CN109879536B - Rural domestic sewage purification system and purification method - Google Patents

Rural domestic sewage purification system and purification method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109879536B
CN109879536B CN201910184933.3A CN201910184933A CN109879536B CN 109879536 B CN109879536 B CN 109879536B CN 201910184933 A CN201910184933 A CN 201910184933A CN 109879536 B CN109879536 B CN 109879536B
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tank
anaerobic tank
domestic sewage
purification
section
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CN109879536A (en
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王正阳
李广胜
刘剑聪
陈圆圆
宋斌
赵志成
赵杰
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Beijing Zhihe Water Environmental Technology Co ltd
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Duan Linzhuo
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/30Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies
    • Y02W10/37Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies using solar energy

Abstract

The invention relates to a rural domestic sewage purification system and a purification method, wherein the system comprises an anaerobic tank (100), a regulating tank (200) and a medium purification tank (300) which are sequentially connected, the collected domestic sewage is introduced into the anaerobic tank (100), and the anaerobic tank (100) precipitates particulate impurities in the domestic sewage and is used as a place for anoxic and anaerobic reactions to primarily degrade the domestic sewage; the adjusting tank (200) collects domestic sewage flowing out of the anaerobic tank (100) and adjusts the water amount entering the medium purifying tank (300); the medium purification tank (300) is filled with filler medium, and the domestic sewage flows into the filler, is purified and discharged out of the purification system through the interaction with the filler. The purification system and the purification method can realize deep purification of domestic sewage through the multi-stage treatment of the anaerobic tank, the regulating tank and the medium purification tank, and have the advantages of simple and reasonable system structure, no high cost investment, simple later operation and maintenance, and suitability for popularization and use in rural areas.

Description

Rural domestic sewage purification system and purification method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of sewage treatment, relates to a sewage purification system and a purification method, and is particularly suitable for purifying the water quality of rural domestic sewage.
Background
The rural environmental pollution problem is highlighted day by day while the economy is rapidly developed. According to official statistics, about 80 hundred million tons of domestic sewage are generated in countryside in 2016, and 96% of villages have no drainage channels and sewage treatment systems, so that the domestic sewage is discharged at will. Untreated domestic sewage is discharged arbitrarily, the ecological environment of rural areas is seriously polluted, and the physical health of vast farmers and the economic development of rural areas are directly threatened. On the other hand, untreated domestic sewage flows automatically to surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the like in low-lying places, and polluted water areas also become sources of disease infection and spread, so that the occurrence and the prevalence of infectious diseases, endemic diseases and zoonosis in parts of regions are easily caused.
The random discharge of rural domestic sewage poses serious threat to the ecological environment of rural areas, and the key point for solving the problem of rural water pollution is to develop a new technology and a new process suitable for rural distributed domestic sewage treatment according to local conditions.
The surface water of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc. in the domestic sewage has high concentration, the treatment rate of the treatment facility is required to be higher, and the construction and operation investment of a single treatment facility are restricted due to the distribution status and the total amount in rural areas, which puts higher requirements on the treatment process, the investment in the construction period and the later operation and maintenance.
At present, domestic sewage is mainly treated by a septic tank, a grid, anaerobism, aerobism and precipitation. The treatment principle is that the organic pollutants in water are consumed by utilizing the metabolism of microorganisms and bacteria, and the water quality is purified through the nitrification and denitrification reaction. The process connects the anoxic section and the rear section aerobic section in series, can complete the circulation of C, N, O in ecology, and realizes the harmless treatment of sewage. The process mainly utilizes electromechanical equipment to bring an environment suitable for growth and breeding of microorganisms, an activity space for the microorganisms to live is required to be built, and due to the fact that the management of the microorganisms is not in place and the limitation of environmental temperature is caused, the purification effect cannot meet the requirements of GB 18918-.
And a membrane method which is popular in recent years is used for treating rural sewage. The main process comprises biological contact oxidation, MBR membrane and disinfection. The effluent quality of the treatment process can meet the discharge requirement without precipitation, and the effluent quality is good. However, the MBR membrane itself is a high value, delicate material, and equipment operation must be carried out strictly in accordance with operating regulations, with periodic cleaning. The service life of the biological membrane is 2-3 years under the standard condition, the biological membrane can be used for 2 years in actual use, and the replacement cost in the later period is high.
