CN111011147A - Breeding method of white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake area - Google Patents

Breeding method of white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake area Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111011147A
CN111011147A CN201911090008.0A CN201911090008A CN111011147A CN 111011147 A CN111011147 A CN 111011147A CN 201911090008 A CN201911090008 A CN 201911090008A CN 111011147 A CN111011147 A CN 111011147A
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breeding
fertilizer
greenhouse
vines
drip irrigation
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Inventor
张忠武
黄庆
孙信成
杨连勇
邓正春
彭元群
康杰
陈位平
肖鑫
詹远华
田军
朱明玉
黄琳
郑文凯
何岩
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Changde Agriculture & Forestry Science Academy
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Changde Agriculture & Forestry Science Academy
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/40Fabaceae, e.g. beans or peas
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/10Devices for affording protection against animals, birds or other pests
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M1/00Stationary means for catching or killing insects
    • A01M1/14Catching by adhesive surfaces
    • A01M1/145Attracting and catching insects using combined illumination or colours and adhesive surfaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural planting, and particularly relates to a breeding method of white-seed cowpeas Jensena 215 in Dongting lake areas. The invention comprises the following steps: (1) selecting a site and building a shed; (2) disinfecting seeds; (3) sowing and raising seedlings; (4) fertilizing and laying a drip irrigation tape; (5) planting; (6) hanging vines; (7) managing fertilizer and water; (8) pest control; (9) and (6) harvesting. The breeding method disclosed by the invention can reduce the incidence rate of common diseases in the breeding process of the Janun cowpea 215 in the Dongting lake area, and simultaneously improve the yield and quality of seeds, so that the seed using requirement of the area is met, and the breeding method has great application value.

Description

Breeding method of white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake area
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of agricultural planting, and particularly relates to a breeding method of white-seed cowpeas Jensena 215 in Dongting lake areas.
Background
Cowpea also known as bean, belonging toLeguminous cowpeas belong to annual herbaceous plants and are important vegetables. Worldwide cowpea sowing area is more than 1000 ten thousand hm2China is one of the main producing countries of cowpea, and the annual sowing area is 37 ten thousand hm2Left and right. "Zhanyun 215" is a good variety of fresh-eating and processing cowpea with high quality and high yield, which is bred by the vegetable research institute in Heidel, the seed coat is white, the growth habit is vintage, the petal is white, the pod is white and green, the pod length is about 80cm, and the cowpea is suitable for fresh-eating and processing. Registration by the crop variety approval committee in the south of hu, 2014, registration number: XPD 020-2014.
However, the 'Zhanyun 215' is not easy to obtain high-quality seeds in the conventional breeding mode of Dongting lake areas, and the yield is low. Due to the high underground water level and the high soil humidity in lake areas and the frequent rainstorm weather in summer, blight, coal mold and powdery mildew easily occur in the fields, and moreover, the cowpod borers are serious in damage and influence the seed yield; in addition, in the harvest season of the seed pods, the seeds are rainy, the seed pods are not easy to dry in the sun, the seeds are mildewed and rotted, and even germinate in the seed pods in advance, so that the seed quality is influenced. In order to overcome the problems, seed production departments arrange seed breeding bases in northwest areas of China and utilize local arid or semi-arid natural conditions to obtain seeds meeting production requirements. However, in northwest areas, the transportation cost of seeds is high, and the quality supervision of the breeding process is inconvenient, so that the seed using requirement of cowpea production cannot be met.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the technical problems, the invention aims to provide a breeding method of cowpea Jangnan 215 in a Dongting lake area, which can solve the problems of easy morbidity, low yield and poor seed quality of the cowpea Jangnan 215 in the breeding process of the Dongting lake area.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a method for breeding white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake areas comprises the following steps:
