CN114601047A - Natural feed mixing formula for forest musk deer suitable for north China and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Natural feed mixing formula for forest musk deer suitable for north China and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114601047A
CN114601047A CN202210386293.6A CN202210386293A CN114601047A CN 114601047 A CN114601047 A CN 114601047A CN 202210386293 A CN202210386293 A CN 202210386293A CN 114601047 A CN114601047 A CN 114601047A
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feed
leaves
musk deer
forest musk
dry
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Inventor
黄志鑫
李旭鑫
郑玉清
黄歆然
徐尚华
刘树强
胡德夫
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Zhangzhou Pientzehuang Pharmaceutical Co Ltd
Beijing Forestry University
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Zhangzhou Pientzehuang Pharmaceutical Co Ltd
Beijing Forestry University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/10Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for ruminants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • A23K10/37Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms from waste material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/10Organic substances
    • A23K20/105Aliphatic or alicyclic compounds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/10Organic substances
    • A23K20/142Amino acids; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/10Organic substances
    • A23K20/174Vitamins
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/20Inorganic substances, e.g. oligoelements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/20Inorganic substances, e.g. oligoelements
    • A23K20/22Compounds of alkali metals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/20Inorganic substances, e.g. oligoelements
    • A23K20/30Oligoelements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K40/00Shaping or working-up of animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K40/10Shaping or working-up of animal feeding-stuffs by agglomeration; by granulation, e.g. making powders
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Abstract

The invention provides a natural feed mixing formula of forest musk deer suitable for north China, which comprises the following components in percentage by weight: coarse fodder: 600 and 800g of fresh leaves; 250 g of dry leaves and 300g of dry leaves; 300 and 400g of succulent feed; 100-150g of concentrated feed. The feed prepared by the prepared feed formula is favorite by forest musk deer, is low in cost, convenient to prepare, wide in forage grass source and capable of being collected and prepared continuously. The feed can be used for feeding forest musk deer in North China, and has normal and stable food intake, and feces in the form of oblong particles with smooth appearance. The forest musk deer has good physical condition, smart action and smooth body hair.

Description

Natural feed mixing formula for forest musk deer suitable for north China and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of feed formula and preparation for artificially breeding special economic animals, in particular to a natural feed mixed formula of forest musk deer suitable for north China and a preparation method thereof.
Background
Musk deer (Moschus spp.) is a typical small ruminant of forest origin and a resource species for producing the famous and precious Chinese medicinal material musk. From 1958, China starts to implement artificial breeding forest musk deer tests, muskrats are built in Sichuan, Shaanxi and other places successively, and through more than 60 years of continuous efforts, the colony breeding of forest musk deer populations exceeds 3 thousands of days. However, the forest musk deer cultivation areas are mainly concentrated in individual provinces, the cultivation quantity of the forest musk deer in Sichuan and Shaanxi accounts for more than 75% of the total cultivation quantity of the forest musk deer, and one of the important factors for restricting the forest musk deer population to expand the cultivation areas is high-quality and sustainable food source plant resources.
With the increase of the breeding quantity of the forest musk deer in the mountains, the west, the north and the inner Mongolia, the breeding scale is enlarged, the cost for transporting the forage grass of the forest musk deer is gradually increased, and a natural feed mixing formula suitable for the local is urgently needed. The existing feed formula for the forest musk deer contains various plants which are not common in North China and have relatively small quantity. At present, no feed formula which is suitable for northern China, meets the nutritional requirements of forest musk deer and has relatively large quantity and sustainable supply exists.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a natural feed mixing formula of forest musk deer suitable for northern China and a preparation method thereof, which are used for selecting local plants and preparing a feed formula suitable for the local according to the nutrient components of the selected plants when the forest musk deer are cultured in the northern China, thereby realizing a sustainable feed source and avoiding the cost of long-distance transportation of forage grass and the forage grass resource wasted due to deterioration in the way.