Therefore, it is necessary to provide a rural domestic sewage purification system and a purification method which have the advantages of stable operation, high treatment efficiency, standard effluent quality and low construction cost.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the inventor of the invention carries out intensive research and provides a purification system which can directly treat rural domestic sewage, has good treatment effect and can solve the problem of poor quality of effluent water in the traditional purification technology. The system comprises an anaerobic tank, a regulating tank and a medium purification tank, wherein the anaerobic tank is used for removing oil, precipitating and anaerobically acidifying, oxygen dissolution promotion and biological floating bed purification are performed in the regulating tank, and the medium layer and microorganism purification are performed in the medium purification tank, so that the deep purification of the domestic sewage is realized, the effluent meets the requirements of pollutant discharge standards of urban sewage treatment plants, the system is simple and reasonable in structure, high-cost investment is not needed, the later-stage operation and maintenance are simple, and the system is suitable for being popularized and used in rural areas, thereby completing the invention.
The invention aims to provide the following technical scheme:
(1) a rural domestic sewage purification system, wherein the purification system comprises an anaerobic tank 100, a regulating tank 200 and a medium purification tank 300 which are connected in sequence,
introducing the collected domestic sewage into an anaerobic tank 100, wherein the anaerobic tank 100 precipitates particulate impurities in the domestic sewage and is used as a place for anoxic and anaerobic reactions to primarily degrade the domestic sewage;
the adjusting tank 200 collects the domestic sewage flowing out of the anaerobic tank 100 and adjusts the amount of water entering the medium purifying tank 300;
the medium purification tank 300 is filled with filler medium, and domestic sewage flows into the filler, is purified through interaction with the filler, and is discharged out of the purification system.
(2) A method for purifying rural domestic sewage, which is preferably implemented by the purification system in the (1).
According to the rural domestic sewage purification system and the purification method provided by the invention, the system has the following beneficial effects:
(1) according to the invention, the arrangement of the oil separating plate and the oil discharging pipe in the anaerobic tank can remove oil stains which are difficult to degrade in water and affect the normal operation of the system, and the treatment efficiency of sewage containing no oil stains or only a small amount of oil stains is obviously improved;
(2) in the invention, the ultrasonic generator in the anaerobic tank is installed, thus being beneficial to the formation of anaerobic environment and promoting anaerobic reactions such as acidification, degradation and the like;
(3) according to the invention, the biological floating bed is prepared from simple materials in the regulating tank, the structure of the biological floating bed is exquisite, the draft is convenient to regulate, and the plant root system on the biological floating bed can be used as a microorganism accumulation place, so that the removal of pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended matters and the like is facilitated;
(4) according to the invention, reed, cattail, calamus or wild rice are planted on the surface of the wetland vegetation layer, the plants selected specifically are strong in vitality and high in survival rate, and the crosswise rhizomes can be connected in a crisscross mode under the ground to generate plant root holes, so that a developed soil macroporous network is formed, a good growth interface and conditions are provided for microorganisms, and an important effect is achieved on purification and degradation of pollutants;
(5) the PVC pipe network is laid on the middle lower part of the wetland vegetation layer to simulate plant root holes, cracks and through holes are densely distributed on the surface of the PVC pipe network, the connection tightness between the artificial root holes and the plant root systems is enhanced, the plant root systems enter the PVC pipe network, the microbial activity is improved, and the sewage purification capacity in the PVC pipe network is improved;
(6) according to the invention, the earthworm is introduced into the medium purification tank, so that the service life of the system can be prolonged, the movement and excrement of the earthworm are very beneficial to improving the quality of soil, the air permeability of the soil can be kept good, and the soil can be kept in a healthy state, so that the sewage treatment efficiency is improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing a domestic sewage purification system according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view showing the structure of a guide rod-related device in a first stage anaerobic tank according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view showing the construction of a media purge bin according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention.
The reference numbers illustrate:
100-an anaerobic tank;
110-an ultrasonic generator;
120-oil removal plate;
130-an oil drain pipe;
140-a guide rod;
150-a drawbar;
160-a traction sleeve;
170-capstan;
200-a regulating reservoir;
210-a microporous aeration disc;
220-biological floating bed;
230-carbon fiber ecological grass;
300-a media purification tank;
310-wetland vegetation layer;
311-a trench;
312-PVC pipe network;
320-a conditioning layer;
330-support layer.
Detailed Description
The features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent and appreciated from the following detailed description of the invention.
The word "exemplary" is used exclusively herein to mean "serving as an example, embodiment, or illustration. Any embodiment described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments. While the various aspects of the embodiments are presented in drawings, the drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale unless specifically indicated.
