CN1954109A - 加宽非织造布及其制造方法和用于其生产的机器 - Google Patents

加宽非织造布及其制造方法和用于其生产的机器 Download PDF

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CN1954109A
CN1954109A CNA2005800151585A CN200580015158A CN1954109A CN 1954109 A CN1954109 A CN 1954109A CN A2005800151585 A CNA2005800151585 A CN A2005800151585A CN 200580015158 A CN200580015158 A CN 200580015158A CN 1954109 A CN1954109 A CN 1954109A
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安德瑞·迈克龙尼
弗雷德里克·诺艾尔
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种制造非织造布的机器,其包括加宽装置(9),该加宽装置(9)被布置在第一水射流固结装置(4,6)和第二固结装置(11,12)之间。

Description

加宽非织造布及其制造方法和用于其生产的机器
本发明涉及非织造布及其制造方法和用于其生产的机器。更准确地说,本发明涉及机器输出量为质量流量(kg per hour and per meter)超过200公斤的,宽度大于5米的很宽的非织造布。
通常,已知为“干燥处理的”15到80g/m2的轻非织造布通过梳理和/或气流成网(airlaid)技术成形。然而,对于制造较大宽度的非织造布,即宽度大于3.5米,梳理成为唯一用于高输出量的干燥处理技术。
人们早就知道了如何使梳理纤网横向成卷,以便形成极宽的厚棉卷,接着将其沿机器(纵向)方向拉伸,以便降低其每平方米的重量。该技术在速度方面受到限制,而且不能产生每平方米重量低于60g/m2的超宽轻非织造布,而同时具有质量流量为200公斤或更高的输出量水平。
现代技术可以制造出最大宽度为5m并能传送最大宽度为4.7m的纤网的梳理机器。除了制造长度精度为5m或更多的滚筒面临巨大的技术困难外,这些梳理机本身也不能制出每平方米具有较低重量的,且纵向与横向的强度比在3.5以下的纤网。
具有纵向和横向彼此尽可能非常接近的性能的非织造布特别有益于其在卫生学,医疗应用或服装领域中的常规应用。
本发明目的在于通过“干燥处理”技术制造一种新颖,超宽并且纵向与横向的强度比在3.5以下的轻非织造布。
本发明的目的是提供一种轻非织造布,并已发现制造该轻非织造布的方法和机器可以通过“干燥处理”制造出高输出量、具有较大宽度的非织造布,且该非织造布的纵向机械性能,特别是抗张强度与横向的相同性能之比在3.5以下,并通常在1.5和3.5之间。
因此,本发明的一个目的是提供一种具有至少5m宽度,重量在15和80g/m2之间,优选在30和60g/m2之间的非织造布,并且该非织造布由具有至少15mm长,优选由长度在20到60mm之间的纤维,长丝,或由该纤维和长丝的混合物组成,其特征在于该非织造布的纵向机械性能,特别是抗张强度与横向的相同性能之比小于3.5。
优选的所述比率小于3,且最好小于2.5。
该纤维和/或长丝可由塑料,热塑材料构成,尤其是聚烯烃例如聚丙烯或聚乙烯,或聚酯或聚乳酸,聚乙烯醇,聚酰胺,或合成纺织材料例如粘胶纤维,或天然纺织材料例如棉花,亚麻布,羊毛和木材。该纤网可包括不同的层。
本发明的另一个目的是提供用于制造非织造布的方法,在该方法中首先通过喷射加压的水射流、砑光或针刺固结法使纤维和/或长丝的纤网固结,以获得首次固结的纤网。将首次固结的纤网沿宽度方向拉伸,以便获得加宽的纤网,接着该加宽的纤网优选通过喷射加压的水射流进行二次固结。接着在二次固结下游烘干该加宽的纤网,优选其通过宽度可调的干燥装置。
