JP5646831B2 - Lithium secondary battery, its manufacturing method, and lithium secondary battery separator - Google Patents

Lithium secondary battery, its manufacturing method, and lithium secondary battery separator Download PDF

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JP5646831B2
JP5646831B2 JP2009204207A JP2009204207A JP5646831B2 JP 5646831 B2 JP5646831 B2 JP 5646831B2 JP 2009204207 A JP2009204207 A JP 2009204207A JP 2009204207 A JP2009204207 A JP 2009204207A JP 5646831 B2 JP5646831 B2 JP 5646831B2
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separator
lithium secondary
secondary battery
adhesive resin
resin
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JP2011054502A (en
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浩志 櫻井
浩志 櫻井
松本 修明
修明 松本
片山 秀昭
秀昭 片山
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日立マクセル株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product
    • Y02P70/54Manufacturing of lithium-ion, lead-acid or alkaline secondary batteries

Description

  The present invention relates to a lithium secondary battery excellent in high-temperature storage characteristics, charge / discharge cycle characteristics and load characteristics, and having good productivity, and a method for producing the same.

  In recent years, the importance of mobile devices (portable devices) such as mobile phones, PDAs, and notebook personal computers has increased, and the importance of batteries mounted thereon has also increased. In particular, due to environmental considerations, the importance of secondary batteries that can be repeatedly charged is increasing. Currently, such secondary batteries are used not only for the power supply of small devices such as mobile devices, but also for large devices such as automobiles, electric bicycles, household power storage systems, and commercial power storage systems. Application is also under consideration.

  In applying the secondary battery to the above-mentioned applications, various battery characteristics are required to be improved. For example, in order to improve the energy density, it is generally used in a high temperature environment or for a long time. As a result, deterioration becomes severe and a problem of durability of the battery arises. In addition, the increase in energy density makes it difficult to ensure safety that suppresses the occurrence of abnormalities such as battery smoke and fire.

  Such secondary battery deterioration factors include the process of repeated storage and charge / discharge in a high-temperature environment, where the non-aqueous electrolyte decomposes and gas is generated in the battery, and the electrodes themselves in the battery expand and contract. In addition, there is a variation in the distance between the positive electrode and the negative electrode due to these, and the uniformity of the charge / discharge reaction is lost.

  On the other hand, as one means for solving such a problem, a method of arranging an adhesive layer between the separator and the electrode and integrating the separator and the electrode via the adhesive layer has been developed. It has been proposed to use polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or the like as the constituent resin of the layer (Patent Documents 1 to 5).

  Also proposed is a technology in which a polymer having a polymerizable functional group is supported on a separator and polymerization is started by a non-aqueous electrolyte in the battery to form a crosslinked structure, whereby the electrode and the separator are bonded and integrated. (Patent Documents 6 to 8).

Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-255849 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2003-77545 JP-A-10-172606 JP-A-10-177865 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-189054 JP 2005-100951 A JP 2007-157469 A JP 2007-157570 A

  However, in the methods described in Patent Documents 1 to 5, in order to sufficiently bond the separator and the electrode, for example, it is necessary to increase the thickness of the adhesive layer, and the amount of the electrolytic solution that can be contained in the adhesive layer is limited. As a result, the internal resistance of the battery increases, causing a problem that, for example, high-load discharge characteristics are degraded.

  Furthermore, in the methods described in Patent Documents 1 to 5, for example, when manufacturing a battery having a wound body electrode group, the separator and the electrode are wound in an integrated state. A large frictional resistance is generated at the interface between the separator and the adhesive layer, and the interface between the electrode and the adhesive layer, and a winding shift occurs at the time of winding, which may cause a problem that efficient production of the battery becomes difficult.

  In addition, in the methods described in Patent Documents 6 to 8, since a polymer for adhesion between the separator and the electrode is synthesized by a polymerization reaction inside the battery, it is difficult to control side reactions and the like. There is also a risk that the battery performance may be deteriorated due to electrochemical decomposition of the base, and there is a difficulty in extending the battery life. Another problem is that it is difficult to precisely control the thickness of the adhesive layer that bonds the separator and the electrode.

  Therefore, in lithium secondary batteries, load characteristics and productivity are suppressed while suppressing deterioration in characteristics due to variations in the distance between the positive electrode and the negative electrode due to repeated storage and charge / discharge in a high temperature environment. Development of technology that enhances performance is required.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and its purpose is to provide a lithium secondary battery excellent in high-temperature storage characteristics, charge / discharge cycle characteristics and load characteristics, and having good productivity, and a method for producing the same. There is to do.

  The lithium secondary battery of the present invention that can achieve the above object is a lithium secondary battery having a positive electrode and a negative electrode facing each other, and a separator positioned between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, and at least on one side, A separator having an adhesive resin that exhibits adhesiveness when heated is used, and at least one of the positive electrode and the negative electrode and the separator are integrated by the adhesive resin. Is.

  The method for producing a lithium secondary battery of the present invention is a method for producing a lithium secondary battery having a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a non-aqueous electrolyte, and a separator, and exhibits adhesiveness by heating at least on one side. Using a separator having an adhesive resin, the separator is disposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode and laminated, or the separator is disposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode and wound to form an electrode A step of forming a group, and a step of subjecting the electrode group to heat pressing to integrate at least one of a positive electrode and a negative electrode with a separator.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to provide a lithium secondary battery that is excellent in high-temperature storage characteristics, charge / discharge cycle characteristics, and load characteristics, and has good productivity, and a method for manufacturing the same.

It is an external appearance perspective view which shows an example of the lithium secondary battery of this invention. It is the II sectional view taken on the line of FIG.