As shown in FIG. 1, the object of the present invention is to provide a rural domestic sewage purification system, which comprises an anaerobic tank 100, a regulating tank 200, and a medium purification tank 300 connected in sequence,
wherein, the collected domestic sewage is introduced into the anaerobic tank 100, the anaerobic tank 100 precipitates particulate matter impurities in the domestic sewage and is used as a place for anoxic and anaerobic reactions to primarily degrade the domestic sewage, such as degradation of macromolecular organic matters, thereby improving the feasibility of biochemical treatment of the domestic sewage;
the adjusting tank 200 collects the domestic sewage flowing out of the anaerobic tank 100, and adjusts the amount of water entering the medium purifying tank 300 to ensure that the water entering the medium purifying tank 300 is uniform; due to the non-uniformity of domestic sewage distribution and yield, the arrangement of the adjusting tank 200 provides certain guarantee for the stability of the effluent of the whole system;
the medium purification tank 300 is filled with filler medium, and domestic sewage flows into the filler, is purified through interaction with the filler, and is discharged out of the purification system.
In the invention, the anaerobic tank 100 is a three-section anaerobic tank 100, a water inlet introduces high water level of domestic sewage into a first section of anaerobic tank, overflow plates are erected among the first section of anaerobic tank, a second section of anaerobic tank and a third section of anaerobic tank, and sewage in the former section of anaerobic tank enters the latter section of anaerobic tank through overflow.
In current large-scale sewage treatment plant sewage treatment, anaerobic tank 100 builds anaerobic environment through the load that improves to water, however rural domestic sewage's processing has the dispersion characteristics, is not suitable for adopting the high load to obtain anaerobic environment like large-scale sewage treatment plant, and anaerobic tank 100 is difficult to real realization anaerobic environment, and the vitality of anaerobe and the acidizing degradation efficiency in the anaerobic tank 100 exist and promote the space.
The inventor is provided with an ultrasonic generator 110 (such as a probe type ultrasonic generator) in the third-stage anaerobic tank, and preferably installs the ultrasonic generator 110 in the middle of the tank body of the third-stage anaerobic tank, and makes the emitted ultrasonic wave propagate obliquely upwards. The ultrasonic generator 110 is periodically started to perform sound wave oscillation on the sewage in the third section of anaerobic tank, so that exhaust is promoted, and a stricter anaerobic environment can be obtained. Therefore, the first section anaerobic tank and the second section anaerobic tank can perform anaerobic and facultative anaerobic activities, and can ensure that the third section anaerobic tank performs stricter anaerobic activities, and the microbial reaction is diversified and has regional hierarchy.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, an oil separation plate 120 is disposed near the water outlet of the first stage anaerobic tank, the plate surface of the oil separation plate 120 faces the water inlet and is fixed in a direction of 45 °, and the lower end of the oil separation plate 120 is immersed in domestic sewage.
Further, an oil discharge pipe 130 is arranged at the front end of the first section of anaerobic tank and at the same height as the water inlet, and the oil separation plate 120 places the oil stain in the domestic sewage at the front end of the first section of anaerobic tank, so that the oil stain can be discharged through the oil discharge pipe 130.
Furthermore, the wall of the oil discharge pipe 130 extending into the domestic sewage is densely provided with oil discharge holes, and the diameter of each oil discharge hole is 0.1-1.5 mm.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, an observation window is arranged at a set height on the wall of the tank body of each section of anaerobic tank, or a liquid level meter communicated with the interior of each section of anaerobic tank is arranged outside the tank body wall of each section of anaerobic tank, and the height of sewage and the height of an oil layer in each section of anaerobic tank are observed through the observation window or the liquid level meter. Wherein, the viewing aperture can be toughened glass window, and the high interval satisfies the height of intaking of observing anaerobism pond 100.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the oil drain pipe 130 extending into domestic sewage in the first stage anaerobic tank forms a plurality of branches or planar pipe networks located at the same height, so that oil can be simultaneously pumped from a plurality of areas in the oil layer, and the pumping of water is reduced.
Further, as shown in fig. 2, an oil drain pipe 130 extending into the domestic sewage is fixedly connected with a guide rod 140 horizontally fixed in the first stage anaerobic tank; the length direction of the guide rod 140 is consistent with that of the oil discharge pipe 130, the tail end close to the wall surface of the tank body is connected with a traction rod 150 which can drive the guide rod 140 to move up and down, the traction rod 150 is positioned in a traction sleeve 160, the upper part of the traction rod 150 is connected with a traction rope, the traction rope is led out of the anaerobic tank 100 and is fixed by a winch 170 positioned outside the anaerobic tank 100.
Therefore, the oil layer position is observed through the observation window or the liquid level meter, the height of the guide rod 140 is adjusted by retracting and releasing the traction rope to drive the oil discharge pipe 130 to move up and down, and the oil layer in the anaerobic tank 100 can be flexibly and conveniently drawn out.