The invention provides a natural feed mixing formula of forest musk deer suitable for north China, which comprises the following components in percentage by weight:
coarse fodder: 600 and 800g of fresh leaves; 250 g of dry leaves and 300g of dry leaves;
300-400g of succulent feed;
100-150g of concentrated feed.
Preferably, the first and second liquid crystal materials are,
the roughage comprises: 2 parts of sophora japonica leaves, 1 part of hawthorn leaves, 1 part of peach leaves, 2 parts of winged euonymus leaves, 2 parts of acacia leaves and 2 parts of elm leaves;
the succulent feed comprises: three or more of pumpkin, carrot, white radish, apple, asparagus lettuce and cabbage;
concentrated feed: 40-45 parts of corn flour, 20-30 parts of soybean or soybean meal, 20-25 parts of wheat bran and 1.5-2 parts of lysine;
methionine and cystine 2.5-3.5 weight portions, salt 0.5-1 weight portion and sulfur 0.24-1.2 weight portions.
In a preferred embodiment of the method of the invention,
further comprising: trace elements: 4mg of calcium, 6mg of phosphorus, 1mg of magnesium and 10mg of potassium; 0.02-0.08mg of cobalt; 1-5mg of copper; iodine 0.1-0.4 mg; 4.5-20mg of iron; 2.5-10mg of manganese; selenium 0.02-0.08 mg; 3-12mg of zinc.
In a preferred embodiment of the method of the invention,
further comprising: vitamins: VA 200-; VD is 30-120 IU; VE2.4-12.8 IU; VK0.3-0.4 mg; VB1(7-10 mg); VB2(8-15 mg); VB6(6-9 mg); VB12(0.02-0.03 mg); 40-55mg of nicotinic acid; 12-19mg pantothenic acid; 1-3mg of folic acid; 0.2-0.45mg of biotin; 100 mg of choline and 500mg of choline.
The invention also provides a preparation method of the natural feed mixed formula of the forest musk deer suitable for the north China, and the preparation method is used for preparing the formula and comprises the following steps:
crushing the dried leaves of the dried forage grass into 1-2mm grass powder;
the particle size of the concentrated feed is 1-2 mm; fully mixing the components evenly, adding water and stirring evenly; wherein the material-water ratio is 85: 15-90: 10;
processing into granulated feed with diameter of 5-7mm and length of 3-6cm by a granulated feed machine.
Preferably, the method further comprises the following steps:
step 1, screening dry forest musk deer leaves fed by a feeder to obtain full and insect-free dry leaves; elutriating the screened dry leaves for 2-3 times; and the fragments floating on the surface in the elutriation process of the dry leaves are fished together and dried in the sun;
step 2, mixing the screened, cleaned and dried leaves and leaf fragments, and crushing the mixture in a crusher to obtain crushed particles with the particle size of 1-2 mm; obtaining dry leaf powder;
step 3, mixing the dry leaf powder with 10-15% of water, uniformly stirring, and placing the mixture into a pellet feed machine to prepare the pellet feed for the dry leaves of the forest musk deer;
step 4, adding succulent feed or concentrated feed into the dry leaf pellet feed; obtaining the finished feed.
Preferably, the first and second liquid crystal materials are,
in the step 1, the dry leaves are elutriated by the elutriation mechanism, and the elutriated dry leaves are fished out to the airing platform by the fishing device to be aired.
Preferably, the first and second liquid crystal materials are,
the elutriation mechanism includes: the washing device comprises an elutriation pool, wherein a hanging net is arranged in the elutriation pool, a hanging frame is arranged at the top of the hanging net, and the hanging frame is used for hoisting and moving the hanging net through a portal frame;
a draining tank is arranged on one side of the washing tank, and an air-drying net is arranged at the upper opening end of the draining tank and used for placing washed dry leaves or leaf fragments; the draining tank is communicated with the elutriation tank through a pipeline, and a valve is arranged on the pipeline.
