en) 2008-07-11 2017-12-12 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Tele-presence robot system with multi-cast features
US8916134B2 (en) * 2008-07-11 2014-12-23 Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation, Yonsei University Metal nanocomposite, preparation method and use thereof
KR100936928B1 (en) * 2008-07-25 2010-01-20 (주)미래컴퍼니 Surgical robot
US9089360B2 (en) 2008-08-06 2015-07-28 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Devices and techniques for cutting and coagulating tissue
US8058771B2 (en) 2008-08-06 2011-11-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic device for cutting and coagulating with stepped output
US9679499B2 (en) * 2008-09-15 2017-06-13 Immersion Medical, Inc. Systems and methods for sensing hand motion by measuring remote displacement
US8340819B2 (en) 2008-09-18 2012-12-25 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Mobile videoconferencing robot system with network adaptive driving
US8215532B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2012-07-10 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Tissue stop for surgical instrument
US7896214B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2011-03-01 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Tissue stop for surgical instrument
US7988028B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2011-08-02 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical instrument having an asymmetric dynamic clamping member
US8628544B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2014-01-14 Covidien Lp Knife bar for surgical instrument
US8996165B2 (en) 2008-10-21 2015-03-31 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Telepresence robot with a camera boom
US8463435B2 (en) 2008-11-25 2013-06-11 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Server connectivity control for tele-presence robot
US9138891B2 (en) 2008-11-25 2015-09-22 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Server connectivity control for tele-presence robot
US8594841B2 (en) * 2008-12-31 2013-11-26 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Visual force feedback in a minimally invasive surgical procedure
US8374723B2 (en) 2008-12-31 2013-02-12 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Obtaining force information in a minimally invasive surgical procedure
US8849680B2 (en) 2009-01-29 2014-09-30 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Documentation through a remote presence robot
US8463439B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-06-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Optic fiber connection for a force sensing instrument
DE102009017104A1 (en) * 2009-04-15 2010-10-21 Kuka Roboter Gmbh Method for providing force-feedback for interaction of user with prototype of vehicle, involves introducing force-feedback into handling device using robot arms, utilizing deformable object, and influencing object-current shape by arms
US8292154B2 (en) 2009-04-16 2012-10-23 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical apparatus for applying tissue fasteners
US8897920B2 (en) 2009-04-17 2014-11-25 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Tele-presence robot system with software modularity, projector and laser pointer
US8127976B2 (en) 2009-05-08 2012-03-06 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Stapler cartridge and channel interlock
JP2010260139A (en) * 2009-05-08 2010-11-18 Ntn Corp Remote-controlled work robot
US8465474B2 (en) * 2009-05-19 2013-06-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Cleaning of a surgical instrument force sensor
US9700339B2 (en) 2009-05-20 2017-07-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Coupling arrangements and methods for attaching tools to ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8132706B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2012-03-13 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical stapling apparatus having articulation mechanism
US8319400B2 (en) 2009-06-24 2012-11-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8663220B2 (en) 2009-07-15 2014-03-04 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8205779B2 (en) * 2009-07-23 2012-06-26 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Surgical stapler with tactile feedback system
CN102483625B (en) * 2009-08-14 2015-09-09 Abb技术有限公司 Industrial robot and a method of adjusting the robot program
US9492927B2 (en) 2009-08-15 2016-11-15 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Application of force feedback on an input device to urge its operator to command an articulated instrument to a preferred pose
US8342378B2 (en) 2009-08-17 2013-01-01 Covidien Lp One handed stapler
US8384755B2 (en) 2009-08-26 2013-02-26 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Portable remote presence robot
WO2011025886A1 (en) 2009-08-26 2011-03-03 Carefusion 2200, Inc. Mechanisms for positioning and/or holding surgical instruments and performing other functions, and methods of manufacture and use thereof
US20110213210A1 (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-09-01 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Portable telepresence apparatus
US9168054B2 (en) 2009-10-09 2015-10-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical generator for ultrasonic and electrosurgical devices
US8418907B2 (en) 2009-11-05 2013-04-16 Covidien Lp Surgical stapler having cartridge with adjustable cam mechanism
CA2784883A1 (en) 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Modular and cooperative medical devices and related systems and methods
US8469981B2 (en) 2010-02-11 2013-06-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Rotatable cutting implement arrangements for ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8579928B2 (en) 2010-02-11 2013-11-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Outer sheath and blade arrangements for ultrasonic surgical instruments
