CN112335455B - Greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system, method and controller - Google Patents

Greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system, method and controller Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112335455B
CN112335455B CN202011348396.0A CN202011348396A CN112335455B CN 112335455 B CN112335455 B CN 112335455B CN 202011348396 A CN202011348396 A CN 202011348396A CN 112335455 B CN112335455 B CN 112335455B
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rainwater
water
roof
basin
controller
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CN112335455A (en
Inventor
郝小礼
刘丽萍
左婉怡
祝明桥
吴致远
刘冀宣
胡锦华
殷维
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Hunan University of Science and Technology
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Hunan University of Science and Technology
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G27/00Self-acting watering devices, e.g. for flower-pots
    • A01G27/003Controls for self-acting watering devices
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G27/00Self-acting watering devices, e.g. for flower-pots
    • A01G27/02Self-acting watering devices, e.g. for flower-pots having a water reservoir, the main part thereof being located wholly around or directly beside the growth substrate
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B3/00Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water
    • E03B3/02Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water from rain-water
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/34Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering
    • H02J7/35Parallel operation in networks using both storage and other dc sources, e.g. providing buffering with light sensitive cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/108Rainwater harvesting
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/10Photovoltaic [PV]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/12Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries using renewable energies, e.g. solar water pumping

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of greening roofs, and discloses a rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system, method and controller for a greening roof. The planting pot adopted by the invention can achieve full roof coverage, cannot cause roof water leakage, is not wasted and excessive in the irrigation process, enables roof rainwater to be completely utilized, reduces disasters, saves resources, utilizes solar energy for power generation, and simultaneously utilizes an automatic control system to achieve accurate prediction and stop waste.

Description

Greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system, method and controller
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of greening roofs, and particularly relates to a system, a method and a controller for recycling rainwater and automatically irrigating a greening roof.
Background
At present, along with the advancing pace of human society, urbanization and industrial society develop rapidly, and although the urbanization and the industrial society bring great economic benefits to human beings, some negative effects are followed. The space for vegetation growth on land is occupied by more concrete buildings, which causes the destruction of urban ecology and the rapid consumption of energy. Urban heat island effects are continuously diffused and intensified around the world, and flood disasters occur more frequently. In order to change the severe trend, the green roof is proposed to be violently reverberated and popular all over the world. Greened roofs have been used more or less in many parts of the world, with different areas having differing degrees of technology, culture and political considerations that have led to the development of greened roof technology. This also shows that the benefits of greening roofs are in several ways, which can meet the needs of different regions.
The greening roof has a plurality of advantages which are proved and confirmed by expert scholars all over the world, and particularly, the greening roof is remarkable in aspects of saving energy, reducing surface runoff and the like, so that the popularization of the greening roof becomes a necessary trend, and the greening roof becomes more commercialized. At the same time, there is a greater demand for perimeter products that serve green roofs. Nowadays, the attention is high, and the plant pot, the irrigation system and the monitoring automation system for roof greening are included.
The problems existing in the prior art are as follows:
(1) planting pot
Some problems have arisen with existing planting pot technology: the plastic planting pot has the advantages that the ageing and corrosion speed is high, and the service life is short; when the greening roof is irrigated, a large amount of water is splashed or overflows to the roof, the damage of water leakage of the building caused by damage to a waterproof layer of the roof is caused, or the phenomena that the building is damaged due to roof water dripping or wall water seepage caused by retention of rainwater on the roof are caused. In addition, in recent years, the areas where flood disasters happen are more and more, and urban internal drainage systems are not burdened. The flood season becomes the ocean city, and inestimable personal injury and economic loss are caused.
(2) Irrigation system
Roof greening is greatly limited by the growing environment, and therefore irrigation systems are particularly important. Due to the nature of the plants, the preference and dislike of the plants to water are different, so that the plants for roof greening are watered accurately. Irrigation systems which are more commonly used today are sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation. For the sprinkling irrigation, if a precise automatic control technology is not available, a large amount of manpower is used, and on the other hand, the sprinkling irrigation water quantity is not precisely controlled by the drip irrigation and is easy to cause water waste. Although drip irrigation is more popular, it also has some drawbacks. For example: the drip irrigation system has higher cost, the capillary drippers are easy to block, the requirement on water quality is higher, the pipelines are easy to damage and leak water, and the water pressure needs to be balanced, etc.
(3) Monitoring system
The reason that vertical greening is difficult to popularize in buildings is that people worry about the long-term maintenance problem of green walls, and a set of complete monitoring system must be matched with the problem to solve the problem. The part that generally needs to be monitored is the irrigation system of the plant, the growth state of the plant, the temperature and humidity degree of the air near the wall body, the dryness and humidity degree of the soil matrix, and the monitoring of the breeding of the plant diseases and insect pests. Since the entire building system is closely related, integrated monitoring is particularly important. However, no very perfect monitoring system has been found so far, and the problems to be solved currently are: how to connect each link together to form a closed loop; how to increase the level of monitoring.
Through the above analysis, the problems and defects of the prior art are as follows:
(1) the existing planting pots are mainly made of plastic materials, are short in service life, are easy to splash or overflow onto a roof when in irrigation, damage a waterproof layer on the roof to cause damage of building water leakage or damage the building due to roof water dripping or wall water seepage caused by rainwater retention on the roof.