The working principle and the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
the invention provides a natural feed mixing formula of forest musk deer suitable for north China, which comprises the following components in percentage by weight: coarse fodder: 600 and 800g of fresh leaves; 250 g of dry leaves and 300g of dry leaves; 300-400g of succulent feed; 100-150g of concentrated feed. The feed prepared by the prepared feed formula is favorite by forest musk deer, is low in cost, convenient to prepare, wide in forage grass source and capable of being collected and prepared continuously. The feed can be used for feeding forest musk deer in North China, and has normal and stable food intake, and feces is in the form of oblong particles with smooth surface. The forest musk deer has good physical condition, smart action and smooth body hair. The invention is used for preparing a proper local feed formula by selecting local plants and according to the nutrient components of the selected plants, thereby realizing a sustainable feed source and avoiding the cost consumed by long-distance transportation of forage grass and forage grass resources wasted due to deterioration in the way.
Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in the written description and drawings.
The technical solution of the present invention is further described in detail by the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention and not to limit the invention. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic of the food consumption of potential food-source plants of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of the selectivity index of potential food-source plants of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the elutriation mechanism of the present invention;
wherein, the device comprises 1-a washing tank, 2-a hanging frame, 3-a hanging net, 4-an airing net, 5-a draining tank and 6-a valve.
Detailed Description
The preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, and it will be understood that they are described herein for the purpose of illustration and explanation and not limitation.
According to the embodiment shown in fig. 1-3, the invention provides a natural feed mixed formula of a forest musk deer suitable for north China, which comprises the following components in parts by weight: coarse fodder: 600-800g of fresh leaves; 250 g of dry leaves and 300g of dry leaves; 300 and 400g of succulent feed; 100-150g of concentrated feed.
Further, the roughage comprises: 2 parts of sophora japonica leaves, 1 part of hawthorn leaves, 1 part of peach leaves, 2 parts of winged euonymus leaves, 2 parts of acacia leaves and 2 parts of elm leaves;
the succulent feed comprises: three or more of pumpkin, carrot, white radish, apple, asparagus lettuce and cabbage;
concentrated feed: 40-45 parts of corn flour, 20-30 parts of soybean or soybean meal, 20-25 parts of wheat bran and 1.5-2 parts of lysine;
methionine and cystine 2.5-3.5 weight portions, salt 0.5-1 weight portion and sulfur 0.24-1.2 weight portions.
Preferably, the method further comprises the following steps: trace elements: 4mg of calcium, 6mg of phosphorus, 1mg of magnesium and 10mg of potassium; 0.02-0.08mg of cobalt; 1-5mg of copper; iodine 0.1-0.4 mg; 4.5-20mg of iron; 2.5-10mg of manganese; selenium 0.02-0.08 mg; 3-12mg of zinc.
And, further comprising: vitamins: VA 200-; VD 30-120 IU; VE2.4-12.8 IU; VK0.3-0.4 mg; VB1(7-10 mg); VB2(8-15 mg); VB6(6-9 mg); VB12(0.02-0.03 mg); 40-55mg of nicotinic acid; 12-19mg pantothenic acid; 1-3mg of folic acid; 0.2-0.45mg of biotin; 100 mg of choline and 500mg of choline.
The feed is prepared according to the prepared feed formula, is favorite for forest musk deer, is low in cost, convenient and fast to prepare, wide in forage grass source and capable of being collected and prepared continuously. The feed can be used for feeding forest musk deer in North China, and has normal and stable food intake, and feces in the form of oblong particles with smooth appearance. The forest musk deer has good physical condition, smart action and smooth body hair. The invention is used for preparing a proper local feed formula by selecting local plants and according to the nutrient components of the selected plants, thereby realizing a sustainable feed source and avoiding the cost consumed by long-distance transportation of forage grass and forage grass resources wasted due to deterioration in the way. The feed feeding method of the forest musk deer is as follows:
(1) fresh leaves can be fed in the season of collecting fresh leaves;
(2) if the diarrhea is met, the diarrhea individual is preferably fed with the granulated feed for conditioning;
(3) the female musk deer in the pregnancy period and the male musk deer in the fragrance secretion period can improve the ratio of concentrated feed by about 20 percent;
(4) if the food intake of the juicy feed in the freezing period in winter is reduced, the proportions of the coarse feed and the concentrated feed can be respectively increased by 5 percent.
