CN109557253B - A kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system and its experimental method - Google Patents

A kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system and its experimental method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109557253B
CN109557253B CN201811302934.5A CN201811302934A CN109557253B CN 109557253 B CN109557253 B CN 109557253B CN 201811302934 A CN201811302934 A CN 201811302934A CN 109557253 B CN109557253 B CN 109557253B
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pressure
hydrate
negative pressure
gas
sample cavity
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CN109557253A (en
Inventor
邱海峻
叶建良
秦绪文
陆程
陆红锋
孙晓晓
李占钊
万庭辉
耿澜涛
马超
贺会策
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Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey
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Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/088Investigating volume, surface area, size or distribution of pores; Porosimetry
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means by investigating impedance
    • G01N27/04Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means by investigating impedance by investigating resistance

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system and its experimental method, the simulation system generally comprises the negative pressure sample cavity for placing sample, and the ring of connection negative pressure sample cavity presses system, parameter measurement system, constant temperature system, vacuum system, gas injection system, liquid injection system, heat injection system, drilling-fluid circulation system, back pressure system, data acquisition process unit.Simulation system of the invention can full-scope simulation gas hydrates exploitation, it can be used for desk research synthesis, the decomposition gas hydrates mechanism of China's Gas Hydrate In Sea Areas, and to grasp the support in terms of the important sensitive parameter of the influence pilot productions such as reservoir properties, temperature, pressure, change of production rule of the hydrate pilot production in sea area in the process under the conditions of different development schemes, different exploitation well groups provides physical analogy.

Description

A kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system and its experimental method
Technical field
The present invention relates to geology field, in particular to a kind of achievable hydrate is single-phase and two-phase permeability measures, hydration Object gas injecting mining simulation, gas hydrate synthesis and decompose simulation, the multinomial experiment such as hydrate reservoir drilling well POLLUTION SIMULATION it is comprehensive Simulation system and its experimental method.
Background technique
Since this century, the whole world all recognizes that gas hydrates are a kind of cleaning energy for substituting conventional fossil fuel Source.The whole world is it has been found that hydrate mineral reserve point is more than at 200, and with current energy-consuming trend, only the hydrate of exploitation 15% is just It is used 200 years as long as the whole world.But the stabilization Temperature-pressure Conditions of its own formation, determine the particularity of its mining method, In addition the influence with environment is need further to assess in its recovery process.Therefore, the research to hydrate exploitation at present In addition to the runin that a few countries and area carried out individual well or single well group is adopted, overwhelming majority research is also in laboratory physics The stage of simulation and numerical simulation.
Currently in order to developing and utilizing to the huge energy of this reserves, researcher proposes many methods:
1. heat injection method: being heated to decompose on equilibrium temperature by hydrate using injection hot water, steam or hot salt brine;
2. voltage drop method: below the pressure reduction of hydrate hiding to balance decomposition pressure;
3. chemical agent method: injection chemical agent, for example methanol or ethylene glycol are to change hydrate equilibrium formation condition.
Current research equipment can only all be developed in one aspect, cannot analyze hydrate comprehensively and generate or decomposing The changing factor of respective environment in the process, application when being unfavorable for actually exploiting.
Summary of the invention
The present invention provides that a kind of achievable hydrate is single-phase and two-phase permeability measurement, the simulation of hydrate gas injecting mining, water It closes object and forms and decompose simulation, the comprehensive simulation system of the multinomial experiment such as hydrate reservoir drilling well POLLUTION SIMULATION and its experiment side Method.
Particularly, the present invention provides a kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system, comprising:
Negative pressure sample cavity is internally provided with the formation ring pressure between hollow body for the horizontal metal hollow tube body put The rubber layer in space, for filling sea bottom hydrate reservoir shale flour sand porous media, one end passes through close with connecting pipeline Seal structure sealing, other end connection press the axis that porous media applies axial compressive force and load piston, axially spaced on tube body to set It is equipped with mounting hole and sapphire visual window, multiple mounting holes are evenly arranged on the circumference locating for mounting hole;
Ring presses system, presses space to add confining pressure negative pressure sample cavity inner ring by anti-icing fluid pressure, to internal porous Jie Matter simulated formation pressure state;
Parameter measurement system is mounted in each mounting hole of the negative pressure sample cavity with while measuring porous media in difference Data in simulation process, each mounting hole are separately installed with the bellows manograph of measurement pressure, measure the temperature sensing of temperature The electrode of device and measurement resistance;
Constant temperature system keeps environment temperature of the negative pressure sample cavity in experiment by covering the insulating box outside negative pressure sample cavity Degree;
Vacuum system vacuumizes negative pressure sample cavity by vacuum pump, to provide clean experimental situation;
Gas injection system, gas is injected into negative pressure sample cavity by gas compressor with synthesize cooling hydrate or Measure gas permeability of the hydrate reservoir in different mining states;
Liquid injection system is pumped by constant speed and constant pressure and injects specified cooling liquid into negative pressure sample cavity, for current The Test Liquid Permeability of Core of porous media synthesized hydrate or the current porous media of analysis;
Heat injection system, for injecting caloic to negative pressure sample cavity to simulate the mistake of heat injection exploitation Hydrate in Porous Medium Journey, convenient for analyzing the decomposition and migration state of hydrate;
Drilling-fluid circulation system exports drilling fluid by device for storing liquid and realizes annular circulation stream in negative pressure sample cavity nozzle It is dynamic, influence and pollution for sunykatuib analysis drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir conductive features;
Back pressure system, for controlling the gas pressure in negative pressure sample cavity and carrying out gas to the fluid of decomposition of hydrate output Liquid separation, and measured to gas water yield is produced;
Data acquisition process unit, the control system including having data processing software, while controlling experimentation Data acquisition, analysis and result output are realized to different experimentations.
In an embodiment of the invention, the gas injection system includes the air compression for generating pressed gas Machine stores the low pressure of pressurized low-pressure gas to the gas booster pump that the gas that the air compressor generates is pressurized Storage tank, the high pressure storage tank of high pressure gas after storage pressurization, selects low pressure storage tank or high pressure storage tank to negative pressure sample according to requirement of experiment The pressure regulator valve of the intracavitary input specified pressure of product controls the flow controller of output gas flow of gas size, cooling injection gas and liquid The cooler of body;Gas damping device is installed in the gas circuit before pressure reducing valve, the gas damping device is equipped with liquid Pressure vessel.
In an embodiment of the invention, the constant speed and constant pressure pump of the liquid injection system is twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure Pump, the twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump realize that independently operation and twin-tub linkage are made for single cylinder independently working, twin-tub by two cylinders Industry, using distilled water or kerosene as driving medium output, realized during output the constant pressure to driving medium, constant current and with Track PLC control;
The liquid injection system further includes the pressure being mounted between the twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump and negative pressure sample cavity Regulating piston, the hydraulic adjustment piston include the hollow body of both ends open, pass through outer spiral shell at the both ends of the hollow body Line is screwed with upper cover and lower cover respectively, and the inside of the two-port in the hollow body is separately installed with seal plug, described Seal plug is provided with the connected unit outwardly protruded far from the hollow body on one side, in the upper cover and the lower Gai Shangshe It is equipped with the through-hole passed through for the connected unit, is provided in the connected unit and axially penetrates through hole;
Being equipped in the inside of hollow body can axially move and by hollow body internal insulation at two individual cavities Partition;One of cavity is connected to twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump, another cavity is connected to the negative pressure sample cavity, with The solution for meeting hydrate generation, distilled water or coal in another cavity are filled in the cavity of the negative pressure sample cavity connection It is injected in the negative pressure sample cavity under the promotion of oil.