The domestic sewage can not avoid oil storage, oil stains are difficult to degrade, and the function of an active unit in the domestic sewage is influenced when the domestic sewage enters a sewage treatment system, so that the oil removal effect is related to the sewage purification effect. In the invention, the oil separation plate 120 and the oil discharge system are arranged, so that the oil in the domestic sewage can be simply and effectively removed.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, phosphorus accumulating bacteria are added into the second section of anaerobic tank, and dephosphorize-accumulate phosphorus in the anoxic environment, and when the phosphorus accumulating bacteria enter a subsequent aerobic area along with domestic sewage, the phosphorus accumulating capability of the phosphorus accumulating bacteria passing through the anaerobic environment is improved, so that phosphorus removal in the aerobic environment is facilitated.
And biological ceramsite and denitrifying bacteria are added into the third-section anaerobic tank, wherein the biological ceramsite is a novel biological membrane carrier filter material and has the advantages of light weight, large specific surface area, strong adsorption capacity and the like.
In the present invention, the adjusting tank 200 is a buffer container for domestic sewage, and is communicated with the anaerobic tank 100 (third stage anaerobic tank) through a high level drainage pipe.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a micro-porous aeration disk 210 is installed at the bottom of the conditioning tank 200 to increase the dissolved oxygen amount of the wastewater introduced into the medium-purifying tank 300. Preferably, the microporous aeration disk 210 is aerated by a solar aerator, using clean energy solar as power.
The aeration in the regulation tank 200 increases the dissolved oxygen amount in the domestic sewage entering the medium purification tank 300, and provides an oxygen source for the aerobic reaction of the plants and microorganisms in the medium purification tank 300.
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the surface of the conditioning tank 200 is covered by a bio-floating bed 220, and the bio-floating bed 220 comprises a bio-bed body capable of floating on a water body and plants fixed on the bio-bed body.
The biological bed body is a PVC pipe row fixed by steel wires, PVC pipes in the pipe row are transversely and longitudinally arranged, and the PVC pipes are inserted into gaps generated by crossing any two lines or two lines and used as a plant growth container.
The invention utilizes the characteristic that the pipe is easy to suspend in water, and plugs the two ends of all or part of PVC pipes which are transversely and longitudinally arranged in the pipe row to make the pipe row hollow, thereby providing buoyancy for the floating of the biological bed body, and adjusting the number of plugs according to the change of the weight of the biological floating bed 220 or the adjustment of the depth of the biological floating bed 220 in the water body. The number of plugs is reduced, and the position of the biological floating bed 220 moves downwards; the number of plugs increases and the position of the biological floating bed 220 moves upward.
The PVC pipe used as a plant growth container has a pipe diameter of 5-40 cm and a depth in water of not more than 1m, so that the roots of plants planted in the PVC pipe can extend out of the pipe. Preferably, the plant is selected from perennial emergent aquatic crops, such as reed, cattail, calamus or wild rice.
Further, the carbon fiber ecological grass 230 is hung under the biological floating bed 220, so that a considerable area in the regulating reservoir 200 becomes a root-imitating distribution area of the carbon fiber ecological grass 230.
The plant root and the carbon fiber ecological grass 230 both have extremely high adsorbability and biocompatibility, and the microbial flora can form an adhesive active biological film on the surface: on one hand, the biological membrane is used for degrading and converting organic pollutants in a water body by combining with oxygen-containing fluid through links such as adsorption, biological oxidation and the like of the organic pollutants; on the other hand, the contact between the biofilm and suspended matters in the domestic sewage is increased, so that small suspended solid particles which are not removed in the anaerobic tank 100 are promoted to be fully settled in the contact process, and the service cycle of the subsequent medium purification tank 300 is prolonged; on the other hand, the formation of the biological film increases a biological reaction interface, and the nitrogen and phosphorus removal function of the microorganism is active.
In the present invention, the medium purifying tank 300 has a layered structure, and includes a wetland vegetation layer 310, a regulation layer 320, and a support layer 330 from top to bottom, wherein,
a wetland vegetation layer 310 is arranged from the surface layer to the 130-150 cm below the surface layer, soil is paved in the wetland vegetation layer, and aquatic plants are planted in the wetland vegetation layer;
a regulating layer 320 is arranged at a position 30-50 cm below the wetland vegetation layer 310, and a solid particle medium is laid for adsorbing pollutants;
the position 10-20 cm below the adjusting layer 320 is a supporting layer 330 for supporting the filler on the upper layer, so that the treated water can be discharged.
In the present invention, as shown in fig. 3, a plurality of trenches 311 are dug in the upper part of the wetland vegetation layer 310, the depth of the trenches is 40-50 cm, the trenches 311 are in a low topography, and the wetland vegetation layer 310 has a wavy surface state.
