CN117461418A - Wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and working method - Google Patents

Wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and working method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN117461418A
CN117461418A CN202311589866.6A CN202311589866A CN117461418A CN 117461418 A CN117461418 A CN 117461418A CN 202311589866 A CN202311589866 A CN 202311589866A CN 117461418 A CN117461418 A CN 117461418A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
plate
soil
sowing
seed
rotary tillage
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Pending
Application number
CN202311589866.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘江涛
桑永英
胡敏英
周训
王亚芝
李珊珊
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Hebei Agricultural University
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Hebei Agricultural University
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Priority to CN202311589866.6A priority Critical patent/CN117461418A/en
Publication of CN117461418A publication Critical patent/CN117461418A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/04Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools
    • A01B49/06Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools for sowing or fertilising
    • A01B49/065Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools for sowing or fertilising the soil-working tools being actively driven
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B33/00Tilling implements with rotary driven tools, e.g. in combination with fertiliser distributors or seeders, with grubbing chains, with sloping axles, with driven discs
    • A01B33/02Tilling implements with rotary driven tools, e.g. in combination with fertiliser distributors or seeders, with grubbing chains, with sloping axles, with driven discs with tools on horizontal shaft transverse to direction of travel
    • A01B33/021Tilling implements with rotary driven tools, e.g. in combination with fertiliser distributors or seeders, with grubbing chains, with sloping axles, with driven discs with tools on horizontal shaft transverse to direction of travel with rigid tools
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B33/00Tilling implements with rotary driven tools, e.g. in combination with fertiliser distributors or seeders, with grubbing chains, with sloping axles, with driven discs
    • A01B33/08Tools; Details, e.g. adaptations of transmissions or gearings
    • A01B33/10Structural or functional features of the tools ; Theoretical aspects of the cutting action
    • A01B33/103Structural or functional features of the tools ; Theoretical aspects of the cutting action the rotating shaft being oriented horizontally
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B35/00Other machines for working soil not specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing
    • A01B35/02Other machines for working soil not specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing with non-rotating tools
    • A01B35/04Other machines for working soil not specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing with non-rotating tools drawn by animal or tractor or man-power
    • A01B35/08Other machines for working soil not specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing with non-rotating tools drawn by animal or tractor or man-power with rigid tools
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B35/00Other machines for working soil not specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing
    • A01B35/20Tools; Details
    • A01B35/22Non-rotating tools; Resilient or flexible mounting of rigid tools
    • A01B35/26Rigid tools
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/02Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind
    • A01B49/022Combined machines with two or more soil-working tools of different kind at least one tool being actively driven
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C5/00Making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting or manuring
    • A01C5/06Machines for making or covering drills or furrows for sowing or planting
    • A01C5/066Devices for covering drills or furrows
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C5/00Making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting or manuring
    • A01C5/06Machines for making or covering drills or furrows for sowing or planting
    • A01C5/066Devices for covering drills or furrows
    • A01C5/068Furrow packing devices, e.g. press wheels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C7/00Sowing
    • A01C7/06Seeders combined with fertilising apparatus
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C7/00Sowing
    • A01C7/20Parts of seeders for conducting and depositing seed

Abstract

The invention provides a wheat equal-depth uniform sowing machine and a working method thereof, wherein the wheat equal-depth uniform sowing machine comprises a frame, a fertilizing mechanism, a rotary tillage unit, a sowing mechanism, a uniform soil covering mechanism and a compacting mechanism; the sowing mechanism comprises a seed box, a seed guide pipe and a uniform sowing plate, wherein the seed guide pipe is connected between the seed box and the uniform sowing plate, the uniform sowing plate is provided with a splitter plate, and splitter plates in two adjacent layers are staggered; the uniform soil covering mechanism comprises a transition plate, a rotary tillage unit is arranged at the front side of the transition plate, a soil throwing wheel roller is arranged at the rear side of the transition plate, and a soil covering plate is arranged on the soil throwing wheel roller; the uniform sowing plate is arranged below the transition plate; seeds flow from the seed guide pipe to the even sowing plate and are scattered on soil after being guided and dispersed on the flow dividing plate, the rotary tillage unit throws the soil to the transition plate, and the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate so as to pull down the soil on the transition plate and cover the seeds. The wheat equal-depth uniform sowing machine can realize uniform sowing depth and uniform sowing of seeds, individual plant growth of seeds, maximally utilize the resources of growth space and ensure that seedlings are orderly integrally emerged.

Description

Wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and working method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of crop planting, in particular to a wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and a working method.
Background
The planter is a planting machine which uses crop seeds as seeding objects and is used for seeding certain types or crops. With the continuous development of agricultural production technology, the requirements on agricultural machinery are gradually increased, and in particular, in the aspect of sowing, the agricultural machinery is often required to realize precision sowing according to the agricultural requirements, so that the sowing quality and the yield of seeds are ensured. In the current practical production, the main sowing mode is drill sowing, wherein the drill sowing is to level the ground just before sowing, make furrows and ditches, make the ditches about 1-2cm deep, and then spread wheat seeds into the ditches to cover soil and scrape the ground. However, the existing seeder in the market is not easy to control in seed sowing, especially seeds with smaller seeds such as wheat, the seeds flow out from a discharge hole in a concentrated manner, and then the seeds sowed into soil are concentrated, so that the problems of no plant spacing, uneven gathering and distribution of the seeds, vigorous competition among individuals and weak root systems are caused, the initial growth of the wheat is influenced, and meanwhile, the seeds fall on the bottom of a ditch or a ditch bed to cause inconsistent burying depth of the seeds, so that the problem of uneven seedling emergence exists.
