CN205213458U - Orchard straw and surface soil layering mulch laying machine - Google Patents

Orchard straw and surface soil layering mulch laying machine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN205213458U
CN205213458U CN201520598218.1U CN201520598218U CN205213458U CN 205213458 U CN205213458 U CN 205213458U CN 201520598218 U CN201520598218 U CN 201520598218U CN 205213458 U CN205213458 U CN 205213458U
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China
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stalk
orchard
earthenware
trailer
throwing
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CN201520598218.1U
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郭文川
王东阳
朱新华
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The utility model discloses an orchard straw and surface soil layering mulch laying machine relates to orchard mechanized equipment field. Trailer that has the straw workbin of tractor traction, there is a discharge roller the inside rear bottom of straw workbin, and the straw discharge gate of its below meets straw distributing pipe, in straw distributing pipe below, throw native ware for articulated one on the trailer, the throwing tu kou slope of throwing native ware makes progress backward, is in the below of straw distributing pipe's export, and the orientation of throwing tukou is crossing with straw distributing pipe's export orientation, throw native ware liftable under the effect of hydraulic pressure lift cylinder, the straw workbin can be tumbled around the hinge under tilting cylinder's effect backward, the power of throwing native ware and discharge roller is provided by hydraulic motor, native device is thrown promptly to its groundwork part and distributing device arranges at the trailer rear portion, avoids the wheel to the destruction of rolling of overburden, make the overburden the soil moisture conservation retaining, it keeps warm and restraines ruderal effect full play to prevent frostbite, has improved work quality, is suitable for short hammering block apple orchard very much.

Description

A kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table
Technical field
The utility model discloses a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, belongs to field of agricultural equipment and stalk resource recycling field, particularly Machinery for orchard equipment field.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the adjustment of China's agricultural structure, the fast development of fruit industry scale, the cultivated area such as apple, pears, peach, grape, oranges and tangerines has reached the whole world the first all, and China has become state of fruit sparetime university.But all there is larger gap in China's fruit industry product quality and Industrial Efficiency compared with developed countries.An important problem is that orchard soil is barren, excessively uses chemical fertilizer, causes soil compaction serious.Soil moisture is not only the key factor of soil, plant, atmosphere Continuum, or the important carrier of soil system Nutrient Cycling and flowing, have material impact to the change of the growth of the characteristic of soil, plant, distribution and ecosystem microclimate, the Soils In The Region lack of water of arid, semiarid zone and Seasonal Water-Deficit is the bottleneck problem of restriction fruit industry development always.Particularly in northern China arplain and southwest, orchard soil moisture conservation retaining, improves the most important thing that soil organic matter content has become orchard management.American-European countries's orchard soil content of organic matter is generally more than 3.0%, Japan's orchard soil organic matter reaches as high as 6.8%, and NORTHWEST CHINA arplain soil organic matter of apple orchards content is generally below 1.0%, the barren key factor having become China's apple production and quality of orchard soil.
Orchard improving straw mulching technology is thin for orchard soil layer, that fertility is low, moisture condition is poor, soil bareness area is taked greatly soil management technology.Appropriate crops straw etc. is covered on soil exposed around fruit tree, it has soil moisture conservation, water saving, improve soil organic matter content, press down grass, insulation, no-tillage, saving of labor and the multiple effect such as to prevent soil loss, soil ecology microenvironment can be improved, support the strong tree of root, promote that Growth status is grown, and then improve output and oil recovery enhancement.Orchard improving straw mulching technology solves arid, semiarid zone because of the effective measures of rich water shortage restriction orchard upgrading volume increase, is also one of important production technology of developing ecology fruit industry, organic fruit industry.
In recent years, orchard stalk technology is widelyd popularize in China, but due to existing orchard improving straw mulching technical matters simple and crude, need manual work, time-consuming, orchard worker worries dry season orchard fire in addition, cause orchard worker's enthusiasm low, popularizing area is less, produces little effect.