US8486096B2 (en) 2010-02-11 2013-07-16 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Dual purpose surgical instrument for cutting and coagulating tissue
US8951272B2 (en) 2010-02-11 2015-02-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Seal arrangements for ultrasonically powered surgical instruments
US8918211B2 (en) 2010-02-12 2014-12-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Medical robotic system providing sensory feedback indicating a difference between a commanded state and a preferred pose of an articulated instrument
US8670017B2 (en) 2010-03-04 2014-03-11 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Remote presence system including a cart that supports a robot face and an overhead camera
US20110218550A1 (en) * 2010-03-08 2011-09-08 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp System and method for determining and adjusting positioning and orientation of a surgical device
US8348127B2 (en) 2010-04-07 2013-01-08 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying apparatus
WO2011137904A1 (en) * 2010-05-06 2011-11-10 Invencon Aps Grasping aid device including a tool and an attaching of the tool
JP5726441B2 (en) * 2010-05-18 2015-06-03 オリンパス株式会社 manipulator
GB201008510D0 (en) 2010-05-21 2010-07-07 Ethicon Endo Surgery Inc Medical device
US8460236B2 (en) * 2010-06-24 2013-06-11 Hansen Medical, Inc. Fiber optic instrument sensing system
JP2014529414A (en) 2010-08-06 2014-11-13 ボード オブ リージェンツ オブ ザ ユニバーシティ オブ ネブラスカ Method and system for handling or delivery of natural orifice surgical material
EP2417925B1 (en) 2010-08-12 2016-12-07 Immersion Corporation Electrosurgical tool having tactile feedback
KR20120030174A (en) * 2010-09-17 2012-03-28 삼성전자주식회사 Surgery robot system and surgery apparatus and method for providing tactile feedback
US8981914B1 (en) 2010-09-27 2015-03-17 University of Pittsburgh—of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education Portable haptic force magnifier
US8899461B2 (en) 2010-10-01 2014-12-02 Covidien Lp Tissue stop for surgical instrument
US8308041B2 (en) 2010-11-10 2012-11-13 Tyco Healthcare Group Lp Staple formed over the wire wound closure procedure
KR20130094823A (en) 2010-11-15 2013-08-26 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Decoupling instrument shaft roll and end effector actuation in a surgical instrument
US9486189B2 (en) 2010-12-02 2016-11-08 Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd. Assembly for use with surgery system
US9264664B2 (en) 2010-12-03 2016-02-16 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods for dynamic bandwidth allocation
US8523043B2 (en) 2010-12-07 2013-09-03 Immersion Corporation Surgical stapler having haptic feedback
US8801710B2 (en) 2010-12-07 2014-08-12 Immersion Corporation Electrosurgical sealing tool having haptic feedback
US20120191079A1 (en) 2011-01-20 2012-07-26 Hansen Medical, Inc. System and method for endoluminal and translumenal therapy
US9323250B2 (en) 2011-01-28 2016-04-26 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Time-dependent navigation of telepresence robots
CN104898652A (en) 2011-01-28 2015-09-09 英塔茨科技公司 Interfacing with a mobile telepresence robot
KR101184980B1 (en) 2011-03-10 2012-10-02 한양대학교 에리카산학협력단 Endoscope robot for paranasal sinuses surgery
JP5796982B2 (en) 2011-03-31 2015-10-21 オリンパス株式会社 Control apparatus and control method of the surgical system
US9289209B2 (en) 2011-06-09 2016-03-22 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying apparatus
US9271728B2 (en) 2011-06-09 2016-03-01 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying apparatus
US9451959B2 (en) 2011-06-09 2016-09-27 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying apparatus
JP6174017B2 (en) 2011-06-10 2017-08-02 ボード オブ リージェンツ オブ ザ ユニバーシティ オブ ネブラスカ Vivo vessel sealing end effector and in vivo robotic device
US8763876B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-07-01 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument and cartridge for use therewith
CA2841459A1 (en) 2011-07-11 2013-01-17 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Robotic surgical devices, systems and related methods
US8845667B2 (en) 2011-07-18 2014-09-30 Immersion Corporation Surgical tool having a programmable rotary module for providing haptic feedback
KR20130015440A (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-14 주식회사 이턴 Master gripper of surgical robot
JP6005950B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-10-12 オリンパス株式会社 Surgery support apparatus and a method of controlling the same
JP5936914B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-06-22 オリンパス株式会社 An operation input device and a manipulator system including the same
JP5841451B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-01-13 オリンパス株式会社 Surgical instruments and a method of controlling the same
EP2740435A4 (en) 2011-08-04 2015-03-18 Olympus Corp Manipulator for medical use and surgery support device
JP6021484B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-11-09 オリンパス株式会社 Medical manipulator
JP5953058B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-07-13 オリンパス株式会社 Surgery support device and its attachment and detachment method
WO2013018861A1 (en) * 2011-08-04 2013-02-07 オリンパス株式会社 Medical manipulator and method for controlling same
JP6081061B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2017-02-15 オリンパス株式会社 Surgery support apparatus
JP6000641B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-10-05 オリンパス株式会社 Manipulator system
JP5931497B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-06-08 オリンパス株式会社 Surgery support apparatus and method of assembly
JP6009840B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-10-19 オリンパス株式会社 Medical equipment
EP2740433B1 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-04-27 Olympus Corporation Surgical implement and medical treatment manipulator
JP6021353B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2016-11-09 オリンパス株式会社 Surgery support apparatus
