CN110663344A - Small-size potato combine - Google Patents

Small-size potato combine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110663344A
CN110663344A CN201911097175.8A CN201911097175A CN110663344A CN 110663344 A CN110663344 A CN 110663344A CN 201911097175 A CN201911097175 A CN 201911097175A CN 110663344 A CN110663344 A CN 110663344A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
wheel
hierarchical
potato
roller
wall
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Pending
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CN201911097175.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
杨然兵
郭雯雯
张健
尚书旗
王政增
郭栋
郑媛媛
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Qingdao Agricultural University
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Qingdao Agricultural University
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Publication date
Application filed by Qingdao Agricultural University filed Critical Qingdao Agricultural University
Priority to CN201911097175.8A priority Critical patent/CN110663344A/en
Priority to PCT/CN2019/119559 priority patent/WO2021092982A1/en
Publication of CN110663344A publication Critical patent/CN110663344A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D27/00Machines with both topping and lifting mechanisms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D17/00Digging machines with sieving and conveying mechanisms
    • A01D17/08Digging machines with sieving and conveying mechanisms with shaker type screens
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D33/00Accessories for digging harvesters
    • A01D33/08Special sorting and cleaning mechanisms

Abstract

The invention discloses a small potato combine harvester in the technical field of agricultural machinery, which comprises a traction frame, a seedling killing device, a vibration digging device, a rod-type conveying and separating device, a roller shaft chain type grading device, a potato collecting and bagging device and a limiting wheel, the traction frame is arranged on the front side wall of the cover plate at the top of the seedling killing device, the vibration digging device is arranged on the rear side wall of the seedling killing device, the belt rod type conveying and separating device is arranged on the rear side wall of the vibration excavating device, the roller shaft chain type grading device is arranged on the rear side of the belt rod type conveying and separating device, the potato collecting and bagging device is arranged on the right side of the belt rod type conveying and separating device, the limiting wheels are arranged at the bottoms of the two sides of the vibration excavating device, through the design of device roller formula hierarchical structure, reduce the damage that produces when gathering the results to the potato, improve the classification performance to the potato simultaneously, economic practicality is stronger.