(1) site selection and shed building: selecting a land which is leeward and exposed to the sun and has no leguminous crops planted in nearly three years, constructing a plastic greenhouse or a multi-span greenhouse in the south-north extension direction, covering a greenhouse film on the roof of the greenhouse, and installing an insect-proof net on the skirt part of the greenhouse;
(2) seed disinfection: firstly, airing seeds for 1-5 days, and then dressing the seeds with 50% carbendazim wettable powder;
(3) sowing and seedling raising: electrically heating to grow seedlings from the middle ten days of 2 months to the upper ten days of 4 months, arranging the seedbed and laying electric heating wires, wherein the electric heating wires are laid into a backstitch shape and have the power of 50-200W/m2(ii) a Loading the nutrient soil into a hole tray, watering for enough moisture, sowing 2-6 seeds in each hole, and covering soil for 1-3 cm; after sowing, controlling the temperature to be 20-35 ℃ in the daytime and 10-20 ℃ at night, and keeping the seedbed soil in a semi-dry and semi-wet state; the nutrient soil is prepared by uniformly mixing peat, pig manure residues, coal residues, vegetable cake and phosphate fertilizer according to the volume ratio of 2-6:1-5:1-3:0.5-1.3: 0.1-0.5;
(4) fertilizing and laying drip irrigation belts: ploughing the field blocks 3-20 days before planting, applying 1500-6000kg of decomposed organic fertilizer per hectare in combination with ploughing, and fully and uniformly raking; then, ridging and leveling are carried out along the extension direction of the greenhouse, and drip irrigation pipes or drip irrigation belts are laid along the extension direction of the cultivation ridging and are communicated with a water supply pipeline; covering a silver black double-sided mulching film on the ridge, and tightly pressing the periphery;
(5) planting: when the first pair of primary leaves are unfolded, selecting fine day for field planting, when the field planting is carried out, digging holes on the planting beds, transferring the seedlings with soil into the holes, covering the holes with soil, and immediately pouring a small amount of clear water;
(6) hanging vines: when the height of the seedling reaches 10-80cm, leading the vines by the lifting ropes, fixing the upper parts of the lifting ropes by the cross bars, tying the lower parts of the lifting ropes at the bases of the vines, leading the vines to the support, enabling the vines to be tightly propped against the support, and cutting off redundant lateral vines while leading the vines;
(7) and (3) fertilizer and water management: the soil is kept in a semi-dry semi-wet state, topdressing is started when the length of a bottom pod reaches 5-30cm, 30-225kg of high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer is topdressed every hectare, the special fertilizer is applied through a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation tape, and then the special fertilizer is topdressed every 5-20 days for 2-6 times continuously, and the using amount of each time is the same as that of the previous fertilizer;
(8) and (3) pest control: pest control is carried out by integrating a physical method and a chemical method; the physical method comprises the following steps: suspending pest sticking plates in the greenhouse, and suspending 90-450 pest sticking plates per hectare; suspending silver gray film strips around the crops to avoid aphids; trapping and killing the pod borers by using a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a black light lamp;
(9) harvesting: harvesting when the bean pods are dry and yellow and are not easy to break, drying in the sun for 3-30d after harvesting until the bean pods are dry and crisp, threshing, cleaning, bagging, sealing, labeling and storing.
Further, the thickness of the greenhouse film in the step (1) is 0.6-0.12mm, and the insect-proof net is 20-100 meshes.
Further, the dosage of the 50% carbendazim wettable powder in the step (2) is 0.2-0.8% of the weight of the seeds.
Further, the phosphate fertilizer in the nutrient soil in the step (3) is calcium superphosphate or calcium magnesium phosphate.
Further, the plowing depth in the step (4) is 10-35 cm.
Further, N + P in the decomposed organic fertilizer in the step (4)2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 6 percent, and organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent.
Further, the ridging in the step (4) specifically comprises: making the field block into a ridge surface with ridge width of 0.6-1.8m, furrow width of 0.2-0.6m and length of 5-60 m.