The storage mode of the feed is referred to as follows:
(1) and (3) drying in shade: placing in a well ventilated room, spreading a stainless steel net 10-20cm away from the ground, padding the lower part of the net with square wood, spreading forage grass on the net, wherein the thickness of the forage grass is 5-10cm, and turning over once within 2-4 h;
(2) sun exposure and airing: placing on clean cement ground, wherein the thickness of the forage grass is 3-6cm, and turning over once in 1-2 h;
(3) and (3) storage: placing in a well ventilated room, spreading wood plate 10-20cm away from the ground and 20cm above the side wall, placing the dried forage grass into a plastic woven bag, tying, stacking, wherein the stack height is not more than 2m, and a gap of 20cm above is left between stacks
The invention also provides a preparation method of the natural feed mixed formula of the forest musk deer suitable for the north China, and the preparation method is used for preparing the formula and comprises the following steps: crushing the dried leaves of the dried forage grass into 1-2mm grass powder; the particle size of the concentrated feed is 1-2 mm; fully mixing the components evenly, adding water and stirring evenly; wherein the material-water ratio is 85: 15-90: 10; processing into granulated feed with diameter of 5-7mm and length of 3-6cm by a granulated feed machine. The method specifically comprises the following steps:
step 1, screening dry forest musk deer leaves fed by a feeder to obtain full and insect-free dry leaves; elutriating the screened dry leaves for 2-3 times; and the fragments floating on the surface in the elutriation process of the dry leaves are fished together and dried in the sun;
step 2, mixing the screened, cleaned and dried leaves and leaf fragments, and crushing the mixture in a crusher to obtain crushed particles with the particle size of 1-2 mm; obtaining dry leaf powder;
step 3, mixing the dry leaf powder with 10-15% of water, uniformly stirring, and placing the mixture into a pellet feed machine to prepare the pellet feed for the dry leaves of the forest musk deer;
step 4, adding succulent feed or concentrated feed into the dry leaf pellet feed; obtaining the finished feed.
The specific embodiment is as follows: the invention provides sustainable collection for solving the problem of forest musk deer cultivation in North China, and is suitable for local feed formula. The cost consumed by long-distance forage grass distribution and transportation and forage grass resource waste caused by deterioration in the way are avoided. The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
1. local forest musk deer potential food source plant selection
According to the common plant species and vegetation characteristics of the musk deer in the area, and the results of previous food selection research on wild musk deer and forest musk deer feeding, 14 local common and easily-collected potential food source plant species are selected in the research (as shown in table 1). Ailanthus altissima, sophora japonica, forsythia, plum, goldenrain tree, hawthorn, pyrus ussuriensis, peach tree, euonymus alatus, gallnut, apricot tree, poplar, acacia and elm.
The favorite plants and grades of the forest musk deer are selected by adopting a buffet meal method and an edible selection index.
The Selectivity Index (SI) is determined by a plant mass ratio method, calculated as the ratio of a certain plant feeding Rate (RI) to a certain plant Relative Biomass (RB), i.e.: wherein RI is the weight of a plant ingested as a percentage of the total weight of the diet and RB is the weight of a plant delivered as a percentage of the total 14 plants delivered.
According to the selectivity index, the selection can be divided into 2 selection grades (table 1), and the food intake, the selection index and the nutrient content are shown in table 2.