优选的,二次固结的水射流压力高于首次固结的水射流压力。首次固结的水射流压力可以在例如在15到70巴之间,而二次固结的水射流压力可能大于70巴,例如在75到100巴之间。该水射流的发射孔可以具有特别是在100到200微米之间的直径。
为了不使非织造布断裂,将那些具有小于或等于40g/m2重量的非织造布拉伸到伸长率小于30%,具有重量大于40g/m2但小于或等于60g/m2的非织造布拉伸到伸长率小于40%,具有重量大于60g/m2但小于或等于80g/m2的非织造布拉伸到伸长率小于50%。该拉伸率百分比是拉伸后长度减去拉伸前长度的长度差与拉伸前的长度的比率。
优选的,纤网首次固结的温度至少增加到50℃并且最高增至300℃。在加宽前或加宽期间纤网的温度可在15℃和300℃之间,优选的在20℃到250℃之间。对于倾向于结晶的热塑性材料,例如快速结晶使得收缩降低的聚酯,加热阶段特别地重要。至于聚烯烃,加热导致软化从而促进加宽,并且使长丝或纤维成分的单个直径降低。
本发明的又一目的是提供一种用于制造非织造布的机器,该机器包括将纤维或长丝纤网传送到固结装置的装置,其中固结是通过喷射水射流,砑光或针刺固结法进行的,其特征在于在第一固结装置的下游包括用于加宽第一固结纤网的装置。在加宽装置的下游设有第二固结装置。其有效固结宽度大于第一固结装置的有效固结宽度。所获的的非织造布能实现前述特征,并具有较大宽度,当其被切成用于制造成品的较小宽度的条时,该非织造布减少了废料。
这种优选的可调宽度的加宽装置可包括加宽辊,针板拉幅机或夹拉幅机,特别是在加热的情况下,加宽辊优选的可包括螺旋卷绕。
所述的加宽辊是挠性旋转辊,具有根据所希望加宽的宽度可进行调节的曲率半径。
这种湿非织造布的加宽还可通过导向系统向非织造布的边缘横向引导的两个针板拉幅机和链式拉幅机实现,当非织造布前进时,拉幅机之间的间隙增大。
如果传送装置包括能使出口的纤网速度大于加宽装置进口的速度的装置,则有利于加宽。用于驱动纤网的辊马达可以设置在加宽装置的进口和出口,并且该辊可以不同的速度旋转。
当所述第二固结装置包括喷射加压水射流时,所述第二装置的水射流注入宽度大于用于第一固结的第一装置的宽度。但是第二固结还可通过热固结,砑光,针刺固结法,化学或其它方法来实施。第二固结装置的有效固结宽度大于第一固结装置的有效固结宽度。第二固结装置还可给纤网提供图形。
优选的是,第二固结装置后面伴随吸气干燥装置。干燥特别在110到160℃之间进行,优选的在热风(through air)炉内实施。优选的,在干燥装置和第二固结装置之间设置一种通过多孔表面抽气的脱湿装置,该装置包括用于控制多孔表面的工作宽度的装置。该表面可包括与真空发生器连接的吸附带,并配有滑阀。
如果需要,该加宽和再固结操作可重复若干次。
在附图中,以下仅作为实例在此提供:
图1是本发明显示的一种用于制造非织造布的机器轮廓图;
图2是本发明机器中使用的加宽辊的立视图;
图3是加宽辊,输入辊和输出辊组件的俯视图。
图1所示的机器包括输入传送带1,该传送带绕过辊2,并如箭头3所示在承载面上传送纤网。纤网在滚筒4和传送带1的承载面之间压实,并且,在绕过滚筒右侧卷绕前,借助加湿器H穿过传送带1输送水来给纤网加湿,纤网在滚筒处通过第一固结与源于注入器6的加压水射流5接触。用这种方法固结的纤网可绕另一滚筒7卷绕,它本身还配有注入器8,以便实现本发明已知意义上的第一固结。
首次已固结的纤网以输入速度到达两个加宽辊9(通过三个回行惰轮分离),并以输出速度脱离加宽位置,由于滚筒7没有辊10旋转快,因此输出速度大于输入速度。该加宽纤网通过辊10返回到配有注入器12的滚筒11,注入器12在加宽纤网处喷射水射流13,以便在此引起第二固结。该滚筒11配有一种外壳,该外壳在二次固结的纤网上可能提供一种图形。
