CN109644768B - Method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural matrix container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal - Google Patents

Method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural matrix container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal Download PDF

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CN109644768B
CN109644768B CN201910093870.0A CN201910093870A CN109644768B CN 109644768 B CN109644768 B CN 109644768B CN 201910093870 A CN201910093870 A CN 201910093870A CN 109644768 B CN109644768 B CN 109644768B
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arborvitae
soil
forest land
seedlings
seedling
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CN109644768A (en
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王斐
董玉峰
吴德军
刘幸红
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Shandong Academy of Forestry
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Shandong Academy of Forestry
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The application provides a method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural-matrix container seedlings and promoting forest land updating, wherein a seedling culture matrix is a composite matrix of forest land core soil and surface humus soil, the core soil is filled in a non-woven bag or a paper cup below and on the surface humus soil, then seed soaking, germination accelerating and sowing are carried out in due time, when 4-6 pairs of primary leaves grow out from seedlings, transplanting is carried out in rainy days of 7-8 months in rainy season, and thinning is carried out again after the seedlings survive and successfully live through winter. The method adopts the forest nursery or indoor container built near the forest land catchment ditch or pool to raise the seedlings, provides sufficient water for the seeds, improves the rate of emergence and the planting survival rate, has short seedling raising period, small volume of the transplanted seedlings and light weight, and can be planted in rainy days in rainy seasons, thereby having high seedling activity and strong overwintering capability. The requirements for a large amount of manpower, material resources and financial resources when the forest land is updated by using the 2-3 year old seedlings with more than 1 meter are reduced. Time, trouble and labor are saved, cost is saved, and the updating efficiency of the arborvitae forest in the limestone mountain is improved.

Description

Method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural matrix container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of forest land renewal technology and container seedling culture medium, in particular to a method for container seedling culture of arborvitae near natural medium and promotion of forest land renewal.
Background
A large area of Chinese arborvitae forest is cultivated and distributed on limestone mountainous regions in the north of China. The Chinese arborvitae is drought-resistant and barren, can grow on the bare rock mountain of limestone abrupt slope, and even can adapt to the cliff. The arborvitae crown is beautiful and is a good ornamental tree species, and the arborvitae forest also has the functions of maintaining water and soil, improving soil, conserving water sources and the like. Large-area arborvitae artificial forests built in 50-60 years of the 20 th century in China face the problems of forest stand updating and sustainable management nowadays. At present, the problem that the platycladus orientalis seedlings are not grown in the closed platycladus orientalis forest, and the platycladus orientalis seedlings are grown in the open space of some forest windows is prominent, especially in the northern arid forest area.
At present, the arborvitae forest is not good enough in updating, container seedlings are mostly adopted for arborvitae forest updating and afforestation, and 2-3 years of large seedlings which take much labor and time for cultivation are commonly used. The container seedling afforestation by artificial seeding is the main mode of the existing limestone mountain oriental arborvitae afforestation, but the large-size container seedling with the diameter of more than 1 meter has large afforestation engineering quantity and high cost.
Considering that seeds and seedlings are most sensitive to environmental stress, the first time in drought-barren mountainous regions is the problem of seed germination, emergence and seedling establishment. Limited germination of seeds is a fundamental and critical factor affecting their renewal. In arid and barren limestone mountains, the natural germination of the platycladus orientalis seeds and the preservation of seedlings mainly occur in an optimized environment with more concentrated redistribution of water and soil and accidental occurrence. Among the most significant limiting factors are climate drought and the availability of soil moisture. The 9 months are the transition period of the main cultivation area of the biota orientalis in the north from the rainy season to the dry season and the vigorous period of the natural sowing of the mother tree of the biota orientalis. The seeds are mature and land often miss the germination opportunity in the current year, the seedlings which are barely germinated and unearthed are often difficult to stay in the environments of autumn drought and winter drought, and inappropriate rainfall in spring induces the germination of the seeds and simultaneously makes the seeds face the environment of spring drought which causes the germination or the bud return and withering of split-mouth seeds.
