CN107055754B - Circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage - Google Patents

Circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage Download PDF

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CN107055754B
CN107055754B CN201710055117.3A CN201710055117A CN107055754B CN 107055754 B CN107055754 B CN 107055754B CN 201710055117 A CN201710055117 A CN 201710055117A CN 107055754 B CN107055754 B CN 107055754B
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zero
valent iron
sewage
tank
biofilter
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CN107055754A (en
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侯俊
王沛芳
王超
尤国祥
许伊
钱进
敖燕辉
苗令占
张菲
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Hohai University HHU
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • C02F3/06Aerobic processes using submerged filters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/28Anaerobic digestion processes
    • C02F3/2826Anaerobic digestion processes using anaerobic filters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/30Aerobic and anaerobic processes
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

The invention discloses a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage, which is structurally characterized in that a plurality of sewage treatment units are arranged underground; collecting rural domestic sewage into a sewage treatment unit through a water pipeline system for circulation and strengthening treatment, wherein the treated domestic sewage is used as agricultural irrigation water or supplemented with underground water or directly discharged into a river channel; the sewage disposal unit comprises: the system comprises a pretreatment tank, a circulation tank and a zero-valent iron biofilter, wherein the structures of the treatment units are mutually independent and are communicated with one another through pipelines. The advantages are that: low maintenance, low energy consumption, water impact resistance and high sewage treatment efficiency; the advantages of intensive and ecological technical routes are coupled by only one pump, so that the complex drainage condition in rural areas can be freely responded, and the stability of the effluent quality is ensured; meanwhile, the land surface and land resources are saved, and the method is simple and applicable, convenient to operate and manage and low in manufacturing cost.

Description

Circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage
Technical Field
The invention relates to a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage, which can be directly applied to treatment of rural domestic sewage or small-sized rural domestic sewage and can also be used for degradation of rural non-point source pollutants and water quality purification. Belongs to the field of environmental protection sewage treatment.
Background
Rural sewage becomes an important pollution source of river and lake water body pollution due to the reasons of regional dispersion, large population number, difficult collection and the like, and is also an important component of rural non-point source pollution; rural sewage contains a large amount of organic matters and organic salts such as nitrogen, phosphorus and the like, and untreated rural domestic sewage is directly discharged into a natural water body, so that not only is the crop yield influenced, but also serious harm is brought to the ecological environment and the water quality of rivers and lakes. Therefore, the treatment of rural domestic sewage is urgent and has great significance.
The domestic sewage treatment mode comprises a centralized treatment mode and a distributed treatment mode; the centralized treatment technology and process are mature, mainly use urban sewage treatment plants, and can achieve stable treatment efficiency in daily operation; rural areas are generally in remote areas, and sewage collection pipe networks are difficult to cover, so that rural sewage generally adopts a distributed treatment mode; the mainstream technology adopted by foreign countries for rural domestic sewage comprises: biological contact oxidation, SBR activated sludge process, membrane bioreactor, etc.; the processes have high technical requirements, large process control difficulty and high operation cost, and are not suitable for the treatment mode of rural sewage in China; at present, the technology adopted by rural sewage in China mainly comprises a biological treatment technology for miniaturizing the process of a sewage plant, an ecological treatment technology taking an artificial wetland as a core and a coupling treatment technology combining the two technologies. Similarly, the processes have problems, such as high unit energy consumption of process miniaturization of a sewage treatment plant, and lack of technical personnel in rural areas; the artificial wetland occupies a large area and has unstable treatment effect; and the change of water quantity and water quality in rural areas in China is large, and the impact of water quantity and water quality on treatment facilities can be caused in a short time by peak drainage. In addition, the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in rural domestic sewage in China is relatively high, and the general treatment process has poor effect of removing total nitrogen. For example, publication No. CN104098223B discloses a rural distributed domestic sewage treatment system and method, which couple "biology" with "ecology" and integrate the advantages of ecological floating island and artificial wetland and the like, creatively provides a new technology of ecological floating island-artificial wetland technical combination, fully utilizes the repairing function of aquatic plants, does not need to occupy land, has low cost and good treatment effect, controllably delivers sewage into filler which is usually in a saturated state, and promotes facultative microorganisms to decompose and purify the sewage by filtering, adsorbing and absorbing organic matters in the sewage under the physical and chemical synergistic action of the filler in the process of flowing the sewage along a certain direction. However, due to the lack of carbon source supply and the construction of anaerobic environment, the denitrification capability of the system is weak, and the effluent effect is unstable. At present, a rural domestic sewage treatment system which is put into practical application has certain limitation.