Description

Small-size potato combine
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of agricultural machinery, in particular to a small potato combine harvester.
Background
China is the first country of potato production, however, the potato harvesting operation is still limited to the traditional manual stem and seedling cutting,
Figure BDA0002268689310000011
digging the potato at the head and picking up the potato manually. Compared with the level of mechanization in developed countries for decades.
The potatoes are widely and sparsely harvested abroad, so the potatoes are all mechanized when being harvested, and the operation width of the potatoes is large. The mechanization research of the foreign potatoes has long course and the updating is rapid. The mechanized potato harvesting technology of China lags behind foreign countries for decades. Most of potatoes in China are planted in small areas and are mostly in hilly areas, and foreign potato harvesting machines are difficult to popularize and use in large scale in China. The method faces to the current situation that the field is few and more people in the small farming operation of China and the pressure for increasing the planting area of the potatoes. The development of a small potato harvesting machine for Chinese potato harvesting is urgently needed.
At present, most of domestic potato harvesters are potato excavators, and the excavated potatoes are directly thrown on the ground through a conveying device and need to be manually picked up and pulled, so that the manual operation amount is greatly increased. And picked potatoes are different in size, so that the potato picking machine is not beneficial to large-scale processing of the potatoes after delivery.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a small-sized potato combine harvester, which solves the problems of low potato harvesting efficiency and unfavorable grading in the prior art.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme: the utility model provides a small-size potato combine, includes the traction frame, kills seedling device, vibration excavating gear, takes pole formula to carry separator, roller chain grading plant, collection potato sack filling device and spacing round, the traction frame is installed and is being killed the preceding lateral wall of seedling device top apron, vibration excavating gear installs the back lateral wall of killing the seedling device, take pole formula to carry separator to install the back lateral wall at vibration excavating gear, roller chain grading plant installs the rear side of taking pole formula to carry separator, collection potato sack filling device installs the right side of taking pole formula to carry separator, spacing round is installed in vibration excavating gear's both sides bottom.
Preferably, vibration excavating gear includes eccentric wheel, altitude mixture control threaded rod, moves shovel key seat, connection crossbeam, digger blade, connecting rod and reduction gear, the eccentric wheel is connected with altitude mixture control threaded rod, altitude mixture control threaded rod's the other end with move the shovel key seat and be connected, move the shovel key seat and install on connecting the crossbeam, both ends are connected with the connecting rod about connecting the crossbeam, two the digging blade is evenly installed to one side is looked at to the bottom of connecting rod, the reduction gear passes through the gangbar and is connected with the eccentric wheel, the digging blade is notch cuttype digging blade.
Preferably, take pole-type to carry separator including following driving wheel, separation conveyer, supporting wheel, shake driving wheel and action wheel, install the inner wall left side at the separation conveyer from the driving wheel, the outer wall bottom at the separation conveyer is installed to the supporting wheel, the inner wall middle part at the separation conveyer is installed to the shake driving wheel, the inner wall right side at the separation conveyer is installed to the action wheel, from driving wheel, supporting wheel, shake driving wheel and action wheel and separation conveyer between all meshing be connected.
Preferably, roller chain grading plant includes hierarchical link joint, hierarchical sprocket, the hierarchical long roller of grades, the hierarchical short roller, long roller horizontal guide, short roller horizontal guide, receiving device and U type guide, hierarchical link joint is installed four the outer wall of hierarchical sprocket, the hierarchical long roller and the hierarchical short roller of grades are all installed on hierarchical link joint, the left side at hierarchical link joint is installed to long roller horizontal guide and short roller horizontal guide, the left and right sides at hierarchical link joint is installed to U type guide, receiving device installs the front side at hierarchical link joint.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: through the setting of this small-size potato combine, structural design is reasonable, and the notch cuttype digger blade compares with ordinary triangle-shaped plane digger blade, and its shovel surface is the notch cuttype, and the operation is distinguished and is gone into soil section and broken section of carrying. The vertical height of the digging shovel at the soil entering part can be reduced by the aid of the additionally arranged crushing conveying section, and resistance in digging is reduced. Due to the uneven shape of the shovel surface, the breaking capacity of the soil block is increased.
The lifting chain type separating device is a simpler one of separating mechanisms, and has simple separating principle and high working efficiency. The digger blade conveys the potatoes back along the lift chain after digging out of the soil and to the grading mechanism. Wherein the supporting rollers mainly support the whole lifting chain, prevent the lifting chain from excessively drooping, are not beneficial to transmission and are easy to generate interference phenomenon. The core component for separating the potatoes is a shaking roller. Amplitude and frequency adjustment can be achieved by dithering the shape of the wheel.
The roll shaft type grading structure is a commonly used grading method for tuber plants. The size of the grading precision is adjusted by changing the side clearance of the roll shaft. The heights of two adjacent roll shafts are unchanged, and the size of a gap on two sides formed by the roll shafts is adjusted by changing the height of the middle roll shaft, so that the grading of big, medium and small tubers is realized. It is commonly used for potato and sweet potato.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the construction of the vibratory excavating apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of the belt-rod type conveying and separating device of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a roller chain type classifier according to the present invention.
In the figure: the device comprises a traction frame 1, a seedling killing device 2, a vibration digging device 3, an eccentric wheel 31, a height adjusting threaded rod 32, a movable shovel pin seat 33, a connecting beam 34, a connecting rod 35, a digging shovel 36, a speed reducer 37, a rod-type conveying and separating device 4, a driven wheel 41, a separating conveyor 42, a supporting wheel 43, a shaking wheel 44, a driving wheel 45, a roller shaft 5 chain type grading device, a grading chain plate 51, a grading chain wheel 52, a grading long roller shaft 53, a grading short roller shaft 54, a long roller shaft 55, a short roller shaft 56, a horizontal guide rail 57, a material receiving device 58U-shaped guide rail 6 potato bagging device and a limiting wheel 7.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The invention provides the following technical scheme: a small-size potato combine harvester is used for grading the specifications of potatoes while harvesting the potatoes, and please refer to fig. 1, and comprises a traction frame 1, a seedling killing device 2, a vibration excavating device 3, a belt rod type conveying and separating device 4, a roller chain type grading device 5, a potato collecting and bagging device 6 and a limiting wheel 7, wherein the traction frame 1 is installed on the front side wall of a cover plate at the top of the seedling killing device 2, the vibration excavating device 3 is installed on the rear side wall of the seedling killing device 2, the belt rod type conveying and separating device 4 is installed on the rear side wall of the vibration excavating device 3, the roller chain type grading device 5 is installed on the rear side of the belt rod type conveying and separating device 4, the potato collecting and bagging device 6 is installed on the right side of the belt rod type conveying and separating device 4, and the limiting wheel 7 is installed at the bottoms of two sides of.