To date, the effects of forest litter and humus on seed germination and forest land renewal have not been recognized consistently. Research reports that the removal of the withered leaf layer under the Chinese pine forest can promote the germination of seeds and the growth of renewed seedlings, the over-thick withered leaves are not beneficial to the seeds to contact with mineral soil and be difficult to germinate, the thicker the withered leaves are, the worse the seedlings in the current year are pricked, and the more difficult the young roots are to extend into the mineral soil and die in a suspended manner. The reason is that the withered leaf layer is generally low in water content and easy to dry, the seeds are difficult to swell and germinate or wither in the process of rapidly drying the withered leaf layer before the seeds reach mineral soil after germination, and the excessively thick withered leaf layer also has the effect of blocking the germination of the platycladus orientalis seeds. In contrast, studies report that withered materials with proper thickness are beneficial to reducing the loss of water in forest lands and improving the soil fertility, so that the germination of seeds is promoted. Seedling raising research in a protected environment shows that suitable pine needle litter and humus coverage can improve the moisture condition so as to be beneficial to germination and natural renewal of Yunnan pine seeds.
The inventor's earlier research shows that the Chinese arborvitae forest land water collecting pool contains a large amount of Chinese arborvitae seeds along the fallen leaves and humus impacted by surface runoff, the seeds often germinate intensively in the late stage of rainy season, and seedlings are dense and cannot be counted in a large number, which indicates that the germination of the Chinese arborvitae seeds in a Chinese arborvitae dried leaf layer or a humus layer is not obstructed as long as enough water is available. The method is characterized in that the surface humus soil and cohesive subsoil matrix are studied to culture the platycladus orientalis seedlings indoors in winter on the premise of filling enough moisture at one time by using a paper container, and the result shows that the surface humus soil is difficult to grow out of the soil and germinate due to easy drying when leakage holes exist. In contrast, cohesive core soil was more water-retaining, with a small amount (3.3%) of seedlings germinating out of the soil (fig. 1 a). If a container without a drain hole at the bottom is used, the final emergence rate of the seeds sowed by surface humus soil after one-time irrigation is 25.5 percent, while the emergence rate of the seeds sowed by cohesive core soil is only 1.1 percent. Obviously, the surface humus soil is a high-quality natural matrix for germination of the platycladus orientalis seeds on the premise of moisture guarantee.
Disclosure of Invention
The embodiment of the invention aims to provide a method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural substrate container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
a method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural substrate container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal comprises the following steps:
1) firstly, preparing a seedling culture container, filling a layer of arborvitae forest land core soil into the seedling culture container, filling a layer of arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil into the seedling culture container, wherein the arborvitae forest land core soil and the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil in the seedling culture container are arranged in a layered mode, the arborvitae forest land core soil is located at the lower layer, and the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil is located at the upper layer;
2) soaking Chinese arborvitae seed in warm water with initial temperature of 40 deg.C for 48 hr before rainy season, placing into plastic tray, covering with wet gauze, and germinating at 18-25 deg.C in natural room temperature environment, and supplementing water to Chinese arborvitae seed to keep Chinese arborvitae seed wet;
3) indoor seeding and seedling raising: sowing the platycladus orientalis seeds into the seedling raising containers which are prepared in the step 1) and are filled with the humus soil on the surface layer of the platycladus orientalis forest land and the arborvitae forest land core soil when 30% -50% of all the platycladus orientalis seeds crack, and sowing 10-20 platycladus orientalis seeds in each seedling raising container;
4) thinning: thinning the germinated seedlings to reserve 3-5 robust seedlings in each seedling container;
5) transplanting to a forest land: when 4-6 pairs of primary leaves grow from the seedlings, selecting a proper place to dig holes in the arborvitae forest land in a rainy day of 7-8 months in a rainy season, tearing off a seedling container, putting the seedlings with soil left after tearing off the seedling container into the holes, and then sequentially filling, compacting and watering;
6) thinning again after the seedling survives and successfully overwinter, and keeping 1-2 plants in each hole.
Preferably, in the step 1), the seedling raising container is a non-woven bag or a paper cup.
Preferably, in the step 1), the volume ratio of the surface humus soil of the arborvitae forest land to the core soil of the arborvitae forest land is 1: (1-2).
Preferably, in the step 1), when the pH value of the arborvitae forest land core soil is 8-10, adding an acidic fertilizer into the arborvitae forest land core soil, wherein the acidic fertilizer is ammonium sulfate or ferrous sulfate.