Further, the row spacing is 40-120cm and the hole spacing is 15-60cm during field planting in the step (5), and 2-6 plants are planted in each hole.
Further, the high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer in the step (7) contains 19.0% of total nitrogen, 6.0% of water-soluble phosphorus, 25.0% of water-soluble potassium, 0.45% of magnesium, 0.20% of boron, 0.06% of iron, 0.07% of zinc and 0.05% of molybdenum.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the nutrient soil used in the invention adopts a special formula, not only maintains good physical and chemical properties, but also has rich nutrient components. Peat is used as a main material, so that the nutrient soil has good nutrition, water absorption and air permeability; the added pig manure not only provides nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and humus, but also has the function of loosening soil, and the fertility is soft and has aftereffect and is stable; the added coal cinder contains a large amount of mineral nutrient elements such as iron and calcium, wherein the iron is an essential element in the synthesis process of chlorophyll and is an important component of various enzymes in photosynthesis, and the calcium has a protection effect on plant cell membranes, so that the inhibition of fungal infection is facilitated, and the morbidity is reduced; the added rapeseed cakes contain a large amount of organic matters, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and particularly the phosphorus content is higher than that of other cake fertilizers; and calcium superphosphate or calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer is added to further increase the phosphorus content of the nutrient soil. Phosphorus can promote the metabolism of carbohydrate in plants and enhance the stress resistance and environmental adaptability of crops.
(2) The decomposed organic fertilizer is prepared by fermenting chicken manure and biological bacteria serving as raw materials by using a high-temperature nitrogen preservation technology, and contains a large amount of organic matters and other nutrient elements necessary for plants. The high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer used in the topdressing contains basic nutrient elements, and also contains various trace elements such as magnesium, boron, iron, zinc, molybdenum and the like, wherein the magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll, can activate the activity of phosphotransferase and is also an activator of certain dehydrogenase and carboxylase; boron can promote carbohydrate transport and promote the development of reproductive organs; zinc promotes the synthesis of proteins and auxins and is an important component of many enzymes; molybdenum is a component of nitrate reductase and can also promote nitrogen fixation of crops. Therefore, the balanced application multi-nutrient fertilizer provided by the technical scheme of the invention is superior to the conventional chemical fertilizer, and can ensure that the crops grow more robustly and durably.
(3) The method adopts the silvery black double-color mulching film for cultivation, not only can prevent weeds, but also can relatively stabilize the field humidity and reduce root diseases; the drip irrigation technology is adopted in the invention, rather than the traditional flood irrigation, so that the blight is reduced; the skirt part of the greenhouse is provided with the insect-proof net, and the roof is provided with the rain-proof plastic film, so that the invasion of external plant diseases and insect pests is prevented; and a pest sticking plate is hung in the greenhouse, silver gray film strips are hung around crops to avoid aphids, and the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests is reduced to the minimum degree by taking measures of trapping and killing imagoes such as leguminous borers and the like by using a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a black light lamp.
(4) The rain sheltering cultivation is carried out, and the seed quality is ensured. Due to the rain sheltering effect of the greenhouse film, the aged seed pods are easy to dry in the sun, the phenomenon of seed rot is avoided, the pod borers are avoided, and the seed yield is high. Under the technical scheme of the invention, the yield per seed can be improved by 16.7-35.7%, and the germination rate of the seeds can be improved by 6-10%.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the embodiments of the present invention. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The greenhouse film used in the following examples is a PVC plastic greenhouse film with the thickness of 0.6-0.12 mm; the insect-proof net is a nylon insect-proof net with 20-100 meshes; the seedling raising plug tray is a standard plastic plug tray with 50-162 holes; in the nutrient soil components, peat is high-quality peat produced in northeast, pig manure is manure residues fermented for more than 6 months, coal residues are fine residues obtained by crushing and sieving after honeycomb briquette is completely combusted, and rapeseed cakes are thoroughly decomposed cake fertilizers fermented for more than 60 days; the organic fertilizer is 'Xiangjia' organic fertilizer; the high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer is 'Huangbo No. two' fertilizer purchased from Kogyangyunpi crop nutrition Co., Ltd, Liaoning province; other materials used are also commercially available from conventional sources.