Referring to fig. 2, the vibratory excavating device 3 includes an eccentric wheel 31, a height adjusting threaded rod 32, a movable shovel pin seat 33, a connecting beam 34, an excavating shovel 36, a connecting rod 35 and a speed reducer 37, the eccentric wheel 31 is connected with the height adjusting threaded rod 32, the other end of the height adjusting threaded rod 32 is connected with the movable shovel pin seat 33, the movable shovel pin seat 33 is installed on the connecting beam 34, the left and right ends of the connecting beam 34 are connected with the connecting rod 35, the excavating shovel 36 is evenly installed on one side of the bottom of the two connecting rods 35, the speed reducer 37 is connected with the eccentric wheel 31 through a linkage rod, and the excavating shovel 36 is a stepped excavating shovel.
Referring to fig. 3, the belt rod type conveying and separating device 4 includes a driven wheel 41, a separating conveyor 42, a supporting wheel 43, a shaking wheel 44 and a driving wheel 45, the driven wheel 41 is installed on the left side of the inner wall of the separating conveyor 42, the supporting wheel 43 is installed on the bottom of the outer wall of the separating conveyor 42, the shaking wheel 44 is installed in the middle of the inner wall of the separating conveyor 42, the driving wheel 45 is installed on the right side of the inner wall of the separating conveyor 42, and the driven wheel 41, the supporting wheel 43, the shaking wheel 44 and the driving wheel 45 are all connected with the separating conveyor.
Referring to fig. 4, the roller chain type grading device 5 includes a grading chain plate 51, grading chain wheels 52, grading long rollers 53, grading short rollers 54, long roller horizontal guide rails 55, short roller horizontal guide rails 56, material receiving devices 57 and U-shaped guide rails 58, the grading chain plate 51 is installed on the outer walls of the four grading chain wheels 52, the grading long rollers 53 and the grading short rollers 54 are installed on the grading chain plate 51, the long roller horizontal guide rails 55 and the short roller horizontal guide rails 56 are installed on the left side of the grading chain plate 51, the U-shaped guide rails 58 are installed on the left and right sides of the grading chain plate 51, and the material receiving devices 57 are installed on the front side of the grading chain plate 51.
In the specific use process, the main power consumption of the combine harvester is derived from the walking of the combine harvester, and the resistance brought by soil during the excavation work and the power required by the separation and grading bagging work are overcome. The whole tractor adopts a 30-horsepower tractor to pull and adopts a tractor to pull, so that the tractor has the advantages of simple working principle, reliable work and high safety.
When the potatoes are harvested, the stems of the potatoes are still fresh and tender and are not withered due to drought, so when the stems are separated, the cutter shaft on the seedling killing machine device 2 is arranged at the bottom in front of the speed reducer 37, and the stems are directly smashed by the flail cutter and scattered on the ground.
The vibration excavating device 3 mainly comprises an eccentric wheel 31, a height adjusting threaded rod 32, a movable shovel pin seat 33, a connecting beam 34, an excavating shovel 36, a connecting rod 35 and a speed reducer 37, wherein power transmitted from the speed reducer 37 is changed into direction through meshing of a pair of bevel gears, the power is transmitted to a driven shaft, and an eccentric crank connecting rod 35 mechanism at the end of the driven shaft rotates along with the power, so that the stepped excavating shovel 36 is driven to reciprocate. During the reciprocating motion of the cutting blade 36, the angle of penetration may vary between 21-25. The potatoes excavated from the soil are thrown backwards to the soil and potato separating mechanism through the vibrating screen piece. The performance of such a vibratory shovel is related to the depth of penetration of the shovel 36, the eccentricity of the eccentric 31, the forward speed of the machine, and the length of the shovel 36. The depth of penetration of the digger blade 36 can be adjusted by varying the height of the depth wheel. The stroke of the reciprocating motion of the vibrating shovel can be changed by changing the eccentricity. Therefore, the eccentric wheel 31 disc is designed to have three different eccentricities. The forward speed of the machine is related to the traction force of the tractor, and can be realized by measures such as changing the size of an accelerator of the tractor and the size of a gear. The digging performance can also be improved by replacing a different length of the digging blade 36. The use of the eccentric wheel 31 type digging shovel 36 can reduce the digging resistance without causing the soil blockage phenomenon. Can also reduce the potato damage rate and improve the sweet potato rate.
Compared with a common triangular plane digging shovel, the ladder-shaped digging shovel 36 has a shovel surface in a ladder shape, and the operation section is divided into an earth entering section and a crushing conveying section. The increased crushing and conveying sections can reduce the vertical height of the digging shovel 36 at the soil-entering part, and reduce the resistance during digging. Due to the uneven shape of the shovel surface, the breaking capacity of the soil block is increased. Controlling the soil penetration angle alpha of the soil penetration section within the range of 21-25 degrees. The soil-entering angle beta of the crushing and conveying section is controlled within the range of 13-15 degrees. The digging depth is 200-350mm, and the digging depth can be adjusted by adjusting the height of the limiting wheel 7. The digging blade 36 is 230mm in length.
The roller shaft chain type grading device 5 is composed of a grading chain plate 51, a grading chain wheel 52, a grading long roller shaft 53, a grading short roller shaft 54, a long roller shaft horizontal guide rail 55, a short roller shaft horizontal guide rail 56, a material receiving device 57 and a U-shaped guide rail 58, the roller shaft chain type grading device 5 is a grading method for tuber plants, the grading precision is adjusted by changing the side clearance of the roller shafts, the heights of two adjacent roller shafts are unchanged, and the size of the two side clearances formed by the roller shafts is adjusted by changing the height of the middle roller shaft, so that the grading of large, medium and small tubers is realized.
Small-size potato combine mainly comprises frame, seedling killing device 2, belt rod formula transport separator 4, roller chain grading plant 5, collection potato sack filling device 6 etc. and the direction of delivery of potato is at the harvest in-process: the vibratory excavating device 3 → the separating conveyor 42 → the roller chain type classifying device 5 → the potato collecting and bagging device 6.
Because the machine belongs to a combined harvester and is long in length, the small potato combined harvester is pulled by a tractor, power of the small potato combined harvester is transmitted to a speed reducer 37 through a universal joint, the speed reducer 37 distributes part of the power to a seedling killing machine cutter shaft, a flail knife smashes stems, an eccentric wheel 31 rotates to drive a height adjusting threaded rod 32, a movable shovel pin seat 33 drives a connecting rod 35 through a connecting cross beam 34, and therefore a digging shovel 36 reciprocates, the digging shovel 36 digs soil to lift soil blocks and potatoes, and the potatoes are dug out of soil. The potato that excavates is transported to the front end of lift chain formula tremble sieve and is slided backward, the shake effect of shake wheel 44, shake garrulous with the soil of potato upper bag peridium, broken soil leaks down from the space between the pole, realize the soil-potato separation, simultaneously, the potato is upwards carried to the rear end of lift chain by continuous slope, realize the potato after the soil-potato separation, the horizontal transport belt who forms through hierarchical long roller 53 and the combination of hierarchical short roller 54 carries out the size of potato and grades, the potato that is less than the hierarchical clearance can fall into downwards, fall into collection potato sack filling device 6, the bagging-off.
While the invention has been described with reference to certain embodiments, various modifications may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In particular, the various features of the various embodiments of the invention disclosed may be used in any combination whatsoever without structural conflict, and the failure to exhaustively describe such combinations in this specification is merely for the sake of brevity and resource conservation. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiments disclosed, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (4)