US9539007B2 (en) 2011-08-08 2017-01-10 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying aparatus
US9155537B2 (en) 2011-08-08 2015-10-13 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying apparatus
US9724095B2 (en) 2011-08-08 2017-08-08 Covidien Lp Surgical fastener applying apparatus
US9016539B2 (en) 2011-10-25 2015-04-28 Covidien Lp Multi-use loading unit
US8836751B2 (en) 2011-11-08 2014-09-16 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Tele-presence system with a user interface that displays different communication links
US8740036B2 (en) 2011-12-01 2014-06-03 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument with actuator spring arm
US8967447B2 (en) 2011-12-14 2015-03-03 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument including firing indicator
US8864010B2 (en) 2012-01-20 2014-10-21 Covidien Lp Curved guide member for articulating instruments
WO2013119545A1 (en) 2012-02-10 2013-08-15 Ethicon-Endo Surgery, Inc. Robotically controlled surgical instrument
US8979827B2 (en) 2012-03-14 2015-03-17 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument with articulation mechanism
US9237921B2 (en) 2012-04-09 2016-01-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Devices and techniques for cutting and coagulating tissue
US9439668B2 (en) 2012-04-09 2016-09-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Switch arrangements for ultrasonic surgical instruments
US9226766B2 (en) 2012-04-09 2016-01-05 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Serial communication protocol for medical device
US9241731B2 (en) 2012-04-09 2016-01-26 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Rotatable electrical connection for ultrasonic surgical instruments
US9724118B2 (en) 2012-04-09 2017-08-08 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Techniques for cutting and coagulating tissue for ultrasonic surgical instruments
US9251313B2 (en) 2012-04-11 2016-02-02 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods for visualizing and managing telepresence devices in healthcare networks
US8902278B2 (en) 2012-04-11 2014-12-02 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Systems and methods for visualizing and managing telepresence devices in healthcare networks
US9498292B2 (en) 2012-05-01 2016-11-22 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Single site robotic device and related systems and methods
US9526497B2 (en) 2012-05-07 2016-12-27 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument with articulation mechanism
KR20130127641A (en) 2012-05-15 2013-11-25 삼성전자주식회사 End effector and remote control apparatus
WO2013176762A1 (en) 2012-05-22 2013-11-28 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Social behavior rules for a medical telepresence robot
US9361021B2 (en) 2012-05-22 2016-06-07 Irobot Corporation Graphical user interfaces including touchpad driving interfaces for telemedicine devices
EP2863827A4 (en) 2012-06-21 2016-04-20 Globus Medical Inc Surgical robot platform
WO2013191773A1 (en) 2012-06-22 2013-12-27 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Local Control Robotic Surgical Devices and Related Methods
US9351754B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-05-31 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Ultrasonic surgical instruments with distally positioned jaw assemblies
US9326788B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-05-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Lockout mechanism for use with robotic electrosurgical device
US9283045B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-03-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical instruments with fluid management system
US9232944B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-01-12 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument and bushing
US9226767B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-01-05 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Closed feedback control for electrosurgical device
US9393037B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-07-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical instruments with articulating shafts
US9820768B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2017-11-21 Ethicon Llc Ultrasonic surgical instruments with control mechanisms
US9408622B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-08-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical instruments with articulating shafts
KR101703407B1 (en) * 2012-07-03 2017-02-06 쿠카 레보라토리즈 게엠베하 Surgical instrument arrangement and drive train arrangement for a surgical instrument, in particular a robot-guided surgical instrument, and surgical instrument
US9770305B2 (en) 2012-08-08 2017-09-26 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Robotic surgical devices, systems, and related methods
US9364217B2 (en) 2012-10-16 2016-06-14 Covidien Lp In-situ loaded stapler
US9095367B2 (en) 2012-10-22 2015-08-04 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Flexible harmonic waveguides/blades for surgical instruments
KR20140065895A (en) * 2012-11-22 2014-05-30 삼성전자주식회사 Surgical robot and method for controlling the surgical robot
US9098611B2 (en) 2012-11-26 2015-08-04 Intouch Technologies, Inc. Enhanced video interaction for a user interface of a telepresence network
US9345480B2 (en) 2013-01-18 2016-05-24 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument and cartridge members for use therewith
US9814463B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-11-14 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling apparatus
US9717498B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-08-01 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling apparatus
US9566064B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-02-14 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling apparatus
KR20140112208A (en) * 2013-03-13 2014-09-23 삼성전자주식회사 Surgical robot and method for controlling the same