In an embodiment of the invention, the heat injection system includes providing the steam generation of steam and hot water simultaneously Device, the steam generator include the cartridge heater for being internally provided with heating chamber, and the barrel of cartridge heater is double-layer hollow structure, intermediate For hot water space, it is provided with annular in heating chamber or polygon is directly connected to the heating tube of hot water space in barrel, is heating Having heaters is arranged in the lower section of pipe, and top is provided with the steam pipe for the steam discharge generated in heating tube, in the defeated of steam pipe The cold water exchange area for adjusting output temperature is provided on channel out;
Further include the temp probe of detection temperature everywhere, detect the pressure probe of input and output pressure, to hot water space and The water inlet pipe that cold water exchange area is supplied water exports the outlet pipe of steam and/or hot water, and controls predetermined steam or heat according to instruction The PLC control unit of water output, exchange area are connected to by the pipeline with control valve with hot water space.
It in an embodiment of the invention, is the keeping warmth space for accommodating negative pressure sample cavity inside the insulating box, The inside opposing sides of insulating box is provided with refrigeration and realizes the hair dryer of hot air convection in cabinet, the tune connecting with refrigeration system Air port is saved, the inner surface of the insulating box is equipped with insulating layer, transparent windows and temperature control panel is provided on cabinet, The bearing block at support negative pressure sample cavity both ends is provided in cabinet.
In an embodiment of the invention, the insulating box is connect with by pipeline with the heat injection system, with reality Now mutual UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN.
In an embodiment of the invention, the device for storing liquid includes the fluid reservoir for storing well liquid, and control well liquid is followed The dynamic circulating pump of circulation, to the temperature controller that circulation well liquid is heated, the regulator of pressure, setting exist when adjusting well liquid circulation The simulation well head annulus structure of negative pressure sample cavity end;
It is connect after the delivery outlet connection circulating pump of the fluid reservoir with the entrance of simulation well head annulus structure, simulates well head ring The outlet of hollow structure is connect after connecting with regulator with the input port of fluid reservoir, and the temperature controller is individually connect with fluid reservoir, The output end of the circulating pump is connect by branch pipe with liquid storage pipe.
In an embodiment of the invention, the parameter measurement system further includes fixing seat, margining tablet and Anti-slip cover, In the mounting hole that the fixing seat sealing is fixed on the negative pressure sample cavity and it is internally provided with central passage, the margining tablet For flexible disk and be provided with it is multiple axially penetrate through jack, be horizontally arranged in central passage, the Anti-slip cover pass through outer spiral shell Line is screwed in the external opening end of central passage, and front end holds out against the margining tablet;The bellows manograph, temperature sensor and survey Amount electrode protrudes into the negative pressure sample cavity after passing through the jack on Anti-slip cover and margining tablet, the Anti-slip cover and the fixing seat It contacts and is provided with sealing element on the excircle of one end, the other end is provided with the anti-turn bolt for preventing signal line from loosening, described anti- Turn bolt is radially provided with through-hole, and corresponding limiting holes are provided on the Anti-slip cover, after anti-turn bolt goes to position, Through-hole is screwed by fixing bolt and limiting holes avoid anti-turn bolt from rotating.
In an embodiment of the invention, the margining tablet is equipped with multiple, each margining tablet interval or mutual Contact installation.
In an embodiment of the invention, the bellows manograph includes pressure-measuring pipe, covers drawing outside pressure-measuring pipe Pressure pipe, positioned at impulse tube end and sealing accommodates the bellows separation sleeve of pressure-measuring pipe end, injects anti-icing fluid in Xiang Suoshu pressure guiding pipe Injection device;The end outer surface of the pressure guiding pipe is provided with multiple tracks radial convex loop, and the bellows separation sleeve is open at one end Flexible boot, the inner surface in open end is provided with concave ring corresponding with bulge loop, the bellows separation sleeve using concave ring with it is described It links together after bulge loop engaging on pressure guiding pipe, in the internal guard space for forming receiving anti-icing fluid.
In an embodiment of the invention, the same mounting hole radially of the negative pressure sample cavity with straight line it is symmetrical or Triangular symmetrical mode is distributed on the circumference of the negative pressure sample cavity, and the quantity of the mounting hole is 8~12, a peace Fill hole at the temperature sensor at least provided with 4, and be located at the negative pressure sample cavity radius 1/4,2/ 4,3/4 and axle center at.
In an embodiment of the invention, the sealing structure of the negative pressure sample cavity includes fixed nozzle at one end Flange, the end socket of the movable sealing nozzle open end, the flange are fixed at nozzle simultaneously by pressure-bearing screw by the envelope Head is limited in nozzle open end;Be provided on the end socket it is multiple for test line connection axially extending bores, excircle with It is provided with sealing element at the position of nozzle inner sidewall contact, is provided with the filter being isolated between porous media, while The diversion trench for being provided on the end face of one end and the liquid of axially extending bore output being dispersed into face output is contacted with porous media, it is described Diversion trench includes the annular groove that annular space is distributed on the end face, and the radial slot of connection axially extending bore and each annular groove.
In an embodiment of the invention, loading chambers are installed in the other end of the negative pressure sample cavity, it is described Axis pressure load piston is inserted into loading chambers and excircle is identical as the inner periphery diameter of the negative pressure sample cavity, in the axis It is provided with the filter for preventing porous media from passing through between the end face and porous media of pressure load piston, the loading chambers are opposite Load piston is pressed to be limited in the loading chambers on the axis by sealing gland in the one end connecting with the negative pressure sample cavity.
In an embodiment of the invention, it is provided in the negative pressure sample cavity and realizes the steady of stable state heated filament measurement State measuring device, the steady state measurement device include the platinum product heat for being inserted into the negative pressure sample cavity and being located on axial line Silk, covers the sheath outside platinum product heated filament, sheath and platinum product heated filament both ends is fixed on to the end socket at negative pressure sample cavity both ends The fixing seat on load piston is pressed with axis;
The fixing seat is internally provided with axially extending bore, by external screw thread and end socket or axis the pressure load piston of one end Mounting hole connection, the seal joint of extrusion deformation is installed in mounting hole, on the external screw thread of the other end of fixing seat twist There is tension connector, the adjusting nut that adjusting tenses connector degree of tension is installed close to one end of fixing seat tensing connector, is tensed Fluting is provided in the end of the connector other end carves jam-packed ring, and is limited in the receipts tensed on connector for jam-packed ring is carved Press cap.
In an embodiment of the invention, the back pressure system includes being connected to negative pressure sample cavity output hydrate Back-pressure valve on pipeline shows the back pressure meter of pressure on back-pressure valve, adjusts pressure at back-pressure valve and exports in the negative pressure sample cavity Pressure exceeds self-relieving backpressure pump and back pressure container when standard, and the gas-liquid separation of gas-liquid separation is carried out to received hydrate Device receives gas and the gas tank measured after separation, weighs the gravity measure device of liquid after separation.
In an embodiment of the invention, the sapphire visual window is oppositely disposed at the negative pressure sample cavity Two sides.
In an embodiment of the invention, displacement pressure >=14 that the negative pressure sample cavity is born in experiment~ 18MPa, ring pressure >=40~50MPa.