The even sowing technology is based on the growth and development characteristics of crops, fully exerts a coordination mechanism of uniform and robust individual crops and sufficient and reasonable group, achieves high yield and high efficiency of the crops, and is popularized and applied. The evenly-sowed crops enable individual plants to grow due to uniform distribution of the individual plants, fully utilize light energy and space, create the condition of balanced nutrition of the individual plants, have small nutrition competition of individual plants in seedling stage, and are robust in individual plant development, are beneficial to formation and development of dominant tillers, fully exert yield formation potential of the dominant tillers, and further realize yield increase of crops. At present, some uniform sowing machines appear in China, but most of the machines are close-line drill sowing technology, and the uniform sowing is still not performed in a strict sense. The spacing between the front and rear plants and the spacing between the left and right plants of close-row drill crops are still larger, and the advantages of the uniform sowing technology are not fully reflected. Meanwhile, the sowing depth of the existing close-line drill crops is not consistent, so that the growth speeds of the crops are different, the phenomenon of unbalanced emergence of seedlings can occur, and the yield increase of the crops is not facilitated.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a wheat equal-depth even sowing machine, which can realize equal-depth precise even sowing of wheat seeds, ensure that the sowing depth of the seeds is consistent and the sowing is even, ensure that the seeds are distributed more evenly, realize individual plant growth of wheat and increase the yield and income of the wheat.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
the utility model provides a wheat equal-depth even seeder, includes frame, fertilizing mechanism, rotary cultivator unit, sowing mechanism, even earthing mechanism and suppression mechanism, the frame front end is equipped with the traction frame in order to connect the tractor, fertilizing mechanism, rotary cultivator unit, sowing mechanism, even earthing mechanism and suppression mechanism set up in the frame, and fertilizing mechanism is located the rear of traction frame, and the rotary cultivator unit is located the rear of fertilizing mechanism, and sowing mechanism is located the rear of rotary cultivator unit, and even earthing mechanism is located the rear of sowing mechanism, and suppression mechanism is located the rear of even earthing mechanism; the sowing mechanism comprises a seed box, a seed guide pipe and a uniform sowing plate, wherein the seed box is arranged on the frame, the lower end of the seed box is provided with a discharge nozzle, the feed inlet of the guide pipe is communicated with the discharge nozzle, the upper side of the uniform sowing plate is connected with the discharge outlet of the seed guide pipe, a plurality of splitter plates are uniformly arranged on the uniform sowing plate, the splitter plates are divided into 1-5 layers, and splitter plates in two adjacent layers are staggered; the uniform earthing mechanism comprises a transition plate and an earth throwing wheel roller, wherein a rotary tillage unit is arranged on the front side of the transition plate, the earth throwing wheel roller is arranged on the rear side of the transition plate, and 5-8 earthing plates along the axial direction are uniformly arranged on the circumference of the earth throwing wheel roller; the uniform sowing plate is arranged below the transition plate; seeds flow to the even sowing plate from the discharge hole of the seed guide pipe and are scattered on the soil layer after being guided and dispersed on the flow dividing plate, the rotary tillage unit throws the soil onto the transition plate, and the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate so as to pull the soil on the transition plate down and cover the seeds.
Preferably, a mounting plate is arranged on the upper side of the uniform sowing plate, the seed guide pipe penetrates through the transition plate and is fixedly connected with the mounting plate, and the uniform sowing plate is inclined to one side of the soil throwing wheel roller and is bent below to form a buffer plate; limiting plates are arranged on two sides of the uniform sowing plate, and the upper parts of the limiting plates are connected with the mounting plate; the splitter plate is an arc-shaped plate bent towards the discharge hole of the seed guide pipe; the splitter plate is provided with two layers, the middle part of the upper splitter plate corresponds to the discharge holes of the seed guide pipes one by one, the two ends of the upper splitter plate correspond to the middle parts of the lower splitter plates respectively, and the number of the lower splitter plates is 2 times that of the upper splitter plates.
Through the setting of buffer board, limiting plate and even sowing the board slope to throwing soil wheel roller one side, can prevent the splash phenomenon that appears at the seed at whereabouts in-process, and can not drop on the soil after the flow distribution plate disperses according to anticipated, influence the effect of even seeding.
Preferably, the rotary tillage unit comprises a rotary tillage shaft, and a plurality of groups of rotary tillage blades are arranged on the rotary tillage shaft; the rotary cultivator unit with be equipped with the leveling portion between the even board that broadcast, the leveling portion is installed the below of cab apron, the leveling position is any one or any combination in leveling roller, leveling shovel, ploughing harrow or the leveling board.