US9629628B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-04-25 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling apparatus
WO2014160086A3 (en) 2013-03-14 2014-12-04 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Methods, systems, and devices relating to robotic surgical devices, end effectors, and controllers
US9241728B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-01-26 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument with multiple clamping mechanisms
US9408669B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-08-09 Hansen Medical, Inc. Active drive mechanism with finite range of motion
US9510827B2 (en) 2013-03-25 2016-12-06 Covidien Lp Micro surgical instrument and loading unit for use therewith
US9265581B2 (en) 2013-04-21 2016-02-23 Gyrus Acmi, Inc. Relay based tool control
CN103213143A (en) * 2013-04-22 2013-07-24 重庆绿色智能技术研究院 Multi-element touch sense interactive perceiving system with temperature perceiving function
US9387045B2 (en) * 2013-05-14 2016-07-12 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Grip force normalization for surgical instrument
US9445810B2 (en) 2013-06-12 2016-09-20 Covidien Lp Stapling device with grasping jaw mechanism
KR20150017129A (en) * 2013-08-06 2015-02-16 삼성전자주식회사 Surgical robot system and control method for the same
US9662108B2 (en) 2013-08-30 2017-05-30 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling apparatus
KR20150027618A (en) * 2013-09-04 2015-03-12 삼성전자주식회사 Surgical robot and control method thereof
JP2015116660A (en) * 2013-11-13 2015-06-25 パナソニックIpマネジメント株式会社 Master device for master slave device and control method of the same, and master slave device
US9867613B2 (en) 2013-12-19 2018-01-16 Covidien Lp Surgical staples and end effectors for deploying the same
US9629627B2 (en) 2014-01-28 2017-04-25 Coviden Lp Surgical apparatus
US9848874B2 (en) 2014-02-14 2017-12-26 Covidien Lp Small diameter endoscopic stapler
WO2015143281A1 (en) * 2014-03-21 2015-09-24 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Monolithic, multi-axis force sensor
US9757126B2 (en) 2014-03-31 2017-09-12 Covidien Lp Surgical stapling apparatus with firing lockout mechanism
US9668733B2 (en) 2014-04-21 2017-06-06 Covidien Lp Stapling device with features to prevent inadvertent firing of staples
US9861366B2 (en) 2014-05-06 2018-01-09 Covidien Lp Ejecting assembly for a surgical stapler
US9517561B2 (en) 2014-08-25 2016-12-13 Google Inc. Natural pitch and roll
US9440353B1 (en) * 2014-12-29 2016-09-13 Google Inc. Offline determination of robot behavior
DE102015100694A1 (en) * 2015-01-19 2016-07-21 Technische Universität Darmstadt Teleoperation system with intrinsic haptic feedback through dynamic characteristic adjustment for grip strength and Endeffektorkoordinaten
US9849595B2 (en) 2015-02-06 2017-12-26 Abb Schweiz Ag Contact force limiting with haptic feedback for a tele-operated robot
US20160256155A1 (en) * 2015-03-06 2016-09-08 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Control techniques and sub-processor contained within modular shaft with select control processing from handle
WO2017070266A1 (en) * 2015-10-22 2017-04-27 Covidien Lp Variable sweeping for input devices
US20170156808A1 (en) * 2015-12-04 2017-06-08 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Methods, systems, and devices for control of surgical tools in a robotic surgical system
WO2017123796A1 (en) * 2016-01-12 2017-07-20 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Staged force feedback transitioning between control states

Citations (53)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6438455B1 (en) *
US4541574A (en) * 1982-09-06 1985-09-17 Gygi Martin H Milling process and roller mill
US4553746A (en) * 1983-08-19 1985-11-19 Valerie Holdeman Lee Hand exerciser
US4696501A (en) * 1986-01-30 1987-09-29 Honeywell Inc. Robot gripper
US4819978A (en) * 1986-06-27 1989-04-11 California Institute Of Technology Grasp force sensor for robotic hands
US5184601A (en) * 1991-08-05 1993-02-09 Putman John M Endoscope stabilizer
US5250056A (en) * 1992-02-04 1993-10-05 Hasson Harrith M Forceps-type surgical instrument
US5339799A (en) * 1991-04-23 1994-08-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Medical system for reproducing a state of contact of the treatment section in the operation unit
US5354162A (en) * 1991-02-26 1994-10-11 Rutgers University Actuator system for providing force feedback to portable master support
US5503320A (en) * 1993-08-19 1996-04-02 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical apparatus with indicator
US5572684A (en) * 1990-07-03 1996-11-05 National Instruments Corporation IEEE 488 interface and message handling method
US5637108A (en) * 1994-06-15 1997-06-10 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical handle having a controlled leak passage
US5696837A (en) * 1994-05-05 1997-12-09 Sri International Method and apparatus for transforming coordinate systems in a telemanipulation system
US5697939A (en) * 1992-08-20 1997-12-16 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Apparatus for holding a medical instrument in place
US5762458A (en) * 1996-02-20 1998-06-09 Computer Motion, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing minimally invasive cardiac procedures
US5784542A (en) * 1995-09-07 1998-07-21 California Institute Of Technology Decoupled six degree-of-freedom teleoperated robot system
US5792135A (en) * 1996-05-20 1998-08-11 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Articulated surgical instrument for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
US5792178A (en) * 1996-06-11 1998-08-11 Ethicon Endo Surgery, Inc. Handle latching mechanism with release trigger
US5800423A (en) * 1993-05-14 1998-09-01 Sri International Remote center positioner with channel shaped linkage element
US5807377A (en) * 1996-05-20 1998-09-15 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Force-reflecting surgical instrument and positioning mechanism for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