二次固结的纤网在承载面以下配有吸入腔15的传送带14的承载面上传送,以便构成一种用于脱湿纤网的装置。在传送带14的出口,该纤网进入穿过多孔表面17的循环热风炉16,其中垂直于附图面的长度受控制,以便适于网面的宽度。在干燥器的出口,该非织造布18绕在卷线机19上。
图2和3所示的加宽辊21由轴承22拉紧,该轴承具有一种相对轴承修改辊轴角的可调内部装置,因此非织造布的宽度中辊的曲率半径和百分比可增加。至于重量在50g/m2以下的轻非织造布,优选的具有一种使加宽辊旋转的马达23。
非织造布24首先通过具有马达M输入的辊25重新校准,接着围绕加宽辊26送入,然后再次通过具有马达M输出的辊27重新校准。在加宽辊的外围,非织造布跟随垂至于辊26的纵轴的方向28。辊26的表面适于覆盖合成材料,以避免辊表面上非织造布的滑动,从而获得最大的加宽面。
在实验室做试验以测量纵向和横向的强度,以及每平方米的重量是根据EDANA(欧洲一次用品和非织造布协会)ERT标准实施的,即:
a)每平方米的重量:
样品处理24小时,并且该测试在23℃和50%的相对湿度下实施。
利用切截机切割成至少50000mm2面积的至少三个样品。
每个样品在实验室天平上称重,该天平具有称重样品重量的0.1%的精度。
b)纵向和横向的强度和伸长率:
样品处理24小时,并且该测试在23℃和50%的相对湿度下实施。使用拉力实验机进行测试,其中包括一套固定爪,和以恒速移动的一组活动爪。该拉力实验机的爪具有50mm的工作宽度。拉力实验机配有一种记录器,该记录器记录张力相对伸长率的曲线。五个样品切成在非织造布的纵向和横向具有50mm±0.5mm的宽度和250mm的长度。该样品以100毫米/分的恒定拖速,并以200mm的爪间初始距离单独测试。该拉力实验机记录以牛顿为单位的张力相对伸长率的曲线。
以下实例来说明本发明。
实例1(对比实例)
通过使用非织造布类型的梳理机,以70米/分的速率,制造一种由40mm长的1.7分特的占50%的粘胶纤维和38mm长的1.7分特的占50%的聚酯纤维组成的约60g/m2的纤网。该纤网通过水射流持续传送到第一固结部件,随后通过图1所示的水射流传送到第二固结部件。第一固结点由传送带组成,该传送带用于压实和湿润后面有两个旋转滚筒的纤网,每个旋转滚筒配有两个水压注入器。第二固结点由配有两个水压注入器的旋转滚筒组成。
在第一固结点,纤网首先在运输传送带和第一滚筒之间压实。快速压实后,湿润纤网,并通过水压注入器以15巴的压强喷射直径为140μm的水射流来轻微地固结。该水射流相互分离成两排间隔0.8mm的距离。
经这样压实,湿润并轻微地固结的纤网接着受到两个连续水压注入器的作用,该水压注入器可喷射直径为120μm的水射流,并包括以50和70巴的增压下的1666水射流/米的宽度。
经这样固结的非织造布传送到与第一滚筒相同类型的第二滚筒上,第一滚筒还装配有两个水压注入器,该水压注入器可喷射直径为120μm的水射流,并均包括70巴的压强下的1666水射流/米的宽度。
接着,将该湿非织造布传送到最后的滚筒,该滚筒装配有两个水压注入器,该水压注入器可可喷射直径为120μm的水射流,并均包括80巴的压强下的1666水射流/米宽度。
接着,这样获得的非织造布传送到与真空发生器连接的吸附带上,然后在热风炉内以130℃的温度干燥。
这样获得的非织造布称重约为60g/m2
设置在第二滚筒和第三滚筒之间的加宽辊装置在第一实例中不起作用。因此,在该实例中的非织造布具有与全部水射流固结点几乎完全相同的宽度。
实例2
除使用在第二和第三滚筒之间设置的加宽辊装置以外,该实例重复实例1中的使用条件。在传送到第三滚筒前,该湿非织造布的宽度增加15%。在使用与实例1相同的条件下,非织造布在第三滚筒上固结,即均在80巴的压强下,使用两个水压注入器。
接着,该非织造布如实例1进行干燥。
实例3