Preferably, in the step 1), filling arborvitae forest land subsoil and arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil into the seedling culture container by using a soil filling device;
the soil filling device comprises a matrix tank, a horizontal handheld rod, a sealing plate, a switch control rod and a bolt;
the substrate tank comprises a round pipe positioned at the upper part and a conical pipe positioned at the lower part, the top end of the round pipe is open for feeding, the bottom end of the round pipe is welded with the large inner diameter end of the conical pipe, and the inner wall surface of the round pipe is provided with scale marks;
the sealing plate is used for sealing a bottom opening at the small inner diameter end of the conical pipe;
the right end of the horizontal handheld rod is welded and fixed on the top of the circular tube and is used for manually holding the soil filling device;
the switch control rod comprises a left horizontal rod, a middle vertical rod and a right horizontal rod, the lengths of the left horizontal rod, the middle vertical rod and the right horizontal rod are all located in the same vertical plane, the right end of the left horizontal rod is fixedly connected with the top end of the middle vertical rod in a welding mode, and the bottom end of the middle vertical rod is fixedly connected with the left end of the right horizontal rod in a welding mode;
the left horizontal rod is positioned below the horizontal handheld rod, and a screw rod of the bolt penetrates through the horizontal handheld rod and the left horizontal rod from top to bottom so that the left horizontal rod and the horizontal handheld rod form a bolt hinged connection to enable the left horizontal rod to rotate in a horizontal plane;
the right end of the right horizontal rod is fixedly connected with the sealing plate in a welding mode, and the sealing plate is driven to rotate in the horizontal plane to open or close the bottom opening of the conical tube by rotation of the left horizontal rod in the horizontal plane.
Preferably, in the step 3), the arborvitae seeds are sowed in the humus soil on the surface layer of the arborvitae forest land on the upper layer in the seedling culture container, and the sowing depth is 1.0 cm-1.5 cm.
Preferably, in the step 5), the selection of the suitable place for digging the hole refers to a catchment slope surface, forest lands and forest windows on two sides of a valley, and ridges and beams for land preparation and fine adjustment of rainwater flowing backwards.
Preferably, in the step 5), the seedling raising container is torn off, then the seedlings with soil left after the seedling raising container is torn off are placed in the plastic water collecting cup for collecting water, and then the plastic water collecting cup containing the seedlings with soil is placed in the hole.
The application provides a method for cultivating arborvitae near natural matrix container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal, wherein arborvitae forest land core soil and arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil in a seedling container are arranged in a layered mode, the arborvitae forest land core soil is positioned at a lower layer, the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil is positioned at an upper layer, then the arborvitae seeds are subjected to seed soaking and germination accelerating, when 30% -50% of all the arborvitae seeds crack mouths, the arborvitae seeds are sown in the seedling container with the arborvitae forest land core soil and the arborvitae forest land core soil, 10-20 arborvitae seeds are sown in each seedling container, when the seedlings come out of soil and grow 4-6 pairs of primary leaves, in rainy days of 7-8 months in rainy season, proper places are selected for digging pits in the arborvitae forest land, the remaining arborvitae seedlings with soil after the seedling containers are torn off are placed in the pits, then soil filling, solid filling and watering are carried out in sequence, and the seedlings survive, preferably, 1-2 plants are reserved in each hole;
according to the invention, the arborvitae forest land core soil with excellent water retention performance and the nutrient-rich and air-permeable humus soil on the surface layer of the arborvitae forest land are combined in an upper-lower layer ratio, and the non-woven fabric or paper cup container seedlings are successfully applied to carry out the arborvitae forest land renewal test, so that the survival rate is higher and the effect is good;
the invention successfully realizes the germination of the arborvitae seed and the seedling cultivation under the indoor irrigation condition through the development of the near-natural matrix and the preparation and filling technology thereof. On the basis, forest land cultivation of container seedlings is realized, the updating of arborvitae forest land is promoted powerfully, the method is simple, the cost is low, a large amount of manpower and material resources can be saved, the efficiency is high, and the source of the matrix is reliable. The technology is suitable for establishing a forest nursery by using local materials to promote the updating of the arborvitae forest, provides a method for promoting the rapid updating and the expansion of the arborvitae forest in a limestone abrupt slope environment with serious water and soil loss in a water and soil redistribution and seedling planting mode, and creates a practical technology for artificially promoting the updating and maintaining the sustainable development of forest lands for the arborvitae forest in the north of China.