US5808665A (en) * 1992-01-21 1998-09-15 Sri International Endoscopic surgical instrument and method for use
US5841950A (en) * 1992-08-10 1998-11-24 Computer Motion, Inc. Automated endoscope system for optimal positioning
US5855553A (en) * 1995-02-16 1999-01-05 Hitchi, Ltd. Remote surgery support system and method thereof
US5876325A (en) * 1993-11-02 1999-03-02 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Surgical manipulation system
US6024695A (en) * 1991-06-13 2000-02-15 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of surgery
US6113395A (en) * 1998-08-18 2000-09-05 Hon; David C. Selectable instruments with homing devices for haptic virtual reality medical simulation
US6165184A (en) * 1996-11-18 2000-12-26 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems methods and instruments for minimally invasive surgery
US6219589B1 (en) * 1997-10-22 2001-04-17 Simon Fraser University Remote manipulator with force feedback and control
US6228097B1 (en) * 1999-01-22 2001-05-08 Scion International, Inc. Surgical instrument for clipping and cutting blood vessels and organic structures
US6280458B1 (en) * 1997-07-22 2001-08-28 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Surgical grasping and holding forceps
US20010018591A1 (en) * 1998-02-24 2001-08-30 Brock David L. Articulated apparatus for telemanipulator system
US6312435B1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2001-11-06 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Surgical instrument with extended reach for use in minimally invasive surgery
US6323837B1 (en) * 1994-07-14 2001-11-27 Immersion Corporation Method and apparatus for interfacing an elongated object with a computer system
US6325808B1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2001-12-04 Advanced Realtime Control Systems, Inc. Robotic system, docking station, and surgical tool for collaborative control in minimally invasive surgery
US6331181B1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2001-12-18 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Surgical robotic tools, data architecture, and use
US20010056283A1 (en) * 1993-08-25 2001-12-27 James E. Carter Devices for investing within ligaments for retracting and reinforcing the same
US20020042620A1 (en) * 1999-12-02 2002-04-11 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. In vivo accessories for minimally invasive robotic surgery
US20020045905A1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-04-18 Gerbi Craig Richard Tool guide and method for introducing an end effector to a surgical site in minimally invasive surgery
US20020045888A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2002-04-18 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Stabilizer for robotic beating-heart surgery
US20020058959A1 (en) * 2000-11-15 2002-05-16 Gellman Barry N. Treating urinary incontinence
US6424885B1 (en) * 1999-04-07 2002-07-23 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Camera referenced control in a minimally invasive surgical apparatus
US6438455B2 (en) * 2000-03-28 2002-08-20 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Industrial robot
US6451027B1 (en) * 1998-12-16 2002-09-17 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Devices and methods for moving an image capture device in telesurgical systems
US6459926B1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2002-10-01 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Repositioning and reorientation of master/slave relationship in minimally invasive telesurgery
US6459956B2 (en) * 2000-03-28 2002-10-01 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Safety device for use with an industrial robot
US6468265B1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2002-10-22 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Performing cardiac surgery without cardioplegia
US6594552B1 (en) * 1999-04-07 2003-07-15 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US7076311B2 (en) * 2002-07-09 2006-07-11 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Configurable safety system for implementation on industrial system and method of implementing same
US20060178559A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2006-08-10 Intuitive Surgical Inc. Multi-user medical robotic system for collaboration or training in minimally invasive surgical procedures
US7177724B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2007-02-13 Comau S.P.A. Portable terminal for controlling, programming and/or teaching robots or similar automatic apparatuses
US7376488B2 (en) * 2003-02-27 2008-05-20 Fanuc Ltd. Taught position modification device
US7590468B2 (en) * 2003-09-29 2009-09-15 Fanuc Ltd Robot system
US7610119B2 (en) * 2003-07-08 2009-10-27 Omron Corporation Safety controller and system using same

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2512570B1 (en) 1981-09-09 1983-10-28 Commissariat Energie Atomique
US4819987A (en) * 1987-11-18 1989-04-11 Weber Aircraft Aircraft seat leg support release device
US5217453A (en) 1991-03-18 1993-06-08 Wilk Peter J Automated surgical system and apparatus
WO1995001757A1 (en) 1993-07-07 1995-01-19 Cornelius Borst Robotic system for close inspection and remote treatment of moving parts
US6786896B1 (en) 1997-09-19 2004-09-07 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Robotic apparatus
DE19957155C1 (en) 1999-11-27 2001-06-21 Stefan Stocker Haptic input and output device and method for manipulating virtual objects
US6244807B1 (en) * 2000-03-06 2001-06-12 Bristol Industries Double seal nut

Patent Citations (66)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6438455B1 (en) *
US4541574A (en) * 1982-09-06 1985-09-17 Gygi Martin H Milling process and roller mill
US4553746A (en) * 1983-08-19 1985-11-19 Valerie Holdeman Lee Hand exerciser
US4696501A (en) * 1986-01-30 1987-09-29 Honeywell Inc. Robot gripper
US4819978A (en) * 1986-06-27 1989-04-11 California Institute Of Technology Grasp force sensor for robotic hands