(2) The existing sprinkling irrigation system can be put into use by a large amount of manpower, waste of water is easily caused, the cost of the drip irrigation system is higher, a capillary dripper is easily blocked, the requirement on water quality is higher, a pipeline is easily damaged and leaks water, water pressure needs to be balanced, and the like.
(3) The existing vertical greening wall body lacks a perfect monitoring system.
The difficulty in solving the above problems and defects is:
firstly plant the basin and need seek a new alternative material, require that the cost is lower and corrosion resistance is strong, plant the basin and need cut off before water arrives the roofing, make the roofing that has planting basin department accomplish the full coverage and do not have naked place, but current planting basin all is the amalgamation on the roofing, hardly accomplish to laminate totally and not leave the gap. Secondly, at present, a water supply and return device of a greening roof irrigation system is not designed and researched completely, the monitoring of the irrigation system and the control of each part are closely related, all parts are required to be perfect, a designer is required to know the whole process very well, and once the design is unreasonable, high cost is caused, and the complexity of the system is increased.
The significance of solving the problems and the defects is as follows:
the design of a proper planting pot not only solves the technical problem of greening the roof, but also has great significance for preventing urban flood disasters; in addition, a set of complete automatic control system is designed, so that a large amount of human resources and energy resources can be saved, the cost of the greening roof is reduced, and the further application and development of the greening roof are promoted. And finally, a set of rainwater recycling device is added, so that the device contributes to building of sponge cities, and the rainwater is secondarily utilized to achieve the benefits of energy conservation and emission reduction.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems in the prior art, the invention provides a greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system, method and controller.
The invention is realized in this way, a greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system includes:
the rainwater recycling water supply and return module is used for recycling rainwater through the planting pot and storing the rainwater through the planting pot water storage tank and the rainwater recycling pool;
the automatic monitoring control module is used for monitoring soil moisture, water storage level and rainwater recovery pond water level in the planting pot in real time and controlling the electric valves in the pipelines through the controller;
the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module is used for performing photoelectric conversion through a photovoltaic panel, storing electric energy through a storage battery and providing electric power for the whole system.
Further, rainwater recycle supplies the return water module to include: the device comprises a planting pot, a rainwater supply pipe, a rainwater return pipe, a rainwater drain pipe, an urban underground water supply pipe, a rainwater recovery pool, a Y-shaped filter, a valve, a water pump and a check valve;
the planting pot is connected with a rainwater recycling tank through a rainwater return pipe, the rainwater drainage pipe and an urban underground water supply pipe are communicated with the rainwater recycling tank, and the rainwater recycling tank is connected with the rainwater supply pipe sequentially through a Y-shaped filter, a valve, a water pump, a check valve and the like.
Further, the planting pot comprises a mother pot and a child pot;
the filter plates are arranged between the main basin and the sub basin, the substrate layers are reserved at the upper ends of the filter plates, the water storage tanks are arranged at the lower sides of the filter plates of the main basin and the sub basin, and overflow pipes are arranged at the upper ends of the side surfaces of the water storage tanks;
the improved basin is characterized in that a rain shielding plate is arranged at the upper end of the female basin, a water receiving edge is arranged at the upper end of the sub-basin, the female basin and the sub-basin are mutually overlapped and placed on a roof, and the rain shielding plate of the female basin is positioned on the upper portion of the water receiving edge of the sub-basin.
Further, the automatic monitoring control module comprises: a planting pot water level monitoring meter, a soil moisture sensor, a rainwater supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater return pipe electric valve, a city underground water supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater recovery pool water level monitoring meter and a controller;
the soil moisture sensor is arranged in the planting pot and used for monitoring the dryness and wetness degree of soil, and the planting pot water level monitoring meter is arranged at the upper part of a matrix layer of the planting pot and used for monitoring the water level of the planting pot;
the controller is connected with the planting basin water level monitoring meter, the soil moisture sensor, the rainwater supply pipe electric valve, the rainwater return pipe electric valve, the urban underground water supply pipe electric valve and the rainwater recovery pool water level monitoring meter through the connecting circuit respectively.
Further, the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module includes: the solar photovoltaic panel, the storage battery and the inverter;
the solar photovoltaic panel is connected with the controller through a connecting circuit, the controller is sequentially connected with the storage battery and the inverter through the connecting circuit, and the inverter is connected with the water pump.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for recycling rainwater and controlling automatic irrigation on a green roof, comprising:
firstly, a mother basin and a son basin are mutually overlapped and placed on a roof, a rain shield of the mother basin is positioned at the upper part of a water receiving edge of the son basin, when rainwater falls down, the rain shield of the mother basin shields the rainwater, and the shielded rainwater flows into a planting basin along the water receiving edge and can be used for irrigating plants;
step two, the electric valve of the rainwater return pipe is in a normally open state, the electric valve of the rainwater supply pipe is in a normally closed state, when the plant is in a water shortage state, the soil moisture sensor transmits a signal to the controller, the controller controls the electric valve of the water pipe to close the electric valve of the normally open rainwater return pipe, and the electric valve of the normally closed rainwater supply pipe is opened;
thirdly, the controller starts the storage battery to supply power to the water pump, the rainwater recovery tank supplies water to the roof planting basin after the water pump is started, when the water level in the planting basin reaches the highest set water level, the water level sensor transmits a signal to the controller, the water supply is stopped, the water pump is closed, and the electric valve of the water pipe is recovered to the normal state;
and step four, if the rainwater recovery tank is exhausted, sending a signal to the controller by the water level sensor in the rainwater recovery tank, opening the electric valve of the urban underground water supply pipe by the controller to store water in the rainwater recovery tank, and stopping storing the water after the rainwater storage tank reaches the highest water level.