Drawings
FIG. 1a is a comparison of emergence rate of pure humus soil (humus soil in FIG. 1a) on the surface layer of arborvitae forest land and arborvitae forest land subsoil (subsoil soil in FIG. 1a) in the condition of no drainage hole at the bottom of a seedling container;
FIG. 1b is a comparison of emergence rates of different combinations of thulium surface and thulium subsoil of arborvitae forest land: wherein the 2+2 layering is the layering configuration of 2 cups of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 2 cups of soil in the center of the Berlin soil, the humus soil is on the top, and the soil in the center is under the bottom; 2+2 mixing is the mixing configuration of 2 cups of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 2 cups of soil in the center of the Berlin soil; 1+3 mixing is the mixing configuration of 1 cup of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 3 cups of soil in the center of the Berlin soil; the 3+1 mixing is the mixing configuration of 3 cups of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 1 cup of soil in the center of the Berlin soil;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a seedling container and a plastic water collecting cup sleeved together according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a soil filling device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
In the figure: 1, arborvitae woodland surface layer humus soil, 2-arborvitae woodland core soil, 3-seedling raising containers, 301 drain holes and 4-plastic water collecting cups;
5 matrix tanks, 501 round pipes, 502 conical pipes, 6 horizontal hand-held rods, 7 sealing plates, 8 switch control rods, 801 left horizontal rods, 802 middle vertical rods, 803 right horizontal rods and 9 bolts.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention. It is to be understood that the embodiments described are only a few embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without any inventive step based on the embodiments of the present invention, are within the scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms "central," "axial," "radial," "longitudinal," "transverse," "length," "width," "upper," "lower," "front," "rear," "left," "right," "top," "bottom," "inner," "outer," "clockwise," "counterclockwise," and the like are used in the orientations and positional relationships indicated in the drawings and are only used for convenience in describing and simplifying the description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element so referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and thus should not be construed as limiting the invention.
Referring to fig. 1 a-3, fig. 1a is a comparison of emergence rate when pure humus soil (humus soil in fig. 1a) on the surface layer of arborvitae forest land and arborvitae forest land subsoil (subsoil in fig. 1a) are used for raising seedlings under the condition that no drainage hole is formed at the bottom of a seedling raising container; FIG. 1b is a comparison of emergence rates of different combinations of thulium surface and thulium subsoil of arborvitae forest land: wherein the 2+2 layering is the layering configuration of 2 cups of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 2 cups of soil in the center of the Berlin soil, the humus soil is on the top, and the soil in the center is under the bottom; 2+2 mixing is the mixing configuration of 2 cups of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 2 cups of soil in the center of the Berlin soil; 1+3 mixing is the mixing configuration of 1 cup of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 3 cups of soil in the center of the Berlin soil; the 3+1 mixing is the mixing configuration of 3 cups of humus soil on the surface layer of the Berlin soil and 1 cup of soil in the center of the Berlin soil; FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a seedling container and a plastic water collecting cup sleeved together according to an embodiment of the present invention; fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a soil filling device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
The application provides a method for cultivating arborvitae container seedlings close to natural substrates and promoting forest land updating, which comprises the following steps:
1) firstly, preparing a seedling culture container, filling a layer of arborvitae forest land core soil into the seedling culture container, filling a layer of arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil into the seedling culture container, wherein the arborvitae forest land core soil and the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil in the seedling culture container are arranged in a layered mode, the arborvitae forest land core soil is located at the lower layer, and the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil is located at the upper layer;
2) soaking Chinese arborvitae seed in warm water with initial temperature of 40 deg.C for 48 hr before rainy season, placing into plastic tray, covering with wet gauze, and germinating at 18-25 deg.C in natural room temperature environment, and supplementing water to Chinese arborvitae seed to keep Chinese arborvitae seed wet;
3) indoor seeding and seedling raising: sowing the platycladus orientalis seeds into the seedling raising containers which are prepared in the step 1) and are filled with the humus soil on the surface layer of the platycladus orientalis forest land and the arborvitae forest land core soil when 30% -50% of all the platycladus orientalis seeds crack, and sowing 10-20 platycladus orientalis seeds in each seedling raising container;
4) thinning: thinning the germinated seedlings to reserve 3-5 robust seedlings in each seedling container;
5) transplanting to a forest land: when 4-6 pairs of primary leaves grow from the seedlings, selecting a proper place to dig holes in the arborvitae forest land in a rainy day of 7-8 months in a rainy season, tearing off a seedling container, putting the seedlings with soil left after tearing off the seedling container into the holes, and then sequentially filling, compacting and watering;
6) thinning again after the seedling survives and successfully overwinter, and keeping 1-2 plants in each hole.
