CN108633361B - Corn no-tillage seedling seed planter with powder furrows - Google Patents

Corn no-tillage seedling seed planter with powder furrows Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108633361B
CN108633361B CN201810782483.3A CN201810782483A CN108633361B CN 108633361 B CN108633361 B CN 108633361B CN 201810782483 A CN201810782483 A CN 201810782483A CN 108633361 B CN108633361 B CN 108633361B
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China
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soil
soil loosening
corn
frame
shaft
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CN201810782483.3A
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CN108633361A (en
Inventor
白伟
郑家明
蔡倩
孙占祥
向午燕
张旭
冯良山
杨宁
张哲�
冯晨
李开宇
李颖
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Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/04Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools
    • A01B49/06Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools for sowing or fertilising
    • A01B49/065Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools for sowing or fertilising the soil-working tools being actively driven
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Working Implements (AREA)

Abstract

A corn no-tillage seedling seed planter with powder furrows belongs to the technical field of agricultural machinery. Including the frame and set gradually fertilizer injection unit, seeder, earthing device and suppression device in the frame to work rear end by work front end, its characterized in that: the fertilizing device is characterized in that the working front end of the fertilizing device on the frame is also provided with a soil loosening device, the soil loosening device is of a vertical structure and comprises a soil loosening shaft and soil loosening assemblies which are arranged at equal intervals along the soil loosening shaft, the soil loosening assemblies are 3-5 groups, and each group is composed of a partition plate arranged above a spiral blade group. By adopting a structure mode of firstly loosening soil and then sowing, a virtual-real combined cultivation layer structure is constructed, so that rainfall can be accumulated, soil environmental factors such as soil water, fertilizer, gas, heat and the like are coordinated, the growth and development of overground parts and root systems of crops are promoted, and the yield reduction caused by the reduction of the corn emergence rate by a sowing mode is relieved. The difficult problem of plough layer obstacle is solved, the effective soil quantity of the plough layer is improved, and the growth and development of corn plants are facilitated.