Further, in the first step, a part of excessive rainwater in the planting pot is stored in a water storage tank of the planting pot, the rest rainwater is collected into a rainwater return pipe through a water overflow pipe of the planting pot and drained to a rainwater recovery tank, and if the rainwater recovery tank is full of rainwater, the rainwater is drained into an urban underground drainage system through a rainwater drain pipe.
Furthermore, the storage battery supplies power through the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module, the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module stores part of electric energy in the storage battery, and redundant electric quantity is connected into a power grid to supply daily power.
Another objective of the present invention is to provide a controller, which implements the method for recycling rainwater and controlling automatic irrigation on a green roof.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a computer readable storage medium, which stores a computer program, and when the computer program is executed by a processor, the processor executes the method for recycling rainwater and controlling automatic irrigation on a green roof.
By combining all the technical schemes, the invention has the advantages and positive effects that:
the combined container type planting pot adopted by the invention has good practicability, firstly, stainless steel materials are selected, and the pot still has longer service life even if the pot is in an environment of wind blowing and sunshine for a long time, and in addition, the wind bearing capacity of a green roof is increased, and the risk of falling of the planting pot is reduced. Secondly, because female basin has added waterproof dash board, the sub-basin has corresponding water receiving edge, and both cooperations are used, can reach the roofing department that arranges the planting basin and cover entirely, can not cause the seepage phenomenon of roof water to according to the plant characteristic of planting to the requirement of density, can be when this planting basin of customization, adjust the length of waterproof dash board and the height of planting the basin.
The invention achieves no waste and no excess in the irrigation process, so that the roof rainwater is completely utilized, thereby reducing disasters and saving resources.
The invention uses solar energy to generate electricity, and simultaneously utilizes an automatic control system to realize accurate prediction and avoid waste. The system is a complete and precise monitoring system, which can save labor and feed back the growth state of plants in time.
The invention also has the functions of water storage and drainage, and the water storage tank of the planting pot can store rainwater in rainy days when the precipitation is small, and can supply water when the plants lack water; when the precipitation is great, this kind of water storage box who plants the basin can be detained some rainwater, and unnecessary rainwater is then discharged rainwater recovery pond or urban underground drainage system through the overflow pipe in, this kind of mode of collecting and unified processing with the rainwater can postpone the time that urban drainage system flow reaches the peak value well, optimizes urban water system drainage ability, alleviates urban waterlogging pressure.
The invention solves the problems by using one set of system, and has the advantages of simple structure, low cost, good effect and convenient installation.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
the invention has strong real operation performance and complete system, can realize multi-aspect optimization by utilizing some existing technical means, and applies the concepts of safety, prevention of diseases, energy conservation and high automation. The invention has the advantages that various high and new technologies such as a sensor technology, an automatic control technology, a computer technology, a wireless communication technology, a solar photovoltaic power generation technology and the like are developed and mature, and the application is wide, so that the whole system has no technical trouble in the implementation process, and the whole process of the system operation is simple and clear, so that the irrigation of the greening roof is more scientific and accurate, and the greening roof is intelligent. More importantly, the greening roof irrigation system provides a new way for the management of urban rainwater systems, wherein the rainwater is recycled and stored, so that the urban waterlogging disasters can be greatly reduced, and when the flood season comes, the roof rainwater runoff can be reduced and the flood peak can be regulated and controlled. In addition, the stored rainwater can be applied to irrigation, flushing and the like. The invention combines a plurality of fields, comprehensively considers the fields, achieves multiple purposes and can realize the maximization of benefits.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present application, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments of the present application will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings described below are only some embodiments of the present application, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings based on these drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the connection of a rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system for a greening roof according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a connection of a rainwater recycling water supply and return module according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic connection diagram of a solar photovoltaic panel power generation module according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of connection of an automatic monitoring control module according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic structural view of a mother pot of the planting pot provided by the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of a planting pot provided by the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 7 is an effect diagram of the splicing of the mother pot and the child pot provided by the embodiment of the invention.
In the figure: 1. a flashing; 2. a substrate layer; 3. a water storage tank; 4. an overflow pipe; 5. a filter plate; 6. water receiving edges; 7. a moisture sensor; 8. a planting pot water level sensor; 9. an inverter; 10. a storage battery; 11. a solar photovoltaic panel; 12. a controller; 13. an electric valve for a rainwater supply pipe; 14. an electric valve of a rainwater return pipe; 15. electric valve for city underground water supply pipe; 16. a rainwater return pipe; 17. a rainwater supply pipe; 18. a rainwater drain pipe; 19. urban underground water supply pipes; 20. a rainwater recovery tank; 21. a water level sensor of the rainwater recovery tank; 22. a Y-type filter; 23. a butterfly valve; 24. a water pump; 25. a check valve.