The invention summarizes the defects in the existing rural domestic sewage treatment technology in China, fully considers the requirements and characteristics of the rural sewage treatment in China, and innovatively provides a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter technology which is low in maintenance, energy consumption and water impact resistance, stable in water outlet effect and capable of coupling intensive treatment with water quality strengthening treatment.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage, which aims to overcome the defects in the existing rural domestic sewage treatment technology, has the characteristics of low maintenance, low energy consumption, water impact resistance, high sewage treatment efficiency, stable effluent quality, simplicity, applicability, convenient operation and management, low cost and the like, and can be widely applied to the circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage.
The technical solution of the invention is as follows: a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage is characterized in that: arranging a plurality of sewage treatment units underground; collecting rural domestic sewage into a sewage treatment unit through a water pipeline system for circulation and strengthening treatment, wherein the treated domestic sewage is used as agricultural irrigation water or supplemented with underground water or directly discharged into a river channel; the sewage disposal unit comprises: the pretreatment tank, the circulation tank and the zero-valent iron biofilter are sequentially connected; the sewage disposal unit structures are mutually independent and are communicated with each other through pipelines; the zero-valent iron biofilter is divided into a common biofilter and a built-in zero-valent iron strengthened reaction tank.
The invention has the advantages that:
(1) the advantages of intensive and ecological technical routes are coupled by only one pump, so that the complex drainage condition in rural areas can be freely responded, and the stability of the effluent quality is ensured;
(2) aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic conditions with different depths are constructed and formed, total nitrogen is favorably removed, rice straws or wood chips can be additionally used as a solid carbon source in a zero-valent iron reaction box of an anaerobic zone to enhance the growth of microorganisms with heterotrophic denitrification performance, and finally a zero-valent iron/microorganism coupling system is formed, so that NO is enhanced3 -Removal of (2) with formation of Fe3+/Fe2+The flocculant has good flocculation performance, and enhances the removal of phosphorus released by anaerobic reaction;
(3) the zeolite layer is arranged above the zero-valent iron reaction box, so that the effluent quality is guaranteed, an anaerobic environment is created for the lower layer, and the service life of the zero-valent iron is prolonged;
(4) the whole circulating biological filter has low maintenance, low energy consumption, water quality and water quantity impact resistance and high sewage treatment efficiency;
(5) the processing structure is buried underground, so that ground resources are saved, and the top of the processing unit is paved with the plant-growing bricks to build a good ecological environment;
(6) the zero-valent iron reaction box is easy to check and replace, and is convenient to manage and maintain;
(7) the whole engineering material is low in price, easy to obtain and free of secondary pollution to the environment;
(8) the whole project is simple in structure, convenient to construct, stable in function, low in manufacturing cost and convenient to use.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage.
FIG. 2 is a schematic plane view of a circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage.
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a zero-valent iron reaction chamber.
In the figure, 1 is a water conveying pipeline, 2 is a pretreatment tank, 3 is a 10-40 mm middle grid, 4 is a circulation tank, 5 is a sludge collecting tank, 6 is a circulating dissolved air pump, 7 is a sludge discharging pipe, 8 is a sludge discharging pump, 9 is a zero-valent iron biofilter, 10 is a water distribution area, 11 is biological filler (crushed stone, one of pebble, slag or coke), 12 is a pebble supporting layer, 13 is a return pipeline, 14 is a zero-valent iron reaction box, 15 is zeolite filler, 16 is an overflow plate, 17 is a drainage pipeline, 18 is a steel bar framework with phi 15, 19 is a steel wire mesh surface, 20 is zero-valent iron filler (formed by combining one or more of sponge iron, iron shavings and waste scrap iron), 21 is wood chips (straws), and 22 is a circular ring hook.