Description

Corn no-tillage seedling seed planter with powder furrows
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of corn sowing machinery, and particularly relates to a corn no-tillage seedling-carrying powder ditch seed sowing machine.
Background
The existing dry farming area of China is 10.1 hundred million mu, the grain yield is more than 45% of the total grain yield of the whole country, and the stable improvement of the dry farming productivity is a necessary choice for improving the grain yield in the dry farming area. Corn is the cereal crop with the widest planting range and highest yield in the world and China, and is the first crop among three crops, so that the corn has great significance to food in the world. The planting area of the Chinese corn in 2008 is above 2697.1 ten thousand hm2, the yield of the Chinese corn accounts for 21% of the grain crops, the yield of the Chinese corn accounts for 30% of the total yield of the grain crops, and the Chinese corn has important significance for the safety of the Chinese corn. The following problems are mainly present: (1) the average tilling depth becomes shallower. The average plough layer depth of the corn field in China is 16.50cm, which is 5.50cm less than the lowest plough layer depth (the lowest plough layer depth suitable for corn growth is 22 cm), and the plough layer is obviously shallower. (2) the soil volume weight is higher. The soil volume weight of the corn field with the depth of 5-10cm in China is 1.39g/cm < 3 > on average, which is far higher than the soil volume weight range (1.1-1.3 g/cm < 3 >) suitable for corn root system growth. (3) the amount of the effective soil in the plough layer is reduced. The effective plough layer soil quantity of the corn fields in China is 2.34 multiplied by 106kg/hm < 2 >, and is reduced by 14% compared with the normal effective plough layer soil quantity. The obvious shallow, solid and few problems of dry farmlands in northeast area become one of the important obstacle factors for limiting the stable yield capability and further improving the grain yield.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the technical problems of the dry land cultivation layer, the invention provides a corn no-tillage seedling with powder ditch seed planter which is capable of efficiently utilizing moisture around the dry land.
The aim of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
the invention relates to a corn no-tillage seedling belt powder ditch seed sowing machine, which comprises a frame, a fertilizing device, a seeding device, a soil covering device and a compacting device which are sequentially arranged on the frame from the front end to the rear end of the frame, wherein the front end of the fertilizing device on the frame is also provided with a soil loosening device which is of a vertical structure and comprises a soil loosening shaft and soil loosening components which are equidistantly arranged along the soil loosening shaft, the soil loosening components are 3-5 groups, and each group is formed by arranging a partition plate above a spiral blade group.
Further, the spiral blade group is formed by arranging a plurality of blades in double spirals along the soil loosening shaft, and the spiral blade group is integrally formed into a spiral spindle shape.
Further, the distance h1 between every two adjacent separation plates is 100mm-150mm.
Further, the partition plate is a circular plate with a tooth-shaped structure on the circumference, and the outer diameter of the circular plate is the same as the maximum outer diameter of the blade group.
Further, the tooth-shaped structure is zigzag.
Further, a soil flowing gap of 10-20 mm in the vertical direction is reserved between each group of partition plates and the top blade of the blade group of the group.
Further, a soil flowing gap of 10-20 mm in the vertical direction is reserved between the upper and lower adjacent blades.
Further, the frame is also provided with a soil retaining plate, the soil retaining plate is an arc-shaped plate and is positioned at the working rear end of the soil loosening device, and a partition plate and blades on the soil loosening shaft are semi-surrounded to form a semi-closed space.
Further, the bottom end of the soil loosening shaft is of a conical structure.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
1. according to the invention, the vertical soil loosening device is adopted to locally loosen the corn seedling belt before sowing, so that a virtual-real concurrent cultivation layer structure suitable for corn growth is constructed, the difficult problem of cultivation layer obstacle is overcome, the effective soil quantity of the cultivation layer is improved, and the growth and development of corn plants are facilitated.
2. According to the invention, the blades and the partition plates of the soil loosening device are matched with rotary tillage, so that a sowing ditch with the depth of more than 25cm is formed for the corn seedling belt, thereby facilitating the precipitation in spring collection, improving the corn seedling emergence rate and improving the crop water utilization rate.
3. The soil loosening device provided by the invention deepens a soil plough layer, reduces a plough layer, effectively adjusts physical and chemical properties of soil, and simultaneously can furthest reduce wind erosion desertification and water and soil loss.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of E-E of fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural view of the scarifier in the figure.
Fig. 4 is a schematic perspective view of fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a schematic structural view of the fertilizer apparatus in fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a schematic view of the sowing device in fig. 1.
Fig. 7 is a schematic perspective view of fig. 6.
In the figure: 1 hanging frame, 2 frames, 3 big gearboxes, 4 small gearboxes, 5 fertilizer applying devices, 5-1 fertilizer boxes, 5-2 fertilizer applying devices, 5-3 fertilizer pipes, 5-4 fertilizer applying shovels, 6 soil loosening devices, 6-1 soil loosening shafts, 6-2 partition boards, 6-3 blades, 7 land axles, 8 land wheels, 9 transmission chains, 10 sowing devices, 10-1 seed boxes, 10-2 seed sowing devices, 10-3 seed guiding pipes, 10-4 ditching shovels, 10-5 finger pressing wheels, 11 earthing devices, 12 compacting devices and 13 retaining plates.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in detail below with reference to the drawings and examples.
Examples: as shown in fig. 1 and 2, the corn no-tillage seedling and powder ditch seed sowing machine comprises a frame 2, and a scarifier 6, a fertilizer applying device 5, a seeding device 10, a covering device 11 and a compacting device 12 which are sequentially arranged on the frame 2 from the front working end to the rear working end, wherein the scarifier 6 is of a vertical structure and comprises a scarifier shaft 6-1 and scarifier assemblies which are equidistantly arranged along the scarifier shaft 6-1, the scarifier assemblies are 3-5 groups, 3 groups are selected in this example, as shown in fig. 3 and 4, a partition plate 6-2 is arranged above the spiral blade groups, and the spiral blade groups are used for rotary tillage scarification, and the partition plate 6-2 is used for isolating the soil from ascending.