The plants planted on the surface of the wetland vegetation layer 310 are wetland large aquatic plants, and comprise one or more of reed, cattail, calamus or wild rice. These plants have developed rhizomes, especially transverse rhizomes, which can be connected together in the ground to create plant root pores, which form a developed network of soil macropores, which is incomparable with other aquatic plants. The plant root holes are the pore passages left in the soil after the plant root system grows, dies and decays, and are an important type of the soil macroporosity. The plant root hole is a multi-medium interface between the plant and the soil, consists of water, gas, soil, microorganisms and a plant root system, is a multi-level interface system, and provides a good growth interface and conditions for the microorganisms by the transmission of water, solute and air in the gap, thereby playing an important role in purifying and degrading pollutants. Further, the plants of the present invention have a long-term effective phosphorus removal effect. The phosphorus removal generally only depends on the adsorption of a filler medium, and after the adsorption of the filler reaches the upper limit, the content of phosphorus in effluent is easy to exceed the standard.
In the invention, the construction of the plurality of ditches is not only convenient for introducing water in the regulating tank 200 into the medium purifying tank 300, but also more important, plants grow at different heights, and the extension sections of the root systems under the ground are different, so that the distribution range of the root systems is larger, and compared with the traditional method which mainly reduces pollution by taking landscapes as assistance, the aquatic plants have more impurity removal functions by carrying shoulders.
In the invention, the height of the wetland vegetation layer 310 reaches 130-150 cm, and is mainly considered based on two factors of the length of plant roots and the sewage flow, the aquatic plant roots selected in the invention are developed, the wetland vegetation layer 310 is lower than 100cm in height, which is not beneficial to the formation of a root hole network, and meanwhile, the deep purification effect of the soil layer on domestic sewage is considered, so that a sufficient hydraulic flow is provided for the sewage, and the wetland vegetation layer 310 is selected to be 130-150 cm in height.
In a preferred embodiment, PVC pipe network 312 is horizontally laid at different heights at the middle lower part of the wetland vegetation layer 310, the PVC pipe network 312 comprises a plurality of branch pipes which are distributed vertically and horizontally, each branch pipe can be branched into sub-branch pipes again, and the branch pipes/sub-branch pipes are communicated with each other to form the PVC pipe network.
Preferably, the pipe diameters between the branched pipes, between the sub-branched pipes, and between the branched pipe and the sub-branched pipe in the PVC pipe network 312 may be the same or different, preferably different. The diameter of the pipe in the PVC pipe network 312 is 0.5-2 cm, which is equivalent to the root hole formed by the plant root selected in the invention.
In the invention, the PVC pipe network 312 is used as an artificial root hole to be buried in the wetland vegetation layer 310, and the PVC pipe network is transversely arranged because the aquatic plant root systems selected in the invention are mainly transversely distributed and obliquely distributed within 100cm of depth. The PVC pipe network has the following functions as an artificial root hole: a. providing a site for adsorption, conversion and degradation of nutrient salts and other contaminants; b. the method provides a preferential migration path for gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and the like, changes the oxidation-reduction state in soil, and provides a variable environment for pollutant degradation.
In a preferred embodiment, 10 to 25 layers of PVC pipe network 312 are laid in the wetland vegetation layer 310.
In a preferred embodiment, the surface of the PVC piping network 312 is densely populated with cracks that allow moisture to enter the PVC pipe without being easily blocked by soil.
Preferably, through holes are distributed on the surface of the PVC pipe network 312, the aperture of each through hole is preferably 0.1-0.6 cm, the plant root systems have an opportunity to enter the PVC pipe network due to the through holes, the connection tightness between the artificial root holes and the plant root systems is enhanced, the plant root systems enter the PVC pipe network, the microbial activity is improved, and the sewage purification capacity in the PVC pipe network can be improved.
In a preferred embodiment, a carbon source is added to the upper middle region of the wetland vegetation layer 310, and earthworms are thrown into the wetland vegetation layer 310 to convert the wetland vegetation layer 310 into an earthworm bed. The earthworm is put in the mixture with the density of 5 g-8 g (earthworm)/(L filler). The carbon source includes, but is not limited to, straw, wood chips, mushroom bran, rice straw, and the like.
The introduction of the earthworms facilitates the medium purification tank 300 to effectively perform sewage treatment by fully utilizing the synergistic effect of the earthworms and the microorganisms and the functions of the earthworms such as ventilation, water permeation, organic matter ingestion and the like. The earthworms can not only degrade organic matters in the wetland vegetation layer 310, but also promote C, N, P transformation and mineralization through the grinding of the sand sacs, the biochemical action of intestinal tracts and the synergistic action of the earthworms and microorganisms, but have the main functions of mechanical loosening and digestion in the soil active layer, play a role in physically cleaning the wetland vegetation layer 310 and prevent soil hardening and blocking. The movement of the earthworms in the wetland vegetation layer 310 can also effectively improve the microbial quantity and the microbial activity and promote the decomposition and transformation of organic substances.