Fig. 8 is a flowchart of a method for recycling rainwater and controlling automatic irrigation of a green roof according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of a comparison between a rainwater recycling irrigation device for a green roof and a traditional irrigation device for a green roof provided by an embodiment of the invention
FIG. 10 is a view of a conventional lawn type roof greening planting pot
Fig. 11 is a schematic view of greening a conventional lawn type roof.
Fig. 12 is a comparative experimental device for measuring the characteristics of the traditional lawn type roof greening sponge.
Fig. 13 is a diagram of a traditional lawn type roof greening experiment.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is further described in detail with reference to the following embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
In view of the problems of the prior art, the present invention provides a system, method and controller for controlling rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation of a green roof, which will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in fig. 1, the greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system provided by the embodiment of the invention comprises a rainwater recycling water supply and return module, an automatic monitoring control module and a solar photovoltaic panel power generation module.
As shown in fig. 2, the rainwater recycling water supply and return module in the embodiment of the present invention includes: the rainwater and water supply system comprises a planting pot, a rainwater supply pipe, a rainwater return pipe, a rainwater supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater return pipe electric valve, a rainwater drain pipe, a city underground supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater recovery tank, a Y-shaped filter, a valve, a water pump and a check valve.
As shown in fig. 3, the automatic monitoring control module in the embodiment of the present invention includes: the device comprises a planting pot water level monitoring meter, a soil moisture sensor, a rainwater water supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater return pipe electric valve, a city land water supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater recovery tank water level monitoring meter, a solar storage battery and a controller.
As shown in fig. 4, the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module includes: photovoltaic panel, controller, storage battery and inverter
As shown in fig. 5 to 7, the planting pot in the embodiment of the present invention includes a mother pot and a child pot;
the filter plates are arranged between the main basin and the sub basin, the substrate layers are reserved at the upper ends of the filter plates, the water storage tanks are arranged on the lower sides of the filter plates of the main basin and the sub basin, and overflow pipes are arranged at the upper ends of the side surfaces of the water storage tanks; the upper end of the female basin is provided with a rain shielding plate, the upper end of the sub-basin is provided with a water receiving edge, the female basin and the sub-basin are mutually overlapped and placed on a roof, and the rain shielding plate of the female basin is positioned on the upper portion of the water receiving edge of the sub-basin.
As shown in fig. 8, the method for recycling rainwater and controlling automatic irrigation for a green roof according to an embodiment of the present invention includes:
s101, the mother pot and the son pots are mutually overlapped and placed on a roof, a rain shielding plate of the mother pot is positioned on the upper portion of a water receiving edge of the son pot, when rainwater falls down, the rain shielding plate of the mother pot shields the rainwater, and the shielded rainwater flows into the planting pot along the water receiving edge and can be used for irrigating plants and collecting the rainwater;
s102, the electric valve of the rainwater return pipe is in a normally open state, the electric valve of the rainwater supply pipe is in a normally closed state, the electric valve is used for recovering rainwater in a normal state, when the plant is in a water shortage state, the soil moisture sensor transmits a signal to the controller, the controller controls the electric valve of the rainwater return pipe to close the normally open electric valve of the rainwater return pipe, and the normally closed electric valve of the rainwater supply pipe is opened;
s103, the controller starts the storage battery to supply power to the water pump, the rainwater recovery tank supplies water to the roof planting basin after the water pump is started, when the water level in the planting basin reaches the highest set water level, the water level sensor transmits a signal to the controller, the water supply is stopped, the water pump is closed, and the electric valve of the water pipe returns to the normal state;
s104, if the rainwater recovery tank is exhausted, the water level sensor in the rainwater recovery tank sends a signal to the controller, the controller opens the electric valve of the urban underground water supply pipe to replenish water for the rainwater recovery tank, and after the rainwater storage tank reaches a set water level, the electric valve of the water supply pipe is closed to stop replenishing water.