A kind of experimental method of aforementioned comprehensive hydrate simulation system, packet are provided in an embodiment of the invention Include following steps:
Step 100, all systems are carried out mutually indepedent control by pipeline and control valve and negative pressure sample cavity to connect, is beaten It opens negative pressure sample cavity sealing structure one end and moist porous media sample is loaded using vertical mode, in sample and sealing structure and axis Placing between pressure load piston does not influence metal mesh and filter paper that aqueous vapor passes through but prevents sample from passing through, locks after filling close Seal structure is horizontally arranged negative pressure sample cavity simultaneously;
Step 200, each measurement component in Connecting quantity measuring system takes out negative pressure sample cavity by vacuum system After vacuum plus then ring pressure, environment temperature needed for starting constant temperature system simulated experiment start corresponding system according to experiment purpose It is tested to simulate actual formation environment, wherein experiment purpose includes:
One, the injection of natural gas or different phase gas is carried out, to current sample by gas injection system to analyze not With the permeability and porosity of current sample under ring pressure and different water cut saturation degree;
Two, liquid is injected, the gas of certain pressure is reinjected, reduces experimental temperature, realizes lanthanum chloride hydrate;
Three, by reducing system pressure with simulating hydrate decomposition process, while by sapphire form to the water of synthesis The distribution characteristics for closing object sample is observed;
Four, in porosity, permeability and the Gas And Water Relative Permeability of the different phase measurement reservoir of decomposition of hydrate;
Five, drilling fluid is made to carry out recycle stream in the simulation well head annulus structure of negative pressure sample cavity by the well liquid circulatory system It moves, while measuring sample to be influenced state by drilling fluid infiltration;
Six, injection hot gas or hot water are carried out to sample by heat injection system, to measure hydrate under heat injection mining method Decomposing state;
Step 300, in each experimentation, the pressure difference number of sample is measured by the bellows manograph in measurement component According to passing through electrode measurement sample by temperature change of the hydrate in generation and decomposition in temperature sensor measurement sample Resistivity value, above-mentioned measurement include the measurement to different depth in different location on sample levels direction and vertical direction;
Step 400, it in above-mentioned experimentation, is adjusted by back pressure system by control negative pressure sample cavity output pressure each Displacement pressure size needed for experimentation, data acquisition process unit controls the processing step of each experimentation, data are adopted Collection and output analysis result.
In an embodiment of the invention, sample is obtained by the relation value between the resistivity of acquisition and saturation degree The saturation distribution situation of different zones;Current seabed water is calculated by inlet and outlet gas flowmeter and fluid flow evaluation Close the single-phase and multiphase permeability of object reservoir shale flour sand porous media.
Simulation system of the invention can full-scope simulation gas hydrates exploitation, can be used for China sea area natural gas Gas hydrates mechanism is decomposed in the desk research synthesis of hydrate, and to grasp the pilot production of sea area hydrate in the process not Reservoir properties, temperature, pressure, change of production rule etc. under the conditions of same development scheme, different exploitation well groups influence the weight of pilot production Support in terms of wanting sensitive parameter to provide physical analogy.
The spatial distribution in temperature field in lanthanum chloride hydrate and decomposable process, the spatial distribution of saturation field, hydration can be studied Fltting speed, the decomposition mechanism of hydrate etc. in object decomposition forward position;Change producing well bottom pressure, heat injection temperature etc. by control Creation data, Optimal Development parameter;Production performance by hydrate under the conditions of the different well pattern modes of comparison, well spacing density is special Sign, optimized well pattern development plan.
Seepage flow performance containing hydrate formation can be tested, grasp hydrate formation permeability and saturation degree relationship and Water and object decompose the influence to in-place permeability.Mud filtrate invasion can be simulated under different condition to hydrate formation conductive characteristic It influences, provides foundation for hydrate formation resistivity logging from now on.It can also study under decompression and EOR Conditions in hydrate formation Aqueous vapor migration and hydrate reservoir gas production, in addition can carry out indoor water horizontal well water output mechanism and control water, water-plugging technology Technical research, water ridge coning process when observing horizontal wells bottom water reservoir, research water ridge are formed and development mechanism, water breakthrough time With the changing rule of recovery ratio.
Seepage flow performance containing hydrate formation can be tested, grasp hydrate formation permeability and saturation degree relationship and Water and object decompose the influence to in-place permeability.Mud filtrate invasion can be simulated under different condition to hydrate formation conductive characteristic It influences, provides foundation for hydrate formation resistivity logging from now on.It can also study under decompression and EOR Conditions in hydrate formation Aqueous vapor migration and hydrate reservoir gas production.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the simulation system connection schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the negative pressure sample cavity structural schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the gas injection apparatus connection schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the fluid infusion apparatus connection schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the structural schematic diagram of the hydraulic adjustment piston of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 6 is the device for storing liquid connection schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is the back pressure system connection schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 8 is the parameter measurement system structural schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 9 is the bellows manograph structural schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 10 is the structural schematic diagram of the negative pressure sample cavity setting mounting hole of one embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 11 is the sealed structural schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 12 is the structural schematic diagram of diversion trench on end socket in one embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 13 is the structural schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention axis pressure load piston;
Figure 14 is the steady state measurement apparatus structure schematic diagram of one embodiment of the present invention.
Specific embodiment
In the following description, each internal system and between rectangular cavities all by have control valve piping connection, Unless otherwise indicated, no longer show specific connecting line and control valve one by one, and only carried out with the course of work or experimental procedure Explanation.
As shown in Figure 1, an embodiment of the invention provides a kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system, generally System 2, parameter measurement system 3, constant temperature system 4, vacuum system, gas injection system 5, liquid are pressed including negative pressure sample cavity 1, ring Injected system 6, heat injection system 7, drilling-fluid circulation system 8, back pressure system 9 and data acquisition process unit 10.
As shown in Fig. 2, the main body of the negative pressure sample cavity 1 as the various experiments of analog sample, generally horizontal to put not The hollow body 101 that the steel that becomes rusty makes is internally provided with the rubber layer that ring pressure space is formed between hollow body, and inside is for filling out The sea bottom hydrate reservoir shale flour sand porous media for test is filled, one end of tube body 101 carries out close by sealing structure 105 Envelope is provided with the pipeline of each system outside connection in sealing structure 104, and other end connection is in negative pressure sample cavity 1 Porous media applies the axis pressure load piston 105 of axial compressive force, is provided with mounting hole the circumference of tube body 101 is axially spaced 102, and multiple mounting holes 102 are evenly arranged on circumference locating for everywhere mounting hole 102.
Negative pressure sample cavity 1 is whole to be made of steel pipe or stainless steel tube, and specific size can be 50 × 1200mm of φ, is born Pressure be greater than the pressure at actual formation, the displacement pressure in this programme is 16MPa or so, and ring is pressed in 25MPa or so.
The ring presses system 2 to press space to add confining pressure to the ring of negative pressure sample cavity 1 by confining pressure pump 21 and storage tank 22, more to simulate The pressure state on stratum locating for the medium of hole.
The parameter measurement system 3 passes through peace for measuring many kinds of parameters of the porous media in each system simulation process Multiple measurement components 103 in each mounting hole 102 of negative pressure sample cavity 1 realize measurement purpose, the collection of measurement data and pipe For reason by the control of data acquisition process unit 10, the measurement component 103 that specific each mounting hole 102 is installed respectively includes measurement pressure The bellows manograph of power, the temperature sensor for measuring temperature and the electrode for measuring resistance.
According to the data that bellows manograph at different location obtains, water can detect by the differential pressure value difference between two side points Close object synthesis and decompose situation, if formed hydrate or the region hydrate it is undecomposed or decompose amount it is less, it is poor Pressure value must be high, otherwise therefore differential pressure value, is it will be clearly understood that reaction water closes the synthesis of object by the difference that differential pressure value is read with regard to small Situation.
Lanthanum chloride hydrate and decomposable process are monitored and detect by arranging temperature sensors of high precision in different location, such as Fruit lanthanum chloride hydrate or amount that is undecomposed or decomposing are less, then the regional temperature must be low, otherwise extreme temperatures.
The resistivity value that different zones in simulation process are detected by saturation degree electrode, according to resistivity and saturation degree it Between relation value calculate and detect the saturation distribution situations of different zones.It, can be to installation if there is the measurement of other demands Corresponding measurement device is replaced or installed additional to original measurement component 103 in hole 102.
The constant temperature system 4 keeps ring of the negative pressure sample cavity 1 in experiment by covering the insulating box outside negative pressure sample cavity 1 Border temperature;Here environment temperature refers to the temperature at stratum.
The vacuum system vacuumizes negative pressure sample cavity 1 by vacuum pump, remains in negative pressure sample to avoid air The effect of simulation actual reservoir is influenced in chamber 1.