TABLE 1 degree of happiness and grade
Degree of happiness Preference grade Value rangeEnclose
Wedding food
1 1.0<SI
Edible food
2 0.5<SI≤1
Table 214 food intake (g), selection index and main nutrient components of plant of food source of forest musk deer
Figure BDA0003593858570000081
Figure BDA0003593858570000091
Determining that the forest musk deer favorite plants are pagoda tree, hawthorn, peach tree, winged euonymus, robinia pseudoacacia and elm according to the food intake and the selectivity index. The ingestion proportion is obtained according to the average ingestion of the forest musk deer to six favorite plants: and (3) pagodatree: hawthorn fruit: peach tree: a lance: and (3) locust tree: elm is 2: 1: 1: 2: 2: 2.
2. preparing feed according to selected plants
According to the selected plant species which are large in local quantity and can be collected continuously, the main points of preparing the feed are as follows:
(1) the crude feed (fresh leaves 600-;
(2) proportioning of coarse feed: 2 parts of sophora japonica leaves, 1 part of hawthorn leaves, 1 part of peach leaves, 2 parts of winged euonymus leaves, 2 parts of acacia leaves and 2 parts of elm leaves;
(3) juicy feed: at least 2 kinds of pumpkin, carrot, white radish and apple;
(4) the ratio of concentrated feed is as follows: 40-45 parts of corn flour, 20-30 parts of soybean (or soybean meal), 20-25 parts of wheat bran and 1.5-2 parts of lysine; 2.5-3.5 parts of methionine and cystine, 0.5-1 part of salt and 0.24-1.2 parts of sulfur;
(5) the mineral composition ratio is as follows: 4mg of calcium, 6mg of phosphorus, 1mg of magnesium and 10mg of potassium; 0.02-0.08mg of cobalt; 1-5mg of copper; iodine 0.1-0.4 mg; 4.5-20mg of iron; 2.5-10mg of manganese; selenium 0.02-0.08 mg; 3-12mg of zinc;
(6) the vitamin proportion is as follows: VA 200-; VD is 30-120 IU; VE2.4-12.8 IU; VK0.3-0.4 mg; VB1(7-10 mg); VB2(8-15 mg); VB6(6-9 mg); VB12(0.02-0.03 mg); 40-55mg of nicotinic acid; 12-19mg pantothenic acid; 1-3mg of folic acid; 0.2-0.45mg of biotin; 100 mg of choline and 500mg of choline.
3. Forage grass airing and storing method
(1) And (3) drying in shade: placing in a well ventilated room, spreading a stainless steel net 10-20cm away from the ground, padding the lower part of the net with square wood, spreading forage grass on the net, wherein the thickness of the forage grass is 5-10cm, and turning over once within 2-4 h;
(2) sun exposure and airing: placing on clean cement ground, wherein the thickness of the forage grass is 3-6cm, and turning over once within 1-2 h;
(3) and (3) storage: placing in a well-ventilated room, spreading wood plates 10-20cm away from the ground, placing the dried forage grass in a plastic woven bag, tying, and stacking, wherein the stacking height is not more than 2m, and a gap of more than 20cm is reserved between stacks.
4. Feed preparation method
(1) Preparation of coarse fodder: weighing dried forage grass according to 2 parts of pagoda tree leaves, 1 part of hawthorn leaves, 1 part of peach leaves, 2 parts of winged euonymus leaves, 2 parts of robinia pseudoacacia leaves and 2 parts of elm leaves, and crushing the dried leaves into grass powder with the particle size of 1-2 mm;
(2) preparing concentrated feed: 40-45 parts of corn flour, 20-30 parts of soybean (or soybean meal), 20-25 parts of wheat bran and 1.5-2 parts of lysine; 2.5-3.5 parts of methionine and cystine, 0.5-1 part of salt, 0.24-1.2 parts of sulfur and 1-2mm of particle size of concentrated feed;
(3) mineral preparation work: preparing 4mg of calcium, 6mg of phosphorus, 1mg of magnesium and 10mg of potassium; 0.02-0.08mg of cobalt; 1-5mg of copper; iodine 0.1-0.4 mg; 4.5-20mg of iron; 2.5-10mg of manganese; selenium 0.02-0.08 mg; 3-12mg of zinc;
(4) vitamin preparation work: preparing VA 200-800 IU; VD is 30-120 IU; VE2.4-12.8 IU; VK0.3-0.4 mg; VB 17-10 mg; VB 28-15 mg; VB 66-9 mg; VB 120.02-0.03 mg; 40-55mg of nicotinic acid; 12-19mg pantothenic acid; 1-3mg of folic acid; 0.2-0.45mg of biotin; 100 mg of choline and 500mg of choline.