Apple Dwarf Stocks intensive culture pattern is the major reform of Apple Culture system, is the main development direction of world's Apple Culture.At present, an American-European countries general section adopts the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf, and the short anvil apple of many countries accounts for more than 90%.Per mu yield is high, and percent rate of high quality fruit height is the advantage that the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf is given prominence to.Per mu yield reaches more than 5 tons, and percent rate of high quality fruit can reach 85%.Comparatively speaking, China's mainly tall anvil apple at present, account for 90%, and short anvil apple only accounts for about 10%.Therefore, following 10 ~ 20 years, China will welcome the high speed development upsurge of an Apple Culture technology upgrading replacement.In recent years, the apple cultivation such as Shaanxi, Shandong district had started scale introduction.Along with fruit dwarfing technology, particularly the advanced technology such as short anvil apple intensive culture technique is in the popularization of China, and orchard is spacious in the ranks, tree-like specification, will provide convenience for orchard operation machineryization.
In short anvil orchard, a general section adopts Cover with weed technology in American-European countries, but research shows, Cover with weed technology exists strives with fruit tree the problem that water strives fertilizer, and causes damage by disease and insect to increase.Therefore, current Cover with weed technology is not suitable for China orchard, particularly drought and water-scarce area.
Therefore, change the simple and crude method of orchard improving straw mulching in the past, research orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technology also develops orchard improving straw mulching work tool, it is the key playing orchard improving straw mulching technical benefits, also be the important channel realizing stalk resource efficiency utilization in the fruit industry of high added value, be improve orchard soil moisture, the content of organic matter, realize the important leverage of orchard high-yield and high-efficiency.
At present, fewer in the relevant report of orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technical research and application aspect both at home and abroad.The prior art problem that existing orchard improving straw mulching technical method is simple and crude, time-consuming as the patents such as CN104429384A, CN104429385A, CN204377459U, CN204377363 can solve, facilitate the application of improving straw mulching technology in orchard, achieve orchard soil soil moisture conservation water saving, getting fat to a certain extent, press down effect that is careless, heat-preserving anti-freezing, reduce operating cost, improve fruit industry output and benefit; Solve the stalk resource waste of surrounding area, orchard and burn pollution problem.The part but above technology also comes with some shortcomings, its main working parts namely throws soil and cutting agency is arranged in the front portion of complete machine, layout like this will inevitably cause trailer wheel to roll cover layer, form rut, destroy tectal integrality, make tectal soil moisture conservation retaining and suppress the effect of weeds to be had a greatly reduced quality.A kind of orchard stalk disclosed in the utility model and the native layered coverage machine of table, throwing soil and cutting agency are arranged in the rear of complete machine, this kind of rear-mounted technology solves front positioning type wheel and rolls the tectal problem of destruction, make tectal soil moisture conservation retaining and suppress the effect of weeds to give full play to, improve operation quality.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this utility model: disclose a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, orchard improving straw mulching can be realized and topsoil lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, this covering function promotes applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.What particularly solve that existing front positioning type soverlay technique causes cover layer rolls destruction problem, makes the laying of stalk and upper strata earthing uniform ground, substantially increases operation quality.
The technical problems to be solved in the utility model: described a kind of orchard stalk realizes orchard improving straw mulching with the native layered coverage machine of table with which kind of the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes, and one deck thin soil is covered on improving straw mulching layer, and make improving straw mulching thickness and thin soil lid press thickness evenly adjustable, that how to avoid tectal structure to suffer wheel rolls destruction, thus make tectal soil moisture conservation retaining and suppress the function well of weeds to play, effective raising operation quality, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk.