1. A small-size potato combine characterized in that: including traction frame (1), kill seedling device (2), vibration excavating gear (3), take pole formula to carry separator (4), roller chain grading plant (5), collection potato sack filling device (6) and spacing round (7), traction frame (1) is installed and is being killed the preceding lateral wall of seedling device (2) top apron, vibration excavating gear (3) are installed and are being killed the rear side wall of seedling device (2), take pole formula to carry separator (4) to install the rear side wall at vibration excavating gear (3), roller chain grading plant (5) are installed and are being carried the rear side of separator (4) at the pole formula, collection potato sack filling device (6) are installed and are being carried the right side of separator (4) at the pole formula, the both sides bottom at vibration excavating gear (3) is installed to spacing round (7).
2. A small potato combine harvester according to claim 1, further comprising: vibration excavating gear (3) include eccentric wheel (31), altitude mixture control threaded rod (32), move shovel key seat (33), connecting beam (34), digger blade (36), connecting rod (35) and reduction gear (37), eccentric wheel (31) are connected with altitude mixture control threaded rod (32), the other end of altitude mixture control threaded rod (32) with move shovel key seat (33) and be connected, move shovel key seat (33) and install on connecting beam (34), both ends are connected with connecting rod (35) about connecting beam (34), two the bottom of connecting rod (35) looks one side and evenly installs digger blade (36), reduction gear (37) are connected with eccentric wheel (31) through the gangbar, digger blade (36) are notch cuttype digger blade.
3. A small potato combine harvester according to claim 1, further comprising: belt rod formula is carried separator (4) and is included from driving wheel (41), separation conveyer (42), supporting wheel (43), buffeting wheel (44) and action wheel (45), install the inner wall left side at separation conveyer (42) from driving wheel (41), the outer wall bottom at separation conveyer (42) is installed in supporting wheel (43), the inner wall middle part at separation conveyer (42) is installed in buffeting wheel (44), the inner wall right side at separation conveyer (42) is installed in action wheel (45), all mesh between driving wheel (41), supporting wheel (43), buffeting wheel (44) and action wheel (45) and separation conveyer (42) and be connected.
4. A small potato combine harvester according to claim 1, further comprising: roller chain grading plant (5) are including hierarchical link joint (51), hierarchical sprocket (52), hierarchical long roller (53), hierarchical short roller (54), long roller horizontal guide (55), short roller horizontal guide (56), receiving device (57) and U type guide (58), install at four hierarchical link joint (51) the outer wall of hierarchical sprocket (52), hierarchical long roller (53) and hierarchical short roller (54) are all installed on hierarchical link joint (51), install the left side at hierarchical link joint (51) long roller horizontal guide (55) and short roller horizontal guide (56), the left and right sides at hierarchical link joint (51) is installed in U type guide (58), receiving device (57) are installed at the front side at hierarchical (51).
CN201911097175.8A 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 Small-size potato combine Pending CN110663344A (en)