Detailed Description
A circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage structurally comprises a plurality of sewage treatment units arranged underground; collecting rural domestic sewage into a sewage treatment unit through a water pipeline system for circulation and strengthening treatment, wherein the treated domestic sewage is used as agricultural irrigation water or supplemented with underground water or directly discharged into a river channel; the sewage disposal unit comprises: the system comprises a pretreatment tank, a circulation tank and a zero-valent iron biofilter, wherein the structures of the treatment units are mutually independent and are communicated with one another through pipelines; the zero-valent iron biofilter is divided into a common biofilter and a built-in zero-valent iron strengthened reaction tank.
The plurality of sewage treatment units are arranged underground in a fully-buried or semi-buried manner.
The pretreatment tank is mainly used for removing suspended matters and other pollutants which can block the filter material in the original sewage and homogenizing the water quality; the pretreatment tank is internally provided with a middle grating for intercepting large domestic garbage and impurities.
A circulating dissolved air pump is arranged in the circulating tank for sewage circulation and oxygen enrichment; the advantages of intensive and ecological technical routes are coupled by only one pump, so that the complex drainage condition in rural areas can be freely responded, and the stability of the effluent quality is ensured; meanwhile, the dissolved air pump has an oxygen enrichment function, and provides aerobic conditions for the common biological filter; a sludge collecting tank and a sludge discharge pipe are arranged on the side wall of the circulating tank close to the zero-valent iron biological filter; the sludge collecting tank is mainly used for enriching and concentrating the fallen and aged biological membrane discharged by the return pipe, and meanwhile, clear liquid on the upper layer flows back to enter the circulating tank; and a sludge discharge pipe is arranged at the bottom of the side wall of the circulating tank close to the collecting tank, and the sludge after concentration is discharged through a sludge discharge pump.
The zero-valent iron biological filter has the appearanceThe shape is nearly circular, and the circular design can eliminate dead angles; the outermost wall body is subjected to anti-seepage treatment; the middle is a common biological filter material tank, and the inner layer is a zero-valent iron reaction tank; the water inlet and outlet mode of the zero-valent iron biofilter is 'circumferential inlet and middle outlet', sewage enters a water distribution area through a water delivery pipeline and is uniformly sprayed by a water distributor to respectively enter a common biological filling tank and a zero-valent iron strengthened reaction tank; the construction of the common biological filter material pool is as follows: the upper layer is provided with a working layer, the filler of the working layer can be one of locally easily obtained broken stone, pebble, furnace slag or coke, the particle size is 25-40 mm, and the thickness of the working layer is 1.5-1.8 m; the lower layer is provided with a bearing layer, hard pebbles with the grain diameter of 70-100 mm are arranged on the lower layer, and the thickness of the bearing layer is 0.2 m. A large amount of microorganisms are attached and grown on the surface of the filler in the common biological filter material tank to form a biological membrane system, so that the biological membrane system can biologically degrade pollutants in the sewage; and because the dissolved oxygen is continuously consumed in the biodegradation process of the pollutants, an aerobic zone and an anoxic zone are gradually formed from top to bottom. The inner ring is a zero-valent iron strengthening reaction tank, and the bottom of the inner ring is also a supporting layer with the thickness of 0.2 m; the center of the bottom of the bearing layer is provided with a return pipe, the other end of the return pipe is connected with a circulating tank, returned sewage and fallen biomembranes are discharged into a sludge collecting tank, and in addition, the advantage before the return pipe is provided with a zero-valent iron reaction zone is that NO entering the anaerobic zero-valent iron reaction zone can be ensured3 -The concentration of (c); the upper part of the bearing layer is sequentially filled with different numbers of movable zero-valent iron reaction boxes, the zero-valent iron reaction boxes are cylindrical, phi 15 steel bars are used as a supporting framework, the diameter of the zero-valent iron reaction boxes is equal to the inner diameter of the zero-valent iron strengthening reaction pool, the height of the zero-valent iron reaction boxes is about 30cm, the zero-valent iron reaction boxes are arranged in an openable mode, and a circular hook is arranged in the center of the upper surface of each zero-valent iron reaction box so as to facilitate inspection and replacement; the filling material in the zero-valent iron reaction box is formed by combining one or more of sponge iron, iron shavings and waste scrap iron, and 10% volume of sawdust or straw is added. The zero-valent iron reaction box is the core area of the whole system and has the function of removing pollutants in sewage in an enhanced manner, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus; the zero-valent iron reaction box is positioned in an anaerobic zone of the whole biological filter, and a carbon source is added, so that the growth of denitrifying microorganisms is facilitated, and the microorganisms in the zero-valent iron reaction boxThe organisms are attached to the iron carrier to form a zero-valent iron/microorganism coupling system, thereby strengthening NO3 -Removal of (2) with formation of Fe3+/Fe2+The flocculant has good flocculation performance, and enhances the removal of phosphorus released by anaerobic reaction; zeolite is laid on the upper layer of the zero-valent iron reaction box to adsorb micro pollutants in the effluent, so that the effluent quality is guaranteed, and an anaerobic environment is created for the lower zero-valent iron reaction box; the effluent of the zero-valent iron reaction tank adopts an overflow form.