Realize garden improving straw mulching machineryization, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) improving straw mulching: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the stalk layer of step (4) described covering, by the stalk layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
In order to solve the technical problems to be solved in the utility model, the utility model gives following technical scheme:
A kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, it is characterized in that, a trailer 2 is drawn by tractor 1, trailer 2 is provided with stalk hopper 4, in stalk hopper 4, bottom-rear has a stalk discharging opening 20, in stalk hopper 4, a discharge roller 19 is installed above stalk discharging opening 20, below stalk discharging opening 20, connects stalk cloth tube 15, stalk cloth tube 15 inclined downward backward; In trailer 2 bottom rear, stalk discharging opening 20 lower position hydraulic means mounts one and throws earthenware 11; Throw earthenware 11 during work to rotate, by orchard in the ranks hack throw, throw earthenware 11 shell rear portion and have a native mouth 12 of throwing, the position of throwing native mouth 12 is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube 15, throw the Way out of native mouth 12 for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk cloth tube 15 towards at space intersection; Described a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, the wheel rear portion that namely its main working parts throws earthenware 11, discharge roller 19, stalk discharging opening 20, stalk cloth tube 15 are arranged in trailer 2, first through discharge roller 19, stalk discharging opening 20, stalk cloth tube 15 by stalk uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, throw earthenware 11 throwing simultaneously and raise hack, above improving straw mulching layer, cover one deck thin soil, form thin soil lid pressure layer; During work, described a kind of orchard stalk advances with the native layered coverage machine of table, and the improving straw mulching layer of the ground formation in the ranks in orchard and thin soil lid pressure layer are in the wheel rear of trailer 2 all the time;
Described stalk hopper 4 is arranged on the chassis of trailer 2, hinged with the chassis of trailer 2 bottom its rear end, its front bottom end both sides are installed pair of angled oil cylinder 5 and are hinged and connected with trailer 2, stalk hopper 4 can rotate, tilt around hinge 18 under the effect of dump ram 5, make stalk hopper 4 front end rises, thus stalk is flowed backward, finally flow to stalk discharging opening 20 and the discharge roller 19 at stalk hopper 4 rear;
The power of described throwing earthenware 11 is provided by hydraulic motor 7, hydraulic oil exports from tractor 1, via hydraulic oil pipe 3 input hydraulic pressure motor 7, hydraulic motor 7 outputting power drives throwing earthenware 11 to rotate, hydraulic motor output shaft 8 outputs power to belt wheel I 9 simultaneously, through driving belt 14, belt wheel II 17 passes to discharge roller 19, drives discharge roller 19 to rotate; Tensioning apparatus 16 is arranged on the chassis of trailer 2, and its position is dynamically adjustable, in the rotation, tilting procedure of stalk hopper 4, change the tensioning ensureing driving belt 14 by position, thus ensures the continuity of transmission.
Described throwing earthenware 11 shell upper a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 is connected with trailer 2 with hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13, and the upper articulation of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 is on trailer 2, and lower hinge is on throwing earthenware 11 shell; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 extends, and throwing earthenware 11 is declined, and the blade thrown on earthenware 11 buries; Throw earthenware 11 throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13; When being in walking states, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 shortens, and drives throwing earthenware 11 to rise.
The described power delivery mode from throwing earthenware 11 to discharge roller 19 is V belt translation, also can adopt Chain conveyer.
Described stalk comprises agricultural crop straw, fruit tree brush wood particle and the covering matrix that is main preparation with agricultural crop straw, fruit tree brush wood particle.
Compared with prior art, earthenware 11, discharge roller 19, stalk discharging opening 20, the rear-mounted technical scheme of stalk cloth tube 15 is thrown in the utility model, what can solve that wheel in prior art causes cover layer rolls destruction problem, lay with making improving straw mulching layer and thin soil lid pressure layer uniform ground, be applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area need preserve soil moisture, water saving orchard or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, its operation principle is as follows:
A kind of orchard described in the utility model stalk can complete orchard improving straw mulching and thin soil lid pressure with the native layered coverage machine of table, and detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching operation, tractor 1 breakdown trailer 2 in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, and tractor 1 drives hydraulic motor 7 by hydraulic way, and hydraulic motor 7 drives throwing earthenware 11 to rotate through V belt translation.Meanwhile, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 extends, and throwing earthenware 11 is declined, and the blade thrown on earthenware 11 buries; Throwing earthenware 11 pairs of orchards in the ranks soil are carried out in small, broken bits and smooth, and are rearward thrown grogs in small, broken bits, dish out backward obliquely from the throwing soil mouth 12 throwing earthenware 11.