Example 1
A method for breeding white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake areas comprises the following steps:
(1) site selection and shed building: selecting a land which is leeward and exposed to the sun and has no leguminous crops planted in nearly three years, constructing a plastic greenhouse or a multi-span greenhouse in the north-south extension direction, covering a greenhouse film with the thickness of 0.6-0.12mm on the roof of the greenhouse, and installing a 20-100-mesh insect-proof net on the skirt part;
(2) seed disinfection: firstly, airing the seeds for 1d, and then dressing the seeds with 50 percent carbendazim wettable powder accounting for 0.8 percent of the weight of the seeds;
(3) sowing and seedling raising: electrically heating to grow seedlings from the middle ten days of 2 months to the upper ten days of 4 months, arranging the seedbed and laying electric heating wires, wherein the electric heating wires are laid into a backstitch shape and have the power of 50W/m2(ii) a Loading the nutrient soil into a hole tray, watering until enough water is available, sowing 2 seeds in each hole, and covering the soil for 3 cm; after sowing, controlling the temperature to be 20-35 ℃ in the daytime and 10-20 ℃ at night, and keeping the seedbed soil in a semi-dry and semi-wet state; the nutrient soilThe fertilizer is prepared by uniformly mixing peat, pig manure residues, coal residues, vegetable cakes and phosphate fertilizers according to the volume ratio of 4:5:1:0.5 to-0.5; the phosphate fertilizer in the nutrient soil is calcium superphosphate;
(4) fertilizing and laying drip irrigation belts: ploughing the field block 3-20 days before field planting, wherein the ploughing depth is 10cm, applying 1500kg of decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with ploughing per hectare, and fully and uniformly raking, wherein N + P in the decomposed organic fertilizer2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 6 percent, and organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent; then, ridging and leveling are carried out along the extension direction of the greenhouse, the field block is made into a ridge surface with the ridge width of 0.6m, the furrow width of 0.2m and the length of 5-60m, and a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation belt is laid along the extension direction of the cultivation ridge and is communicated with a water supply pipeline; covering a silver black double-sided mulching film on the ridge, and tightly pressing the periphery;
(5) planting: when the first pair of primary leaves are unfolded, selecting fine day for field planting, when the field planting is carried out, digging holes on the planting beds, transferring the seedlings with soil into the holes, covering the holes with soil, and immediately pouring a small amount of clear water; the row spacing is 40cm and the hole spacing is 15cm during planting, and 2 plants are planted in each hole;
(6) hanging vines: when the height of the seedling reaches 10-80cm, leading the vines by the lifting ropes, fixing the upper parts of the lifting ropes by the cross bars, tying the lower parts of the lifting ropes at the bases of the vines, leading the vines to the support, enabling the vines to be tightly propped against the support, and cutting off redundant lateral vines while leading the vines;
(7) and (3) fertilizer and water management: the soil is kept in a semi-dry semi-wet state, topdressing is started when the length of a bottom pod reaches 5-30cm, 30kg of high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer is topdressed every hectare, the special fertilizer is applied through a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation tape, and is topdressed every 5 days for 6 times continuously, and the using amount of each time is the same as that of the prior fertilizer; the high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer contains 19.0 percent of total nitrogen, 6.0 percent of water-soluble phosphorus, 25.0 percent of water-soluble potassium, 0.45 percent of magnesium, 0.20 percent of boron, 0.06 percent of iron, 0.07 percent of zinc and 0.05 percent of molybdenum;
(8) and (3) pest control: pest control is carried out by integrating a physical method and a chemical method; the physical method comprises the following steps: suspending pest sticking plates in the greenhouse, and suspending 90 pest sticking plates per hectare; suspending silver gray film strips around the crops to avoid aphids; trapping and killing the pod borers by using a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a black light lamp;
(9) harvesting: harvesting when the bean pods are dry and yellow and are not easy to break, drying in the sun for 3-30d after harvesting until the bean pods are dry and crisp, threshing, cleaning, bagging, sealing, labeling and storing.