Preferably, the leveling part is a leveling plate, and the included angle between the leveling plate and the land is adjustable; the lower side of the flattening plate is inclined to the even sowing plate, and the bottom of the flattening plate is not higher than the bottom of the even sowing plate.
Preferably, the transition plate is an arc plate which bulges upwards, the bottom of two sides of the transition plate is provided with a supporting rod, the flattening plate is fixedly connected to the supporting rod, the evenly sowing plate is arranged in the middle of the lower portion of the transition plate, the soil throwing wheel roller is located on the rear side of the transition plate, and the soil covering plate slides over the upper surface of the transition plate when rotating along with the soil throwing wheel roller.
Preferably, 6 soil covering plates are arranged on the soil throwing wheel roller, and the height of each soil covering plate is 2-6cm; the inclination angle of the uniform sowing plate is 45-75 degrees; the length of the flow dividing plate is 3-6cm, and the distance between the adjacent flow dividing plates near one side of the land is 3-6cm.
Preferably, the fertilizing mechanism comprises a fertilizer box, a guide pipe and a uniform sowing baffle plate, wherein the fertilizer box is arranged on the frame, the lower end of the fertilizer box is connected with the guide pipe, one side of the uniform sowing baffle plate is connected with a fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe, the other side of the uniform sowing baffle plate is bent below the fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe and is inclined downwards, and the uniform sowing baffle plate is fixed on the frame and is arranged in front of the rotary tillage unit; the pressing mechanism comprises a pressing roller, the pressing roller is mounted at the rear of the seeder through a mounting plate, the pressing roller is arranged on the mounting plate in a rolling mode, scraping plates which are identical to the pressing roller in the circumferential direction are further arranged on the mounting plate, and the scraping plates are arranged above the pressing roller.
Preferably, the frame is also provided with a power part, the input end of the power part is connected to the tractor, the rotary tillage shaft is rotationally connected below the power part, and the power part drives the rotary tillage unit to rotate; one end of the power part is provided with a driving wheel, the end part of the soil throwing wheel roller is provided with a driven wheel, and the driven wheel is connected to the driving wheel through a belt; the rotary cultivator set and the rotation speed of the soil throwing wheel roller are matched with the speed of the tractor.
Through rotary cultivator group and throwing wheel roller rotational speed and tractor's speed complex setting, can guarantee to have sufficient soil all the time on the transition board, soil also can not block up the operation unsmooth because of accumulating too much simultaneously.
Preferably, a uniform seeding component is further arranged in the seed box, the uniform seeding component is arranged at the position where the interior of the seed box is connected with the seed guide pipe, and the rotating speed of the uniform seeding component is matched with the advancing speed of the tractor to enable the plant spacing to be 2-5 cm; an anti-blocking component is arranged in the fertilizer box and is arranged at a position where the inside of the fertilizer box is connected with the guide pipe; the seeder also comprises a shell, wherein the shell covers the outer side of the seeder.
Through setting up even seeding subassembly and anti-blocking subassembly, even seeding subassembly and anti-blocking subassembly pass through the power conversion of power portion and the cooperation of the speed of advancing of seeding and tractor, can control the decline speed of seed and fertilizer, avoid the seed that the seed whereabouts is too fast to lead to can not disperse and the concentrated seeding that causes, influence the effect of even sowing to and the excessive seedling problem that burns that causes of fertilization that the fertilizer whereabouts is too fast, avoid seed or fertilizer whereabouts in-process simultaneously, concentrate at the feed inlet of seed guide pipe or guide pipe and can not fall the seedling that lacks that causes and lack the fertilizer problem.
The invention also aims to provide a working method for wheat equal-depth uniform sowing, which can realize the growth of individual wheat plants, maximally utilize the resources of wheat growth spaces such as photo-thermal water and fertilizer, ensure that the whole wheat seedlings emerge orderly, and construct good group quality of the wheat.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a working method of a wheat equal-depth seed-sowing machine comprises the following steps:
step 1: after the even sowing machine is connected with the tractor, pouring seeds into a seed box, and pouring fertilizer into a fertilizer box;
step 2: fertilizing and tilling, wherein fertilizer in a fertilizer box falls on a uniformly sowing baffle plate through a guide pipe, then the fertilizer uniformly falls on the soil along the uniformly sowing baffle plate, a rotary tillage unit performs rotary tillage and scarification on the soil, the depth of rotary tillage is required to be 18-28cm, the soil after rotary tillage is loosened and compacted, and meanwhile, the soil brought up by the rotary tillage unit rotates along with rotary tillage blades and is thrown to a transition plate;
step 3: leveling, namely, the leveling plate is used for leveling the soil after rotary tillage, and crushing or removing large soil blocks to enable the soil to be free of uneven states;
step 4: uniformly sowing, wherein seeds in the seed box fall on a uniformly sowing plate through the guidance of a seed guide pipe, and the intensively fallen seeds are dispersed into independent seed units after passing through a guide plate on the uniformly sowing plate, and fall on the land with the plant spacing of 3-6cm;
step 5: the soil is covered, the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate, the soil on the transition plate is evenly pulled down and covered on the ground to cover and bury the evenly sown seeds, and the soil covering depth is set to be 3-5cm;
step 6: the compacting roller moves forward along with the tractor and rotates, so that the land covered with soil is compacted, the compaction is carried out along with the sowing and the covering, and the compacting force and the compacting quality are ensured.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. through being equipped with even sowing plate at the discharge gate of seed guiding pipe, make the seed at the in-process that drops on even sowing plate water conservancy diversion dispersion, will concentrate the seed dispersion that drops into independent individual seed, later single seed evenly scatter on the soil, realize the single plant growth of seed to improve the ventilation printing opacity effect in field for the wheat of follow-up growth, make full use of light energy and space of wheat, the accurate volume of effectual accomplishing wheat seed is evenly sowed, can save the quantity of seed, can also be favorable to the growth development of wheat more.