The gas injection system 5 injects gas into negative pressure sample cavity 1 by gas compressor with synthesized hydrate or survey Measure gas permeability of the hydrate reservoir in different mining states.Such as by injecting the single-phase methane gas of isothermal and accurately measuring The gas flow of mouth, and can measure gas permeability according to Darcy's law.
The liquid injection system 6 is pumped by constant speed and constant pressure injects specified liquid into negative pressure sample cavity 1, for current more The Test Liquid Permeability of Core of hole medium synthesized hydrate or the current porous media of analysis.Such as pass through injection isothermal aqueous fluid and precise measurement The fluid flow of outlet can obtain Test Liquid Permeability of Core according to Darcy's law measurement.
The heat injection system 7 is used to inject caloic to negative pressure sample cavity 1 to simulate heat injection exploitation Hydrate in Porous Medium Process, to study the gas production of aqueous vapor migration and hydrate reservoir under decompression and EOR Conditions in hydrate formation, Jin Erfen Analyse the decomposition and migration state of hydrate.
The drilling-fluid circulation system 8 exports drilling fluid by device for storing liquid and realizes annular circulation in 1 nozzle of negative pressure sample cavity Flowing, influence and pollution with sunykatuib analysis drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir conductive features.It is bored under specific analog different condition Well liquid invades the influence to hydrate formation conductive characteristic, provides foundation for hydrate formation resistivity logging from now on.
The back pressure system 9 be used to control gas pressure in negative pressure sample cavity 1 and to the fluid of decomposition of hydrate output into Row gas-liquid separation, and the gas of generation and liquid are measured respectively.
The data acquisition process unit 10 includes the control system with data processing software, and control system can be PC The equipment that machine, industrial personal computer etc. have data processing and analytic function.Control system controls experimentation by data processing software While data acquisition, analysis and result, which export, to be realized to different experimentation.
In the present solution, negative pressure sample cavity 1, parameter measurement system 3 and data acquisition process unit 10 constitute basic experiment Structure, other each systems are connected to by corresponding pipeline with negative pressure sample cavity 1 simultaneously, when needed can be by data acquisition at Reason unit 10 is individually controlled, other to need not participate in when simulating some detailed process to realize different simulation processes System be isolated by corresponding control valve.
In simulation, the permeability of different porous medias can be measured by changing the outfit different type deposit, by existing Analysis method the various data in each simulation process can be analyzed and be summarized, thus obtain selection reservoir in different moulds All data informations in draft experiment provide believable foundation for practical exploitation.By accurately controlling into negative pressure sample cavity 1 Gas and liquid injection rate, while the gas and amount of liquid that accurate measurement negative pressure sample cavity 1 exports, can calculate porous media hole Air water saturation degree in gap.It was exploited by the generation situation and heat injection of different location hydrate in monitoring negative pressure sample cavity 1 The decomposition situation of hydrate in journey, can analyze the variation of temperature, pressure curve in porous media in experimentation, and according to gas The generation and decomposition of hydrate mutually are determined with the fine difference of temperature in porous media, to obtain natural gas in different medium The P-T of hydrate is balanced and decomposition condition.
The decomposable process of present embodiment simulation porous media hydrate sample can realize that dynamic characteristic measurement and static state are special Sign measurement, wherein behavioral characteristics measurement can be under the decompression of control hydrate sample or heat injection decomposition condition, to decomposition of hydrate mistake Journey, the dynamic change of the gas and water permeability, Gas And Water Relative Permeability, thermal coefficient of the different piece of the sample of hydrate containing deposit Change is measured and is studied.And static characteristic measurement can be under the conditions of control hydrate sample be Undec, to synthesis containing heavy The gas and water permeability and Gas And Water Relative Permeability and thermal coefficient of the different piece of product object hydrate sample carry out survey in situ Amount.
The whole system of present embodiment can be in situ to different types of sea bottom hydrate deposited samples analog synthesis, really Determine the porosity of hydrate sample in synthesis process, air-water-hydrate concentration and its distribution characteristics, and full to different gas and waters And degree, the permeability and thermal coefficient of different type deposit carry out in situ measurement.
Specific description is provided to the structure of aforementioned each subsystem below, each subsystem in entire simulation system passes through one Root supervisor or corresponding branch pipe be connected tos with negative pressure sample cavity 1, and data acquisition process unit 10 then by signal wire reception with The course of work of each subsystem is controlled, this part can be used any existing scheme and realize, no longer illustrate in the following description, only The component and interconnected relationship for including with each subsystem are illustrated.
The connection signal of gas injection system 5 is as shown in Figure 3 comprising the air compressor 501 of pressed gas is generated, it is right The gas booster pump 502 that the gas that air compressor 501 generates is pressurized, the low pressure storage tank of low-pressure gas after storage pressurization 503, the high pressure storage tank 504 of high pressure gas after storage pressurization selects low pressure storage tank 503 or high pressure storage tank 504 according to requirement of experiment The pressure regulator valve 505 of specified pressure, and the flow controller 506 of control output gas flow of gas size are inputted into negative pressure sample cavity 1, The cooler 508 of cooling gas and liquid;Gas damping device 507 is installed in the gas circuit before pressure regulator valve 505, the gas Damping device 507 be the pressure vessel equipped with liquid, make by gas soak naturally.
Cooler 508 is for the gas and liquid in cooling injection negative pressure sample cavity 1, gas and liquid after cooling treatment Body will not generate destruction to the hydrate equilibrium state in negative pressure sample cavity 1.
The product of model GCS50, design pressure 1.0MPa can be selected in air compressor 501, and flow is 0.465m3/min, air compressor 501 can also be used in the cleaning scavenging of entire pipe-line system.
SITEC type gas-gas inflator, model GBD60, pressure ratio 60:1 can be selected in the gas booster pump 502, and maximum goes out Mouth pressure 498Bar, maximum stream flow 40L/min.
Low pressure storage tank 503 is mainly used for storing the pressurized air of air compressor 501, needs to meet following condition: holding Product 0.1m3, operating pressure 0.8MPa, design pressure 1MPa.High pressure storage tank 502 needs to meet as follows: volume 2000mL, maximum work Make pressure 50MPa.
Pressure regulator valve 505 is in addition to including manual pressure regulating valve, and there are also corresponding pressure indicators, is mainly used for pressurized height Body (natural gas) of calming the anger is adjusted to required operating pressure.Wherein manual pressure regulating valve maximum inlet pressure is 50MPa, outlet pressure It is adjustable between 0~40MPa.
Flow controller 506 uses Blang gram high-pressure flowmeter, and maximum working pressure (MWP) 40MPa, band communication interface can Communication connection is realized with data acquisition process unit 10.
The connection structure of liquid injection system 6 is as shown in figure 4, the constant speed and constant pressure pump 601 of liquid injection system 6 uses HAS- 200HSB type twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump, quantitatively injects for displacing medium, provides power source for test.Its operating pressure is There is pressure protection and position bound to protect by 50MPa, 0.01~20mL/min of flow velocity, and pump head material uses 316L, which matches Communication port is set, can be connect with data acquisition process unit 10, two cylinder can realize that single cylinder independently working, twin-tub are independently made Industry and twin-tub linkage operation.Specifically using distilled water or kerosene as driving medium output, realize during output to driving Constant pressure, constant current and the tracking PLC control of medium.
Two hydraulic adjustment pistons 602 have been installed in parallel between twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump 601 and negative pressure sample cavity 1, The both ends of each hydraulic adjustment piston 602 are separately installed with four-way valve 603, the both exportable gas-liquid of four-way valve 603, while also convenient Other pipelines are accessed, pipeline is such as cleaned.The volume of hydraulic adjustment piston 602 is 2000mL, operating pressure 50MPa, and material is 316L.Isolation and energy storage buffer and transmission of the hydraulic adjustment piston 602 as injection liquid and displacing fluid.It is done in cylinder inner surface flat Sliding processing, to reduce inner wall frictional force.