In one embodiment of the present application, in step 1), the seedling raising container is a non-woven bag or a paper cup.
In one embodiment of the present application, in step 1), the volume ratio of the surface layer humus soil of the arborvitae forest land to the core soil of the arborvitae forest land is 1: (1-2).
In one embodiment of the present application, in step 1), when the pH of the arborvitae timbery is 8 to 10, an acidic fertilizer is added to the arborvitae timbery, wherein the acidic fertilizer is ammonium sulfate or ferrous sulfate.
In one embodiment of the application, in the step 1), filling arborvitae forest land core soil and arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil into a seedling culture container by using a soil filling device;
the soil filling device comprises a substrate tank 5, a horizontal handheld rod 6, a sealing plate 7, a switch control rod 8 and a bolt 9;
the substrate tank 5 comprises a circular tube 501 positioned at the upper part and a conical tube 502 positioned at the lower part, the top end of the circular tube 501 is open for feeding, the bottom end of the circular tube 501 is welded with the large inner diameter end of the conical tube 502, and the inner wall surface of the circular tube 501 is provided with scale marks;
the sealing plate 7 is used for sealing a bottom opening at the small inner diameter end of the conical tube 502;
the right end of the horizontal handheld rod 6 is welded and fixed on the top of the circular tube 501 and is used for manually holding the soil filling device;
the switch control rod 8 comprises a left horizontal rod 801, a middle vertical rod 802 and a right horizontal rod 803, the length directions of the left horizontal rod 801, the middle vertical rod 802 and the right horizontal rod 803 are all located in the same vertical plane, the right end of the left horizontal rod 801 is fixedly connected with the top end of the middle vertical rod 802 in a welding mode, and the bottom end of the middle vertical rod 802 is fixedly connected with the left end of the right horizontal rod 803 in a welding mode;
the left horizontal rod 801 is positioned below the horizontal hand-held rod 6, and a screw of the bolt 9 penetrates through the horizontal hand-held rod 6 and the left horizontal rod 801 from top to bottom so as to form a bolt hinge connection between the left horizontal rod 801 and the horizontal hand-held rod 6, so that the left horizontal rod 801 rotates in a horizontal plane;
the right end of the right horizontal rod 803 is fixedly connected with the sealing plate 7 by welding, and the rotation of the left horizontal rod 801 in the horizontal plane drives the sealing plate 7 to rotate in the horizontal plane so as to open or close the bottom opening of the conical tube 502.
In one embodiment of the application, in the step 3), the arborvitae seeds are sowed in the humus soil on the surface layer of the arborvitae forest land on the upper layer in the seedling raising container, and the sowing depth is 1.0 cm-1.5 cm.
In one embodiment of the present application, in step 5), the selection of suitable points for digging holes refers to catchment slopes, forest lands and forest windows on both sides of valleys, and ridges and beams for land preparation and fine adjustment of backward rainwater flow.
In one embodiment of the application, in the step 5), the seedling raising container is firstly torn off, then the seedlings with soil left after the seedling raising container is torn off are placed in the plastic water collecting cup for collecting water, and then the plastic water collecting cup containing the seedlings with soil is placed in the hole.
In the present application: 1. near-natural matrix
The container seedling substrate adopted by the invention is a near-natural substrate material, and the near-natural substrate is a double-layer composite seedling substrate which takes arborvitae forest land core soil (generally viscous brown soil) as a bottom substrate and takes arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil as an upper substrate.
The seedling raising substrate has the advantages that: the method simulates the natural environment of the soil under the arborvitae forest, improves the natural environment, has reliable material taking and sufficient sources, and has the characteristics of good water and fertilizer retention performance, strong air permeability and the like through a large number of repeated tests.
In contrast, when the seedling is raised by only taking the arborvitae forest subsoil as a substrate, the structure is tight, easy to harden and poor in air permeability although the water retention performance is excellent. In some strong alkaline soils, the subsoil has a certain influence on seed germination and emergence, especially in the open hillside environment.
When purely taking humus which is not completely decomposed on the surface layer as a matrix for seedling culture, the humus has loose structure and good permeability, but has poor water retention performance, is easy to dry, and is not beneficial to seed germination and emergence.
If the two are combined and layered, the effects of water retention and fertilizer retention, ventilation and air permeability can be achieved, the germination environment of the seeds is optimized, the simulation, improvement and optimization of natural updating are achieved, and the limitation of insufficient soil moisture in the forest land is solved.