Example 2
A method for breeding white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake areas comprises the following steps:
(1) site selection and shed building: selecting a land which is leeward and exposed to the sun and has no leguminous crops planted in nearly three years, constructing a plastic greenhouse or a multi-span greenhouse in the north-south extension direction, covering a greenhouse film with the thickness of 0.6-0.12mm on the roof of the greenhouse, and installing a 20-100-mesh insect-proof net on the skirt part;
(2) seed disinfection: firstly, airing the seeds for 3 days, and then dressing the seeds with 50 percent carbendazim wettable powder accounting for 0.5 percent of the weight of the seeds;
(3) sowing and seedling raising: electrically heating to grow seedlings from the middle ten days of 2 months to the upper ten days of 4 months, arranging the seedbed and laying electric heating wires, wherein the electric heating wires are laid into a backstitch shape and have the power of 100W/m2(ii) a Loading the nutrient soil into a hole tray, watering until enough water is available, sowing 4 seeds in each hole, and covering the soil for 2 cm; after sowing, controlling the temperature to be 20-35 ℃ in the daytime and 10-20 ℃ at night, and keeping the seedbed soil in a semi-dry and semi-wet state; the nutrient soil is prepared by uniformly mixing peat, pig manure residues, coal residues, vegetable cakes and phosphate fertilizers according to the volume ratio of 6:3:2:0.9: 0.3; the phosphate fertilizer in the nutrient soil is a calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer;
(4) fertilizing and laying drip irrigation belts: ploughing the field block 3-20 days before field planting, wherein the ploughing depth is 20cm, applying 3000kg of decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with ploughing per hectare, and fully and uniformly raking, wherein N + P in the decomposed organic fertilizer2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 6 percent, and organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent; then, ridging and leveling are carried out along the extension direction of the greenhouse, the field block is made into a ridge surface with the ridge width of 1.2m, the furrow width of 0.4m and the length of 5-60m, and a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation belt is laid along the extension direction of the cultivation ridge and is communicated with a water supply pipeline; covering a silver black double-sided mulching film on the ridge, and tightly pressing the periphery;
(5) planting: when the first pair of primary leaves are unfolded, selecting fine day for field planting, when the field planting is carried out, digging holes on the planting beds, transferring the seedlings with soil into the holes, covering the holes with soil, and immediately pouring a small amount of clear water; the row spacing is 80cm and the hole spacing is 30cm during planting, and 4 plants are planted in each hole;
(6) hanging vines: when the height of the seedling reaches 10-80cm, leading the vines by the lifting ropes, fixing the upper parts of the lifting ropes by the cross bars, tying the lower parts of the lifting ropes at the bases of the vines, leading the vines to the support, enabling the vines to be tightly propped against the support, and cutting off redundant lateral vines while leading the vines;
(7) and (3) fertilizer and water management: the soil is kept in a semi-dry semi-wet state, topdressing is started when the length of a bottom pod reaches 5-30cm, 150kg of high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer is topdressed every hectare, the fertilizer is applied through a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation tape, the fertilizer is topdressed every 10 days later, the fertilizer is continuously applied for 4 times, and the using amount of each time is the same as that of the fertilizer; the high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer contains 19.0 percent of total nitrogen, 6.0 percent of water-soluble phosphorus, 25.0 percent of water-soluble potassium, 0.45 percent of magnesium, 0.20 percent of boron, 0.06 percent of iron, 0.07 percent of zinc and 0.05 percent of molybdenum;
(8) and (3) pest control: pest control is carried out by integrating a physical method and a chemical method; the physical method comprises the following steps: hanging the pest sticking plates in the greenhouse, and hanging 375 pest sticking plates per hectare; suspending silver gray film strips around the crops to avoid aphids; trapping and killing the pod borers by using a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a black light lamp;
(9) harvesting: harvesting when the bean pods are dry and yellow and are not easy to break, drying in the sun for 3-30d after harvesting until the bean pods are dry and crisp, threshing, cleaning, bagging, sealing, labeling and storing.