As shown in figure 5, every hydraulic adjustment piston 602 includes the hollow body 6021 of both ends open, in hollow body 6021 both ends have been screwed upper cover 6022 and lower cover 6023 by external screw thread respectively, and in the two-port of hollow body 6021 Portion is separately installed with seal plug 6024, outwardly protrudes in seal plug 6024 far from being provided on one side for hollow body 6021 Connected unit 6025 is provided with the through-hole 6026 passed through for connected unit 6025, in connected unit in upper cover 6022 and lower cover 6023 It is provided on 6025 and axially penetrates through hole 6027;Being equipped in the inside of hollow body 6021 can axially move and by hollow body 6021 internal insulations at two individual cavities partition 6028;One of cavity is connected to twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump 601, another A cavity is connected to negative pressure sample cavity 1, the solution for meeting hydrate generation is filled in the cavity being connected to negative pressure sample cavity 1, separately It is distilled water or kerosene in one cavity, distilled water or kerosene push partition 6028 under the pressure of twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump 601 It is mobile, it will be in the solution injection negative pressure sample cavity 1 in another cavity.
Heat injection system 7 includes while providing the steam generator 701 of steam and hot water, and steam generator 701 includes inside It is provided with the cartridge heater of heating chamber, the barrel of cartridge heater is double-layer hollow structure, and centre is hot water space, is arranged in heating chamber There are annular or polygon to be directly connected to the heating tube of hot water space in barrel, having heaters, heating are set in the lower section of heating tube Device can heat heating tube using electrothermal method, and the caloic for keeping it internal becomes steam by liquid.In the top of cartridge heater It is provided with the steam pipe for the steam discharge generated in heating tube, adjusting output temperature is provided in the output channel of steam pipe Cold water exchange area;Cold water exchange area adjusts the vapor (steam) temperature of output by water at low temperature, and water at low temperature here can some model Interior water, such as 10 DEG C of water are enclosed, is also possible to enter the caloic before heating tube, reduces the later period to absorb corresponding heat in advance and add The warm time.
In addition, being also equipped with the temp probe for detecting temperature everywhere on steam generator 701, input and output pressure is detected Pressure probe, the water inlet pipe to supply water to hot water space and cold water exchange area exports the outlet pipe of steam and/or hot water, and The PLC control unit of predetermined steam or hot water output is controlled according to instruction.Cold water exchange area can pass through the pipeline with control valve It is connected to hot water space, will directly directly input the cooling water after heating in heating tube when needed.
As shown in fig. 6, device for storing liquid 8 specifically includes the fluid reservoir 801 of storage well liquid, the circulation that control well liquid circulates Pump 802, to the temperature controller 803 that circulation well liquid is heated, the regulator 804 of pressure when adjusting well liquid circulation, setting is negative Press the simulation well head annulus structure 805 of 1 end of sample cavity.
It connect, simulates with the entrance of simulation well head annulus structure 805 after the delivery outlet connection circulating pump 802 of fluid reservoir 801 The outlet of well head annulus structure 805 is connect after connecting with regulator 804 with the input port of fluid reservoir 801, and temperature controller 803 is independent It is connect with fluid reservoir 801, the output end of circulating pump 802 is connect by branch pipe with liquid storage pipe 801.
Fluid reservoir 801 uses detachable structure with cover, volume 1000mL, maximum working pressure (MWP) 25MPa, temperature controller 803 temperature modification scope is at -50 DEG C of room temperature or so.The injection maximum pressure 25MPa of circulating pump 802, range of flow control exist 0.5~10mL/min.
It is the keeping warmth space for accommodating negative pressure sample cavity inside insulating box in present embodiment, it is opposite in the inside of insulating box Two sides is provided with refrigeration and realizes the hair dryer of hot air convection in cabinet, and the regulating tuyere connecting with refrigeration system, in constant temperature The inner surface of case is equipped with insulating layer, and transparent windows and temperature control panel are provided on cabinet, is provided in cabinet Support the bearing block at negative pressure sample cavity both ends.
Insulating box utilizes heating heat circulating system and cooling SAPMAC method system call interception negative pressure sample cavity at work Environment temperature.Temperature control range: -20 DEG C~130 DEG C, temperature-controlled precision: ± 0.5 DEG C.
The insulating box can also be connect by pipeline with heat injection system, to realize mutual UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN.
As shown in fig. 7, back pressure system 9 includes the back-pressure valve being connected on the pipeline of the output hydrate of negative pressure sample cavity 1 901, it shows the back pressure meter 902 of pressure on back-pressure valve 901, it is super in 1 output pressure of negative pressure sample cavity to adjust pressure at back-pressure valve 901 Bid self-relieving backpressure pump 903 and back pressure container 904 on time carry out the gas-liquid separation of gas-liquid separation to received hydrate Device 905 receives gas and the gas tank 906 measured after separation, weighs the gravity measure device 907 of liquid after separation.
As shown in figure 8, parameter measurement system 3 is equipped with solid for convenience of fixed corresponding measurement component in mounting hole 102 Reservation 301, margining tablet 302 and Anti-slip cover 303, the mounting hole 102 on negative pressure sample cavity 1 are circular through-hole, fixing seat 301 It is internally provided with central passage, sealing is fixed in mounting hole 102, and specific fixed form can be welding or screw thread is twisted It connects.
Margining tablet 302 be flexible or metal disk and be provided with it is multiple axially penetrate through jack, axially penetrate through jack for making The cable of each measurement component passes through, and is horizontally arranged in central passage, margining tablet 302 can according to seal request using one or Multiple, each margining tablet 302 can be overlapped mutually installation, form flexible fastening to the cable passed through, while facilitate adjustment is corresponding to survey Measure the measurement position of component.
Anti-slip cover 303 is equally the tubular-shaped structures that a centre has the central passage passed through for cable, passes through outer spiral shell Line is screwed on the internal screw thread at the external opening end of 301 central passage of fixing seat, and the front end of Anti-slip cover 303 can be by the depth tightened Margining tablet 302 is held out against to prevent margining tablet 302 from moving axially.
Bellows manograph 306, temperature sensor 307 and measuring electrode 305 pass through on Anti-slip cover 303 and margining tablet 302 It is protruded into after through-hole in negative pressure sample cavity 1;For the pressure-resistant performance for improving junction, Anti-slip cover 303 and fixing seat 301 contact one end Settable sealing element 308 on excircle;The anti-turn bolt for preventing signal line from loosening is provided in the other end of Anti-slip cover 303 304, which is radially provided with through-hole, and corresponding limiting holes are provided on Anti-slip cover 303, when anti-rotation spiral shell After bolt 304 goes to position, through-hole and limiting holes can be screwed by fixing bolt to avoid anti-turn bolt 304 with respect to 303 turns of Anti-slip cover It is dynamic.
As shown in figure 9, the bellows manograph 306 in present embodiment includes pressure-measuring pipe 3061, cover outside pressure-measuring pipe 3061 The pressure guiding pipe 3062 in portion, positioned at 3062 end of pressure guiding pipe and sealing accommodates the bellows separation sleeve 3063 of 3061 end of pressure-measuring pipe, to The injection device of injection anti-icing fluid in pressure guiding pipe 3062;The pressure of received insert division porous media is transferred to by pressure-measuring pipe 3061 The pressure sensor of external connection, pressure sensor passes through the digital display secondary instrument provided for oneself and is directly shown, or is transferred to data It collects at processing unit 10.For pressure guiding pipe 3062 for protecting pressure-measuring pipe 3061, internal anti-icing fluid can prevent 3061 quilt of pressure-measuring pipe Sharp freezing at porous media.Bellows separation sleeve 3063 can the end of pressure-measuring pipe 3061 formed one full of anti-icing fluid by Cavity 3064 is pressed, with the pressure of accurate transfer receiving to pressure-measuring pipe 3061.