  The lithium secondary battery of the present invention uses a separator in which an adhesive resin that exhibits adhesiveness when heated is present on at least one surface. By the action of the adhesive resin, the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode and the separator are used. And are integrated. Therefore, in the lithium secondary battery of the present invention, the distance between the positive electrode and the negative electrode is less likely to vary even during high-temperature storage or under repeated charge / discharge conditions, and deterioration of charge / discharge characteristics is suppressed.

  The separator is made of a resin microporous membrane (resin microporous membrane used for separators in ordinary lithium secondary batteries) or a resin non-woven fabric as a base material, and the adhesive properties on one or both sides thereof The thing in which resin exists can be used. Examples of the resin constituting the microporous film or the nonwoven fabric used as the base material of the separator include polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Moreover, it is good also as a base material which concerns on a separator by laminating | stacking two or more said resin-made microporous membranes and nonwoven fabrics, or laminating | stacking a plurality of microporous membranes or nonwoven fabrics.

  It is preferable that the thickness of the base material concerning a separator is 5-30 micrometers. Moreover, it is preferable that the porosity of the base material concerning a separator is 30 to 70%.

  The separator according to the lithium secondary battery of the present invention has an adhesive resin that exhibits adhesiveness by heating on one or both sides of the base material as described above. And a separator are laminated, and this is further wound to form an electrode group, and then the electrode group is subjected to a heat press at a temperature equal to or higher than the lowest temperature at which the adhesive resin exhibits adhesiveness. Alternatively, the negative electrode and the separator can be integrated.

  Therefore, the minimum temperature at which the adhesiveness of the adhesive resin develops needs to be lower than the melting point of the constituent resin of the base material related to the separator. For example, polyolefins that are widely used in separators of lithium secondary batteries When using a substrate made of (particularly PE having a low melting point), it is preferably 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. or lower. By using such an adhesive resin, when the separator and the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode are integrated by hot pressing, deterioration of the base material related to the separator can be satisfactorily suppressed.

  At room temperature (for example, 25 ° C.), there is almost no adhesiveness (tackiness), and the performance that exhibits adhesiveness by thermocompression bonding is referred to as delayed tackiness, but the separator according to the present invention is based on the presence of an adhesive resin. It is preferable to have such delayed tackiness. More specifically, for example, the peel strength obtained when a peel test at 180 ° between the electrode (for example, the negative electrode) constituting the lithium secondary battery and the separator is performed is in a state before the hot press, Preferably it is 0.05N / 20mm or less, Especially preferably, it is 0N / 20mm (state which has no adhesive force), and the delayed tack which becomes 0.2N / 20mm or more in the state after heat-pressing at the temperature of 60-120 degreeC It is preferable to have the property.

  However, if the peel strength is too strong, the electrode mixture layer (the positive electrode mixture layer and the negative electrode mixture layer) may peel from the current collector of the electrode, and the conductivity may be lowered. The peel strength by the peel test at ° is preferably 10 N / 20 mm or less after being hot-pressed at a temperature of 60 to 120 ° C.

  In addition, the peel strength at 180 ° between the electrode and the separator in the present specification is a value measured by the following method. The separator and the electrode are each cut into a size of 5 cm in length and 2 cm in width, and the cut-out separator and the electrode are overlapped. When obtaining the peel strength in the state after being hot-pressed, a test piece is prepared by hot-pressing a 2 cm × 2 cm region from one end. The end of the test piece on the side where the separator and the electrode are not heated and pressed is opened, and the separator and the electrode are bent so that these angles are 180 °. Thereafter, using a tensile tester, both the one end side of the separator opened at 180 ° of the test piece and the one end side of the electrode are gripped and pulled at a pulling speed of 10 mm / min. Measure the strength when peeled off. In addition, the peel strength of the separator and the electrode before heating press was determined by preparing a test piece in the same manner as above except that the separator and electrode cut out as described above were stacked and pressed without heating. The peel test is performed in the same manner as described above.

  Therefore, the adhesive resin used in the separator according to the present invention has almost no adhesiveness (tackiness) at room temperature (for example, 25 ° C.), and the minimum temperature at which the adhesiveness develops is the constituent resin of the base material related to the separator. Those having a delayed tack property of less than the melting point, preferably 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. or lower are desirable. In addition, the temperature of the heating press when integrating the separator and the electrode is 80 ° C. or higher and 100 ° C. at which the thermal contraction of the base material does not occur significantly when the base material related to the separator is made of polyolefin, for example. The minimum temperature at which the adhesiveness of the adhesive resin is exhibited is more preferably 80 ° C. or higher and 100 ° C. or lower.

  As the adhesive resin having a delayed tack property, a resin that has almost no fluidity at room temperature, exhibits fluidity when heated, and has a property of being adhered by pressing is preferable. A resin of a type that is solid at room temperature, melts by heating, and exhibits adhesiveness by a chemical reaction can also be used as the adhesive resin.

  The adhesive resin preferably has a softening point in the range of 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. or lower with the melting point, glass transition point and the like as indices. The melting point and glass transition point of the adhesive resin can be measured, for example, by a method prescribed in JIS K 7121, and the softening point of the adhesive resin can be measured, for example, by a method prescribed in JIS K 7206.

  Specific examples of such adhesive resin include, for example, low density polyethylene (LDPE), poly-α-olefin [polypropylene (PP), polybutene-1, etc.], polyacrylate ester, polyvinyl acetate, and these resins. [Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer (EEA), ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer] Polymer (EBA), ethylene-methyl methacrylate copolymer (EMMA), ionomer resin, cross-linked acrylic resin, etc.], natural rubber (NR) and the like.

  Each resin, or a resin having adhesiveness at room temperature, such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR), fluorine rubber, or ethylene-propylene rubber, has a melting point and a softening point of 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. A resin having a core-shell structure in which a resin having a temperature within a range of 0 ° C. or lower is used as an adhesive resin can be used. In this case, various acrylic resins and polyurethane can be used for the shell. Further, as the adhesive resin, one-pack type polyurethane, epoxy resin, or the like that exhibits adhesiveness in a range of 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. or lower can be used.