Seedling raising tests by designing paper cup containers (with drainage holes at the bottoms) with different combinations of matrixes; the results (fig. 1b) show that the humus soil and subsoil layering ratio is 1: 1 (humus soil is above and subsoil is below) has the best combination effect and the highest rate of emergence; the ratio of humus soil to cohesive core soil is 1: 1. 1: 3 and 3: when the mixture is mixed and configured according to the proportion of 1, the germination early and late emergence of seeds, the germination rate, the emergence amount and the like are all lower than the combination of upper and lower layered configuration. Through a large number of test tests, the seedling culture is successful. So that the seeds can germinate and emerge after the seeds are sown by irrigating enough moisture at one time. In addition, the improvement of adding acid fertilizer into the heart soil is more beneficial to seed germination and emergence and forest land planting.
2. Matrix source and container fill
2.1 sources of substrates and their advantages
A, arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil: the soil from the A1 layer under the arborvitae forest is characterized by being rich in organic matters, humic acid, a small amount of vitamins and trace elements, which are favorable conditions for promoting seed germination and seedling growth, are incomparable to common seedling culture substrate (vermiculite, perlite, straw and plant ash) materials, and are more suitable for natural updating of the arborvitae forest, particularly in a steep slope environment of a mountain land, and a soil humus layer is always washed out due to water and soil loss.
B, arborvitae forest land core soil: the core soil layer is derived from brown soil under the Chinese arborvitae forest, and is preferably applied with acidic fertilizer such as ammonium sulfate or ferrous sulfate, or selected from foreign core soil such as core soil of slightly acidic mountain brown soil. In view of the fact that the arborvitae forest is usually cultivated under the condition of mountain brown soil with limestone as mother rock, the core soil of the arborvitae forest is relatively viscous and is lack of organic matters and nitrogen, however, the water retention property of the arborvitae forest is favorable for germination of arborvitae seeds.
2.2 Container filling
The container used by the invention is a commercially available non-woven bag or paper cup, and the specification and size of the container can be properly adjusted according to the updated forest land environment and the target. The volume ratio of the matrixes A and B is 1: 1 or 1: preferably 2.
3. Soil filling device and use
In order to improve the filling speed and ensure the accurate proportioning, the invention designs a simple and rapid filling device which comprises a substrate tank 5, a horizontal hand-held rod 6, a sealing plate 7, a switch control rod 8 and a bolt 9 (shown in figure 3).
When the seedling culture container is used, the sealing plate 7 is closed by the switch control rod 8, then the matrix B is poured into the matrix tank 5 to a specified scale, then the opening of the seedling culture container is placed below the bottom opening of the matrix tank 5, then the sealing plate 7 is opened by the switch control rod 8, the matrix B is made to fall into the bottom of the seedling culture container in a downward leakage manner, and the matrix A is refilled after the matrix B is slightly thickened. And then the sealing plate 7 is closed by the switch control rod 8, the matrix A is poured into the matrix tank 5 to the designated scale, then the opening of the seedling culture container is placed below the bottom opening of the matrix tank 5, and then the sealing plate 7 is opened by the switch control rod 8, so that the matrix A leaks downwards and falls into the seedling culture container, and the matrix A is slightly upset for later use.
4. Plastic water collecting cup attached to container
The limestone mountain is arid and barren, has serious water and soil loss, and is suitable for additional water collecting devices like updating or afforestation in the environment. The plastic water collection cup shown in fig. 2 can collect rainwater that is abundant in rainy season into the plastic water collection cup so as to maintain a moisture supply for a longer period of time before the germinated seedling is fully self-supporting. The plastic water collecting cup is simple in design, is shaped like a plastic cup with a larger opening than a seedling container, and can be replaced by the bottom of a plastic bottle with the same size and model. As shown in fig. 2, when the plastic water collecting cup for collecting water is sleeved on the bottom of the seedling container, a drain hole needs to be formed on the bottom wall of the seedling container for water to circulate back and forth between the seedling container and the plastic water collecting cup, in fig. 2: the cultivation method comprises the following steps of firstly, preparing sapropel soil 1 on the surface layer of the arborvitae forest land, secondly, preparing subsoil 2 of the arborvitae forest land, then, preparing a seedling container 3, a drain hole 301 and a plastic water collecting cup 4. Preferably, a plurality of round holes are arranged on the middle upper part of the side wall of the seedling culture container so that the root system of the seedling can be expanded outwards, or the seedling with soil left after the seedling culture container is torn off is directly placed into a plastic water collecting cup for collecting water, and then the plastic water collecting cup containing the seedling with soil is placed into the hole.