The end outer surface of pressure guiding pipe 3062 is provided with multiple tracks radial convex loop 3065, bellows separation sleeve 3063 is opened for one end The flexible boot of mouth, the inner surface in open end are provided with concave ring 3066 corresponding with bulge loop 3065, and bellows separation sleeve 3063 utilizes It is fastened togather after concave ring 3066 and 3065 inserting of bulge loop on pressure guiding pipe 3062, can be formed in inside while preventing from falling off Accommodate the guard space of anti-icing fluid.
As shown in Figure 10, the quantity of 1 upper installing hole 102 of negative pressure sample cavity, can be according to the precision of measurement and different location Measurement request carries out quantity and position setting, if present embodiment is in the same setting of mounting hole 102 2 radially of negative pressure sample cavity ~3, each mounting hole 102 symmetrically or in a manner of triangular symmetrical is distributed on the circumference of negative pressure sample cavity 1 by straight line, and in the axial direction The position of settable 8~12 mounting holes 102, the quantity of overall upper installing hole 102 can reach 16~36.
In addition, the temperature sensor 307 at a mounting hole 102 can at least be arranged 4, it is each in same mounting hole 102 Temperature sensor 307 according to the distance at the inner sidewall to axle center of negative pressure sample cavity 1, can be located separately radius 1/4,2/4, 3/4 and axle center at;Equally, bellows manograph 306 and electrode 305 can also be installed in the same manner, so as to survey Measure pressure difference, the temperature difference and the resistivity value difference in porous media axial direction.And it then can measure the pressure of different depth in same position Difference, the temperature difference and resistivity value difference.
As shown in Fig. 2,11, for convenience of the dismounting and sealing at 1 both ends of negative pressure sample cavity, the sealing knot of the negative pressure sample cavity 1 Structure 104 may include the flange 1041 being fixed on outside 1 one end nozzle of negative pressure sample cavity, the end socket of the movable sealing nozzle open end 1042, end socket 1042 is used to block internal porous media, and flange 1041 is fixed on negative pressure sample cavity 1 by pressure-bearing screw End socket 1042 is limited at nozzle open end simultaneously at nozzle.
Multiple axially extending bores 1043 for the not test piping connection of homologous ray, end socket 1042 are provided on end socket 1042 It is provided with sealing element at the position that excircle is contacted with nozzle inner sidewall, the filter being isolated is provided between porous media 1044, while being provided on the end face for contacting one end with porous media that the liquid that axially extending bore 1043 exports is dispersed into face is defeated Diversion trench out, diversion trench include the annular groove 1045 that annular space is distributed on the end face, and connection axially extending bore 1043 with The radial slot 1046 of each annular groove 1045, referring to Figure 12.
During installation, after porous media loads, filter 1044 can be placed in the end of porous media, then again End socket 1042 is installed, finally with the fixed entire end of flange 1041.Here filter 1044 may include filter paper and metal filter Net, filter paper are first placed on porous media, then place metal screen.The mesh number of filter paper and metal screen at least needs to prevent porous Jie Matter passes through, but cannot influence gas or liquid passes through.
The liquid or gas entered by axially extending bore 1042 on end socket 1042, into negative pressure sample cavity 1 after can first pass through Radial slot 1046 on end socket 1042 enters each annular groove 1045, is then entered in the form of face filter 1044 again porous Medium enables gas or liquid uniformly to contact with porous media, real simulation actual formation situation.
As shown in figure 13, the other end positioned at negative pressure sample cavity 1 is equipped with the LOADED CAVITY for accommodating axis pressure load piston 1051 Body 1052, axis pressure load piston 1051 are inserted into loading chambers 1052 and can be along the axial movement of loading chambers 1052, axis pressures Load piston 1051 excircle it is identical with the inner periphery diameter of negative pressure sample cavity 1, axis press load piston 1051 end face and The filter 1044 for preventing porous media from passing through is again provided between porous media, loading chambers 1052 are far from negative pressure sample cavity Load piston 1051 is pressed to be limited in loading chambers 1052 on axis by sealing gland 1053 in 1 one end.
Axis pressure load piston 1051 moves axially under hydraulic or mechanical pressure in the inside of loading chambers 1052, Xiang Duokong Medium applies axial compressive force, to the strata pressure at porous media simulation actual reservoir.
In an embodiment of the invention, it is additionally provided in negative pressure sample cavity 1 and realizes the steady of stable state heated filament measurement State measuring device 103, the steady state measurement device 103 include the platinum product heat for being inserted into negative pressure sample cavity 1 and being located on axial line Silk 1031, covers the sheath 1032 outside platinum product heated filament, sheath 1032 and 1031 both ends of platinum product heated filament is fixed on negative pressure sample Fixing seat 1033 on end socket 104 and axis the pressure load piston 1051 at 1 both ends of chamber.
After platinum product heated filament 1051 is powered, it can be heated by porous media axis line location, and, sheath progressive to circumferencial direction 1052 can prevent external liquid or porous media from directly contacting with platinum product heated filament 1031, through in porous media difference position The temperature sensor 307 set, arranged at different depth can measure heating rate, and then test the thermal coefficient of hydrate.
As shown in figure 14, specific fixed seat structure is as follows: fixing seat 1033 be cylindrical structure, fixing seat 1033 it is interior Portion is provided with axially extending bore, and both ends are provided with external screw thread, passes through external screw thread and end socket 1042 or axis the pressure load piston of one end Mounting hole connection on 1051, is equipped with after being squeezed in mounting hole and deforms to enhance the seal joint 1034 of sealing effect, It is screwed on the external screw thread of 1033 other end of fixing seat and tenses connector 1035, tensing connector 1035 close to the one of fixing seat 1033 End is equipped with the adjusting nut 1036 for adjusting and tensing 1035 degree of tension of connector, tenses and is equipped in the end of 1035 other end of connector Jam-packed ring 1037 is carved with fluting, and is limited in the tightening pressure cap 1038 tensed on connector 1035 for jam-packed ring 1037 is carved.
By tensing the elasticity of the adjustable platinum product heated filament 1031 of connector 1035, while it will not influence tightening pressure cap 1038 Fixed effect.
For convenience of observation simulation process and observation device is used, the opposite sides of negative pressure sample cavity is provided with symmetrical sight Window is examined, the sapphire glass for facilitating infrared ray directly to observe is installed on observation window 104.
In an embodiment of the invention, the experimental method for disclosing a kind of previous experiments system, generally comprises as follows Step:
Step 100, it needs relevant device carrying out selection with negative pressure sample cavity according to test to connect, opens negative pressure sample cavity Moist porous media sample is loaded using vertical mode in sealing structure one end, sample and sealing structure and axis pressure load piston it Between place and do not influence metal mesh and filter paper that aqueous vapor passes through but prevents sample from passing through, lock sealing structure water simultaneously after filling Placing flat negative pressure sample cavity;
Here relevant device connection either connect all systems for different simulation effects, then root simultaneously According to needing to open corresponding system, it is also possible to the system for only installing corresponding demand.Each control is needed to pay attention to when connecting each system The closing and sealing of valve.
Step 200, Connecting quantity measuring system adds ring pressure after vacuumizing by vacuum system to negative pressure sample cavity, Environment temperature needed for starting constant temperature system simulated experiment, then simulated by starting different system corresponding ground environment into The corresponding experiment of row, wherein the purpose tested includes:
One, the injection of natural gas or different phase gas is carried out, to current sample by gas injection system to analyze not With the permeability and porosity of current sample under ring pressure and different water cut saturation degree;
Two, liquid is injected, the gas of certain pressure is reinjected, reduces experimental temperature, realizes lanthanum chloride hydrate;
Three, by reducing system pressure with simulating hydrate decomposition process, while by sapphire form to the water of synthesis The distribution characteristics for closing object sample is observed;
Four, in porosity, permeability and the Gas And Water Relative Permeability of the different phase measurement reservoir of decomposition of hydrate;
Five, drilling fluid is made to carry out recycle stream in the simulation well head annulus structure of negative pressure sample cavity by the well liquid circulatory system It moves, while measuring sample to be influenced state by drilling fluid infiltration;
Six, injection hot gas or hot water are carried out to sample by heat injection system, to measure hydrate under heat injection mining method Decomposing state;
Each experiment purpose in the step is not needed to realize simultaneously, can be carried out respectively according to experiment purpose.