US5572684A (en) * 1990-07-03 1996-11-05 National Instruments Corporation IEEE 488 interface and message handling method
US5354162A (en) * 1991-02-26 1994-10-11 Rutgers University Actuator system for providing force feedback to portable master support
US5339799A (en) * 1991-04-23 1994-08-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Medical system for reproducing a state of contact of the treatment section in the operation unit
US6024695A (en) * 1991-06-13 2000-02-15 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of surgery
US6231526B1 (en) * 1991-06-13 2001-05-15 International Business Machines Corporation System and method for augmentation of surgery
US5184601A (en) * 1991-08-05 1993-02-09 Putman John M Endoscope stabilizer
US6223100B1 (en) * 1992-01-21 2001-04-24 Sri, International Apparatus and method for performing computer enhanced surgery with articulated instrument
US6259806B1 (en) * 1992-01-21 2001-07-10 Sri International Method and apparatus for transforming coordinate systems in a telemanipulation system
US5808665A (en) * 1992-01-21 1998-09-15 Sri International Endoscopic surgical instrument and method for use
US5250056A (en) * 1992-02-04 1993-10-05 Hasson Harrith M Forceps-type surgical instrument
US5841950A (en) * 1992-08-10 1998-11-24 Computer Motion, Inc. Automated endoscope system for optimal positioning
US5697939A (en) * 1992-08-20 1997-12-16 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Apparatus for holding a medical instrument in place
US5931832A (en) * 1993-05-14 1999-08-03 Sri International Methods for positioning a surgical instrument about a remote spherical center of rotation
US5800423A (en) * 1993-05-14 1998-09-01 Sri International Remote center positioner with channel shaped linkage element
US5503320A (en) * 1993-08-19 1996-04-02 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical apparatus with indicator
US20010056283A1 (en) * 1993-08-25 2001-12-27 James E. Carter Devices for investing within ligaments for retracting and reinforcing the same
US5876325A (en) * 1993-11-02 1999-03-02 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Surgical manipulation system
US5696837A (en) * 1994-05-05 1997-12-09 Sri International Method and apparatus for transforming coordinate systems in a telemanipulation system
US5859934A (en) * 1994-05-05 1999-01-12 Sri International Method and apparatus for transforming coordinate systems in a telemanipulation system
US5637108A (en) * 1994-06-15 1997-06-10 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical handle having a controlled leak passage
US6323837B1 (en) * 1994-07-14 2001-11-27 Immersion Corporation Method and apparatus for interfacing an elongated object with a computer system
US5855553A (en) * 1995-02-16 1999-01-05 Hitchi, Ltd. Remote surgery support system and method thereof
US5784542A (en) * 1995-09-07 1998-07-21 California Institute Of Technology Decoupled six degree-of-freedom teleoperated robot system
US5762458A (en) * 1996-02-20 1998-06-09 Computer Motion, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing minimally invasive cardiac procedures
US6244809B1 (en) * 1996-02-20 2001-06-12 Computer Motion, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing minimally invasive cardiac procedures
US5807377A (en) * 1996-05-20 1998-09-15 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Force-reflecting surgical instrument and positioning mechanism for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
US5792135A (en) * 1996-05-20 1998-08-11 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Articulated surgical instrument for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
US5792178A (en) * 1996-06-11 1998-08-11 Ethicon Endo Surgery, Inc. Handle latching mechanism with release trigger
US6165184A (en) * 1996-11-18 2000-12-26 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems methods and instruments for minimally invasive surgery
US20070012135A1 (en) * 1996-12-12 2007-01-18 Intuitive Surgical Inc. Surgical robotic tools, data architecture, and use
US20050149003A1 (en) * 1996-12-12 2005-07-07 Intuitive Surgical , Inc. Surgical robotic tools, data architecture, and use
US6280458B1 (en) * 1997-07-22 2001-08-28 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Surgical grasping and holding forceps
US6219589B1 (en) * 1997-10-22 2001-04-17 Simon Fraser University Remote manipulator with force feedback and control
US20010018591A1 (en) * 1998-02-24 2001-08-30 Brock David L. Articulated apparatus for telemanipulator system
US6113395A (en) * 1998-08-18 2000-09-05 Hon; David C. Selectable instruments with homing devices for haptic virtual reality medical simulation
US6468265B1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2002-10-22 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Performing cardiac surgery without cardioplegia
US20060241414A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2006-10-26 Intuitive Surgical Inc. Repositioning and reorientation of master/slave relationship in minimally invasive telesuregery
US20060178559A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2006-08-10 Intuitive Surgical Inc. Multi-user medical robotic system for collaboration or training in minimally invasive surgical procedures
US6459926B1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2002-10-01 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Repositioning and reorientation of master/slave relationship in minimally invasive telesurgery
US20020045888A1 (en) * 1998-11-20 2002-04-18 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Stabilizer for robotic beating-heart surgery
US6331181B1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2001-12-18 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Surgical robotic tools, data architecture, and use
US6325808B1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2001-12-04 Advanced Realtime Control Systems, Inc. Robotic system, docking station, and surgical tool for collaborative control in minimally invasive surgery