2. Seeds fall on the land from both sides of the splitter plates, so that the transverse distance between the wheat is determined by setting the length of the splitter plates and the distance between the adjacent splitter plates; the distance between the longitudinal directions of seeds, namely the plant spacing between plants, can be pulled by matching with the tractor to advance, the distance between the single plants of wheat can be controlled more reasonably and scientifically, the utilization rate of the wheat seeds to resources such as land, water fertilizer and the like can be fully improved, the cultivation of strong seedlings is facilitated, and the purpose of high yield and high efficiency is achieved.
3. The earthing subassembly makes soil screen on the transition board indirectly, avoids the soil block of great volume to participate in the earthing layer, and soil layer on the transition board is stirred through the earthing board on the throwing wheel roller simultaneously, and thickness is more even to can control the quantity of dialling down soil, thereby realize evenly throwing and send the degree of depth that covers the assurance covering soil layer, make the seed bury in the soil layer of equal degree of depth, do benefit to the more even of seed crowd growth, the emergence uniformity is high.
4. The seeder further comprises a fertilizing mechanism, a rotary tillage unit, a flattening plate and a pressing roller, wherein the fertilizing mechanism is provided with a uniform baffle, fertilizer discharged from the guiding pipe can be scattered on the soil more uniformly after impacting on the uniform baffle, the rotary tillage unit carries out rotary tillage to enable the fertilizer to be mixed with the soil more uniformly, the flattening plate is used for flattening the soil to realize rotary tillage and fertilizer preparation, five working procedures of fertilization, rotary tillage, flattening, sowing and pressing can be completed once, the number of times of entering the ground of the tractor is reduced, the cost is saved, and the sowing efficiency is improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of the present invention;
fig. 2 is a schematic perspective view of a seeding plate according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic perspective view of a throwing wheel roller of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic side view of the present invention;
fig. 5 is a schematic perspective view of another structural state of the present invention.
In the figure, 1 frame; 2, a fertilizer box; 3, uniformly sowing the plates; 31 mounting plates; a 32 buffer plate; 33 limit plates; 4 seed guiding pipes; 5 a splitter plate; a transition plate; 61 supporting rods; 7, a soil throwing wheel roller; 8, earthing plates; 9, a rotary tillage unit; 91 rotary tillage shaft; 92 rotary tillage cutter; 10 an anti-blocking component; 11 flattening plates; 12, driven wheels; 13 a belt; 14 a driving wheel; 15 pressing rollers; 151 mounting frames; 16 scraping plates; 17 a uniform sowing assembly; 18 a power section; 19 traction frames; a 20-shell; 21 a guide tube; 22 evenly sowing baffles.
Detailed Description
As shown in fig. 1 to 5, the wheat equal-depth even sowing machine comprises a frame 1, a fertilizing mechanism, a rotary tillage unit 9, a sowing mechanism, an even soil covering mechanism and a pressing mechanism, wherein a traction frame 19 is arranged at the front end of the frame 1 to be connected with a tractor, the fertilizing mechanism, the rotary tillage unit 9, the sowing mechanism, the even soil covering mechanism and the pressing mechanism are arranged on the frame 1, the fertilizing mechanism is positioned at the rear of the traction frame 19, the rotary tillage unit 9 is positioned at the rear of the fertilizing mechanism, the sowing mechanism is positioned at the rear of the rotary tillage unit 9, the even soil covering mechanism is positioned at the rear of the sowing mechanism, and the pressing mechanism is positioned at the rear of the even soil covering mechanism; the seeding mechanism comprises a seed box, a seed guide pipe 4 and a uniform seeding plate 3, wherein the seed box is arranged on the frame 1, the lower end of the seed box is provided with a discharge nozzle, the feed inlet of the guide pipe 4 is communicated with the discharge nozzle, the upper side of the uniform seeding plate 3 is connected with the discharge outlet of the seed guide pipe 4, a plurality of splitter plates 5 are uniformly arranged on the uniform seeding plate 3, the splitter plates 5 are divided into 1-5 layers, and the splitter plates 5 in two adjacent layers are arranged in a staggered manner. The uniform soil covering mechanism comprises a transition plate 6 and a soil throwing wheel roller 7, wherein a rotary tillage unit 9 is arranged at the front side of the transition plate 6, the soil throwing wheel roller 7 is arranged at the rear side of the transition plate, the rotary tillage unit 9 throws soil on the upper surface of the transition plate 6 while carrying out rotary tillage operation on the soil, and 5-8 soil covering plates 8 along the axial direction of the soil throwing wheel roller 7 are uniformly arranged on the circumference of the soil throwing wheel roller 7; the even sowing plate 3 is arranged below the transition plate 6, the rotary cultivator unit 9 throws soil onto the transition plate 6, seeds of the seed boxes flow out from a discharge hole of the seed guide pipe 4 and fall onto the even sowing plate 3, after blocking and splitting of the splitter plates 5 which are arranged in a staggered mode on the even sowing plate 3, the seeds which fall down intensively are scattered into single individuals and evenly scattered onto a soil layer, uniform sowing of the seeds is achieved, the soil cover plate 8 rotates along with the soil throwing wheel roller 7 and is scratched from the upper surface of the transition plate 6, the soil on the transition plate 6 is stirred down and covered on the sowed soil, the dropping quantity of the soil can be controlled in the soil stirring process of the soil cover plate 8 on the transition plate 6, and therefore the thickness of the soil cover layer is guaranteed.