When the rain water collecting device is used, firstly, the novel planting pot can well collect rain water, the rain shielding plate of the mother pot is positioned at the upper part of the water receiving edge of the sub pot, when the rain water falls down, the rain shielding plate of the mother pot shields the rain water to prevent the rain water from falling onto a roof, the shielded rain water flows into the planting pot along the water receiving edge and can be used for irrigating plants, one part of the excessive rain water is stored in the water storage tank of the planting pot, the rest rain water is collected into the rain water return pipe through the overflow pipe of the planting pot and is further discharged into the rain water recovery pool, and if the rain water recovery pool is full of rain water, the rain water is finally discharged into an underground drainage system of a city through the rain water discharge pipe. At the moment, the electric valve of the rainwater return pipe is in a normally open state, and the electric valve of the rainwater supply pipe is in a normally closed state. The rainwater water replenishing process comprises the following steps: place a soil moisture sensor in planting the basin for the wet degree futilely of monitoring soil, when the plant is in the state of lack of water, the sensor with signal transmission to the controller in, the controller will control the water pipe motorised valve, the rainwater wet return motorised valve that will normally open is closed, the rainwater water supply motorised valve of normal close is opened, at this moment, the controller starts the battery and supplies power for the water pump, need change the direct current into the alternating current through the dc-to-ac converter midway. After the water pump starts, plant the basin by rainwater recovery pond to the roof and supply water, still placed a level sensor in planting the basin, when the water level of planting in the basin reached the highest water level of setting for, level sensor gives the controller with the signal transmission, stops to supply water, and the water pump is closed, and the water pipe motorised valve resumes the normality. If appear when rainwater recovery pond exhaust situation, water level sensor in the rainwater recovery pond sends the signal for the controller, and the controller is opened city underground water supply pipe motorised valve this moment, for rainwater recovery pond moisturizing. And after the rainwater reservoir reaches the set water level, stopping water supplement. The solar photovoltaic panel power generation system stores part of electric energy in the storage battery, and redundant electric quantity can be connected into a power grid for daily power utilization.
Next, consider the operation of the green roof rainwater reclamation automatic irrigation system in a variety of weather conditions, as well as other value added applications.
1. In rainy days, when the rainfall is less:
under this kind of weather condition, the rainwater is all detained in the system, and the rainwater can be absorbed by plant and matrix at first, and when both reached saturation state, the rainwater then flows to the cistern through the filter plate, if the cistern retaining also reached saturation, then the rainwater of collecting collects the rainwater return pipe through the overflow pipe in, flows into rainwater recovery pond again, finally stores inside.
2. In rainy days and when the rainfall is large:
under the condition of such weather, the rainwater part is detained in the planting basin, and most rainwater can be uniformly discharged and managed. The rainwater can be absorbed by the plants and the matrix at the beginning, when the plants and the matrix reach a saturated state, the rainwater flows into the water storage tank through the filter plate, when the water storage tank is full, the water level exceeds the overflow pipe, and at the moment, the rainwater can be discharged along the overflow pipe. The drainage tube can be connected the overflow pipe of every planting basin, and the water that makes the overflow come out collects together, flows into rainwater recovery pond, treats that rainwater recovery pond is full of the back, and the urban underground drainage system is arranged in automatically, unified the emission to unnecessary rainwater through the drain pipe in rainwater recovery pond.
3. In sunny days
When the weather condition is sunny, the plants need more water to maintain vital signs, and at the moment, the rainwater recovered before can be utilized to supplement water for the plants. At the beginning, the water in the cistern is used, when the water level in the cistern drops to minimum water level, can't satisfy the demand of plant, and the humidity of soil has reflected the water demand state of plant. When the plant is in the water shortage state, during moisture sensor transmits the signal to the controller, the controller will control the water pipe motorised valve, will normally open the rainwater wet return motorised valve close, and normally closed rainwater water supply motorised valve is opened, and at this moment, the controller starts the battery and supplies power for the water pump, need pass through the dc-to-ac converter with the direct current transformation midway. After the water pump starts, plant the basin by rainwater recovery pond to the roof and supply water, still placed a level sensor in planting the basin, when the water level of planting in the basin reached the highest water level of setting for, level sensor gives the controller with the signal transmission, stops to supply water, and the water pump is closed, and the water pipe motorised valve resumes the normality. If the rainwater recovery pond is in a sunny day for a long time, when the rainwater recovery pond is exhausted, the water level sensor in the rainwater recovery pond sends a signal to the controller, and at the moment, the controller opens the electric valve of the urban underground water supply pipe to replenish water for the rainwater recovery pond. And stopping storing water after the rainwater reservoir reaches the set water level. All the electricity of the automatic control system can come from a solar photovoltaic panel power generation system.
4. Snow sky
Snow often appears in winter in northern cold areas, and even in southern areas where summer is hot and winter is cold, snow in extreme weather may also appear. When snow falls on the roof, the planting pot is equivalent to a snow container, the snow can be temporarily stored, snow water can be recycled after the snow is melted, and the process of the snow water is consistent with that of rainwater recycling.
5. In flood season
The advantage of automatic irrigation system is retrieved to afforestation roof rainwater is showing very much in the effect during flood prevention, and when strong precipitation or continuity precipitation, urban drainage system can just reach the saturated condition in the short time, and rainwater runoff surpasss urban drainage ability and causes the urban waterlogging phenomenon to take place. At the moment, the greening roof rainwater recovery device becomes a good sponge body and plays a role in regulating and controlling flood peaks. When strong rainfall comes for the first time, the water storage tank and the rainwater recovery pond in the planting pot can store a part of rainwater, so that the pressure of the urban drainage system is reduced. When the drainage system recovers the normal state in the city, rainwater stored in the greening roof rainwater recovery device is drained away, so that preparation is made for meeting the coming of the second flood peak, the number of flood disasters can be reduced as a final result, and the construction of the sponge city can be supported by the method.
6. In the dry period
When the conditions of no rain for a long time, sun exposure and the like occur, the rainwater recovery tank may be in an exhausted state, at the moment, the automatic irrigation system utilizes the urban water supply source to irrigate plants, and the specific process is basically consistent with the description of the condition 3.