The preparation method comprises the following steps of preparing, fully mixing the materials uniformly, fully mixing the materials with grass meal uniformly, and processing the materials into granulated feed with the diameter of 5-7mm and the length of 3-6cm by a granulated feed machine, wherein the preparation method comprises the following operation steps:
(1) screening out residues to be discarded from dried leaves fed with forest musk deer, elutriating for 2-3 times, fishing floating leaf fragments, and drying in the sun;
(2) mixing the screened and filtered dry leaves with the dried leaves fragments in the step (1), and placing the mixture into a pulverizer to pulverize, wherein the pulverized particle size is 1-2 mm;
(3) the vitamins and amino acids can be mixed with succulent feed and fed; or the cooling machine is stopped for 10min every 30min when the pellet feed is prepared, so that the nutritional effects of the vitamins and the amino acids are prevented from being damaged due to overhigh temperature;
(4) mixing the dry leaf powder with 10-15% of water, stirring, and placing in a pellet feed machine to prepare granule feed for dry leaf of forest musk deer (preventing the prepared pellet feed for dry leaf from being too hard and affecting the ingestion of forest musk deer, and keeping the feed crisp and not hard even after the mixed 10-15% of water is dried);
(5) the pellet feed in the step (4) is suitable for being prepared and fed at the moment, and if the pellet feed needs to be stored, the pellet feed needs to be dried in the shade and then stored.
5. The feed feeding method comprises the following steps:
(1) fresh leaves can be fed in the season of collecting fresh leaves;
(2) if the diarrhea is met, the diarrhea individual is preferably fed with the granulated feed for conditioning;
(3) the female musk deer in the pregnancy period and the male musk deer in the fragrance secretion period can improve the ratio of concentrated feed by about 20 percent;
(4) if the food intake of the succulent feed in the freezing period in winter is reduced, the proportion of coarse feed and concentrated feed can be respectively increased by 5%.
The invention relates to a natural feed mixed formula of a forest musk deer suitable for northern China and a preparation method thereof, in particular to a feed formula for artificially breeding special economic animals and a preparation method thereof. The formula of the invention is prepared by taking selected local common plants as coarse feed and matching with succulent feed and concentrated feed. The key points are that 600-800g of fresh leaves (250-300 g of dry leaves), 400g of succulent feed and 150g of concentrated feed; the mass ratio of the locust tree leaves, the hawthorn leaves, the peach leaves, the winged euonymus leaves, the locust tree leaves and the elm leaves in the coarse feed is 2: 1: 1: 2: 2: 2; the concentrated feed comprises 40-45 parts of corn flour, 20-30 parts of soybean (or soybean meal), 20-25 parts of wheat bran and 1.5-2 parts of lysine; 2.5-3.5 parts of methionine plus cystine, 0.5-1 part of salt and 0.24-1.2 parts of sulfur; and adding trace elements and vitamins. The feed has the characteristics of preference for eating by forest musk deer, balanced nutrition, convenience and simplicity in feeding and the like, can reduce the forage grass transportation cost, can be collected continuously, and is suitable for being prepared and fed by local farms.
According to the plant proportions determined in the above embodiments, the feed is a favorite feed for forest musk deer, and has the advantages of low cost, convenient preparation, wide forage grass source, and sustainable collection and preparation. The feed can be used for feeding forest musk deer in North China, and has normal and stable food intake, and feces in the form of oblong particles with smooth appearance. The forest musk deer has good physical condition, smart action and smooth body hair.