Example 3
A method for breeding white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake areas comprises the following steps:
(1) site selection and shed building: selecting a land which is leeward and exposed to the sun and has no leguminous crops planted in nearly three years, constructing a plastic greenhouse or a multi-span greenhouse in the north-south extension direction, covering a greenhouse film with the thickness of 0.6-0.12mm on the roof of the greenhouse, and installing a 20-100-mesh insect-proof net on the skirt part;
(2) seed disinfection: firstly, airing the seeds for 5 days, and then dressing the seeds with 50 percent carbendazim wettable powder accounting for 0.2 percent of the weight of the seeds;
(3) sowing and seedling raising: electrically heating to grow seedlings from the middle ten days of 2 months to the upper ten days of 4 months, arranging the seedbed and laying electric heating wires, wherein the electric heating wires are laid into a back-needle shape and have the power of 200W/m2(ii) a Loading the nutrient soil into a hole tray, watering until enough water is available, sowing 6 seeds in each hole, and covering the soil for 1 cm; after sowing, controlling the temperature to be 20-35 ℃ in the daytime and 10-20 ℃ at night, and keeping the seedbed soil in a semi-dry and semi-wet state; the nutrient soil is prepared by uniformly mixing peat, pig manure residues, coal residues, vegetable cakes and phosphate fertilizers according to the volume ratio of 2:1:3:1.3: 0.1; the phosphate fertilizer in the nutrient soil is calcium superphosphate;
(4) fertilizing and laying drip irrigation belts: ploughing the field block 3-20 days before field planting, wherein the ploughing depth is 35cm, applying 6000kg of decomposed organic fertilizer in combination with ploughing per hectare, and fully and uniformly raking, wherein N + P in the decomposed organic fertilizer2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 6 percent, and organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent; then, ridging and leveling are carried out along the extension direction of the greenhouse, the field block is made into a ridge surface with the ridge width of 1.8m, the furrow width of 0.6m and the length of 5-60m, and a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation belt is laid along the extension direction of the cultivation ridge and is communicated with a water supply pipeline; covering a silver black double-sided mulching film on the ridge, and tightly pressing the periphery;
(5) planting: when the first pair of primary leaves are unfolded, selecting fine day for field planting, when the field planting is carried out, digging holes on the planting beds, transferring the seedlings with soil into the holes, covering the holes with soil, and immediately pouring a small amount of clear water; the row spacing is 120cm and the hole spacing is 60cm during planting, and 6 plants are planted in each hole;
(6) hanging vines: when the height of the seedling reaches 10-80cm, leading the vines by the lifting ropes, fixing the upper parts of the lifting ropes by the cross bars, tying the lower parts of the lifting ropes at the bases of the vines, leading the vines to the support, enabling the vines to be tightly propped against the support, and cutting off redundant lateral vines while leading the vines;
(7) and (3) fertilizer and water management: the soil is kept in a semi-dry semi-wet state, topdressing is started when the length of a bottom pod reaches 5-30cm, 225kg of high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer is topdressed every hectare, the special fertilizer is applied through a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation tape, and is topdressed every 20 days for 2 times continuously, and the using amount of each time is the same as that of the prior fertilizer; the high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer contains 19.0 percent of total nitrogen, 6.0 percent of water-soluble phosphorus, 25.0 percent of water-soluble potassium, 0.45 percent of magnesium, 0.20 percent of boron, 0.06 percent of iron, 0.07 percent of zinc and 0.05 percent of molybdenum;
(8) and (3) pest control: pest control is carried out by integrating a physical method and a chemical method; the physical method comprises the following steps: suspending pest sticking plates in the greenhouse, and suspending 450 pest sticking plates per hectare; suspending silver gray film strips around the crops to avoid aphids; trapping and killing the pod borers by using a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a black light lamp;
(9) harvesting: harvesting when the bean pods are dry and yellow and are not easy to break, drying in the sun for 3-30d after harvesting until the bean pods are dry and crisp, threshing, cleaning, bagging, sealing, labeling and storing.