  As the adhesive resin, the above-exemplified resins may be used alone or in combination of two or more.

  Commercially available adhesive resins having a delayed tack property as described above include “Moleth Commelt Excel Peel (PE, trade name)” manufactured by Matsumura Oil Research Laboratory, “Aqua-Tex (EVA, trade name) manufactured by Chuo Rika Kogyo Co., Ltd. ”, EVA manufactured by Nihon Unicar,“ Heat Magic (EVA, product name) ”manufactured by Toyo Ink, Ltd.,“ Evaflex-EEA series (ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer, product name) manufactured by Mitsui DuPont Polychemical Co., Ltd. ”,“ Aron Tac TT-1214 (acrylic acid ester, trade name) ”manufactured by Toa Gosei Co., Ltd.,“ High Milan (ethylene-based ionomer resin, trade name) ”manufactured by Mitsui DuPont Polychemical Co., Ltd., and the like.

  When the separator is integrated with only one of the positive electrode and the negative electrode, the adhesive resin may be present only on the surface of the separator that is in contact with the electrode to be integrated. When it is integrated with both the positive electrode and the negative electrode, it is present on both sides of the separator.

  In addition, when a layer that is substantially free of pores composed of an adhesive resin is formed on the separator surface, the non-aqueous electrolyte of the battery is difficult to contact the surface of the electrode integrated with the separator. In addition, when the non-aqueous electrolyte existing between the separator and the electrode immediately after the battery manufacture is consumed by repeated charge and discharge reactions, the non-aqueous electrolyte is separated from the separator from other parts in the battery. It is difficult to be supplied between the electrodes and there is a risk of causing a shortage of the non-aqueous electrolyte. Therefore, it is preferable that a portion where the adhesive resin exists and a portion where the adhesive resin does not exist are formed on the surface where the adhesive resin exists in the separator. As a result, the contact between the electrode and the non-aqueous electrolyte is improved, and the shortage of the non-aqueous electrolyte on the electrode surface is prevented even when the charge / discharge reaction is repeated. it can.

  Specifically, on the surface where the adhesive resin is present in the separator, for example, the locations where the adhesive resin is present and the locations where the adhesive resin is not present may be alternately formed in a groove shape, and are circular in plan view. A plurality of locations where the adhesive resin is present may be formed discontinuously. In these cases, the locations where the adhesive resin is present may be regularly arranged or randomly arranged.

  In addition, in the surface where the adhesive resin is present in the separator, when forming the portion where the adhesive resin is present and the portion where it is not present, the area of the portion where the adhesive resin is present on the surface where the adhesive resin is present according to the separator (Total area) may be such that, for example, the peel strength at 180 ° after thermocompression bonding of the separator and the electrode has the above value, and varies depending on the type of adhesive resin used. However, specifically, the adhesive resin is preferably present in 10 to 60% of the area of the adhesive resin existing surface in the separator in a plan view.

In addition, in the presence of the adhesive resin in the separator, the basis weight of the adhesive resin improves the adhesion with the electrode, for example, the peel strength at 180 ° after the separator and the electrode are pressure-bonded. to adjust the value is preferably to 0.05 g / m 2 or more, and more preferably set to 0.1 g / m 2 or more. However, if the basis weight of the adhesive resin is too large on the surface where the adhesive resin is present in the separator, the thickness of the separator as a whole becomes too large, or the possibility that the adhesive resin will block the pores of the separator increases. There is a possibility that the movement of ions inside the secondary battery is hindered. Therefore, the existing surface of the adhesive resin in the separator, the basis weight of the adhesive resin is preferably 1 g / m 2 or less, more preferably 0.5 g / m 2 or less.

  The separator according to the present invention can be produced by, for example, applying a solution containing an adhesive resin, an emulsion, or the like to the surface of the base material related to the separator and drying it, so that the adhesive resin is present. .

The separator according to the present invention is performed by a method according to JIS P 8117, and the Gurley value indicated by the number of seconds that 100 ml of air passes through the membrane under a pressure of 0.879 g / mm 2 is 10 to 300 sec. It is desirable. If the air permeability is too high, the ion permeability is reduced, whereas if it is too low, the strength of the separator may be reduced. Further, the strength of the separator is desirably 50 g or more in terms of piercing strength using a needle having a diameter of 1 mm. If the piercing strength is too small, a short circuit may occur due to the piercing of the separator when lithium dendrite crystals are generated. By employ | adopting the said structure, it can be set as the separator which has the said air permeability and piercing strength.

  The lithium secondary battery of the present invention uses the separator described above, and if the separator and the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode are integrated by an adhesive resin, there is no particular limitation on the other configuration and structure, and it has been conventionally known. Various configurations and structures provided in the lithium secondary battery used can be employed.

  Examples of the form of the lithium secondary battery include a cylindrical shape (such as a rectangular tube shape or a cylindrical shape) using a steel can or an aluminum can as an outer can. Moreover, it can also be set as the soft package battery which used the laminated film which vapor-deposited the metal as an exterior body.

The positive electrode used for the lithium secondary battery conventionally known can be used for the positive electrode which concerns on a lithium secondary battery. For example, the positive electrode active material is not particularly limited as long as it is an active material used in a conventionally known lithium secondary battery, that is, an active material capable of occluding and releasing Li ions. For example, a lithium-containing transition metal oxide having a layered structure represented by Li 1 + x MO 2 (−0.1 <x <0.1, M: Co, Ni, Mn, Al, Mg, etc.), LiMn 2 O 4 , It is possible to use a spinel structure lithium manganese oxide in which part of the element is substituted with another element, an olivine type compound represented by LiMPO 4 (M: Co, Ni, Mn, Fe, etc.), or the like.