7. Other additional applications
Considering that the rainwater can possibly cause poor water quality and cause harmful effects such as water pollution and the like when being retained in the rainwater recovery tank for a long time, if the rainwater recovery tank is built relatively larger, when the rainwater storage capacity is larger, corresponding devices can be added on the basis of the invention, and the rainwater is used for other purposes, so that the value of the rainwater can be fully utilized, and the water in the rainwater recovery tank can be replaced to prevent the water quality from deteriorating. As mentioned above, a branch can be added on the side of the rainwater recovery tank, and the recovered rainwater can be used for irrigating peripheral greening or cleaning road surfaces and the like, and can even be used for flushing toilets.
The technical solution of the present invention is further described with reference to the following specific examples.
According to the research result of the related scholars on the rainwater runoff of the greening roof, for the traditional greening roof, the rainwater runoff can be calculated by the following formula:
Q=R-V-S 1 -E-S 2 (1)
in the formula, Q is the runoff of a rainfall event, and is mm; r is rainfall, mm; v is the rainwater retention of vegetation, mm; s 1 Is the rainwater retention of the soil, mm; e is the rainwater evaporation capacity of the soil, mm; s. the 2 The rainwater interception amount is mm for a drainage layer structure; r is measured by a tipping bucket rainfall meter, and other parameters are estimated by an empirical formula, wherein the vegetation interception rainfall calculation formula is as follows:
in the formula, a is the average maximum water holding depth on the leaf surface, mm, and the value is generally 0.2; veg is the vegetation coverage, and the general value is 1; LAI is leaf area index, and the LAI value of the simple greening roof is determined to be 2.5 according to the empirical value range measured by the predecessor.
The soil rainfall cut-off was calculated by the following formula:
S 1 =ΔW 1 ·H
in the formula,. DELTA.W 1 M is the value of the increase of the soil humidity after the rainfall is finished each time 3 /m 3 (ii) a H is the soil thickness, mm.
The evaporation capacity estimation method comprises the following steps: estimating the daily evaporation capacity of soil all the year round according to the daily change value of soil humidity in non-rainfall days, counting the average evaporation capacity per hour in four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter, and calculating the evaporation capacity of the soil according to the season and duration of rainfall, wherein the calculation formula is as follows:
E 1 =ΔW 2 ·H
in the formula, E is the evaporation capacity of a green roof in one rainfall event, and is mm; e 1 Is the daily evaporation capacity of non-rainfall days, mm; Δ W 2 M is the soil humidity reduction amount per day in non-rainfall days 3 /m 3 (ii) a H is the soil thickness, mm; t is duration of rainfall, h.
The rainwater interception amount of the drainage layer structure is calculated according to the following formula:
in the formula, S 2MAX The maximum rainwater interception amount of the drainage layer structure is mm. The remaining symbols have the same meanings as in formula (1).
Referring to the previous research results, the formula for calculating the runoff of rainwater of the green roof with the rainwater recycling automatic control irrigation system of the invention can be modified as follows:
Q=R-V-S 1 -E-C-P (2)
in the formula, C is the water storage capacity of the water storage tank in the planting pot and is mm; p is the water storage capacity of the rain pool, mm. The remaining symbols are the same as those in formula (1).
Wherein the water storage formula of the water storage tank of the planting pot is as follows:
wherein F is the area of the bottom of the inner side of the planting pot, m 2 (ii) a N is the number of planting pots arranged on the roof; a is the total area of the roof, m 2 (ii) a H is the water storage height, mm; h MAX The maximum water storage height in the water storage tank.
The water storage formula of the rainwater recovery tank is as follows:
wherein L, W is the length and width of the inner side of the rain pool, mm; a is the total area of the roof, m 2 (ii) a H is the water storage height mm; h MAX The maximum water storage height in the rainwater recovery tank.
The following illustrates the advantages of the present invention in reducing the runoff of roof rain:
as shown in fig. 9, the left side of the figure is a traditional greening roof mode, and the right side is a greening roof mode with a rainwater recycling device according to the present invention.
First, taking the lawn container roof greening as an example, experimental measurements were made on the water storage capacity of the conventional lawn type greening roof planting pots, as shown in fig. 10 to 13. The container type roof greening plant pot adopted in the experiment is a black polyethylene square lawn type roof greening planting pot container with the size specification of 500mm 65 mm. As shown in FIG. 10, the thickness of the growth substrate is 50 to 60 mm. The experimental results show that in the first stage of the experiment, when the rainfall intensity is 1.314kg/(h m) 2 ) In the second stage of experiment, when the rainfall intensity is 2.421kg/(h m) 2 ) In time, the water storage capacity of the greening roof vegetation and the substrate layer is 38 percent of the precipitation.
Next assume that there is a 150m 2 The greening transformation is carried out on the roof with the area, and a traditional lawn type roof greening planting pot and the lawn type roof greening planting pot with the rainwater recovery device are respectively used. The planting pot selected for traditional lawn type roof greening and the planting pot used for experiments are assumed to be the same in length and width dimensions, namely 500 mm/500 mm, but the height of the traditional planting pot is 65mm, the material is polyethylene, the height of the planting pot with the rainwater recovery device is 130mm, the material is stainless steel, the thickness of a growth substrate is consistent with that of the traditional planting pot and is 50-60 mm, the height of a water storage tank is 60mm, and the distance from the bottom of the water storage tank to the bottom of an overflow port is 50 mm. Considering the edge and wall thickness, assuming each planting pot has a footprint of 525mm, then 150m 2 The roof needs to be planted544 basins are provided.