The technical solution of the invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings:
as shown in attached figures 1, 2 and 3, a water pipeline 1 is laid at the sewage generating position of rural scattered users to collect rural domestic sewage; digging a pretreatment tank 2, a circulating tank 4 and a zero-valent iron biofilter 9 in sequence underground by adopting a fully-buried or semi-buried mode; a middle grating 3 with the thickness of 10-40 mm is arranged in the pretreatment tank 2; one side of the pretreatment tank 3 is communicated with the circulating tank 4 through a water conveying pipeline 1; a sludge collecting tank 5 and a sludge discharge pipe 7 are arranged on the side wall of the circulating tank 4 close to the zero-valent iron biological filter 9; the sludge concentrated in the sludge collecting tank 5 is discharged through a sludge discharge pump 8; a circulating dissolved air pump 6 (with oxygen enrichment function) is arranged in the circulating tank, and the sewage in the circulating tank is lifted to a zero-valent iron biological filter 9 through a water pipeline; the zero-valent iron biofilter 9 is divided into an outermost wall body, a common biological filter material pool at the middle layer and a zero-valent iron reaction pool at the inner layer, and an anti-seepage wall body is arranged between the common biological filter material pool and the zero-valent iron reaction pool; sewage in the water delivery pipeline is uniformly scattered on the surface of the biological filler 11 of the common biological filter material pool at the middle layer through the water distribution area 10; the design height of the packing layer 11 is about 1.5-1.8 m, the grain diameter of the packing is 25-40 mm, the selected packing (one of crushed stone, pebble, slag or coke) is uniform and consistent in texture, and the local materials are used for processing and transportation; a pebble supporting layer 12 of 0.2m is laid below the packing layer 11, and the grain diameter of the packing of the pebble supporting layer 12 is 70-100 mm; a return pipeline 13 is arranged at the center of the bottom of the bearing layer 12, and the other end of the return pipeline is connected with a sludge collecting tank 5 in the circulating tank 4; the construction of the zero-valent iron reaction tank on the inner layer is that 5-6 zero-valent iron reaction tanks 14 with the height of about 0.3m are filled, the zero-valent iron reaction tanks 14 are cylindrical, phi 15 steel bars are used as a supporting framework 18, a steel wire mesh surface 19 is used as an outer surface, and the aperture of the steel wire mesh surface is slightly smaller than the particle size of iron fillers; the diameter of the round surface of the zero-valent iron reaction box is equal to the inner diameter of the zero-valent iron reaction tank, and the filler in the zero-valent iron reaction box 14 consists of a zero-valent iron filler 20 (one or a plurality of sponge iron, iron shaving and waste scrap iron) and wood chips (straws) 21 with 10% of volume; the zero-valent iron reaction box is arranged to be openable, and a circular hook 22 is arranged at the center of the upper surface, so that the zero-valent iron reaction box is convenient to carry, check and replace; 0.3m of zeolite filler 15 is laid on the upper layer of the zero-valent iron reaction box 14, and an overflow plate 16 is arranged at the water outlet of the zero-valent iron reaction tank; the overflow effluent is recycled or directly discharged through a water discharge pipeline 17. Flowers, plants and trees can be planted above the structure, and a good ecological environment is created.
A circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage comprises the following steps:
1) a pretreatment pool: domestic sewage discharged by rural households is collected through a water conveying pipeline 1 and is discharged into a pretreatment tank 2, and a middle grid 3 with the thickness of 10-40 mm is arranged inside the pretreatment tank 2 and is used for intercepting larger domestic garbage and impurities; meanwhile, the sewage stays in the pretreatment tank for a short time, so that pollutants such as suspended matters in the original sewage and the like which can block the filter material are mainly removed, and the water quality is homogenized;
2) a circulating tank: the sewage homogenized by the pretreatment tank 2 enters a circulating tank 4 through a water conveying pipeline 1; a circulating dissolved air pump 6 is arranged in the circulating tank 4 for sewage circulation and oxygen enrichment, the respective advantages of intensive and ecological technical routes are coupled by only one pump, the complex drainage condition in rural areas can be freely responded, and the stability of the effluent quality is ensured; meanwhile, the dissolved air pump 6 has an oxygen enrichment function, and provides aerobic conditions for the common biological filter. A sludge collecting tank 5 is arranged on the side wall of the circulating tank near-zero-valent iron biological filter 9 and is used for receiving returned sewage of the zero-valent iron biological filter and aged and fallen biological membranes; the concentrated biomembrane is discharged through a sludge discharge pipe 7 by a sludge discharge pump 8;
3) zero valent iron organismA filter tank: the sewage in the circulating pool 4 is conveyed to an upper water distribution area 10 of the zero-valent iron biofilter through a dissolved air pump 6, the sewage is uniformly spread on the upper surface of a biological filler 11 through a water distributor, and a large number of microorganisms are attached to the surface of the biological filter filler to form a biological membrane system which plays a role in biodegradation of pollutants in the sewage; because the oxygen-enriched sewage enters the biological filter material tank, aerobic microorganisms are mainly attached to the upper layer of the filter material, and dissolved oxygen in the water needs to be consumed in the microbial degradation process of pollutants, the dissolved oxygen in the sewage is gradually reduced from top to bottom, and an anoxic zone at the lower layer is formed; the sewage treated by the biological filter enters an anaerobic zero-valent iron reaction box 14 in the middle through a bearing layer 12; the aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic condition is favorable for removing total nitrogen, and zero-valent iron and microorganisms in the anaerobic zone form a zero-valent iron/microorganism coupling system to strengthen NO3 -Removal of (2) with formation of Fe3+/Fe2+The flocculant has good flocculation performance, and enhances the removal of phosphorus released by anaerobic reaction; the zeolite layer 15 is distributed on the upper layer of the zero-valent iron reaction zone, so that micro pollutants in the effluent are adsorbed, and the effluent quality is guaranteed; a return pipe 13 is arranged at the center of the bottom of the supporting layer 12 and is used for returning sewage and fallen biological membranes, and the advantage of the return pipe before the zero-valent iron reaction zone is that NO entering the anaerobic zero-valent iron reaction zone can be ensured3 -The concentration of (c).

Claims (5)

1. A circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage is characterized in that: arranging a plurality of sewage treatment units underground; collecting rural domestic sewage into a sewage treatment unit through a water pipeline system for circulation and strengthening treatment, wherein the treated domestic sewage is used as agricultural irrigation water or supplemented with underground water or directly discharged into a river channel; the sewage disposal unit comprises: the pretreatment tank, the circulation tank and the zero-valent iron biofilter are sequentially connected; the sewage disposal unit structures are mutually independent and are communicated with each other through pipelines; the zero-valent iron biofilter is divided into a common biofilter and a built-in zero-valent iron strengthened reaction tank; a circulating dissolved air pump is arranged in the circulating tank for sewage circulation and oxygen enrichment; a sludge collecting tank and a sludge discharge pipe are arranged on the side wall of the circulating tank close to the zero-valent iron biological filter;
the zero-valent iron biofilter is approximately circular in shape, the outermost layer is a wall body, the middle layer is a common biofilter, the inner ring is a zero-valent iron strengthening reaction tank, the water inlet and outlet modes are 'circumferentially inlet, centrally outlet', sewage sequentially passes through the common biofilter and the zero-valent iron strengthening reaction tank, a return pipeline is arranged at the center of the bottom of the zero-valent iron biofilter, and the other end of the return pipeline is connected with a sludge collecting tank in the circulating tank.