In one embodiment, in step 1, the dried leaves are elutriated by the elutriation mechanism, and the elutriated dried leaves are fished out to the airing platform by the fishing device for airing.
Meanwhile, the invention also comprises an elutriation mechanism, wherein the elutriation mechanism comprises: the device comprises an elutriation pool 1, wherein a hanging net 3 is arranged in the elutriation pool 1, a hanging frame 2 is arranged at the top of the hanging net 3, and the hanging frame 2 is used for hoisting and moving the hanging net 3 through a portal frame;
a draining tank 5 is arranged on one side of the washing tank 1, an air-drying net 4 is arranged at the upper opening end of the draining tank 5, and the air-drying net 4 is used for placing washed dry leaves or leaf fragments; the draining tank 5 is communicated with the elutriation tank 1 through a pipeline, and a valve 6 is arranged on the pipeline.
In the preparation method, the dry leaves are screened firstly, the screened dry leaves are placed into the elutriation pool 1 for elutriation for multiple times, then are salvaged by the hanging net 3 after elutriation, and the elutriated dry leaves and dry leaf fragments are aired on the airing net 4 together after salvage, wherein the airing net 4 is placed above the draining pool 5, water drained by the airing net 4 is drained to the elutriation pool 1 by a pipeline, and a pump is arranged in the pipeline and is used for draining water in the draining pool 5 into the elutriation pool 1.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made in the present invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Thus, if such modifications and variations of the present invention fall within the scope of the claims of the present invention and their equivalents, the present invention is also intended to include such modifications and variations.

Claims (8)

1. A natural feed mixing formula of forest musk deer suitable for north China is characterized by comprising the following components in parts by weight:
coarse fodder: 600 and 800g of fresh leaves; 250 g of dry leaves and 300g of dry leaves;
300 and 400g of succulent feed;
100-150g of concentrated feed.
2. The natural feed blend formulation for forest musk deer suitable for north China as claimed in claim 1, wherein said roughage comprises: 2 parts of sophora japonica leaves, 1 part of hawthorn leaves, 1 part of peach leaves, 2 parts of winged euonymus leaves, 2 parts of acacia leaves and 2 parts of elm leaves;
the succulent feed comprises: three or more of pumpkin, carrot, white radish, apple, asparagus lettuce and cabbage;
concentrated feed: 40-45 parts of corn flour, 20-30 parts of soybean or soybean meal, 20-25 parts of wheat bran and 1.5-2 parts of lysine;
methionine and cystine 2.5-3.5 weight portions, salt 0.5-1 weight portion and sulfur 0.24-1.2 weight portions.
3. The natural feed blend formulation for forest musk deer suitable for north China as claimed in claim 1,
further comprising: trace elements: 4mg of calcium, 6mg of phosphorus, 1mg of magnesium and 10mg of potassium; 0.02-0.08mg of cobalt; 1-5mg of copper; iodine 0.1-0.4 mg; 4.5-20mg of iron; 2.5-10mg of manganese; selenium 0.02-0.08 mg; 3-12mg of zinc.
4. The natural feed blend formulation for forest musk deer suitable for north China as claimed in claim 1, further comprising: vitamins: VA 200-; VD is 30-120 IU; VE2.4-12.8 IU; VK0.3-0.4 mg; VB1(7-10 mg); VB2(8-15 mg); VB6(6-9 mg); VB12(0.02-0.03 mg); 40-55mg of nicotinic acid; 12-19mg pantothenic acid; 1-3mg of folic acid; 0.2-0.45mg of biotin; 100 mg of choline and 500mg of choline.
5. A method for preparing a formulation of a natural feed mix for forest musk deer suitable for northern China, the method being used for preparing the formulation as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, the method comprising:
crushing the dried leaves of the dried forage grass into 1-2mm grass powder;
the particle size of the concentrated feed is 1-2 mm; after fully and uniformly mixing, adding water and uniformly stirring; wherein the material-water ratio is 85: 15-90: 10;
processing into granulated feed with diameter of 5-7mm and length of 3-6cm by a granulated feed machine.