In the present invention, the filler in the adjustment layer 320 is zeolite. Zeolites are a general term for aqueous porous aluminosilicates, the crystalline structure of which consists predominantly of (SiO) tetrahedra. Al (Al)3+And Si4+As framework ions constituting, together with oxygen atoms, the overall framework of the zeolite molecule, part of the Si4+Is Al3+The zeolite framework has cavities and pore canals with certain pore diameters, so that the zeolite framework has adsorption and ion exchange properties, has greater advantages on ammonia nitrogen adsorption and heavy metal adsorption and fixation compared with other ore raw materials, and has the characteristics of rapid adsorption and slow balance.
Furthermore, the particle size of zeolite in the adjusting layer 320 is 0.5-5 cm, and is between the particle size of soil and the filler of the supporting layer 330, so that pollutants such as ammonia nitrogen can be efficiently adsorbed, and meanwhile, the soil can be intercepted.
In the present invention, the support layer 330 is filled with gravel particles. A water collecting pipe is buried in the supporting layer 330, the water collecting pipe is a PVC pipe with the inner diameter of 5-10 cm, and water collecting holes with the diameter of 1-10 mm are densely distributed on the pipe wall.
Preferably, the periphery of the water collecting pipe is provided with geotextile wrapping stones. Under the protection of the stones and the geotextiles, the water collecting holes of the water collecting pipes are difficult to be blocked by the soil and small stones in the medium purifying tank 300, and the water is favorably drained.
In the present invention, the sewage enters the medium purifying tank 300, and is discharged after a series of physical, chemical, and biological reactions. In the downward permeation process of the domestic sewage, oxygen is gradually consumed, the domestic sewage sequentially undergoes aerobic-facultative-anaerobic reactions, and the existence of various reaction forms is beneficial to removing nitrate/nitrite, ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus.
In another aspect of the invention, a method for purifying rural domestic sewage is provided, and the method is preferably implemented by the purification system.
Examples
Example 1
As shown in fig. 1 to 3, a domestic sewage purification system and a purification method using the same, the purification system including an anaerobic tank 100, a conditioning tank 200, and a medium-purifying tank 300, which are connected in this order.
The anaerobic tank 100 is divided into a first section anaerobic tank, a second section anaerobic tank and a third section anaerobic tank, overflow plates are erected among the sections anaerobic tanks, and sewage in the former section anaerobic tank enters the latter section anaerobic tank through overflow. And arranging a toughened glass window at a set height on the wall of the tank body of each section of anaerobic tank, and observing the height of sewage and the height of an oil layer in each section of anaerobic tank through the toughened glass window. And the middle part of the wall of the third section of the anaerobic tank is provided with an ultrasonic generator, the ultrasonic generator is enabled to transmit the ultrasonic waves obliquely upwards, and the ultrasonic generator is started for about 10 minutes after water enters the anaerobic tank.
An oil separation plate 120 is arranged near a water outlet of the first-section anaerobic tank, the surface of the oil separation plate 120 faces the water inlet and is fixed in a 45-degree direction, and the lower end of the oil separation plate 120 is immersed in domestic sewage. An oil discharge pipe 130 is arranged at the front end of the first section of anaerobic tank and at the same height position with the water inlet, oil discharge holes are densely distributed on the pipe wall of the oil discharge pipe 130, the aperture of each oil discharge hole is 0.1-1.5 mm, and the oil separation plate 120 places oil stains in domestic sewage at the front end of the first section of anaerobic tank and further can discharge the oil stains through the oil discharge pipe 130.
The oil discharge pipe 130 extending into the domestic sewage is fixedly connected with a guide rod 140 horizontally fixed in the first section of the anaerobic tank; the length direction of the guide rod 140 is consistent with that of the oil discharge pipe 130, the tail end close to the wall surface of the tank body is connected with a traction rod 150 which can drive the guide rod 140 to move up and down, the traction rod 150 is positioned in a traction sleeve 160, the upper part of the traction rod 150 is connected with a traction rope, and the traction rope is led out of the anaerobic tank 100 and is fixed through a winch 170. The guiding rod 140 can be adjusted in height by retracting the traction rope to drive the oil discharge pipe 130 to move up and down.
Phosphorus-accumulating bacteria are added into the second-stage anaerobic tank to ensure that the concentration of the phosphorus-accumulating bacteria reaches 1 multiplied by 108one/mL. Biological ceramsite attached by denitrifying bacteria is added into the third section of anaerobic tank, and the denitrifying bacteria generate a biofilm with the thickness of 1cm on the biological ceramsite.