2. The circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper layer of the common biofilter is a working layer, the filler of the working layer is one of locally available crushed stone, pebble, slag or coke, the particle size is 25-40 mm, and the thickness is 1.5-1.8 m; the lower layer is a bearing layer, hard broken stones or pebbles with the grain diameter of 70-100 mm are formed, and the thickness of the hard broken stones or pebbles is 0.2 m.
3. The circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening treatment of rural domestic sewage according to claim 1, characterized in that the movable zero-valent iron reaction boxes with different quantities are filled in the zero-valent iron strengthening reaction tank; the zero-valent iron reaction box is cylindrical, takes a phi 15 steel bar as a supporting framework, has the diameter equal to the inner diameter of the zero-valent iron strengthening reaction tank, and has the height of about 30 cm; the zero-valent iron reaction box is arranged to be openable, and the circular hook is arranged at the center of the upper surface, so that the zero-valent iron reaction box is convenient to check and replace; laying zeolite on the upper layer of the zero-valent iron reaction box; the side wall of the zero-valent iron strengthened reaction tank is subjected to anti-seepage treatment.
4. The circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for intensively treating rural domestic sewage according to claim 3, characterized in that the filler in the zero-valent iron reaction tank is formed by combining one or more of sponge iron, iron shavings and waste scrap iron, and wood chips or straws are added according to a certain proportion.
5. The circulating zero-valent iron biofilter for strengthening the treatment of rural domestic sewage according to claim 1, wherein the sewage treatment comprises the following steps:
1) a pretreatment pool: rural domestic sewage is collected by a pipe network and discharged into a pretreatment tank, suspended pollutants which can block a filter material in the raw sewage are removed, and the water quality is homogenized;
2) a circulating tank: a circulating dissolved air pump is arranged in the sewage treatment system for sewage circulation and oxygen enrichment, the respective advantages of intensive and ecological technical routes are coupled by only one pump, the complex drainage condition in rural areas can be freely responded, and the stability of the effluent quality is ensured; meanwhile, the dissolved air pump has an oxygen enrichment function and provides aerobic conditions for the common biological filter; a sludge collecting tank is arranged on the side wall of the circulating tank near-zero-valent iron biological filter and is used for receiving returned sewage of the zero-valent iron biological filter and aged and fallen biological membranes and carrying out enrichment and concentration on the fallen biological membranes; a sludge discharge pipe is arranged at the bottom of the side wall of the circulating pool close to the collecting tank, and the concentrated sludge is discharged;
3) a zero-valent iron biofilter: the sewage in the circulating tank is conveyed to the upper part of the common biological filter by the dissolved air pump, the sewage is uniformly spread to the surface of the filter material by the water distributor, and a large number of microorganisms are attached to the surface of the filler of the common biological filter to form a biological membrane system which plays a role in biodegradation of pollutants in the sewage; because oxygen-enriched sewage enters the common biological filter, aerobic microorganisms are mainly attached to the upper layer of the filter material, dissolved oxygen in water needs to be consumed in the microbial degradation process of pollutants, and the dissolved oxygen in the sewage is gradually reduced from top to bottom to form an anoxic zone at the lower layer; the sewage treated by the common biological filter enters an anaerobic zero-valent iron reaction zone through a bearing layer; the aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic condition is favorable for removing total nitrogen, and zero-valent iron and microorganisms in the anaerobic zone form a zero-valent iron/microorganism coupling system to strengthen NO3 -Removal of (2) with formation of Fe3+/Fe2+The flocculant has good flocculation performance, and enhances the removal of phosphorus released by anaerobic reaction; the zeolite layer is arranged on the upper layer of the zero-valent iron reaction zone to adsorb micro-pollutants in the effluent, thereby ensuringThe quality of the effluent water; a return pipe is arranged at the bottom of the zero-valent iron biofilter and used for returning sewage and fallen biological membranes, and the return pipe is arranged in front of the zero-valent iron reaction zone to ensure that NO enters the anaerobic zero-valent iron reaction zone3 -The concentration of (c).
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