In a preferred case, the upper side of the even sowing plate 3 is provided with a mounting plate 31, the seed guide pipe 4 is connected with the mounting plate 31 through the transition plate 6, the even sowing plate 3 is inclined to one side of the soil throwing wheel roller 7 and is bent below to form a buffer plate 32, the inclination angle of the even sowing plate 3 is 45-75 degrees, preferably 60 degrees, when seeds fall on the even sowing plate 3 and move downwards, the inclined even sowing plate 3 slows down the falling speed of the seeds, enough time is provided for the seeds to be dispersed into independent individuals, the buffer plate 32 further slows down the falling speed of the dispersed seeds, the seeds are prevented from being ejected along the interval of the even sowing plate, and the natural and scattered uniform state of the seeds is ensured; limiting plates 33 are arranged on two sides of the uniform sowing plate 3, and the upper parts of the limiting plates 33 are connected with the mounting plate 31; the even sowing plate is surrounded and protected into a dustpan shape, so that the seeds are prevented from splashing around, the seeds can only move on the even sowing plate, and the sowing uniformity is ensured. The splitter plate 5 is an arc-shaped plate bent towards the discharge hole of the seed guide pipe 4, so that seeds can fall on the splitter plate 5 conveniently and then are separated towards two sides; the length of the splitter plate 5 is 3-6cm, and seeds fall from two ends of the splitter plate 5, so that the distance between the seeds falling from two sides of the splitter plate is 3-6cm, the distance between the adjacent splitter plates 5 close to one side of the land is 3-6cm, and the distance between the seeds falling from two adjacent ends of the two splitter plates 5 is 3-6cm, so that the transverse distance between the seeds, namely the plant distance, is 3-6cm. In this embodiment, the splitter plate 5 is provided with two layers, the middle part of the upper splitter plate 5 corresponds to the discharge holes of the seed guide tubes 4 one by one, so that seeds fall instantly and begin to disperse, and the two ends of the upper splitter plate 5 correspond to the middle parts of the lower splitter plates 5 respectively, the number of the lower splitter plates 5 is 2 times that of the upper splitter plates 5, that is, the seeds falling in each seed guide tube 4 can be sowed in 4 rows in a dispersing manner, and the seeds can be sowed more uniformly in an indirect manner. Further, the seed box is also internally provided with a uniform seeding component 17, the uniform seeding component 17 is arranged at the position where the inside of the seed box is connected with the seed guide 4 pipe, the uniform seeding component 17 can control the seed outlet quantity of the seed box, and meanwhile, the problem that the seeds cannot be smoothly planted due to blockage caused by concentration of the seeds at the inlet position of the seed guide 4 can be avoided. The even seeding component 17 is connected with the power part 18 on the frame 1, and the relation between the rotating speed of the even seeding component 17 and the advancing speed of the tractor directly influences the longitudinal distance between the seeds falling back and forth, namely the plant spacing between the single seeds, so that the rotating speed of the even seeding component 17 is matched with the advancing speed of the tractor by adjusting the proportion of the power transmission structure in the power part 18, and the plant spacing is between 3 cm and 6cm.
In a preferred case, the transition plate 6 is an upwardly-raised arc plate, the evenly-seeding plate 3 is arranged in the middle of the lower portion of the transition plate 6, so that the rotary tillage unit 9 is convenient for throwing soil onto the transition plate 6, the seed guide pipe 4 indirectly has a screening effect on the soil on the transition plate 6, and the phenomenon that the soil blocks with larger volume participate in subsequent soil covering and influence the thickness and uniformity of the soil covering is avoided. Meanwhile, larger soil blocks can conveniently fall from the transition plate 6; the bottoms of both sides of the transition plate 6 are provided with supporting rods 61 for supporting the strength of the transition plate 6. A leveling part is arranged between the rotary tillage unit 9 and the leveling plate 3, the leveling part is arranged below the transition plate 6, and the leveling part is any one or any combination of a leveling roller, a leveling shovel, a tillage rake or a leveling plate. In this embodiment, the leveling part is a leveling plate 6, and the lower side of the leveling plate 6 is inclined to one side of the leveling plate 3, so that the leveling part can play a role in buffering during the process of leveling the land. And the screed 11 is fixedly connected to the supporting bar 61, and the inclination angle of the screed 6 can be adjusted at the same time, so that the angle of the screed 11 is adjusted according to the hardness degree of soil and the depth of rotary tillage to ensure a better levelling effect. The bottom of the flattening plate 11 is not higher than the bottom of the leveling plate 3, so that the effect of the leveling plate 11 after leveling is prevented from being influenced by the leveling plate 3.