The following is a calculation of the rain recovery efficiency for two scenarios (as in fig. 9) under experimental conditions:
scheme 1, traditional roof greening:
scenario one, rainfall was 1.314kg/h m 2 Then the daily rainfall R 1 31.536mm, belonging to the category of medium to heavy rain.
The rainwater runoff is:
Q 1 =R 1 -53%R 1 -S 2 =31.536-53%×31.536-4.3=10.522mm
in the formula, 53% is the data obtained by the experiment of the retention capacity of the traditional greening roof vegetation and the matrix layer to the rainwater, and other documents, S, are referred to 2 An empirical value of 4.3mm was taken.
The water storage capacity of the roof is as follows: m 1 =150(R 1 -Q 1 )=150×(31.536-10.522)=3152.1kg
Situation two, the rainfall was 2.421kg/h m 2 Then the daily rainfall R 2 58.104mm, belonging to the category of heavy rain.
The rainwater runoff is:
Q 2 =R 2 -53%R 2 -S 2 =58.104-38%×58.104-4.3=31.724mm
in the formula, 38% is the data obtained by the experiment of the retention capacity of the traditional greening roof vegetation and the matrix layer to the rainwater.
The water storage capacity of the roof is as follows: m 2 =150(R 2 -Q 2 )=150×(58.104-31.724)=3957kg
Scheme 2, roof greening with rainwater recovery unit:
scenario one, rainfall was 1.314kg/h m 2 Then the daily rainfall R 1 31.536mm, and belongs to the category of medium to heavy rain.
The maximum diameter flow mass of roof rainwater is as follows: 4730.4 kg.
The maximum water storage quality of the roof is as follows:
M 3 =544×0.5×0.5×50+150×31.536×53%=9307.112kg
since 9307.112kg is greater than 4730.4kg, the runoff rate of roof rainwater is 0. In the formula, 53% is the experimental data of the retaining capacity of the greening roof vegetation and the substrate layer to the rainwater.
Situation two, the rainfall was 2.421kg/h m 2 Then the daily rainfall R 2 58.104mm, belonging to the category of heavy rain.
The maximum diameter flow mass of roof rainwater is as follows: 8715.6 kg.
The maximum water storage quality of the roof is as follows:
M 4 =544×0.5×0.5×50+150×58.104×38%=10111.928kg
in the formula, 38% is the data obtained by the experiment of the retention capacity of the greening roof vegetation and the substrate layer to the rainwater. Since 10111.92kg is greater than 8715.6kg, the runoff rate of roof rainwater is 0.
Taking scenario two as an example, in the greening roof mode with the rainwater recovery device, the maximum water storage amount that may be reached is:
M=M 4 +M 5
in the formula, M 4 For the greening roof of the second scene, M 5 The maximum water storage capacity of the rainwater recovery tank.
Regarding the determination of the water storage capacity of the rainwater recovery tank, since the size of the rainwater recovery tank is related to the size of the available field, the minimum water capacity that the rainwater recovery tank can accommodate is assumed to be the water capacity satisfying the requirement of once irrigation of the greening roof. Namely M 5 =M 4 The rainfall intensity that can be born is 134.826mm because of 10111.92kg, so M20223.84 kg, belongs to the category of heavy rainstorm.
Compared with the scheme 1, in the case of the first scene and the second scene, the water storage rate of the traditional greening roof is 66.63% and 45.4%, and the water storage rate of the greening roof with the rainwater recovery device is 100%.
When the rainfall intensity is greater than 134.826mm under extreme weather and extremely heavy rainstorm is achieved, the water storage capacity of the greening roof with the rainwater recovery device can be increased compared with that of the traditional greening roof:
ΔM=M-M 2 =20223.84-3957=16266.84kg
the reduced roof runoff can be increased by 108.446 mm.
In conclusion, the water storage potential of the greening roof with the rainwater recovery device is very obvious, more than 5 times of that of the traditional roof can be reached, and the higher the rainfall intensity is, the more obvious the advantages of the device are. In addition, the collected rainwater can be reused, so that the urban tap water consumption can be saved by 16 tons per time.
In the present invention, fig. 11 is a schematic view of greening a conventional lawn type roof. Fig. 12 is a comparative experimental device for measuring the characteristics of the conventional lawn type roof greening sponge. Fig. 13 is a diagram of a traditional lawn type roof greening experiment.