The bottom of the adjusting tank 200 is provided with a microporous aeration disc, the power is solar energy, and oxygen is aerated into the adjusting tank to increase the dissolved oxygen amount in the domestic sewage entering the medium purifying tank 300. The surface of the conditioning tank 200 is covered by a biological floating bed 220. The biological bed body is a PVC pipe row fixed by steel wires, PVC pipes in the pipe row are transversely and longitudinally arranged, and the PVC pipes are inserted into a gap generated by crossing any two rows or two lines and are used as a growth container of plants (reeds). The two ends of all PVC pipes transversely and longitudinally arranged in the pipe row are plugged to be hollow, so that buoyancy is provided for floating of the biological bed body, the depth of the PVC pipes serving as the plant growth container in water is not more than 1m, and the roots of plants planted in the PVC pipes can extend out of the pipes. Further, the carbon fiber ecological grass 230 is hung under the biological floating bed 220, and the length of the grass is at least 1m under the water.
The medium purification tank 300 comprises a wetland vegetation layer 310 from the surface layer to 150cm below the wetland vegetation layer, a regulating layer 320 with the depth of 30cm and a supporting layer 330 with the depth of 20cm from top to bottom. A plurality of ditches 311 with the depth of 40-50 cm are dug in the upper part of the wetland vegetation layer 310, and sewage treated by the regulating tank is introduced into the ditches. The plant in the wetland vegetation layer is planted with reeds, 11 layers of PVC pipe networks are paved in the depth range of 60cm below to 150cm, the surface of the PVC pipe network 312 is densely distributed with cracks and through holes, and the aperture of the through holes is 0.2 cm. Zeolite particles with the particle size of 0.5-5 cm are paved in the adjusting layer 320; gravel particles are filled in the supporting layer 330, a water collecting pipe is buried in the supporting layer, the water collecting pipe is a PVC pipe with the inner diameter of 5-10 cm, and water collecting holes with the diameter of 1-10 mm are densely distributed in the pipe wall. The periphery of the water collecting pipe is provided with geotextile wrapping stones. Under the protection of the stones and the geotextiles, the water collecting holes of the water collecting pipes are difficult to be blocked by the soil and small stones in the medium purifying tank 300, and the water is favorably drained.
Example 2
The purification system and purification method were identical to those of example 1 except that the use of the ultrasonic generator installed in the third stage anaerobic tank was stopped.
Example 3
The purification system and purification method were identical to example 1 except that the oil drain apparatus in the first stage anaerobic tank was stopped.
Example 4
The purification system and the purification method are the same as those in example 1, and the difference is that phosphorus-accumulating bacteria are not added in the second-stage anaerobic tank.
Example 5
The purification system and the purification method are the same as those in example 1, and the difference is that the biological ceramsite attached with denitrifying bacteria is not added into the third section of anaerobic tank.
Example 6
The purification system and purification method were identical to example 1 except that the aeration of the microporous aeration disks at the bottom of the conditioning tank 200 was stopped.
Example 7
The purification system and purification method are identical to example 1, except that the biological floating bed in the conditioning tank 200 is removed.
Example 8
The purification system and purification method are identical to example 1 except that ryegrass is planted in the media purification tank 300 instead of reed.
Example 9
The purification system and purification method were the same as in example 1 except that no ditch was opened in the medium purification tank 300 and ryegrass was planted.
Example 10
The purification system and the purification method are the same as those in example 1 except that the PVC pipe network is not installed in the middle and lower portions of the medium purification tank 300.
Examples of the experiments
The effect of the pollutant control method in examples 1 to 10 was evaluated by measuring CODCr, total phosphorus, total nitrogen content, and ammonia nitrogen in the water before and after the treatment, and the results are shown in Table 1.
The evaluation water is collected from a rural waste water pipe network and is initially and uniformly measured to obtain COD (chemical oxygen demand) in the domestic sewageCr297mg/L, the total P content is 4.14mg/L, the total N content is 52.4mg/L, and the ammonia nitrogen content is 37.6; directly introducing the domestic sewage into an anaerobic tank, wherein the treatment time is 12h, the water treatment time of an adjusting tank is 6h, and the water treatment time of a medium purifying tank is 8h, collecting the treated sewage, and determining the quality of the effluent.
TABLE 1
The invention has been described in detail with reference to specific embodiments and/or illustrative examples and the accompanying drawings, which, however, should not be construed as limiting the invention. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that various equivalent substitutions, modifications or improvements may be made to the technical solution of the present invention and its embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, which fall within the scope of the present invention. The scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims.