In a preferred case, the throwing wheel roller 7 is located at the rear side of the transition plate 6 and the cover plate 8 can slide over the upper surface of the transition plate 6 as the throwing wheel roller 7 rotates, thereby pulling the soil on the transition plate 6 down to cover the upper side of the seeds. Further, six soil covering plates 8 are arranged on the soil throwing wheel roller 7, so that each soil covering plate 8 can be used for throwing enough soil; the height of the earth covering plate 8 is 2-6cm, namely the thickness of earth, so that the thickness of earth covering can be ensured to be 3-5m.
In a preferred case, the frame 1 is also provided with a power part 18, the input end of the power part 18 is connected with the power output end of the tractor, the rotary cultivator set 9 is arranged below the power part 18, the rotary cultivator set 9 comprises a rotary cultivator shaft 91, a plurality of groups of rotary blades 92 are arranged on the rotary cultivator shaft 91, the rotary cultivator shaft 91 is rotationally connected below the power part 18, and the power part 18 drives the rotary cultivator shaft 91 to rotate for rotary cultivation of the land; one end of the power part 18 is provided with a driving wheel 14, the end part of the soil throwing wheel roller 7 is provided with a driven wheel 12, the driven wheel 12 is connected to the driving wheel 14 through a belt 13, and the power part 18 drives the soil throwing wheel roller 7 to rotate through the driving wheel 14; the rotary cultivator group 9 and the rotation speed of the soil throwing wheel roller 7 are matched with the advancing speed of the tractor, so that the effect of the equal-depth soil covering is further ensured.
In another preferred case, the compacting mechanism comprises a compacting roller 15, the compacting roller 15 is arranged at the rear of the seeder through a mounting plate 151, the compacting roller 15 is arranged on the mounting plate 151 in a rolling manner to compact the covering soil of the soil throwing roller 17, further, a scraping plate 16 which is axially same as the compacting roller 15 is further arranged on the mounting plate 151, the scraping plate 16 is arranged above the compacting roller 15, and the scraping plate 16 scrapes the sticky soil on the compacting roller 15, so that the effect that too much soil adheres to the surface of the compacting roller 15 affects the compacting is avoided.
The fertilizing mechanism comprises a fertilizer box 2, a guide pipe 21 and a uniform sowing baffle 22, wherein the fertilizer box 2 is arranged on a frame 1, the lower end of the fertilizer box 2 is connected with the guide pipe 21, one side of the uniform sowing baffle 22 is connected with a fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe 21, the other side of the uniform sowing baffle 22 is bent below the fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe 21 and is inclined downwards, the uniform sowing baffle 22 is fixed on the frame 1 and is arranged in front of a rotary tillage unit 9, fertilizer in the fertilizer box 2 flows out through the fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe 21, then impinges on the uniform sowing baffle 22, is further impacted and dispersed on the uniform sowing baffle 22, slides onto the land along the inclined downward uniform sowing baffle 22, can be uniformly spread on the land, and then the rotary tillage unit 9 carries out rotary tillage on the land on which the fertilizer is spread, so that the fertilizer is fully mixed in the land, and the fertilizer efficiency is better exerted. Further, an anti-blocking assembly 10 is arranged in the fertilizer box 2, and the anti-blocking assembly 10 is arranged at a position where the inside of the fertilizer box 2 is connected with the guide pipe 21, so that the fertilizer is prevented from being crowded and blocked at the inlet position of the guide pipe and not smoothly flowing out of the guide pipe. In this embodiment, the planter also includes a housing 20, and the housing 20 covers the outside of the planter to protect the structure of the planter.
The working method of the wheat equal-depth even seeder specifically comprises the following steps:
step 1: after the even sowing machine is connected with the tractor, pouring seeds into a seed box, and pouring fertilizer into a fertilizer box;
step 2: fertilizing and tilling, wherein fertilizer in a fertilizer box falls on a uniformly sowing baffle plate through a guide pipe, then the fertilizer uniformly falls on the soil along the uniformly sowing baffle plate, a rotary tillage unit performs rotary tillage and scarification on the soil, the depth of rotary tillage is required to be 12-18cm, the soil after rotary tillage is loosened and compacted, and meanwhile, the soil brought up by the rotary tillage unit rotates along with rotary tillage blades and is thrown to a transition plate;
step 3: leveling, namely, the leveling plate is used for leveling the soil after rotary tillage, and crushing or removing large soil blocks to enable the soil to be free of uneven states;
step 4: uniformly sowing, wherein seeds in the seed box fall on a uniformly sowing plate through the guidance of a seed guide pipe, and the intensively fallen seeds are dispersed into independent seed units after passing through a guide plate on the uniformly sowing plate, and fall on the land with the plant spacing of 3-6cm;
step 5: the soil is covered, the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate, the soil on the transition plate is evenly pulled down and covered on the ground to cover and bury the evenly sown seeds, and the soil covering depth is set to be 3-5cm;
step 6: the compacting roller moves forward along with the tractor and rotates, so that the land covered with soil is compacted, the compaction is carried out along with the sowing and the covering, and the compacting force and the compacting quality are ensured.