As shown in fig. 3 and 4, in the embodiment, a two-ridge cultivation mode is adopted, the distance between two soil loosening devices is 500mm, the soil loosening width is 200mm, the rotary cultivation depth is 250-350mm, and the effective soil quantity of a cultivated layer is increased while the requirement of corn root system growth is met; the partition boards 6-2 are arranged 150mm away from the bottom end of the soil loosening shaft, the distance h1 between every two adjacent partition boards 6-2 is 150mm, the soil ascending is favorably blocked, the partition boards 6-2 are circular plates with tooth-shaped structures on the circumference, the outer diameter of each circular plate is the same as the maximum outer diameter of each blade, and the maximum outer diameter of each blade is 200mm in this example, so that soil resistance is reduced.
The spiral blade group is formed by arranging a plurality of blades 6-3 along the soil loosening shaft 6-1 in a double-spiral manner, and integrally forms a spiral spindle shape. A soil flowing gap of 10-20 mm is reserved between the partition plate 6-2 and the top blade of the blade group, namely, the vertical distance h2 between the partition plate and the top blade is 10-20 mm. The distance between the upper and lower adjacent blades is kept to be 10-20 mm, namely the vertical distance h3 = 10-20 m between the adjacent blades. The flow of the cutting soil and the soil is facilitated, and the blades 6-3 rotate along with the soil loosening shaft to realize the soil loosening operation. The bulkhead 6-2 and blades 6-3 may be welded or integrally cast onto the ripping shaft 6-1.
The machine frame 2 is also provided with a soil retaining plate 13, the soil retaining plate 13 is an arc plate, is positioned at the working rear end of the soil loosening device 6, and semi-surrounds the partition plate 6-2 and the blades 6-3 on the soil loosening shaft 6-1 to form a semi-closed space. And the soil is retained in the space, so that the soil in-situ loosening is realized. During operation, the small gearbox 4 drives the soil loosening shaft 6-1 to rotate, the blades 6-3 and the baffle plates 6-2 on the soil loosening shaft 6-1 rotate along with the soil loosening shaft 6-1, the blades 6-3 conduct cutting and loosening operations on soil around the small gearbox, the baffle plates 6-2 and the soil retaining plates 13 cooperate to work, the soil loosened by the blades 6-3 is prevented from moving upwards, and in-situ soil loosening is achieved. The bottom end of the soil loosening shaft 6-1 is of a conical structure, and is easy to enter the soil.
The transmission device of the example: the device comprises a large gearbox 3 and two small gearboxes 4, wherein a power output shaft of a tractor is connected with the large gearbox 3, the two small gearboxes 4 are symmetrically connected with two sides of the large gearbox 3, and output shafts of the two small gearboxes 4 are respectively connected with a scarification shaft 6-1 of a scarification device 6 to drive the scarification shaft 6-1 to rotate so as to scarify soil.
As shown in FIG. 5, the fertilizing device of the present example is of an existing structure and comprises a fertilizer box 5-1, a fertilizer device 5-2, a fertilizer pipe 5-3 and a fertilizing shovel 5-4, wherein the fertilizer device 5-2 is arranged at a fertilizer outlet of the fertilizer box 5-1, the fertilizing shovel 5-4 is connected to the frame 2, one end of the fertilizer pipe 5-3 is connected with the fertilizer device 5-2, the fertilizer outlet end is arranged at the working rear end of the fertilizing shovel 5-4, and the fertilizer is applied to a fertilizer ditch which is reserved in the fertilizing shovel 5-4. During operation, fertilizer is contained in the fertilizer box 5-1, the flow and the flow speed of the fertilizer are controlled by the fertilizer distributor 5-2, and the fertilizer is sowed into a fertilizer application ditch formed by the fertilizer spades 5-4 by the fertilizer pipes 5-3.
As shown in fig. 6 and 7, the seeding device of the embodiment is of an existing structure and comprises a seed box 10-1, a seed sowing device 10-2, a seed guide pipe 10-3, a ditching shovel 10-4 and a finger pressing wheel 10-5, wherein the seed sowing device 10-2 is arranged at a seed sowing port of the seed box 10-1, the ditching shovel 10-4 is connected to a frame 2, one end of the seed guide pipe 10-3 is connected with the seed sowing device 10-2, the seed sowing end is arranged at the working rear end of the ditching shovel 10-4, seeds are sowed in a seed ditch opened by the ditching shovel 10-4, the finger pressing wheel 10-5 is connected to a bracket through an elastic adjusting rod, the bracket is connected to the frame 2 through the bracket, the other end of the elastic adjusting rod is connected with the finger pressing wheel 10-5 after a spring is sleeved at one end of the adjusting rod, and when the machine works, the finger pressing wheel 10-5 is pressed on the seed ditch according to the elastic adjustment of the seed ditch. During operation, corn seeds are contained in the seed box 10-1, the seed sowing device 10-2 controls the flow and the flow speed of the corn seeds, the land wheel 8 is connected with the seed sowing device 10-2 through the shaft 7 and the transmission chain 9, real-time sowing can be achieved according to the running speed of the tractor, the corn seeds are sowed into seed furrows formed by the ditching spade 10-4 through the seed guide pipe 10-3, and finally compacting operation is carried out through the finger pressing wheel 10-5.
The earthing device 11 and the compacting device 12 are both of the prior art.
The working process of the invention comprises the following steps:
a hanging frame 1 is arranged at the working front end of a frame 2 and is connected with a tractor in a hanging way through the hanging frame 1; the large gearbox 3 is arranged on the frame 2 and positioned at the front part of the frame 2 and is connected with a power output shaft of the tractor; the fertilizing part 5 is arranged at the upper part of the large gearbox 3, two small gearboxes 4 are symmetrically connected at two sides of the large gearbox 3, and a scarifier 6 is arranged and connected under the two small gearboxes 4; the tractor is used for traction, and the small gearbox 4 is used for driving the scarifier 6 to rotate so as to scarify soil; the fertilizer shovel 5-4 of the fertilizer device 5 is used for pointing out a fertilizer ditch for fertilizer application; the land wheel 8 is positioned in the middle of the frame 2, is arranged on two sides of the frame 2, the land wheel shaft 7 is connected with the seed sowing device 10-2 of the seeding device 10 through the transmission chain 9, and the seeding device 10 and the fertilizing device 5 are positioned in the middle of the frame 2 and are placed in parallel; the ditching shovel 10-4 of the seeding device 10 is used for ditching and seeding, and compacting is carried out by the finger-pressing wheel 10-5; the earthing device 11 is positioned at the rear part of the frame, is arranged below the frame 2 and is arranged between the finger wheel 10-5 and the pressing device 12; the compacting device 12 is also arranged at the rear part of the frame, below the frame 2 and behind the earthing device 11; the whole sowing process is completed by earthing by the earthing device 11 and compacting by the compacting device 12.