Specific examples of the lithium-containing transition metal oxide having a layered structure include LiCoO 2 and LiNi 1-x Co xy Al y O 2 (0.1 ≦ x ≦ 0.3, 0.01 ≦ y ≦ 0. 2) and other oxides containing at least Co, Ni and Mn (LiMn 1/3 Ni 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 , LiMn 5/12 Ni 5/12 Co 1/6 O 2 , LiMn 3 / 5 Ni 1/5 Co 1/5 O 2 etc.).

  Examples of the positive electrode conductive assistant include carbon materials such as carbon black, and examples of the positive electrode binder include fluorine resins such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). For the positive electrode, it is possible to use a positive electrode mixture layer formed of a positive electrode mixture containing the positive electrode active material, a conductive additive and a binder on one or both sides of the current collector. .

  As the current collector of the positive electrode, a metal foil such as aluminum, a punching metal, a net, an expanded metal, or the like can be used. Usually, an aluminum foil having a thickness of 10 to 30 μm is preferably used.

  The lead portion on the positive electrode side is normally provided by leaving the exposed portion of the current collector without forming the positive electrode mixture layer on a part of the current collector and forming the lead portion at the time of producing the positive electrode. However, the lead portion is not necessarily integrated with the current collector from the beginning, and may be provided by connecting an aluminum foil or the like to the current collector later.

The negative electrode is a negative electrode used in a conventionally known lithium secondary battery, that is, at least one selected from a carbon material that can occlude and release Li ions, a lithium alloy, a metal that can be alloyed with lithium, and a lithium metal. There is no particular limitation as long as it is a negative electrode using a seed as an active material. More specifically, the active material occludes lithium, such as graphite, pyrolytic carbons, cokes, glassy carbons, fired organic polymer compounds, mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB), and carbon fibers. , One or a mixture of two or more releasable carbon-based materials is used. In addition, elements such as Si, Sn, Ge, Bi, Sb, In and alloys thereof, or lithium-containing oxides such as lithium metal, lithium / aluminum alloy, Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , and Li 2 Ti 3 O 7 are also used as negative electrode actives. It can be used as a substance. A negative electrode mixture in which a conductive additive (carbon material such as carbon black) or a binder such as PVDF is appropriately added to these negative electrode active materials is finished into a molded body (negative electrode mixture layer) using the current collector as a core material. The above-mentioned various alloys or lithium metal foils or those laminated on the surface of the current collector can be used as the negative electrode.

  When a current collector is used for the negative electrode, a copper or nickel foil, a punching metal, a net, an expanded metal, or the like can be used as the current collector, but a copper foil is usually used. In the negative electrode current collector, when the thickness of the entire negative electrode is reduced in order to obtain a battery having a high energy density, the upper limit of the thickness is preferably 30 μm, and the lower limit is preferably 5 μm. Further, the lead portion on the negative electrode side may be formed in the same manner as the lead portion on the positive electrode side.

  The positive electrode having the positive electrode mixture layer and the negative electrode having the negative electrode mixture layer as described above are, for example, a positive electrode mixture obtained by dispersing the positive electrode mixture in a solvent such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). By applying a composition for forming an agent layer (slurry, etc.) or a composition for forming a negative electrode mixture layer (slurry, etc.) in which the negative electrode mixture is dispersed in a solvent such as NMP to the surface of the current collector and drying it. Produced.

  The electrode can be used in the form of a laminate electrode group in which the positive electrode and the negative electrode are laminated via the separator, or a wound electrode group in which the electrode is wound.

As the non-aqueous electrolyte, a solution in which a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent is used. The lithium salt is not particularly limited as long as it dissociates in a solvent to form Li + ions and hardly causes side reactions such as decomposition in a voltage range used as a battery. For example, LiClO 4 , LiPF 6 , LiBF 4 , LiAsF 6 , LiSbF 6 and other inorganic lithium salts, LiCF 3 SO 3 , LiCF 3 CO 2 , Li 2 C 2 F 4 (SO 3 ) 2 , LiN (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 , LiC (CF 3 SO 2 ) 3 , LiC n F 2n + 1 SO 3 (n ≧ 2), LiN (R f OSO 2 ) 2 [where Rf is a fluoroalkyl group], or the like is used. Can do.

  The organic solvent used for the non-aqueous electrolyte is not particularly limited as long as it dissolves the lithium salt and does not cause a side reaction such as decomposition in a voltage range used as a battery. For example, cyclic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, butylene carbonate, vinylene carbonate, chain carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and methyl ethyl carbonate, chain esters such as methyl propionate, cyclic esters such as γ-butyrolactone, Chain ethers such as dimethoxyethane, diethyl ether, 1,3-dioxolane, diglyme, triglyme and tetraglyme, cyclic ethers such as dioxane, tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, nitriles such as acetonitrile, propionitrile and methoxypropionitrile And sulfites such as ethylene glycol sulfite. These may be used as a mixture of two or more. Kill. In order to obtain a battery with better characteristics, it is desirable to use a combination that can obtain high conductivity, such as a mixed solvent of ethylene carbonate and chain carbonate. In addition, vinylene carbonates, 1,3-propane sultone, diphenyl disulfide, cyclohexylbenzene, biphenyl, and fluorobenzene are used for the purpose of improving safety, charge / discharge cycle characteristics, and high-temperature storage characteristics of these non-aqueous electrolytes. An additive such as t-butylbenzene may be added as appropriate.

  The concentration of the lithium salt in the electrolytic solution is preferably 0.5 to 1.5 mol / l, and more preferably 0.9 to 1.25 mol / l.

  An example of the lithium secondary battery will be described with reference to the drawings. The lithium secondary battery shown in the drawings is merely an example of the present invention, and the electrochemical element of the present invention is not limited to those illustrated in these drawings. FIG. 1 is an external perspective view showing an example of a lithium secondary battery, and FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line II of FIG.