US20090234371A1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2009-09-17 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Mechanical actuator interface system for robotic surgical tools
US6491701B2 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-12-10 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Mechanical actuator interface system for robotic surgical tools
US20020045905A1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-04-18 Gerbi Craig Richard Tool guide and method for introducing an end effector to a surgical site in minimally invasive surgery
US6451027B1 (en) * 1998-12-16 2002-09-17 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Devices and methods for moving an image capture device in telesurgical systems
US6228097B1 (en) * 1999-01-22 2001-05-08 Scion International, Inc. Surgical instrument for clipping and cutting blood vessels and organic structures
US20060030840A1 (en) * 1999-04-07 2006-02-09 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US6594552B1 (en) * 1999-04-07 2003-07-15 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Grip strength with tactile feedback for robotic surgery
US6424885B1 (en) * 1999-04-07 2002-07-23 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Camera referenced control in a minimally invasive surgical apparatus
US6312435B1 (en) * 1999-10-08 2001-11-06 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Surgical instrument with extended reach for use in minimally invasive surgery
US20020042620A1 (en) * 1999-12-02 2002-04-11 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. In vivo accessories for minimally invasive robotic surgery
US6438455B2 (en) * 2000-03-28 2002-08-20 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Industrial robot
US6459956B2 (en) * 2000-03-28 2002-10-01 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Safety device for use with an industrial robot
US20020058959A1 (en) * 2000-11-15 2002-05-16 Gellman Barry N. Treating urinary incontinence
USRE42017E1 (en) * 2002-07-09 2010-12-28 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Configurable safety system for implementation on industrial system and method of implementing same
US7076311B2 (en) * 2002-07-09 2006-07-11 Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc. Configurable safety system for implementation on industrial system and method of implementing same
US7177724B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2007-02-13 Comau S.P.A. Portable terminal for controlling, programming and/or teaching robots or similar automatic apparatuses
US7376488B2 (en) * 2003-02-27 2008-05-20 Fanuc Ltd. Taught position modification device
US7610119B2 (en) * 2003-07-08 2009-10-27 Omron Corporation Safety controller and system using same
US7590468B2 (en) * 2003-09-29 2009-09-15 Fanuc Ltd Robot system

Cited By (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080221732A1 (en) * 2004-05-04 2008-09-11 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Tool memory-based software upgrades for robotic surgery
US9345546B2 (en) 2004-05-04 2016-05-24 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool memory-based software upgrades for robotic surgery
US8634957B2 (en) 2004-05-04 2014-01-21 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool memory-based software upgrades for robotic surgery
US7983793B2 (en) * 2004-05-04 2011-07-19 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool memory-based software upgrades for robotic surgery
US20100178644A1 (en) * 2009-01-15 2010-07-15 Simquest Llc Interactive simulation of biological tissue
WO2010083272A1 (en) * 2009-01-15 2010-07-22 Simquest Llc Interactive simulation of biological tissue
US8423186B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2013-04-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US9579164B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2017-02-28 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally invasive surgical instrument
KR101699319B1 (en) 2009-06-30 2017-01-24 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
KR101777591B1 (en) 2009-06-30 2017-09-13 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
KR20120104493A (en) * 2009-06-30 2012-09-21 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
CN102470015A (en) * 2009-06-30 2012-05-23 直观外科手术操作公司 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US9814537B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2017-11-14 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally invasive surgical instrument
US20130245641A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2013-09-19 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally invasive surgical instrument
EP3069829A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2016-09-21 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
WO2011002593A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2011-01-06 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US20160157949A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2016-06-09 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally invasive surgical instrument
US20100332031A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2010-12-30 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US8903549B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2014-12-02 Intuitive Surgical Opeations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally invasive surgical instrument
US20150066053A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2015-03-05 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
KR101825720B1 (en) 2009-06-30 2018-02-06 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US9265584B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2016-02-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
CN105147390A (en) * 2009-06-30 2015-12-16 直观外科手术操作公司 Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally-invasive surgical instrument
US20170112582A1 (en) * 2009-06-30 2017-04-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Ratcheting for master alignment of a teleoperated minimally invasive surgical instrument