Claims (3)

1. The utility model provides a maize no-tillage seedling area powder ditch seed planter, includes the frame and sets gradually fertilizer injection unit, seeder, earthing device and suppression device in the frame to work rear end by work front end, its characterized in that: the working front end of the fertilizing device on the frame is also provided with a soil loosening device which is of a vertical structure and comprises a soil loosening shaft and soil loosening components which are equidistantly arranged along the soil loosening shaft, the soil loosening components are 3-5 groups, and each group is composed of a partition plate arranged above a spiral blade group;
the spiral blade group is formed by arranging a plurality of blades in double spirals along a soil loosening shaft, and integrally forms a spiral spindle shape;
the distance h1 between every two adjacent partition boards is 100mm-150mm;
the partition plate is a circular plate with a tooth-shaped structure on the circumference, and the outer diameter of the partition plate is the same as the maximum outer diameter of the blade group;
the tooth-shaped structure is zigzag;
a soil flowing gap of 10-20 mm in the vertical direction is reserved between each group of partition plates and the top blade of the blade group;
a soil flowing gap with the vertical direction of 10-20 mm is reserved between the upper and lower adjacent blades.
2. The corn no-tillage seedling with powder furrow seed planter as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the soil blocking plate is also arranged on the frame and is an arc-shaped plate, and is positioned at the working rear end of the soil loosening device, and the partition plate and the blades on the soil loosening shaft are semi-surrounded to form a semi-closed space.
3. The corn no-tillage seedling with powder furrow seed planter as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that: the bottom end of the soil loosening shaft is of a conical structure.
CN201810782483.3A 2018-07-17 2018-07-17 Corn no-tillage seedling seed planter with powder furrows Active CN108633361B (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113728742A (en) * 2021-10-28 2021-12-03 青海省农林科学院 Farming is with fertilizer injection unit that loosens soil