  A lithium secondary battery 1 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 is an example of a battery in which a wound body electrode group 9 is accommodated in a rectangular outer can 2. That is, the lithium secondary battery 1 includes a rectangular outer can 2 and a cover plate 3. As described above, the outer can 2 also serves as a positive electrode terminal. The cover plate 3 is made of a metal such as an aluminum alloy and seals the opening of the outer can 2. The lid 3 is provided with a terminal 5 made of a metal such as stainless steel through an insulating packing 4 made of a synthetic resin such as PP.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the lithium secondary battery 1 includes a positive electrode 6, a negative electrode 7, and a separator 8, and the separator 8 and at least one of the positive electrode 6 and the negative electrode 7 are made of an adhesive resin (C). An integrated flat wound electrode group 9 is housed in the outer can 2 together with a non-aqueous electrolyte. However, in FIG. 2, in order to avoid complication, the collector which concerns on the positive electrode 6 and the negative electrode 7, the nonaqueous electrolyte solution, etc. are not shown in figure. Further, the separator 8 does not distinguish between the base material and the adhesive resin, and the inner peripheral side portion of the wound body electrode group 9 is not in cross section.

  Further, an insulator 10 formed of a synthetic resin sheet such as a polytetrafluoroethylene sheet is disposed at the bottom of the outer can 2, and is connected to one end of each of the positive electrode 6 and the negative electrode 7 from the wound body electrode group 9. The positive electrode lead body 11 and the negative electrode lead body 12 are drawn out. The positive electrode lead body 11 and the negative electrode lead body 12 are made of a metal such as nickel. A lead plate 14 made of a metal such as stainless steel is attached to the terminal 5 via an insulator 13 made of a synthetic resin such as PP.

  The cover plate 3 is inserted into the opening of the outer can 2, and the joint of the two is welded to seal the opening of the outer can 2, thereby sealing the inside of the battery.

  In FIG. 2, by directly welding the positive electrode lead body 11 to the lid plate 3, the outer can 2 and the lid plate 3 function as a positive electrode terminal, and the negative electrode lead body 12 is welded to the lead plate 14. The terminal 5 functions as a negative electrode terminal by conducting the negative electrode lead body 12 and the terminal 5 through 14, but depending on the material of the outer can 2, the sign may be reversed. is there.

  The lithium secondary battery according to the present invention includes a step of forming the laminate electrode group or the wound electrode group using the separator, and subjecting the electrode group to a heat press, so that at least one of a positive electrode and a negative electrode It can be manufactured by the method of the present invention having a step of integrating one side with the separator.

  That is, in the lithium secondary battery of the present invention manufactured by the method of the present invention, in particular, when a wound body electrode group is provided, the separator and the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode are integrated by heating press after the winding of the electrode group. Further, it is possible to avoid problems such as winding misalignment that may occur when the separator and the electrode are previously integrated and wound. Therefore, according to the present invention, it is possible to efficiently produce a lithium secondary battery and increase its productivity.

  The temperature of the heating press applied to the electrode group may be a temperature lower than the melting point of the constituent resin of the base material related to the separator, but is preferably 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. or lower as described above. Is more preferably 80 ° C. or more and 100 ° C. or less, in which no significant occurrence occurs. Further, the pressure during the hot pressing is preferably 0.1 Pa or more, but is not particularly limited. The heating press time is not particularly limited, but is preferably 30 seconds or longer.

  The electrode group in which the separator and the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode are integrated by the heating press is inserted into the outer package (battery case) according to a conventional method, and then injected with a non-aqueous electrolyte, sealed, and lithium It can be set as a secondary battery.

  In addition, when the electrode group is subjected to a heat press, in addition to directly heating the electrode group, for example, the electrode group is inserted into an exterior body made of a metal laminate film such as an aluminum laminate film, and non-aqueous electrolysis is performed. After injecting the liquid and sealing the outer package, the entire outer package may be subjected to a heat press. In this case, preferable heating temperature, pressing pressure, and pressing time are the same as those described above.

  The lithium secondary battery of the present invention is excellent in high-temperature storage characteristics and charge / discharge cycle characteristics because the separator and the positive electrode and / or negative electrode are integrated by an adhesive resin, and also has load characteristics and productivity. It is good. Therefore, the lithium secondary battery of the present invention is based on such characteristics, and conventionally known lithium secondary batteries are used for driving power sources of mobile information devices such as mobile phones and laptop computers. It can be widely applied to the same uses as various uses.

  Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail based on examples. However, the following examples do not limit the present invention.

Example 1
<Production of electrode>
The positive electrode was produced as follows. First, 94 parts by mass of LiCo 0.995 Mg 0.005 O 2 (positive electrode active material), which is a lithium-containing composite oxide, was added with 3 parts by mass of carbon black as a conductive additive and mixed, and this mixture was combined with polyvinylidene fluoride. A solution in which 3 parts by mass was dissolved in NMP was added and mixed to form a positive electrode mixture-containing slurry, which was passed through a 70-mesh net to remove large particles. After this positive electrode mixture-containing slurry is uniformly applied to both surfaces of a positive electrode current collector made of an aluminum foil having a thickness of 15 μm and dried, and then compression-molded by a roll press machine to a total thickness of 136 μm This was cut and welded with an aluminum lead body to produce a strip-like positive electrode.

Moreover, the negative electrode was produced as follows. As the negative electrode active material, high crystal artificial graphite synthesized by the following method was used. 100 parts by mass of coke powder, 40 parts by mass of tar pitch, 14 parts by mass of silicon carbide, and 20 parts by mass of coal tar were mixed in air at 200 ° C., then pulverized, heat-treated at 1000 ° C. in a nitrogen atmosphere, and further nitrogen In the atmosphere, it was heat-treated at 3000 ° C. and graphitized to produce artificial graphite. The obtained artificial graphite had a BET specific surface area of 4.0 m 2 / g, d 002 measured by X-ray diffraction of 0.336 nm, c-axis direction crystallite size Lc of 48 nm, total pores The volume was 1 × 10 −3 m 3 / kg.