US8428779B2 (en) * 2009-09-24 2013-04-23 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Robot controlling device
US20120150347A1 (en) * 2009-09-24 2012-06-14 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Robot controlling device
US20120191247A1 (en) * 2011-01-20 2012-07-26 Olympus Corporation Master-slave manipulator and medical master-slave manipulator
US9283679B2 (en) * 2011-01-20 2016-03-15 Olympus Corporation Master-slave manipulator and medical master-slave manipulator
US8989903B2 (en) * 2011-02-15 2015-03-24 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and systems for indicating a clamping prediction
US20120209314A1 (en) * 2011-02-15 2012-08-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and Systems for Indicating a Clamping Prediction
US9043027B2 (en) 2011-05-31 2015-05-26 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Positive control of robotic surgical instrument end effector
US9820823B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2017-11-21 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Grip force control for robotic surgical instrument end effector
US9314307B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2016-04-19 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Grip force control for robotic surgical instrument end effector
WO2014004114A1 (en) * 2012-06-29 2014-01-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Haptic feedback devices for surgical robot
EP2743801A2 (en) 2012-12-13 2014-06-18 How to Organize (H2O) GmbH Handle element and input gripper module for a haptic input system
DE102012112247A1 (en) 2012-12-13 2014-06-18 How To Organize (H2O) Gmbh Handle element and gripper transfer module for a haptic input system
US9597806B2 (en) 2012-12-13 2017-03-21 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg Gripping element and gripper input module for a haptic input system
US20170036353A1 (en) * 2013-12-13 2017-02-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Robot apparatus, robot controlling method, programming and recording medium
US20150165620A1 (en) * 2013-12-13 2015-06-18 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Robot apparatus, robot controlling method, program and recording medium
US9505133B2 (en) * 2013-12-13 2016-11-29 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Robot apparatus, robot controlling method, program and recording medium
EP3015081A1 (en) 2014-10-27 2016-05-04 Karl Storz GmbH & Co. KG Surgical instrument with a manual control device
DE102014115600A1 (en) 2014-10-27 2016-04-28 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Kg A surgical instrument having a manual control device
US9884427B2 (en) 2015-04-02 2018-02-06 Sri International Compact robotic wrist
WO2016171757A1 (en) * 2015-04-23 2016-10-27 Sri International Hyperdexterous surgical system user interface devices

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6594552B1 (en) 2003-07-15 grant
US20060030840A1 (en) 2006-02-09 application
US7778733B2 (en) 2010-08-17 grant
US6879880B2 (en) 2005-04-12 grant
US7373219B2 (en) 2008-05-13 grant
US20030195664A1 (en) 2003-10-16 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Guthart et al. The Intuitive/sup TM/telesurgery system: overview and application
US7646161B2 (en) Method for controlling a robot arm, and robot for implementing the method
US5976122A (en) Articulated surgical instrument for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
Taylor et al. A steady-hand robotic system for microsurgical augmentation
US5807377A (en) Force-reflecting surgical instrument and positioning mechanism for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
Hill et al. Telepresence surgery demonstration system
US6692485B1 (en) Articulated apparatus for telemanipulator system
US6197017B1 (en) Articulated apparatus for telemanipulator system
Cenk Çavuşoğlu et al. Robotics for telesurgery: Second generation Berkeley/UCSF laparoscopic telesurgical workstation and looking towards the future applications
US5797900A (en) Wrist mechanism for surgical instrument for performing minimally invasive surgery with enhanced dexterity and sensitivity
Tendick et al. Applications of micromechatronics in minimally invasive surgery
US20020133173A1 (en) Surgical instrument
US7169141B2 (en) Surgical instrument
US7789875B2 (en) Surgical instruments
US20090326556A1 (en) Medical robotic system providing computer generated auxiliary views of a camera instrument for controlling the positioning and orienting of its tip
US20100234857A1 (en) Medical robotic system with operatively couplable simulator unit for surgeon training
US20080046122A1 (en) Maximum torque driving of robotic surgical tools in robotic surgical systems
US20090088774A1 (en) Apparatus and method of user interface with alternate tool mode for robotic surgical tools
US20100169815A1 (en) Visual force feedback in a minimally invasive surgical procedure
US20100168918A1 (en) Obtaining force information in a minimally invasive surgical procedure
US20070144298A1 (en) Constraint based control in a minimally invasive surgical apparatus
US7074179B2 (en) Method and apparatus for performing minimally invasive cardiac procedures
US20090192523A1 (en) Synthetic representation of a surgical instrument
Hagn et al. DLR MiroSurge: a versatile system for research in endoscopic telesurgery
Madhani et al. The black falcon: A teleoperated surgical instrument for minimally invasive surgery

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: INTUITIVE SURGICAL OPERATIONS, INC.,CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTUITIVE SURGICAL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:024468/0890

Effective date: 20100219

Owner name: INTUITIVE SURGICAL OPERATIONS, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTUITIVE SURGICAL, INC.;REEL/FRAME:024468/0890

Effective date: 20100219

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4