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CN103749039A (en) * 2014-01-03 2014-04-30 江苏大学 Spiral opener test bed of orchard ditcher
CN203735028U (en) * 2014-01-03 2014-07-30 江苏大学 Spiral ditching device testing platform for orchard ditcher
CN204408866U (en) * 2015-01-23 2015-06-24 辽宁省农业机械化研究所 Loose soil revolves soil preparation machine
CN204539739U (en) * 2014-07-11 2015-08-12 北京禾惠农科技有限公司 Corn pushes away the clear ridge of stubble and deeply revolves sower
CN104996014A (en) * 2015-06-15 2015-10-28 李深文 Subsoiling and smashing and ridging machine
CN105493772A (en) * 2015-12-28 2016-04-20 吉林大学 Corn thresher with low breakage rate
CN205249728U (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-05-25 中南林业科技大学 Helical blade combination formula earth deep ploughing tool bit
CN206042749U (en) * 2016-09-19 2017-03-29 李光文 A kind of agricultural planting soil pit digging machine
CN108124543A (en) * 2018-02-28 2018-06-08 周凤日 A kind of agricultural planting soil pit digging machine
CN208490158U (en) * 2018-07-17 2019-02-15 辽宁省农业科学院 A kind of corn no-tillage seedling band powder ditch ditch kind seeder

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AU2003230816A1 (en) * 2002-04-04 2003-10-27 Gedalyahu Manor Method of cleaning hole diggers and spot cultivators and hole digger cleaning device

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2206189C1 (en) * 2001-12-03 2003-06-20 Государственное научное учреждение Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт механизации сельского хозяйства Tillage machine
CN102787807A (en) * 2012-08-23 2012-11-21 东北石油大学 Multifunctional soil cleaner for long spiral drilling machine
CN103749039A (en) * 2014-01-03 2014-04-30 江苏大学 Spiral opener test bed of orchard ditcher
CN203735028U (en) * 2014-01-03 2014-07-30 江苏大学 Spiral ditching device testing platform for orchard ditcher
CN204539739U (en) * 2014-07-11 2015-08-12 北京禾惠农科技有限公司 Corn pushes away the clear ridge of stubble and deeply revolves sower
CN204408866U (en) * 2015-01-23 2015-06-24 辽宁省农业机械化研究所 Loose soil revolves soil preparation machine
CN104996014A (en) * 2015-06-15 2015-10-28 李深文 Subsoiling and smashing and ridging machine
CN205249728U (en) * 2015-12-15 2016-05-25 中南林业科技大学 Helical blade combination formula earth deep ploughing tool bit
CN105493772A (en) * 2015-12-28 2016-04-20 吉林大学 Corn thresher with low breakage rate
CN206042749U (en) * 2016-09-19 2017-03-29 李光文 A kind of agricultural planting soil pit digging machine
CN108124543A (en) * 2018-02-28 2018-06-08 周凤日 A kind of agricultural planting soil pit digging machine
CN208490158U (en) * 2018-07-17 2019-02-15 辽宁省农业科学院 A kind of corn no-tillage seedling band powder ditch ditch kind seeder

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