  Using this artificial graphite, using SBR as a binder, using CMC as a thickener, mixing them at a mass ratio of 98: 1: 1, further adding water and mixing, a negative electrode mixture-containing paste It was. This negative electrode mixture-containing paste was uniformly applied to both sides of a negative electrode current collector made of copper foil having a thickness of 10 μm and dried, and then compression-molded by a roll press machine to a total thickness of 138 μm. It cut | disconnected and the lead body made from nickel was welded, and the strip | belt-shaped negative electrode was produced.

<Preparation of non-aqueous electrolyte>
In a solvent mixture of ethylene carbonate, methyl ethyl carbonate, and diethyl carbonate having a volume ratio of 10:10:30, LiPF 6 was dissolved at a concentration of 1.0 mol / l, and vinylene carbonate was added to the total mass of the non-aqueous electrolyte. The nonaqueous electrolytic solution was prepared by adding 2.5% by mass with respect to the aqueous solution.

<Preparation of separator>
An emulsion of EVA, which is a delayed tack type adhesive resin, on one side of a PE microporous membrane (base material: thickness 16 μm, porosity 40%, average pore diameter 0.02 μm, PE melting point 135 ° C.) 5 mass%) was applied using a micro gravure coater and dried to obtain a separator (thickness 18 μm) having an adhesive resin on one side. In addition, in the presence surface of the adhesive resin related to the separator, the total area of the locations where the adhesive resin exists is 30% of the area of the adhesive resin related surface related to the separator, and the basis weight of the adhesive resin is 0.00. It was 5 g / m 2 .

<Assembly of lithium secondary battery>
The separator obtained as described above is stacked while being interposed between the positive electrode and the negative electrode so that the surface on which the adhesive resin exists is directed to the negative electrode side, and wound to form a wound electrode group. did. The obtained wound body electrode group was crushed into a flat shape, heated at 80 ° C. for 1 minute at a pressure of 0.5 Pa, and then applied to an aluminum outer can having a thickness of 6 mm, a height of 50 mm, and a width of 34 mm. After putting the cover plate over the upper opening end of the outer can and laser welding, the non-aqueous electrolyte was injected from the electrolyte injection port provided on the cover plate.

  Next, the battery was charged under the following conditions in a dry room having a dew point of −30 ° C. First, the battery is charged for 1 hour at a constant current of 0.25 CmA (197.5 mA) so that the charge amount is 25% (197.5 mAh) of the design electric capacity of the battery. Spontaneous release from the inlet. Thereafter, the electrolyte injection port was sealed to seal the inside of the battery. The battery was charged with 0.3 CmA (237 mA) to 4.1 V and then stored at 60 ° C. for 12 hours. And after charging this battery to 4.2V at 0.3 CmA (237 mA), it was further charged for 2.5 hours at a constant voltage of 4.2 V, then discharged to 3 V at 1 CmA (790 mA), With the appearance shown in FIG. 1, an evaluation lithium secondary battery having the structure shown in FIG. 2 was obtained. Although not shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the lithium secondary battery of Example 1 is provided with a cleavage vent at the top of the outer can 2 for releasing the pressure when the internal pressure rises. In the lithium secondary battery of this example, the design electric capacity when charged to 4.2 V (the positive electrode potential is 4.3 V with respect to Li) is 790 mAh as described above.

Example 2
A separator was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the adhesive resin was changed from EVA to EMMA, which was a delayed tack type adhesive resin, and the separator was used in the same manner as in Example 1 except that this separator was used. A lithium secondary battery was produced.

Example 3
A separator was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the adhesive resin was changed from EVA to NR, which was a delayed tack type adhesive resin, and the same procedure as in Example 1 was performed except that this separator was used. A lithium secondary battery was produced.

Example 4
A separator was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the adhesive resin was changed from EVA to SBR, which is a delayed tack type adhesive resin, and the separator was used in the same manner as in Example 1 except that this separator was used. A lithium secondary battery was produced.

Example 5
A separator was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the adhesive resin was changed from EVA to PP, which is a delayed tack type adhesive resin, and the separator was used in the same manner as in Example 1 except that this separator was used. A lithium secondary battery was produced.

Example 6
Using a microgravure coater, an EVA emulsion (solid content ratio 5% by mass), which is a delayed tack type adhesive resin, is formed on both sides of the same PE microporous membrane used in the production of the separator of Example 1. It was applied and dried to obtain a separator (thickness 20 μm) having adhesive resin on both sides. In this separator, the total area of the locations where the adhesive resin is present on one side is 28% of the area on one side of the separator, and the basis weight of the adhesive resin on one side of the separator is 0.5 g / m 2. It was. And the lithium secondary battery was produced like Example 1 except having used this separator.

Example 7
In the presence surface of the adhesive resin related to the separator, the total area of the adhesive resin existing portion is 80% of the area of the adhesive resin related surface related to the separator, and the basis weight of the adhesive resin is 1.3 g / m 2. A separator was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the separator was used, and a lithium secondary battery was prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that this separator was used.

Comparative Example 1
In the same PE microporous membrane as that used for the production of the separator of Example 1, without using an adhesive resin, it was used as it was for the separator, and the wound electrode group was not heated and pressed. A lithium secondary battery was produced in the same manner as in Example 1.

Comparative Example 2
A lithium ion secondary battery was produced in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the wound electrode group was used without being heated.

  The following evaluation was performed about the separator which concerns on Examples 1-7 and Comparative Examples 1-2, and the lithium secondary battery of Examples 1-7 and Comparative Examples 1-2. These results are shown in Tables 1 and 2.