Based on the conception, in a specific application scene, the fertilizer in the fertilizer box falls on the uniform baffle through the guide pipe, is more dispersed under the impact blocking on the uniform baffle to form a sprinkling effect and falls on the land, then the rotary tillage unit carries out rotary tillage on the fertilized land, the soil carried out by the rotary tillage cutter along with the rotation of the rotary tillage cutter is thrown onto the transition plate, and the rear flattening plate scrapes the rotary tillage land so as to lead the seeds to be on the same horizontal plane; the seeds of the seed box fall on a guide line of the seed guide pipe on a first layer of flow dividing plates on the even sowing plate, the arc-shaped flow dividing plates divide the seeds at two sides at random, then the divided seeds fall on a second layer of flow dividing plates, the second layer of flow dividing plates continue to divide the seeds on two sides and fall on the ground, at the moment, the seeds falling in the seed guide pipe can be dispersed into independent seed individuals and fall on the ground, the length of the flow dividing plates and the interval between the adjacent flow dividing plates are set to be 4-5cm, and the longitudinal interval between the seeds is kept between 3-6cm in cooperation with the travelling speed of a tractor; the wheat growth space with individual plants is realized, and the resources of wheat growth such as photo-thermal water fertilizer and the like are utilized to the maximum extent; the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate, the soil covering plate is scratched on the upper surface of the transition plate, soil on the transition plate is evenly stirred down and covered on seeds, the consistency of the soil covering depth is guaranteed, the soil covering depth is preferably set to be 3-5cm, and then the soil is compacted by the compacting roller at the rear side of the seeder. The depth of the seeds is consistent, and the germination and soil emergence time of the seeds is consistent, so that the whole wheat seedlings are orderly, and good group quality of the wheat is constructed.
The present embodiments are merely illustrative of the present invention and are not intended to be limiting, and the technical solutions that are not substantially transformed under the present invention are still within the scope of protection.

Claims (10)

1. The wheat equal-depth even seeder is characterized by comprising a frame, a fertilizing mechanism, a rotary tillage unit, a seeding mechanism, an even earthing mechanism and a pressing mechanism, wherein the front end of the frame is provided with a traction frame for connecting a tractor; the sowing mechanism comprises a seed box, a seed guide pipe and a uniform sowing plate, wherein the seed box is arranged on the frame, the lower end of the seed box is provided with a discharge nozzle, the feed inlet of the guide pipe is communicated with the discharge nozzle, the upper side of the uniform sowing plate is connected with the discharge outlet of the seed guide pipe, a plurality of splitter plates are uniformly arranged on the uniform sowing plate, the splitter plates are divided into 1-5 layers, and splitter plates in two adjacent layers are staggered; the uniform earthing mechanism comprises a transition plate and an earth throwing wheel roller, wherein a rotary tillage unit is arranged on the front side of the transition plate, the earth throwing wheel roller is arranged on the rear side of the transition plate, and 5-8 earthing plates along the axial direction are uniformly arranged on the circumference of the earth throwing wheel roller; the uniform sowing plate is arranged below the transition plate; seeds flow to the even sowing plate from the discharge hole of the seed guide pipe and are scattered on the soil layer after being guided and dispersed on the flow dividing plate, the rotary tillage unit throws the soil onto the transition plate, and the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate so as to pull the soil on the transition plate down and cover the seeds.
2. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 1, wherein a mounting plate is arranged on the upper side of the seed guide pipe, the seed guide pipe penetrates through the transition plate and is fixedly connected with the mounting plate, and the seed guide pipe is inclined towards one side of the soil throwing wheel roller and is bent downwards to form a buffer plate; limiting plates are arranged on two sides of the uniform sowing plate, and the upper parts of the limiting plates are connected with the mounting plate; the splitter plate is an arc-shaped plate bent towards the discharge hole of the seed guide pipe; the splitter plate is provided with two layers, the middle part of the upper splitter plate corresponds to the discharge holes of the seed guide pipes one by one, the two ends of the upper splitter plate correspond to the middle parts of the lower splitter plates respectively, and the number of the lower splitter plates is 2 times that of the upper splitter plates.
3. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 2, wherein the rotary tillage unit comprises a rotary tillage shaft, and a plurality of groups of rotary tillage blades are arranged on the rotary tillage shaft; the rotary cultivator unit with be equipped with the leveling portion between the even board that broadcast, the leveling portion is installed the below of cab apron, the leveling position is any one or any combination in leveling roller, leveling shovel, ploughing harrow or the leveling board.
4. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 3, wherein the leveling part is a leveling plate, and an included angle between the leveling plate and the land is adjustable; the lower side of the flattening plate is inclined to the even sowing plate, and the bottom of the flattening plate is not higher than the bottom of the even sowing plate.
5. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 4, wherein the transition plate is an upwardly-raised arc plate, support rods are respectively arranged at bottoms of two sides of the transition plate, the screeding plate is fixedly connected to the support rods, the seed-leveling plate is arranged in the middle of the lower part of the transition plate, the soil throwing wheel roller is positioned at the rear side of the transition plate, and the soil covering plate slides over the upper surface of the transition plate when rotating along with the soil throwing wheel roller.
6. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 5, wherein the soil throwing wheel roller is provided with 6 soil covering plates, and the height of the soil covering plates is 2-6cm; the inclination angle of the uniform sowing plate is 45-75 degrees; the length of the flow dividing plate is 3-6cm, and the distance between the adjacent flow dividing plates near one side of the land is 3-6cm.
7. The equal-depth wheat seeder as claimed in claim 6, wherein the fertilizing mechanism comprises a fertilizer box, a guide pipe and a seeding baffle plate, the fertilizer box is arranged on the frame, the lower end of the fertilizer box is connected with the guide pipe, one side of the seeding baffle plate is connected with the fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe, the other side of the seeding baffle plate is bent below the fertilizer outlet of the guide pipe and is inclined downwards, and the seeding baffle plate is fixed on the frame and is arranged in front of the rotary tillage unit; the pressing mechanism comprises a pressing roller, the pressing roller is arranged at the rear of the seeder through a mounting plate, the pressing roller is arranged on the mounting plate in a rolling mode, scraping plates which are identical to the pressing roller in axial direction are further arranged on the mounting plate, and the scraping plates are arranged above the pressing roller.
8. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 7, wherein the frame is further provided with a power part, the input end of the power part is connected to the tractor, the rotary tillage shaft is rotatably connected below the power part, and the power part drives the rotary tillage unit to rotate; one end of the power part is provided with a driving wheel, the end part of the soil throwing wheel roller is provided with a driven wheel, and the driven wheel is connected to the driving wheel through a belt; the rotary cultivator set and the rotation speed of the soil throwing wheel roller are matched with the speed of the tractor.
9. The wheat equal-depth seeder as claimed in claim 8, wherein a uniform seeding component is further arranged in the seed box, the uniform seeding component is arranged at the position of the connection between the interior of the seed box and the seed guide pipe, and the rotating speed of the uniform seeding component is matched with the advancing speed of the tractor so that the plant spacing is between 3 cm and 6cm; an anti-blocking component is arranged in the fertilizer box and is arranged at a position where the inside of the fertilizer box is connected with the guide pipe; the seeder also comprises a shell, wherein the shell covers the outer side of the seeder.
10. The method of operating a wheat equal depth seeder as claimed in claim 9, comprising the steps of:
step 1: after the even sowing machine is connected with the tractor, pouring seeds into a seed box, and pouring fertilizer into a fertilizer box;
step 2: fertilizing and tilling, wherein fertilizer in a fertilizer box falls on a uniformly sowing baffle plate through a guide pipe, then the fertilizer uniformly falls on the soil along the uniformly sowing baffle plate, a rotary tillage unit performs rotary tillage and scarification on the soil, the depth of rotary tillage is required to be 12-18cm, the soil after rotary tillage is loosened and compacted, and meanwhile, the soil brought up by the rotary tillage unit rotates along with rotary tillage blades and is thrown to a transition plate;
step 3: leveling, namely, the leveling plate is used for leveling the soil after rotary tillage, and crushing or removing large soil blocks to enable the soil to be free of uneven states;
step 4: uniformly sowing, wherein seeds in the seed box fall on a uniformly sowing plate through the guidance of a seed guide pipe, and the intensively fallen seeds are dispersed into independent seed units after passing through a guide plate on the uniformly sowing plate, and fall on the land with the plant spacing of 3-6cm;
step 5: the soil is covered, the soil throwing wheel roller drives the soil covering plate to rotate, the soil on the transition plate is evenly pulled down and covered on the ground to cover and bury the evenly sown seeds, and the soil covering depth is set to be 3-5cm;
step 6: the compacting roller moves forward along with the tractor and rotates, so that the land covered with soil is compacted, the compaction is carried out along with the sowing and the covering, and the compacting force and the compacting quality are ensured.
CN202311589866.6A 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 Wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and working method Pending CN117461418A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202311589866.6A CN117461418A (en) 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 Wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and working method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202311589866.6A CN117461418A (en) 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 Wheat equal-depth even sowing machine and working method

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN117546643A (en) * 2024-01-11 2024-02-13 内蒙古大学 Mining area soil plant microorganism improvement fertilization device and method

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN117546643A (en) * 2024-01-11 2024-02-13 内蒙古大学 Mining area soil plant microorganism improvement fertilization device and method
CN117546643B (en) * 2024-01-11 2024-03-19 内蒙古大学 Mining area soil plant microorganism improvement fertilization device and method

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