除了这次在将湿非织造布传送到第三滚筒前,施加30%的增宽百分比外,该实例3重复实例2中的使用条件。而且其它测试条件与测试2中的那些条件相同。
实例4(对比实例)
除了这次在将湿非织造布传送到第三滚筒前,施加50%的增宽百分比外,该实例4重复实例2中的使用条件。该非织造布沿纵线撕开。此时无法使用该非织造布。该测试终止。
表1
    特征     单位  对比实例1    实例2    实例3
    每平方米的重量     g/m2     60     52     43
    纵向强度     N/50mm     94     75     58
    横向强度     N/50mm     26     29     26
    纵向伸长率     %     33     39     43
    横向伸长率     %     121     95     89
    纵向/横向强度比     无量纲     3.61     2.58     2.23

Claims (12)

1.一种非织造布,所述非织造布具有的宽度至少等于5m,重量在15和80g/m2之间,优选在30和60g/m2之间,并且由至少15mm长,且优选由长度在20到60mm之间的纤维,长丝,或该纤维和长丝的混合物组成,其特征在于,其在纵向方向的机械性能与其在横截面方向的相同性能之比小于3.5,所述机械性能尤其是包括抗张强度。
2.一种用于制造非织造布的方法,其中纤维和/或长丝的纤网通过喷射水射流,砑光或针刺固结来固结,以获得首次被固结的纤网,其特征在于,所述纤网首先被进行首次固结,然后在宽度方向被拉伸,以获得加宽的纤网,接着该加宽的纤网被进行二次固结。
3.如权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,所述二次固结通过喷射水射流来实施。
4.如权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,通过喷射水射流实施的二次固结的水射流压力大于首次固结的水射流压力。
5.如权利要求2,3或4所述的方法,其特征在于,具有小于或等于40g/m2重量的非织造布被拉伸到伸长率小于30%,具有重量大于40g/m2但小于或等于60g/m2的非织造布被拉伸到伸长率小于40%,具有重量大于60g/m2但小于或等于80g/m2的非织造布被拉伸到伸长率小于50%。
6.如权利要求2到5中任一所述的方法,其特征在于,首次固结的纤网的温度被增加到至少50℃,最高到300℃。
7.一种用于制造非织造布的机器,该机器包括装置(1),该装置(1)将纤网或长丝纤网传送到通过水射流,砑光或针刺固结法进行固结的装置(1,6),其特征在于,该机器还包括在首次固结装置下游的用于加宽固结纤网的装置(9)和二次固结装置(12),该二次固结装置(12)设置在加宽装置(9)的下游,并具有大于首次固结装置(6)的有效固结宽度。
8.如权利要求7所述的机器,其特征在于,所述的加宽装置(9),优选具有可调的宽度,包括至少一个加宽辊,或针板拉幅机或夹拉幅机。
9.如权利要求7和8中任一所述的机器,其特征在于,所述的传送装置包括装置(7,10),以便出口的纤网速度大于加宽装置(9)进口的速度。
10.如权利要求7到9中任一项所述的机器,其特征在于,所述二次固结装置(12)是水射流固结装置。
11.如权利要求7到10中任一项所述的机器,其特征在于,所述二次固结装置(12)后面有一装置(15),该装置(15)透过多孔表面通过吸气来脱湿,并包括用于控制所述多孔表面的工作宽度的装置。
12.如权利要求7到11中任一项所述的机器,其特征在于,所述二次固结装置(12)的下游设有干燥装置(16),优选所述干燥装置(16)具有可调的宽度。
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