The belt wheel I 9 of hydraulic motor output shaft 8 axle head is by power via driving belt 14, and belt wheel II 17 passes to discharge roller 19, drives discharge roller 19 to rotate, stirs the even blanking of stalk.The roll surface of discharge roller 19 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces stalk even drop down on stalk discharging opening length direction to be discharged.The position of throwing native mouth 12 is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube 15, throw the Way out of native mouth 12 for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk cloth tube 15 towards at space intersection, thus, stalk stream is crossing aloft with soil stream.But because the air dynamic behaviour of stalk stream and soil stream differs greatly, and the proportion of soil stream, speed, kinetic energy are more much bigger than stalk stream, thus the change of stalk stream to soil stream trajectory of projection is negligible.
The impact of soil stream on the track of stalk stream is mainly drifted about obliquely backward, namely grogs has the effect of clashing into backward obliquely to the crushed straw aggregate met, but due to crushed straw aggregate light specific gravity, front face area is large, its flight coefficient is comparatively large, and air is comparatively large to the resistance of stalk, and crushed straw aggregate is very little by drift distance after grogs effect, thus, soil stream is also less to the change of stalk material flow track.
Because soil stream landing point is after stalk stream, so soil stream can drop on improving straw mulching layer, lid pressure is formed to improving straw mulching layer.
Overburden cover adjusts: when advancing constant airspeed, changes the thickness of the size adjustable improving straw mulching layer of the rotating speed of discharge roller 19, surface structure and stalk discharging opening 20; Change the thickness that the rotating speed throwing earthenware 11, the size of throwing native mouth 12 and angle can adjust thin soil lid pressure layer.The flexible of dump ram 5 of stalk hopper 4 front lower place can make stalk hopper 4 tumble backward, impels stalk to flow to discharge roller 19.
In non-covered duty, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 shrinks, and drives throwing earthenware 11 to rise; Tractor 1 Power output cuts off, and throwing earthenware 11 and discharge roller 19 stop the rotation, and stalk discharging opening 20 is blocked by discharge roller 19, stops discharging; Dump ram 5 shrinks, and stalk hopper 4 recovers level.
Advantageous Effects: a kind of orchard stalk disclosed in the utility model and the native layered coverage machine of table, for existing soverlay technique Problems existing, throwing soil and cutting agency are arranged in the rear of complete machine, this kind of rear-mounted technical scheme solves front positioning type technology wheel and rolls the tectal problem of destruction, make cover layer preserve soil moisture retaining, anti-freezing and heat-insulating and suppression weeds effect give full play to, improve operation quality.
Reference numeral
1. tractor 2. trailer 3. hydraulic oil pipe 4. stalk hopper 5. dump ram 6. hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a7. hydraulic motor 8. hydraulic motor output shaft 9. belt wheel I 10. driving-chain 11. is thrown earthenware 12. and is thrown native mouth 13. hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b14. driving belt 15. stalk cloth tube 16. tensioning apparatus 17 belt wheel II 18. hinge 19. discharge roller 20. stalk discharging opening
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine overall construction drawing of table
Fig. 2 is a kind of orchard stalk and trailer and the stalk bin structure vertical view of showing native layered coverage machine
Fig. 3 is a kind of orchard stalk and trailer and the stalk bin structure right view of showing native layered coverage machine
Fig. 4 is a kind of orchard stalk and the throwing earthenware structure chart showing native layered coverage machine
Embodiment
The present embodiment is in short anvil apple orchard, carry out improving straw mulching machinery equalization.Short anvil apple orchard line space 3.5 meters ~ 4.5 meters, tree-like tree crown is neat.
In the short anvil apple orchard of intensive cultivating, carry out improving straw mulching, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) improving straw mulching: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the stalk layer of step (4) described covering, by the stalk layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, tractor 1 draws a trailer 2, trailer 2 is provided with stalk hopper 4, in stalk hopper 4, bottom-rear has a stalk discharging opening 20, a discharge roller 19 is installed above stalk discharging opening 20, below stalk discharging opening 20, connects stalk cloth tube 15, stalk cloth tube 15 inclined downward backward; In trailer 2 bottom rear, the lower position of stalk discharging opening 20 mounts one and throws earthenware 11, throws on earthenware 11 and is provided with the native blade of some throwings, throws earthenware 11 and rotates, taken up by hack during work; Throw earthenware 11 shell rear portion and throw native mouth 12 to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade tangent line, the position of throwing native mouth 12 is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube 15, throw the Way out of native mouth 12 for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk cloth tube 15 towards at space intersection; Described a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, by stalk uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, described stalk hopper 4 is arranged on the chassis of trailer 2, its rear end is connected by hinge 18 with the chassis of trailer 2, pair of angled oil cylinder 5 is installed in its lower front both sides, dump ram 5 and trailer 2 are hinged and connected, stalk hopper 4 can to rise certain angle around hinge 18 under the effect of dump ram 5, makes the stalk in stalk hopper 4 flow to the discharge roller 19 at rear portion backward.