5. Indoor seed soaking, germination accelerating, seeding and seedling raising
Before a rainy season comes, mature, full and vigorous platycladus orientalis seeds are selected for soaking the seeds in warm water with the initial temperature of 40 ℃ for 48 hours and then are placed in a plastic disc, then wet gauze is covered on the platycladus orientalis seeds for germination acceleration at the temperature of 18-25 ℃ in the natural room temperature environment, and moisture is supplemented to the platycladus orientalis seeds at any time in the germination acceleration process to keep the platycladus orientalis seeds moist.
When 30% -50% of all the arborvitae seeds crack, sowing the arborvitae seeds into a seedling container filled with surface humus soil and core soil of arborvitae forest land, wherein the sowing depth is about 1.0 cm. Sowing 10-20 Chinese arborvitae seeds in each seedling raising container; thinning is carried out to reserve 3-5 robust seedlings.
6. Renewal planting
When 4-6 pairs of primary leaves grow from the seedlings, digging holes at proper places in the arborvitae forest land in rainy days of 7-8 months in rainy season, tearing off the seedling container, putting the seedlings with soil left after tearing off the seedling container into the holes, and then sequentially filling, compacting and watering.
7. Simple drip irrigation system
In order to ensure the survival of the container seedlings, the plastic bucket is used as a water storage device, a simple drip irrigation system is manufactured by using a PE plastic pipe, the planting and survival of the updated seedlings can be ensured, and the period of seedling cultivation and transplantation is prolonged until autumn or spring of the next year. Proper forest lands and forest windows on both sides of the catchment slope or the valley are selected for cultivation, and the updated arborvitae seedlings are easy to survive and preserve. When the ridge and the ridge are planted in the vertical field with serious water and soil loss, proper soil preparation and fine adjustment of the rainwater flow direction are needed, and the survival and growth of seedlings are ensured. Thinning again after the seedling survives and successfully overwinter, and reserving 1-2 plants.
The technical problem that this application will solve in reality is that seed maturity phase often meets the low water period that northern autumn precipitation reduces gradually in the present arborvitae woodland. The arborvitae seed often misses the best time for germination. When the arborvitae forest is artificially renewed, 2-3 years of seedlings with the length of more than 1 meter are mostly used for planting and afforesting. The large-size nursery stocks have large volume, and the roots are easy to be injured in the seedling lifting process, so that the survival rate is low. And the labor and time are wasted, the cost is high and the efficiency is low in seedling lifting, midway transportation, land preparation planting and irrigation. Therefore, the extensive updating of arborvitae forest land is caused to put an overload on the manpower and material resource requirements.
In contrast, the method provided by the application firstly uses local materials, and selects the forest land core soil and humus soil composite matrix which is reliable in source and convenient to obtain. And (3) setting a forest nursery at a collecting basin, a pond or a ditch low-lying position around the forest land for container seedling culture, or carrying out indoor seedling culture in a forest protection room and the like. Secondly, after the seedlings are cultivated in a proper period in rainy season, 4-6 pairs of container seedlings with primary leaves are selected for forest land cultivation, the seedling period is short, and the seedling rate and the planting survival rate of afforestation are high. In addition, a water collector can be additionally arranged at the upper part of the arid and barren mountainous region, and the planting survival rate and the preservation rate are greatly improved through the mode of reversely redistributing water and soil. Especially after the growth in rainy season and autumn, the seedlings grow strongly and have stronger vitality, and the overwintering preservation rate of the seedlings is greatly improved.
In addition, the seedlings have small volume, light weight, convenient transportation and planting and small requirements on manpower and material resources. Under the optimal condition, the existing forest management mechanism of forest protectors is utilized, and efficient and optimized updating of forest lands can be achieved.
Methods and devices not described in detail in the present invention are all the prior art and are not described in detail.