In the description of the present invention, "a plurality" means two or more unless otherwise specified; the terms "upper", "lower", "left", "right", "inner", "outer", "front", "rear", "head", "tail", and the like, indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, are merely for convenience in describing the present invention and to simplify the description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed in a particular orientation, and be operated, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention. Furthermore, the terms "first," "second," "third," and the like are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the present invention and the appended claims are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention, which is intended to cover all modifications, equivalents and improvements that are within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (6)

1. The utility model provides a afforestation roof rainwater recycle and automatic watering control system which characterized in that afforestation roof rainwater recycle and automatic watering control system includes:
the rainwater recycling water supply and return module is used for recycling rainwater through the planting pot and storing the rainwater through a water storage tank and a rainwater recycling pool in the planting pot;
the automatic monitoring control module is used for monitoring soil moisture, water storage level and rainwater recovery pond water level in the planting pot in real time and controlling the electric valves in the pipelines through the controller;
the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module is used for performing photoelectric conversion through a photovoltaic panel, storing electric energy through a storage battery and providing electric power for the whole system;
rainwater recycle supplies return water module to include: the device comprises a planting pot, a rainwater supply pipe, a rainwater return pipe, a rainwater drain pipe, an urban underground water supply pipe, a rainwater recovery pool, a Y-shaped filter, a valve, a water pump and a check valve;
the planting pot is connected with a rainwater recovery tank through a rainwater return pipe, the rainwater drainage pipe and an urban underground water supply pipe are communicated with the rainwater recovery tank, and the rainwater recovery tank is connected with the rainwater supply pipe through a Y-shaped filter, a valve, a water pump, a check valve and the like in sequence;
the planting pot comprises a mother pot and a child pot;
the planting pot is characterized in that filter plates are arranged between the main pot and the sub-pot, a substrate layer is reserved at the upper ends of the filter plates, a water storage tank is arranged on the lower side of each filter plate of the planting pot, and an overflow pipe is arranged at the upper end of the side surface of each water storage tank;
the improved basin is characterized in that a rain shielding plate is arranged at the upper end of the female basin, a water receiving edge is arranged at the upper end of the sub-basin, the female basin and the sub-basin are mutually overlapped and placed on a roof, and the rain shielding plate of the female basin is positioned on the upper portion of the water receiving edge of the sub-basin.
2. A green roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system according to claim 1, wherein said automatic monitoring control module comprises: a planting pot water level sensor, a soil moisture sensor, a rainwater supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater return pipe electric valve, a city underground water supply pipe electric valve, a rainwater recovery pool water level sensor and a controller;
the soil moisture sensor is placed in a matrix layer of the planting pot and used for monitoring the dryness and wetness of soil, and the planting pot water level sensor is arranged below the matrix layer of the planting pot and used for monitoring the water level of a water storage tank in the planting pot;
the controller is respectively connected with the planting basin water level sensor, the soil moisture sensor, the rainwater supply pipe electric valve, the rainwater return pipe electric valve, the urban underground water supply pipe electric valve and the rainwater recovery pool water level sensor through a connecting circuit.
3. A green roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control system as claimed in claim 1, wherein said solar photovoltaic panel power generation module comprises: the solar photovoltaic panel, the storage battery and the inverter;
the solar photovoltaic panel is connected with the controller through a connecting circuit, the controller is sequentially connected with the storage battery and the inverter through the connecting circuit, and the inverter is connected with the water pump.
4. A greening roof rainwater recycling and automatic irrigation control method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
firstly, a mother basin and a son basin are mutually overlapped and placed on a roof, a rain shield of the mother basin is positioned at the upper part of a water receiving edge of the son basin, when rainwater falls down, the rain shield of the mother basin shields the rainwater, and the shielded rainwater flows into a planting basin along the water receiving edge and can be used for irrigating plants;
step two, the electric valve of the rainwater return pipe is in a normally open state, the electric valve of the rainwater supply pipe is in a normally closed state, when the plant is in a water shortage state, the soil moisture sensor transmits a signal to the controller, the controller controls the electric valve of the water pipe to close the electric valve of the normally open rainwater return pipe, and the electric valve of the normally closed rainwater supply pipe is opened;
thirdly, the controller starts the storage battery to supply power to the water pump, the rainwater recovery tank supplies water to the roof planting basin after the water pump is started, when the water level in the planting basin reaches the highest set water level, the water level sensor transmits a signal to the controller, the water supply is stopped, the water pump is closed, and the electric valve of the water pipe is recovered to the normal state;
step four, if the rainwater recovery pool is exhausted, the water level sensor in the rainwater recovery pool sends a signal to the controller, at the moment, the controller opens the electric valve of the urban underground water supply pipe to store water in the rainwater recovery pool, and the rainwater storage pool stops storing water after reaching the highest water level;
in the first step, a part of excessive rainwater in the planting pot is stored in a water storage tank of the planting pot, the rest rainwater is collected into a rainwater return pipe through an overflow pipe of the planting pot and drained to a rainwater recovery tank, and if the rainwater recovery tank is full of rainwater, the rainwater is drained into an urban underground drainage system through a rainwater drain pipe;
the storage battery supplies power through the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module, the solar photovoltaic panel power generation module stores part of electric energy in the storage battery, and surplus electric quantity is connected into a power grid to supply daily power.
5. A controller, characterized in that the controller implements the method for recycling rainwater on the greening roof and controlling automatic watering according to claim 4.
6. A computer readable storage medium storing a computer program which, when executed by a processor, causes the processor to perform the method of green roof rain water reclamation and automatic watering control of claim 4.
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