As shown in figures 1 and 3, the power of described throwing earthenware 11 exports hydraulic motor 7 by tractor 1 to through hydraulic oil pipe 3, and hydraulic motor 7 Driving Torque is to hydraulic motor output shaft 8, and then power is passed to through driving-chain 10 and throws earthenware 11, drives throwing earthenware 11 to rotate; Power simultaneously on hydraulic motor output shaft 8 is passed to discharge roller 19 through belt wheel I 9, driving belt 14, belt wheel II 17, drives discharge roller 19 to rotate; Rise at stalk hopper 4 and throw in the process of earthenware 11 decline, driving belt 14 is strained, tensioning apparatus 16 is forced rearward to move, decline at stalk hopper 4 and throw in the process of earthenware 11 rising, driving belt 14 loosens, under the action of the elastic means, tensioning apparatus 16 forwards moves, and ensures the moment tensioning of driving belt 14.
As shown in figures 1 and 3, described discharge roller 19 is arranged on the bottom-rear of stalk hopper 4 inside, and its axis direction is vertical with the direction of advance of machine; Discharge roller 19 rotates under the drive of belt wheel II 17, makes stalk uniform discharge; The roll surface of discharge roller 19 can install spike-tooth additional or stretch and take off finger, spike-tooth or flexible arrangement of taking off finger have certain directionality, force stalk even drop down on stalk discharging opening 20 length direction to be discharged; Speed adjusting gear can be installed additional and change discharge roller 19 rotating speed, to realize stalk load, i.e. the regulation and control of improving straw mulching layer thickness.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 4, described throwing earthenware 11 shell is hinged and connected by three hydraulic lifting oil cylinders and trailer, hinged by a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and trailer at the two ends, front of throwing earthenware 11, in the middle part of the rear of throwing earthenware 11 by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 and trailer hinged; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 extends, and throwing earthenware 11 is declined, and the blade thrown on earthenware 11 buries; Throw earthenware 11 throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13; When being in walking states, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 shortens, and drives throwing earthenware 11 to rise.
As shown in Figure 1, described stalk cloth tube 15 and throwing earthenware 11 are arranged in the rear portion of stalk hopper 4 and trailer 2, the arrangement of this kind of rearmounted covering avoids front positioning type covering laying layer and can be rolled by wheel and produce the problem of rut, make the laying of stalk and upper strata earthing uniform ground, make tectal soil moisture conservation retaining, the effect of anti-freezing and heat-insulating and suppression weeds gives full play to, improve operation quality.
In the present embodiment, the described power delivery mode from throwing earthenware 11 to discharge roller 19 is V belt translation, also can adopt Chain conveyer.
further illustrate described in the utility modela kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table operation principle:
A kind of orchard described in the utility model stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, improving straw mulching and thin soil lid press step, and detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
As shown in Figure 1, carrying out in the improving straw mulching operation process of orchard, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 extends, and throwing earthenware 11 is declined, and the blade thrown on earthenware 11 buries; Tractor 1 breakdown trailer 2 at the uniform velocity advances at orchard part, tractor 1 outputs power, hydraulic motor 7 is exported to through hydraulic oil pipe 3, hydraulic motor 7 Driving Torque is to hydraulic motor output shaft 8, then power is passed to through driving-chain 10 and throws earthenware 11, and drive throwing earthenware 11 to rotate, throwing earthenware 11 pairs of orchards in the ranks soil are carried out in small, broken bits and smooth, and grogs in small, broken bits is tangentially thrown, dish out backward obliquely from the throwing soil mouth 12 throwing earthenware 11.