The above description of the embodiments is only intended to facilitate the understanding of the method of the invention and its core idea. It should be noted that, for those skilled in the art, it is possible to make various improvements and modifications to the present invention without departing from the principle of the present invention, and those improvements and modifications also fall within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural substrate container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) firstly, preparing a seedling culture container, filling a layer of arborvitae forest land core soil into the seedling culture container, filling a layer of arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil into the seedling culture container, wherein the arborvitae forest land core soil and the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil in the seedling culture container are arranged in a layered mode, the arborvitae forest land core soil is located at the lower layer, and the arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil is located at the upper layer;
2) soaking Chinese arborvitae seed in warm water with initial temperature of 40 deg.C for 48 hr before rainy season, placing into plastic tray, covering with wet gauze, and germinating at 18-25 deg.C in natural room temperature environment, and supplementing water to Chinese arborvitae seed to keep Chinese arborvitae seed wet;
3) indoor seeding and seedling raising: sowing the platycladus orientalis seeds into the seedling raising containers which are prepared in the step 1) and are filled with the humus soil on the surface layer of the platycladus orientalis forest land and the arborvitae forest land core soil when 30% -50% of all the platycladus orientalis seeds crack, and sowing 10-20 platycladus orientalis seeds in each seedling raising container;
4) thinning: thinning the germinated seedlings to reserve 3-5 robust seedlings in each seedling container;
5) transplanting to a forest land: when 4-6 pairs of primary leaves grow from the seedlings, selecting a proper place to dig holes in the arborvitae forest land in a rainy day of 7-8 months in a rainy season, tearing off a seedling container, putting the seedlings with soil left after tearing off the seedling container into the holes, and then sequentially filling, compacting and watering;
6) thinning again after the seedlings survive and successfully overwinter, and reserving 1-2 plants in each hole;
in the step 1), filling arborvitae forest land core soil and arborvitae forest land surface layer humus soil into a seedling culture container by using a soil filling device;
the soil filling device comprises a matrix tank, a horizontal handheld rod, a sealing plate, a switch control rod and a bolt;
the substrate tank comprises a round pipe positioned at the upper part and a conical pipe positioned at the lower part, the top end of the round pipe is open for feeding, the bottom end of the round pipe is welded with the large inner diameter end of the conical pipe, and the inner wall surface of the round pipe is provided with scale marks;
the sealing plate is used for sealing a bottom opening at the small inner diameter end of the conical pipe;
the right end of the horizontal handheld rod is welded and fixed on the top of the circular tube and is used for manually holding the soil filling device;
the switch control rod comprises a left horizontal rod, a middle vertical rod and a right horizontal rod, the lengths of the left horizontal rod, the middle vertical rod and the right horizontal rod are all located in the same vertical plane, the right end of the left horizontal rod is fixedly connected with the top end of the middle vertical rod in a welding mode, and the bottom end of the middle vertical rod is fixedly connected with the left end of the right horizontal rod in a welding mode;
the left horizontal rod is positioned below the horizontal handheld rod, and a screw rod of the bolt penetrates through the horizontal handheld rod and the left horizontal rod from top to bottom so that the left horizontal rod and the horizontal handheld rod form a bolt hinged connection to enable the left horizontal rod to rotate in a horizontal plane;
the right end of the right horizontal rod is fixedly connected with the sealing plate in a welding mode, and the sealing plate is driven to rotate in the horizontal plane to open or close the bottom opening of the conical tube by rotation of the left horizontal rod in the horizontal plane.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the step 1), the seedling raising container is a non-woven cloth bag or a paper cup.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step 1), the volume ratio of the surface humus soil of the arborvitae forest land to the core soil of the arborvitae forest land is 1: (1-2).
4. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step 1), when the pH of the arborvitae timbery is 8-10, an acidic fertilizer is added to the arborvitae timbery, wherein the acidic fertilizer is ammonium sulfate or ferrous sulfate.
5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step 3), the seeds of biota orientalis are sown in the humus soil on the surface layer of the arborvitae forest land at the upper layer in the seedling container to a depth of 1.0cm to 1.5 cm.
6. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step 5) of selecting suitable points for digging holes is selected from a catchment slope, a forest land and a forest window on both sides of a valley, and a ridge beam for land preparation and fine adjustment of rainwater flow direction.
7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step 5), the seedling container is torn off, then the seedlings with soil left after the seedling container is torn off are placed in the plastic water collecting cup for collecting water, and then the plastic water collecting cup containing the seedlings with soil is placed in the hole.
CN201910093870.0A 2019-01-30 2019-01-30 Method for cultivating arborvitae near-natural matrix container seedlings and promoting forest land renewal Expired - Fee Related CN109644768B (en)

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BE1009390A6 (en) * 1995-06-07 1997-03-04 Constructie Werkhuizen Demaite Device for automatic transfer of objects
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