Claims (5)

1. A rural domestic sewage purification system is characterized in that the purification system comprises an anaerobic tank (100), a regulating tank (200) and a medium purification tank (300) which are connected in sequence,
introducing the collected domestic sewage into an anaerobic tank (100), wherein the anaerobic tank (100) precipitates particulate impurities in the domestic sewage and is used as a place for anoxic and anaerobic reactions to primarily degrade the domestic sewage;
the adjusting tank (200) collects domestic sewage flowing out of the anaerobic tank (100), the amount of water entering the medium purification tank (300) is adjusted, the surface of the adjusting tank (200) is covered by a biological floating bed (220), the biological floating bed (220) comprises a biological bed body capable of floating on a water body and plants fixed on the biological bed body, carbon fiber ecological grass (230) is hung at the lower part of the biological floating bed (220), the biological bed body is a PVC pipe row fixed through steel wires, PVC pipes in the pipe row are arranged transversely and longitudinally, and PVC pipes are inserted into gaps generated by the intersection of any two lines or two lines and used as plant growth containers;
the medium purification tank (300) is filled with filler medium, and the domestic sewage flows into the filler, is purified through interaction with the filler and is discharged out of the purification system;
the anaerobic tank (100) is a three-section anaerobic tank (100), a water inlet introduces high water level of domestic sewage into a first section of anaerobic tank, overflow plates are erected among the first section of anaerobic tank, a second section of anaerobic tank and a third section of anaerobic tank, and sewage in the former section of anaerobic tank enters the latter section of anaerobic tank through overflow;
an ultrasonic generator (110) is arranged in the middle of the third section of anaerobic tank, and the ultrasonic wave is transmitted upwards in an inclined way;
an oil separation plate (120) is arranged near a water outlet of the first section of anaerobic tank, the surface of the oil separation plate (120) faces a water inlet and is fixed in a 45-degree direction, and the lower end of the oil separation plate (120) is immersed in domestic sewage;
an oil discharge pipe (130) is arranged at the front end of the first section of anaerobic tank and at the same height as the water inlet, and the oil separation plate (120) places oil stains in the domestic sewage at the front end of the first section of anaerobic tank so as to be discharged through the oil discharge pipe (130);
adding phosphorus-accumulating bacteria into the second-stage anaerobic tank;
biological ceramsite and denitrifying bacteria are added into the third section of anaerobic tank.
2. The purification system of claim 1, wherein an oil drain pipe (130) extending into the domestic sewage is fixedly connected with a guide rod (140) horizontally fixed in the first section of the anaerobic tank;
the length direction of the guide rod (140) is consistent with that of the oil discharge pipe (130), the tail end close to the wall surface of the tank body is connected with a traction rod (150) capable of driving the guide rod (140) to move up and down, the traction rod (150) is positioned in a traction sleeve (160), the upper part of the traction rod (150) is connected with a traction rope, and the traction rope is led out of the anaerobic tank (100) and is fixed by a winch (170) positioned outside the anaerobic tank (100).
3. The purification system of claim 1, wherein a microporous aeration tray (210) is installed at the bottom of the conditioning tank (200) to supply dissolved oxygen to the wastewater entering the media purification tank (300).
4. The purification system of claim 1, wherein the plants grown in the biological floating bed (220) are selected from one or more of reed, cattail, calamus or wild rice;
the PVC pipe used as a plant growth container has a pipe diameter of 5-40 cm and a depth of not more than 1m in water.
5. The purification system of claim 1, wherein the medium purification tank (300) is a layered structure including, from top to bottom, a wetland vegetation layer (310), a conditioning layer (320), and a support layer (330),
a wetland vegetation layer (310) is formed from the surface layer to a position 130-150 cm below the surface layer, soil is paved in the wetland vegetation layer, and aquatic plants are planted in the wetland vegetation layer;
a regulating layer (320) is arranged at a position 30-50 cm below the wetland vegetation layer (310), and a solid particle medium is laid to implement pollutant adsorption;
a supporting layer (330) is arranged at a position 10-20 cm below the adjusting layer (320) and used for supporting the filler on the upper layer, and water is discharged after treatment.
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KR20040084200A (en) * 2003-03-27 2004-10-06 주식회사 디엠퓨어텍 Advanced wastewater and sewage teratment method using intermittent aeration process teratm with granular mediate
CN203904162U (en) * 2014-06-25 2014-10-29 四川农业大学 Decentralized rural domestic sewage treatment device
CN106938880A (en) * 2017-05-16 2017-07-11 江西益洁环保技术有限公司 A kind of combined type rural domestic sewage treatment system
CN207468411U (en) * 2017-09-28 2018-06-08 中冶华天工程技术有限公司 A kind of rural domestic sewage treatment system

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KR20040084200A (en) * 2003-03-27 2004-10-06 주식회사 디엠퓨어텍 Advanced wastewater and sewage teratment method using intermittent aeration process teratm with granular mediate
CN203904162U (en) * 2014-06-25 2014-10-29 四川农业大学 Decentralized rural domestic sewage treatment device
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CN207468411U (en) * 2017-09-28 2018-06-08 中冶华天工程技术有限公司 A kind of rural domestic sewage treatment system

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