As shown in figures 1 and 3, the power on hydraulic motor output shaft 8 is passed to discharge roller 19 through belt wheel I 9, driving belt 14, belt wheel II 17, drives discharge roller 19 to rotate, stirs the even blanking of stalk.The roll surface of discharge roller 19 can install spike-tooth additional or stretch and take off finger, spike-tooth or flexible arrangement of taking off finger have certain directionality, force stalk even drop down on stalk discharging opening 20 length direction to be discharged.Rise at stalk hopper 4 and throw in the process of earthenware 11 decline, driving belt 14 is strained, tensioning apparatus 16 is forced rearward to move, decline at stalk hopper 4 and throw in the process of earthenware 11 rising, driving belt 14 loosens, under the action of the elastic means, tensioning apparatus 16 forwards moves, and ensures the moment tensioning of driving belt 14.
As shown in Figure 1, the position of throwing native mouth 12 is in the below that stalk cloth tube 15 exports, and throws the Way out of native mouth 12 for tilting upward backward, this direction and the outlet with described stalk cloth tube 15 towards at space intersection, thus, stalk stream is crossing aloft with soil stream.But because the air dynamic behaviour of stalk stream and soil stream differs greatly, and the proportion of soil stream, speed, kinetic energy are more much bigger than stalk stream, thus the change of stalk stream to soil stream trajectory of projection is negligible.In addition, the impact of soil stream on the track of stalk stream is mainly drifted about obliquely backward, namely grogs has the effect of clashing into backward obliquely to the crushed straw aggregate met, but due to crushed straw aggregate light specific gravity, front face area is large, its flight coefficient is larger, the resistance of air to stalk is larger, crushed straw aggregate is very little by drift distance after grogs effect, and thus, soil stream is also less to the change of stalk material flow track.Because soil stream landing point is after stalk stream, so soil stream can drop on improving straw mulching layer, lid pressure is formed to improving straw mulching layer.
Overburden cover adjusts: as shown in Figure 1, when advancing constant airspeed, changes the thickness of the size adjustable improving straw mulching layer of the rotating speed of discharge roller 19, surface structure and stalk discharging opening 20; Change the rotating speed throwing earthenware 11, size and the angle of throwing native mouth 12 can adjust the thickness that thin soil lid presses layer.The flexible of dump ram 5 can make stalk hopper 4 tumble around hinge 18 backward, impels stalk to flow to discharge roller 19.
In non-covered duty, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a6 and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b13 shrinks, and makes throwing earthenware 11 increase; The hydraulic power of tractor 1 exports and stops, and throwing earthenware 11 and discharge roller 19 stop the rotation, and stalk discharging opening 15 is blocked by discharge roller 19, stops discharging; Dump ram 5 shrinks, and stalk hopper 4 recovers level.
4 needs special instructions below:
1. a kind of orchard of the utility model stalk adopts rear-mounted arrangement with the discharging and covering device showing native layered coverage machine, be different from the front positioning type arrangement of existing patent, this kind of arrangement avoids front positioning type covering laying layer and can be rolled by wheel and produce the problem of rut, makes the laying of stalk and upper strata earthing uniform ground.
2. a kind of orchard of the utility model stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table are except being specially adapted to short anvil apple orchard, also be applicable to need soil moisture conservation, other orchards of economizing on water or soil in Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve other orchards or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need other orchards or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need other orchards to soil heat preservation or soil, or other orchards of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil.
3. the throwing earthenware described in the utility model not work tool such as rotary tillage of the prior art, rake, but there is the device throwing the multiple effect such as pacifically of soil, hack, its Main Function throws soil, and its power demand is less.Thus, before improving straw mulching operation, need first whole to ploughing with other agricultural machinery in the ranks.
4. the utility model specification and accompanying drawing are in order to clearly demonstrate technical scheme, give some technical scheme details, the restriction of these details not to the utility model claims.Any distortion of doing these details or amendment, all do not exceed the scope of the utility model claim protection.