<180 ° peel test>
The same negative electrode used for each separator and lithium secondary battery was cut into a size of 5 cm in length and 2 cm in width, each separator was overlapped with the negative electrode, and a region of 2 cm × 2 cm from one end was 1 at 80 ° C. A test piece was produced by heating and pressing at a pressure of 0.5 Pa for 5 minutes. The ends of these test pieces on the side where the separator and the negative electrode were not heated and pressed were opened, and the separator and the negative electrode were bent so that the angle between them was 180 °. Thereafter, using a tensile tester, the one end side of the separator opened at 180 ° of the test piece and the one end side of the negative electrode are gripped and pulled at a tensile speed of 10 mm / min. The strength at the time of peeling was measured. Further, the peel strength between the separator and the negative electrode before hot pressing was measured in the same manner as described above except that the separator and the negative electrode cut out as described above were stacked and pressed without heating. In addition, about the separator of Example 6, the said peeling test was implemented both between the positive electrode and the separator, and between the negative electrode and the separator.

<Load characteristics>
For each of the batteries of Examples 1 to 7 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2, constant current charging was performed until a current value of 0.2 C reached 4.20 V, and then constant voltage charging at 4.20 V was performed. Voltage charging was performed. The total charging time until the end of charging was 15 hours. Next, discharging was performed at a current value of 0.2 C until the battery voltage reached 3 V, and discharge capacities were obtained (these capacities are referred to as “0.2 C discharging capacities”).

  Next, for each battery, after performing constant current-constant voltage charging under the same conditions as described above, discharging was performed at a current value of 2C until the battery voltage reached 3 V, and discharge capacity was obtained (the capacity of these batteries was determined). "2C discharge capacity").

  For each battery, the 2C discharge capacity was divided by the 0.2C discharge capacity and expressed as a percentage to evaluate the load characteristics. The above charging and discharging were all performed in a test chamber in which the temperature was controlled at 20 ° C.

<High temperature storage characteristics>
The batteries of Examples 1 to 7 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 were charged at 4.2 ° C. at 395 mA (0.5 C) at 20 ° C., and further charged for 2.5 hours at a constant voltage of 4.2 V. The battery was fully charged and the thickness of the battery was measured. Then, it discharged to 3V at 1C at 20 degreeC, and measured the discharge capacity before storage.

  Next, each battery was charged in the same manner as described above, and then stored in a constant temperature bath at 80 ° C. for 5 days. Each battery after storage was naturally cooled to 20 ° C., the thickness was measured, and the swelling of the battery after high-temperature storage was determined from comparison with the thickness of the battery before storage. Thereafter, each battery was discharged under the same conditions as before storage, and the discharge capacity after high-temperature storage was measured. The percentage of the discharge capacity before storage was expressed as a percentage, and the capacity retention rate (%) after high-temperature storage was determined. .

<Charge / discharge cycle characteristics>
About each battery of Examples 1-7 and Comparative Examples 1-2 (batteries not subjected to the high-temperature storage characteristic test), the battery was charged to 4.2 V at 0.5 C at 45 ° C., and further 4.2 V The battery was charged at a constant voltage for 2.5 hours to be fully charged, and then a charge / discharge cycle of discharging to 1 V at 1 C was repeated 300 times, and the discharge capacity at the first cycle and the discharge capacity at the 300th cycle were measured. Subsequently, using the discharge capacity at the first cycle and the discharge capacity at the 300th cycle, the capacity retention rate was calculated by the following formula, and the charge / discharge cycle characteristics were evaluated.
Capacity maintenance rate (%)
= (Discharge capacity at 300th cycle / Discharge capacity at 1st cycle) × 100

  In addition, in the column of “peel strength after heating press” of “180 ° peel test” in Table 1, “0.92 (negative electrode)” in Example 6 indicates the peel strength between the separator and the negative electrode, “ “0.56 (positive electrode)” means the peel strength between the separator and the positive electrode, respectively. On the other hand, since the separator according to Example 6 had a peel strength before heating press in the 180 ° peel test, both the peel strength with the negative electrode and the peel strength with the positive electrode were “0 N / 20 mm”. In the “180 ° peel test” column of “Peel strength before heating press”, these are shown without distinction.

  As is clear from Table 1, the separators used in the lithium secondary batteries of Examples 1 to 7 had a peel strength at 180 ° from the electrodes of room temperature, that is, 0.03 N / 20 mm at the maximum before heating press. Although it is small and hardly exhibits adhesiveness, it is 0.5 N / 20 mm or more after heating and pressing at 80 ° C., and the separator and the electrode are firmly integrated.

  As is clear from Table 2, the lithium secondary batteries of Examples 1 to 7 have small battery swelling after high-temperature storage, good capacity retention, and high capacity retention after charge / discharge cycles. It also has charge / discharge cycle characteristics. On the other hand, in the lithium secondary battery of Comparative Example 1 having a normal separator, the battery swells after high-temperature storage is large and the high-temperature storage characteristics are inferior, and the capacity retention rate after the charge / discharge cycle is low. The characteristics are inferior.

  In addition, in the lithium secondary battery of Comparative Example 2 in which the wound body electrode group was used without integrating the separator and the electrode, the battery swelling after high temperature storage was larger than that of the batteries of Examples 1-7. Also, the capacity retention rate is small, and the capacity retention rate after the charge / discharge cycle is also small. From this result, it can be seen that excellent high-temperature storage characteristics and charge / discharge cycle characteristics in the lithium secondary batteries of Examples 1 to 6 are improved by integrating the separator and the electrode. The effects seen in the batteries of Examples 1 to 7 are due to the storage of the battery in the charged state and the generation of gas in the charge / discharge cycle process and the expansion and contraction of the electrode, because the separator and the electrode are integrated. It is thought to be manifested by increasing the battery internal resistance based on the increase in the distance between the electrodes and reducing the generation of lithium dendrite due to current concentration.