The comparative example is a conventional cowpea 215 breeding method, seeding is carried out in 2 days after 4 months, soil preparation, seeding, fertilization and pesticide application are carried out according to a conventional mode, seed pods are collected when bean pods are dry and yellow and are not easy to break, the seed pods are aired after being collected until the bean pods are dry and crisp, and then threshing and cleaning are carried out, bagging and sealing are carried out, and labeling and storage are carried out.
Example 1 was conducted in the east of the wuling area of chand city, han nan province, example 2 was conducted in the ancient city of chand city, and example 3 and the comparative example were conducted in the lushan county of wuling area of chand city. After one-season propagation, the incidence rate of common diseases of the cowpea 215 and the yield quality of seeds are counted, and the results are shown in the following table:
TABLE 1 common disease incidence and seed yield and quality of Janun 215 under different propagation methods
As can be seen from the data in Table 1, compared with the conventional reproduction method of Janun cowpea 215 of the comparative example, the blight and plant death rate in the examples 1-3 adopting the reproduction method is remarkably reduced and is only 0.15% on average; the coal mold has light occurrence degree, powdery mildew does not occur, and the incidence situation of the comparative example is serious; the average seed yield is 53.7 kg/mu, and compared with a comparative example, the yield is increased by 27.8 percent on average; the average germination rate of the seeds is 95.3 percent, and compared with a comparative example, the increase of the germination rate is improved by 8.3 percent on average. The propagation method disclosed by the invention can reduce the incidence rate of common diseases in the propagation process of the Zhan lake area Zhan cowpea 215, and simultaneously improve the yield and quality of seeds, so that the seed using requirement of the area is met, and the method has great application value.

Claims (9)

1. A method for breeding white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake areas is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) site selection and shed building: selecting a land which is leeward and exposed to the sun and has no leguminous crops planted in nearly three years, constructing a plastic greenhouse or a multi-span greenhouse in the south-north extension direction, covering a greenhouse film on the roof of the greenhouse, and installing an insect-proof net on the skirt part of the greenhouse;
(2) seed disinfection: firstly, airing seeds for 1-5 days, and then dressing the seeds with 50% carbendazim wettable powder;
(3) sowing and seedling raising: 2 in the middle of the month to 4 in the last ten days of the monthHot seedling raising, arranging the seedbed and laying electric heating wires, wherein the electric heating wires are laid into a loop type with the power of 50-200W/m2(ii) a Loading the nutrient soil into a hole tray, watering for enough moisture, sowing 2-6 seeds in each hole, and covering soil for 1-3 cm; after sowing, controlling the temperature to be 20-35 ℃ in the daytime and 10-20 ℃ at night, and keeping the seedbed soil in a semi-dry and semi-wet state; the nutrient soil is prepared by uniformly mixing peat, pig manure residues, coal residues, vegetable cake and phosphate fertilizer according to the volume ratio of 2-6:1-5:1-3:0.5-1.3: 0.1-0.5;
(4) fertilizing and laying drip irrigation belts: ploughing the field blocks 3-20 days before planting, applying 1500-6000kg of decomposed organic fertilizer per hectare in combination with ploughing, and fully and uniformly raking; then, ridging and leveling are carried out along the extension direction of the greenhouse, and drip irrigation pipes or drip irrigation belts are laid along the extension direction of the cultivation ridging and are communicated with a water supply pipeline; covering a silver black double-sided mulching film on the ridge, and tightly pressing the periphery;