6. The method for preparing a natural feed blend formulation for forest musk deer suitable for north China as claimed in claim 5, further comprising:
step 1, screening dry forest musk deer leaves fed by a feeder to obtain full and insect-free dry leaves; elutriating the screened dry leaves for 2-3 times; and the fragments floating on the surface in the elutriation process of the dry leaves are fished together and dried in the sun;
step 2, mixing the screened, cleaned and dried leaves and leaf fragments, and crushing the mixture in a crusher to obtain crushed particles with the particle size of 1-2 mm; obtaining dry leaf powder;
step 3, mixing the dry leaf powder with 10-15% of water, uniformly stirring, and placing the mixture into a pellet feed machine to prepare the pellet feed for the dry leaves of the forest musk deer;
step 4, adding succulent feed or concentrated feed into the dry leaf pellet feed; obtaining the finished feed.
7. The method for preparing a natural feed mixing formulation for forest musk deer in North China as claimed in claim 6, wherein in step 1, the dry leaves are washed by a washing mechanism, and the washed dry leaves are fished out by a fishing device to a drying platform for drying.
8. The method for preparing a natural feed mix formulation for forest musk deer suitable for north China as claimed in claim 7,
the elutriation mechanism includes: the device comprises an elutriation pool, wherein a hanging net is arranged in the elutriation pool, a hanging frame is arranged at the top of the hanging net, and the hanging frame is used for hoisting and moving the hanging net through a portal frame;
a draining tank is arranged on one side of the washing tank, and an air-drying net is arranged at the upper opening end of the draining tank and used for placing washed dry leaves or leaf fragments; the draining tank is communicated with the elutriation tank through a pipeline, and a valve is arranged on the pipeline.
CN202210386293.6A 2022-04-13 2022-04-13 Natural feed mixing formula for forest musk deer suitable for north China and preparation method thereof Pending CN114601047A (en)

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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103300221A (en) * 2013-06-27 2013-09-18 北京林业大学 Favorite forage grass of Qinling Mountain forest musk deer and collecting time of favorite forage grass
CN203851757U (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-10-01 沈荣方 Hanging basket type dual-purpose vegetable washing machine
CN104366087A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-02-25 湖北省房县月亮湾野生动物技术开发有限公司 Feed for feeding forest musk deer
CN106212928A (en) * 2016-08-31 2016-12-14 熊少春 One elite stand Moschus moschiferous special TRM pellet
CN107683960A (en) * 2016-08-04 2018-02-13 邓庚 A kind of feed for propagating woods musk deer artificially and preparation method thereof
CN108967349A (en) * 2018-07-10 2018-12-11 华亭县慧源麝业林麝养殖有限责任公司 One elite stand musk deer artificial feeding management method
CN112753869A (en) * 2021-03-04 2021-05-07 四川养麝研究所 Feed formula for increasing musk of forest musk deer and application of feed formula

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103300221A (en) * 2013-06-27 2013-09-18 北京林业大学 Favorite forage grass of Qinling Mountain forest musk deer and collecting time of favorite forage grass
CN203851757U (en) * 2014-05-30 2014-10-01 沈荣方 Hanging basket type dual-purpose vegetable washing machine
CN104366087A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-02-25 湖北省房县月亮湾野生动物技术开发有限公司 Feed for feeding forest musk deer
CN107683960A (en) * 2016-08-04 2018-02-13 邓庚 A kind of feed for propagating woods musk deer artificially and preparation method thereof
CN106212928A (en) * 2016-08-31 2016-12-14 熊少春 One elite stand Moschus moschiferous special TRM pellet
CN108967349A (en) * 2018-07-10 2018-12-11 华亭县慧源麝业林麝养殖有限责任公司 One elite stand musk deer artificial feeding management method
CN112753869A (en) * 2021-03-04 2021-05-07 四川养麝研究所 Feed formula for increasing musk of forest musk deer and application of feed formula

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