  In addition, the lithium secondary batteries of Examples 1 to 7 have good load characteristics, good circulation of the non-aqueous electrolyte between the separator and the electrode, and the electrode is in good contact with the non-aqueous electrolyte. Therefore, it is considered that the shortage of the non-aqueous electrolyte near the electrode accompanying the progress of the charge / discharge reaction is also suppressed. In particular, in the lithium secondary batteries of Examples 1 to 6 using the separator in which the total area of the adhesive resin is present and the basis weight of the adhesive resin are suitable values in the presence surface of the adhesive resin, these values are The load characteristics are superior to the lithium secondary battery of Example 7 using a separator that is too large, the contact between the electrode and the non-aqueous electrolyte is better, and the non-water in the vicinity of the electrode as the charge / discharge reaction proceeds It is considered that the lack of electrolyte is also better suppressed.

  Moreover, in the lithium secondary batteries of Examples 1 to 7, problems such as winding deviation at the time of manufacturing the wound electrode group did not occur, and the productivity was high.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Lithium secondary battery 2 Exterior can 3 Cover plate 4 Insulation packing 5 Terminal 6 Positive electrode 7 Negative electrode 8 Separator 9 Winding body electrode group 10 Insulator 11 Positive electrode lead body 12 Negative electrode lead body 13 Insulator 14 Lead plate

Claims (20)

  1. A lithium secondary battery having a positive electrode and a negative electrode facing each other, and a separator positioned between the positive electrode and the negative electrode,
    As the separator, there is an adhesive resin that exhibits adhesiveness by heating on at least one surface of the base material, and the area of the surface where the adhesive resin is present out of the area where the adhesive resin exists. the proportion of area in plan view, Ri 10% to 60% der, basis weight of the adhesive resin using 1 g / m 2 der Ru separator below,
    At least one of the positive electrode and the negative electrode and the separator are integrated by the adhesive resin,
    A lithium secondary battery, wherein a peel strength at 180 ° between an electrode integrated with the separator by the adhesive resin and the separator is 0.2 N / 20 mm or more.
  2.   2. The lithium secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein a minimum temperature at which the adhesive property of the adhesive resin of the separator is exhibited is 60 to 120 ° C. 2.
  3.   The lithium secondary battery according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a peel strength at 180 ° between the electrode integrated with the separator by the adhesive resin and the separator is 10 N / 20 mm or less.
  4. 4. The lithium secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein the basis weight of the adhesive resin on the surface of the separator where the adhesive resin is present is 0.05 g / m 2 or more.
  5. It said adhesive resin is a lithium secondary battery according to claim 1-4 melting or softening point is a resin in the range of 60 ° C. or higher 120 ° C. or less possessed by the separator.
  6. The adhesive resin of the separator is at least one selected from the group consisting of poly-α-olefins, polyacrylic acid esters, polyvinyl acetate, and copolymers obtained from monomers constituting these resins. The lithium secondary battery in any one of Claims 1-4 .
  7. The lithium secondary battery according to any one of claims 1 to 6 , wherein the base material of the separator is a resin microporous film or a resin nonwoven fabric.
  8. The lithium secondary battery according to any one of claims 1 to 7 , wherein the resin constituting the substrate is a polyolefin.
  9. The present location of the adhesive resin, a lithium secondary battery according to any one of claims 1 to 8 are regularly arranged.
  10. A separator for a lithium secondary battery having an adhesive resin that exhibits adhesiveness by heating on at least one side of a substrate,
    Wherein among the area of the existing surface of the adhesive resin, the ratio of the area of the portion that is present in the adhesive resin, in plan view, Ri 10% to 60% der in basis weight of the adhesive is 1 g / m 2 or less separator for lithium secondary battery characterized by Rukoto Oh.
  11. Wherein the existing surface of the adhesive resin, basis weight of the adhesive resin, a lithium secondary battery separator of claim 1 0 is 0.05 g / m 2 or more.
  12. The adhesive resin has a melting point or a lithium secondary battery separator of claim 1 0 or 11 softening point of the resin is in the range of 60 ° C. or higher 120 ° C. or less.
  13. The adhesive resin of the separator is at least one selected from the group consisting of poly-α-olefins, polyacrylic acid esters, polyvinyl acetate, and copolymers obtained from monomers constituting these resins. lithium secondary battery separator according to any one of claims 1 0 to 1 2.
  14. Wherein the substrate, the lithium secondary battery separator according to claim 1 0-1 3 is a microporous film or resin nonwoven fabric made of resin.
  15. Resins constituting the base material, a lithium secondary battery separator of claim 1 4 is a polyolefin.
  16. Lithium secondary battery separator according to any one of the adhesive present position of the resin, regularly claim 1 in which is located 0-1 5.
  17. The thickness of the substrate, a lithium secondary battery separator according to a is any one of claims 1 0 ~1 6 5~30μm.
  18. Porosity, a lithium secondary battery separator according to claim 1 0-1 7 30 to 70% of said substrate.
  19. A method for producing a lithium secondary battery having a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a non-aqueous electrolyte, and a separator,
    Using the separators for lithium secondary battery according to any one of claims 1 0-18, or laminated by placing the separator between the positive electrode and the negative electrode, or the separator between the positive electrode and the negative electrode A step of forming a group of electrodes by winding an arrangement and stacking, and a step of subjecting at least one of a positive electrode and a negative electrode to a separator by subjecting the electrode group to a heat press. A method for producing a lithium secondary battery.
  20. The method for producing a lithium secondary battery according to claim 19 , wherein the temperature of the heating press is 60 ° C. or higher and 120 ° C. or lower.
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