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PCT/CN2019/119559 WO2021092982A1 (en) 2019-11-11 2019-11-19 Compact potato combine harvester

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Cited By (7)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111448883A (en) * 2020-04-28 2020-07-28 西北农林科技大学 Potato grading harvester
CN112119736A (en) * 2020-09-24 2020-12-25 安徽小荷农业科技有限公司 Sweet potato planting harvester
CN113348845A (en) * 2021-07-09 2021-09-07 青岛农业大学 Double-chain soil-removing peanut digging harvester
CN113424696A (en) * 2021-06-08 2021-09-24 西南大学 Small-size potato harvester
CN114651592A (en) * 2021-04-29 2022-06-24 成都宇亨智能科技有限公司 Rhizome harvesting method
CN116584232A (en) * 2023-05-11 2023-08-15 江苏大学 Potato digging and potato soil seedling separating device and method and harvester
CN117204189A (en) * 2023-09-04 2023-12-12 甘肃省生产力促进中心 Novel rhizome class chinese-medicinal material harvester

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CN113455166B (en) * 2021-08-16 2022-03-01 湖南农业大学 Potato harvester for planting potatoes in winter in south

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111448883A (en) * 2020-04-28 2020-07-28 西北农林科技大学 Potato grading harvester
CN112119736A (en) * 2020-09-24 2020-12-25 安徽小荷农业科技有限公司 Sweet potato planting harvester
CN114651592A (en) * 2021-04-29 2022-06-24 成都宇亨智能科技有限公司 Rhizome harvesting method
CN113424696A (en) * 2021-06-08 2021-09-24 西南大学 Small-size potato harvester
CN113348845A (en) * 2021-07-09 2021-09-07 青岛农业大学 Double-chain soil-removing peanut digging harvester
CN116584232A (en) * 2023-05-11 2023-08-15 江苏大学 Potato digging and potato soil seedling separating device and method and harvester
CN116584232B (en) * 2023-05-11 2024-03-22 江苏大学 Potato digging and potato soil seedling separating device and method and harvester
CN117204189A (en) * 2023-09-04 2023-12-12 甘肃省生产力促进中心 Novel rhizome class chinese-medicinal material harvester

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