(5) planting: when the first pair of primary leaves are unfolded, selecting fine day for field planting, when the field planting is carried out, digging holes on the planting beds, transferring the seedlings with soil into the holes, covering the holes with soil, and immediately pouring a small amount of clear water;
(6) hanging vines: when the height of the seedling reaches 10-80cm, leading the vines by the lifting ropes, fixing the upper parts of the lifting ropes by the cross bars, tying the lower parts of the lifting ropes at the bases of the vines, leading the vines to the support, enabling the vines to be tightly propped against the support, and cutting off redundant lateral vines while leading the vines;
(7) and (3) fertilizer and water management: the soil is kept in a semi-dry semi-wet state, topdressing is started when the length of a bottom pod reaches 5-30cm, 30-225kg of high-nitrogen high-potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer is topdressed every hectare, the special fertilizer is applied through a drip irrigation pipe or a drip irrigation tape, and then the special fertilizer is topdressed every 5-20 days for 2-6 times continuously, and the using amount of each time is the same as that of the previous fertilizer;
(8) and (3) pest control: pest control is carried out by integrating a physical method and a chemical method; the physical method comprises the following steps: suspending pest sticking plates in the greenhouse, and suspending 90-450 pest sticking plates per hectare; suspending silver gray film strips around the crops to avoid aphids; trapping and killing the pod borers by using a frequency vibration type insecticidal lamp and a black light lamp;
(9) harvesting: harvesting when the bean pods are dry and yellow and are not easy to break, drying in the sun for 3-30d after harvesting until the bean pods are dry and crisp, threshing, cleaning, bagging, sealing, labeling and storing.
2. The method for breeding the cowpea Jansena 215 in the Dongting lake area, which is characterized in that the thickness of the greenhouse film in the step (1) is 0.6-0.12mm, and the insect-proof net is 20-100 meshes.
3. The method for breeding cowpea Jansena 215 in a Dongting lake area, wherein the amount of the 50% carbendazim wettable powder used in the step (2) is 0.2-0.8% of the weight of seeds.
4. The method for breeding the cowpea Jansena 215 in the Dongting lake area according to the claim 1, wherein the phosphate fertilizer in the nutrient soil in the step (3) is calcium superphosphate or calcium magnesium phosphate.
5. The method for breeding cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake areas, wherein the plowing depth in the step (4) is 10-35 cm.
6. The method for breeding cowpea Jansena 215 in Dongting lake areas according to claim 1, wherein N + P in the decomposed organic fertilizer in the step (4)2O5+K2O is more than or equal to 6 percent, and organic matter is more than or equal to 45 percent.
7. The method for breeding cowpea Jansena 215 in Dongting lake area according to claim 1, wherein the ridging in the step (4) is specifically as follows: making the field block into a ridge surface with ridge width of 0.6-1.8m, furrow width of 0.2-0.6m and length of 5-60 m.
8. The propagation method of vigna unguiculata 215 in a Dongting lake area, which is characterized in that row spacing is 40-120cm, hole spacing is 15-60cm in the planting step (5), and 2-6 plants are planted in each hole.
9. The breeding method of cowpea Jansena 215 in Dongting lake area, as claimed in claim 1, wherein the high nitrogen and high potassium drip irrigation special fertilizer in step (7) contains total nitrogen 19.0%, water-soluble phosphorus 6.0%, water-soluble potassium 25.0%, magnesium 0.45%, boron 0.20%, iron 0.06%, zinc 0.07%, and molybdenum 0.05%.
CN201911090008.0A 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 Breeding method of white-seed cowpeas 215 in Dongting lake area Pending CN111011147A (en)

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