Claims (5)

1. an orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, it is characterized in that, a trailer (2) is drawn by tractor (1), trailer (2) is provided with stalk hopper (4), stalk hopper (4) interior bottom-rear has a stalk discharging opening (20), interior stalk discharging opening (20) top of stalk hopper (4) is provided with a discharge roller (19), and stalk discharging opening (20) below connects stalk cloth tube (15), stalk cloth tube (15) inclined downward backward; In trailer (2) bottom rear, stalk discharging opening (20) lower position hydraulic means mounts one and throws earthenware (11); Throw earthenware (11) during work to rotate, by orchard in the ranks hack throw, throw earthenware (11) shell rear portion and have throwing Tu Kou (12), the position of throwing Tu Kou (12) is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube (15), throw the Way out of Tu Kou (12) for tilting upward backward, the outlet of this direction and described stalk cloth tube (15) towards at space intersection; Described a kind of orchard stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, the wheel rear portion that namely its main working parts throws earthenware (11), discharge roller (19), stalk discharging opening (20), stalk cloth tube (15) are arranged in trailer (2), first through discharge roller (19), stalk discharging opening (20), stalk cloth tube (15) by stalk uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, raise hack through throwing earthenware (11) throwing simultaneously, above improving straw mulching layer, cover one deck thin soil, form thin soil lid pressure layer; During work, described a kind of orchard stalk advances with the native layered coverage machine of table, and the improving straw mulching layer of the ground formation in the ranks in orchard and thin soil lid pressure layer are in the wheel rear of trailer (2) all the time;
Described stalk hopper (4) is arranged on the chassis of trailer (2), hinged with the chassis of trailer (2) bottom its rear end, its front bottom end both sides are installed pair of angled oil cylinder (5) and are hinged and connected with trailer (2), stalk hopper (4) can rotate around hinge (18), tilt under the effect of dump ram (5), make stalk hopper (4) front end rises, thus stalk is flowed backward, finally flow to stalk discharging opening (20) and the discharge roller (19) at stalk hopper (4) rear;
The power of described throwing earthenware (11) is provided by hydraulic motor (7), hydraulic oil exports from tractor (1), via hydraulic oil pipe (3) input hydraulic pressure motor (7), hydraulic motor (7) Driving Torque is to hydraulic motor output shaft (8), then power is passed to through driving-chain (10) and throws earthenware (11), drives and throws earthenware (11) rotation; Hydraulic motor output shaft (8) outputs power to belt wheel I (9) simultaneously, and through driving belt (14), belt wheel II (17) passes to discharge roller (19), drives discharge roller (19) to rotate; Tensioning apparatus (16) is arranged on the chassis of trailer (2), and its position is dynamically adjustable, is ensured the tensioning of driving belt (14) in the rotation, tilting procedure of stalk hopper (4) by the change of position, thus ensures the continuity of transmission.
2. a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, it is characterized in that, described throwing earthenware (11) shell upper hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a(6) with hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b(13) be connected with trailer (2), hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a(6) and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b(13) upper articulation on trailer (2), lower hinge throwing earthenware (11) shell on; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a(6) and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b(13) extend, throwing earthenware (11) is declined, and the blade thrown on earthenware (11) buries; Throw earthenware (11) throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a(6) and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b(13) regulate and control; When being in walking states, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder a(6) and hydraulic lifting oil cylinder b(13) shorten, drive and throw earthenware (11) rising.
3. a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, it is characterized in that, throwing earthenware (11) is V belt translation to the power delivery mode of discharge roller (19), or Chain conveyer.
4. a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, is characterized in that, described stalk comprises agricultural crop straw, fruit tree brush wood particle and the covering matrix that is main preparation with agricultural crop straw, fruit tree brush wood particle.
5. a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk and the native layered coverage machine of table, it is characterized in that, throw earthenware (11), discharge roller (19), stalk discharging opening (20), stalk cloth tube (15) rear-mounted technical scheme, what can solve that wheel in prior art causes cover layer rolls destruction problem, lay with making improving straw mulching layer and thin soil lid pressure layer uniform ground, be applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area need preserve soil moisture, water saving orchard or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
CN201520598218.1U 2015-08-11 2015-08-11 Orchard straw and surface soil layering mulch laying machine Withdrawn - After Issue CN205213458U (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105052405A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-18 西北农林科技大学 Orchard straw and surface soil layered covering machine

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105052405A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-18 西北农林科技大学 Orchard straw and surface soil layered covering machine

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