Step 300, the pressure difference Value Data of sample in the axial direction is measured by the bellows manograph in parameter measurement system, led to Temperature change of the hydrate in generation and decomposition in excess temperature sensor measurement sample, by electrode measurement sample axial direction not Sample is obtained not with the resistivity value of position and same position different depth, and by the relation value between resistivity and saturation degree With the saturation distribution situation in region;Current seabed hydration is calculated by inlet and outlet gas flowmeter and fluid flow evaluation The single-phase and multiphase permeability of object reservoir shale flour sand porous media;
Step 400, it in above-mentioned experimentation, is adjusted by back pressure system by control negative pressure sample cavity output pressure each Displacement pressure size needed for experimentation, processing unit control the processing step of each experimentation, data acquisition and output Analyze result.
This method can realize different simulated experiment processes by different system in combination or independently, pass through the inhomogeneity that changes the outfit Type deposit measures the permeabilities of different porous medias, by existing analysis method to the various data in each simulation process It is analyzed and is summarized, to obtain all data informations of the selection reservoir in different simulated experiments, provided for practical exploitation Believable foundation.The gas and liquid injection rate of chamber are simulated into rectangle by accurately controlling, while accurate measurement rectangle is simulated The gas and amount of liquid of chamber outlet, can calculate the intrapore air water saturation degree of porous media.By in monitoring negative pressure sample cavity The decomposition situation of hydrate, can analyze more in experimentation in the generation situation and heat injection recovery process of different location hydrate The variation of temperature, pressure curve in the medium of hole, and hydration is determined according to the fine difference of temperature in gas phase and porous media The generation and decomposition of object, to obtain the P-T balance and decomposition condition of gas hydrates in different medium.
The process of specific each simulated experiment is identical as aforementioned analog system, is just not repeated here.
So far, although those skilled in the art will appreciate that present invention has been shown and described in detail herein multiple shows Example property embodiment still without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, still can according to the present disclosure directly Determine or deduce out many other variations or modifications consistent with the principles of the invention.Therefore, the scope of the present invention is understood that and recognizes It is set to and covers all such other variations or modifications.

Claims (18)

1. a kind of comprehensive hydrate simulation system characterized by comprising
Negative pressure sample cavity is internally provided with for the horizontal metal hollow tube body put and forms ring pressure space between hollow body Rubber layer, for filling sea bottom hydrate reservoir shale flour sand porous media, one end passes through the sealing knot for having connecting pipeline Structure sealing, other end connection press the axis that porous media applies axial compressive force and load piston, axially spaced on tube body to be provided with Mounting hole and sapphire visual window are evenly arranged with multiple mounting holes on the circumference locating for mounting hole;
Ring presses system, presses space to add confining pressure negative pressure sample cavity inner ring by anti-icing fluid pressure, to internal porous media mould Pseudo-reservoir pressure state;
Parameter measurement system is mounted in each mounting hole of the negative pressure sample cavity with while measuring porous media in different simulations Data in the process, each mounting hole be separately installed with measurement pressure bellows manograph, measure temperature temperature sensor and Measure the electrode of resistance;
Constant temperature system keeps environment temperature of the negative pressure sample cavity in experiment by covering the insulating box outside negative pressure sample cavity;
Vacuum system vacuumizes negative pressure sample cavity by vacuum pump, to provide clean experimental situation;
Gas injection system injects gas into negative pressure sample cavity by gas compressor to synthesize cooling hydrate or measurement Gas permeability of the hydrate reservoir in different mining states;
Liquid injection system is pumped by constant speed and constant pressure and injects specified cooling liquid into negative pressure sample cavity, for current porous The Test Liquid Permeability of Core of medium synthesized hydrate or the current porous media of analysis;
Heat injection system, for injecting caloic to simulate the process of heat injection exploitation Hydrate in Porous Medium, just to negative pressure sample cavity In the decomposition and migration state of analysis hydrate;
Drilling-fluid circulation system exports drilling fluid by device for storing liquid and realizes annular circulation flowing in negative pressure sample cavity nozzle, uses In influence and pollution of the sunykatuib analysis drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir conductive features;
Back pressure system, for controlling the gas pressure in negative pressure sample cavity and carrying out gas-liquid point to the fluid of decomposition of hydrate output From, and measured to gas water yield is produced;
Data acquisition process unit, the control system including having data processing software, to not while controlling experimentation Same experimentation realizes data acquisition, analysis and result output;
The constant speed and constant pressure pump of the liquid injection system is that twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pumps, and the twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump passes through two cylinders Realize single cylinder independently working, twin-tub independently operation and twin-tub linkage operation, it is defeated using distilled water or kerosene as driving medium Out, realize that the constant pressure to driving medium, constant current and tracking PLC control during output;
The liquid injection system further includes that the pressure being mounted between the twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump and negative pressure sample cavity is adjusted Piston, the hydraulic adjustment piston include the hollow body of both ends open, pass through external screw thread point at the both ends of the hollow body It is not screwed with upper cover and lower cover, and the inside of the two-port in the hollow body is separately installed with seal plug, in the sealing Plug is provided with the connected unit outwardly protruded far from the hollow body on one side, is provided in the upper cover and the lower lid For the through-hole that the connected unit passes through, it is provided in the connected unit and axially penetrates through hole;
The inside of hollow body be equipped with can axially move and by hollow body internal insulation at two individual cavities every Plate;One of cavity and the twin-tub constant speed and constant pressure pump are connected to, another cavity is connected to the negative pressure sample cavity, and described The solution for meeting hydrate generation is filled in the cavity of negative pressure sample cavity connection, distilled water or kerosene in another cavity It pushes in the lower injection negative pressure sample cavity.
2. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The gas injection system include generate pressed gas air compressor, to the air compressor generate gas into The gas booster pump of row pressurization stores the low pressure storage tank of pressurized low-pressure gas, the high pressure storage of high pressure gas after storage pressurization Tank selects low pressure storage tank or high pressure storage tank to input the pressure regulator valve of specified pressure into negative pressure sample cavity, controls according to requirement of experiment The flow controller of output gas flow of gas size, the cooler of cooling injection gas and liquid;In the gas circuit before pressure reducing valve Gas damping device is installed, the gas damping device is the pressure vessel equipped with liquid.
3. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The heat injection system includes providing the steam generator of steam and hot water simultaneously, and the steam generator includes internal setting There is the cartridge heater of heating chamber, the barrel of cartridge heater is double-layer hollow structure, and centre is hot water space, and ring is provided in heating chamber Shape or polygon are directly connected to the heating tube of hot water space in barrel, and having heaters, top setting is arranged in the lower section of heating tube There is the steam pipe for the steam discharge generated in heating tube, is provided in the output channel of steam pipe and adjusts the cold of output temperature Water coke slurry area;
Further include the temp probe for detecting temperature everywhere, the pressure probe of input and output pressure is detected, to hot water space and cold water The water inlet pipe that exchange area is supplied water exports the outlet pipe of steam and/or hot water, and defeated according to the predetermined steam of instruction control or hot water PLC control unit out, exchange area are connected to by the pipeline with control valve with hot water space.
4. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 3, which is characterized in that
It is the keeping warmth space for accommodating negative pressure sample cavity inside the insulating box, the inside opposing sides of insulating box is provided with refrigeration With the hair dryer for realizing hot air convection in cabinet, the regulating tuyere being connect with refrigeration system, the inner surface installation of the insulating box There is insulating layer, transparent windows and temperature control panel are provided on cabinet, support negative pressure sample cavity is provided in cabinet The bearing block at both ends.
5. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 4, which is characterized in that
The insulating box is connect by pipeline with the heat injection system, to realize mutual UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN.
6. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The device for storing liquid includes the fluid reservoir for storing well liquid, and the circulating pump that control well liquid circulates carries out circulation well liquid The temperature controller of heating, the regulator of pressure, is arranged in the simulation well head of the negative pressure sample cavity end when adjusting well liquid circulation Annulus structure;
It is connect after the delivery outlet connection circulating pump of the fluid reservoir with the entrance of simulation well head annulus structure, simulates well head annular space knot The outlet of structure is connect after connecting with regulator with the input port of fluid reservoir, and the temperature controller is individually connect with fluid reservoir, described The output end of circulating pump is connect by branch pipe with liquid storage pipe.
7. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The parameter measurement system further includes fixing seat, margining tablet and Anti-slip cover, and the fixing seat sealing is fixed on the negative pressure In mounting hole on sample cavity and it is internally provided with central passage, the margining tablet is flexible disk and is provided with multiple axial directions and passes through Inserting hole is horizontally arranged in central passage, and the Anti-slip cover is screwed in the external opening end of central passage by external screw thread, Front end holds out against the margining tablet;The bellows manograph, temperature sensor and measuring electrode pass through on Anti-slip cover and margining tablet It is protruded into after jack in the negative pressure sample cavity, the Anti-slip cover and the fixing seat contact and be provided with sealing on the excircle of one end Part, the other end are provided with the anti-turn bolt for preventing signal line from loosening, and the anti-turn bolt is radially provided with through-hole, in institute It states and is provided with corresponding limiting holes on Anti-slip cover, after anti-turn bolt goes to position, through-hole and limiting holes are screwed by fixing bolt Anti-turn bolt is avoided to rotate.
8. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 7, which is characterized in that
The margining tablet is equipped with multiple, each margining tablet interval or the installation that contacts with each other.
9. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 7, which is characterized in that
The bellows manograph includes pressure-measuring pipe, covers the pressure guiding pipe outside pressure-measuring pipe, is located at impulse tube end and sealing accommodates The bellows separation sleeve of pressure-measuring pipe end, the injection device of the interior injection anti-icing fluid of Xiang Suoshu pressure guiding pipe;Outside the end of the pressure guiding pipe Surface is provided with multiple tracks radial convex loop, and the bellows separation sleeve is flexible boot open at one end, and the inner surface in open end is arranged One is connected to after having concave ring corresponding with bulge loop, the bellows separation sleeve to engage using concave ring with the bulge loop on the pressure guiding pipe It rises, in the internal guard space for forming receiving anti-icing fluid.
10. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The same mounting hole radially of negative pressure sample cavity symmetrically or in a manner of triangular symmetrical is distributed in the negative pressure sample by straight line On the circumference of product chamber, the quantity of the mounting hole is 8~12, and the temperature sensor at a mounting hole is at least set 4 are equipped with, and is located at 1/4,2/4,3/4 and the axle center of radius of the negative pressure sample cavity.
11. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The sealing structure of the negative pressure sample cavity includes the flange of fixed nozzle at one end, the envelope of the movable sealing nozzle open end Head, the flange are fixed at nozzle by pressure-bearing screw and the end socket are limited in nozzle open end simultaneously;In the end socket On be provided with multiple axially extending bores for test line connection, be provided at the position that excircle is contacted with nozzle inner sidewall close Sealing is provided with the filter being isolated between porous media, while being arranged on the end face for contacting one end with porous media There is the liquid by axially extending bore output to be dispersed into the diversion trench of face output, the diversion trench includes that annular space is distributed in the end face On annular groove, and connection axially extending bore and each annular groove radial slot.
12. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 11, which is characterized in that
Loading chambers are installed in the other end of the negative pressure sample cavity, the axis pressure load piston be inserted into loading chambers and Excircle is identical as the inner periphery diameter of the negative pressure sample cavity, between the end face and porous media that the axis presses load piston It is provided with the filter for preventing porous media from passing through, the opposite one end connecting with the negative pressure sample cavity of the loading chambers passes through The axis is pressed load piston to be limited in the loading chambers by sealing gland.
13. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 11, which is characterized in that
The steady state measurement device for realizing the measurement of stable state heated filament, the steady state measurement device packet are provided in the negative pressure sample cavity The platinum product heated filament for being inserted into the negative pressure sample cavity and being located on axial line is included, the sheath outside platinum product heated filament is covered, will protect Set and platinum product heated filament both ends are fixed on the fixing seat on the end socket and axis pressure load piston at negative pressure sample cavity both ends;
The fixing seat is internally provided with axially extending bore, passes through the peace on external screw thread and end socket or axis the pressure load piston of one end Hole connection is filled, the seal joint of extrusion deformation is installed in mounting hole, drawing is screwed on the external screw thread of the other end of fixing seat Tight coupling is equipped with the adjusting nut that adjusting tenses connector degree of tension close to one end of fixing seat tensing connector, tenses connector Fluting is provided in the end of the other end carves jam-packed ring, and is limited in the tightening pressure tensed on connector for jam-packed ring is carved Cap.
14. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The back pressure system includes the back-pressure valve being connected on the pipeline of negative pressure sample cavity output hydrate, shows and presses on back-pressure valve The back pressure meter of power adjusts pressure self-relieving backpressure pump when the negative pressure sample cavity output pressure exceeds standard at back-pressure valve With back pressure container, the gas-liquid separator of gas-liquid separation is carried out to received hydrate, receives gas and the gas tank measured after separation, Weigh the gravity measure device of liquid after separating.
15. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The sapphire visual window is oppositely disposed at the two sides of the negative pressure sample cavity.
16. comprehensive hydrate simulation system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
Displacement pressure >=14~18MPa that the negative pressure sample cavity is born in experiment, ring pressure >=40~50MPa.
17. a kind of experimental method of any comprehensive hydrate simulation system of claim 1-16, which is characterized in that including Following steps:
Step 100, all systems are carried out mutually indepedent control by pipeline and control valve and negative pressure sample cavity to connect, is opened negative Moist porous media sample is loaded using vertical mode in pressure-like product cavity sealing structure one end, adds in sample and sealing structure and axis pressure It carries to place between piston and does not influence metal mesh and filter paper that aqueous vapor passes through but prevents sample from passing through, lock sealing knot after filling Structure is horizontally arranged negative pressure sample cavity simultaneously;
Step 200, each measurement component in Connecting quantity measuring system vacuumizes negative pressure sample cavity by vacuum system Afterwards plus then ring pressure, environment temperature needed for starting constant temperature system simulated experiment start corresponding system according to experiment purpose come mould Quasi- actual formation environment is tested, and wherein experiment purpose includes:
One, the injection of natural gas or different phase gas is carried out, to current sample by gas injection system to analyze different rings The permeability and porosity of current sample under pressure and different water cut saturation degree;
Two, liquid is injected, the gas of certain pressure is reinjected, reduces experimental temperature, realizes lanthanum chloride hydrate;
Three, by reducing system pressure with simulating hydrate decomposition process, while by sapphire form to the hydrate of synthesis The distribution characteristics of sample is observed;
Four, in porosity, permeability and the Gas And Water Relative Permeability of the different phase measurement reservoir of decomposition of hydrate;
Five, circulate drilling fluid in the simulation well head annulus structure of negative pressure sample cavity by the well liquid circulatory system, together When measurement sample by drilling fluid infiltration influenced state;
Six, injection hot gas or hot water are carried out to sample by heat injection system, to measure point of the hydrate under heat injection mining method Solution state;
Step 300, in each experimentation, the pressure difference Value Data of sample is measured by the bellows manograph in measurement component, is led to Temperature change of the hydrate in generation and decomposition, passes through the resistivity of electrode measurement sample in excess temperature sensor measurement sample Value, above-mentioned measurement includes the measurement to different depth in different location on sample levels direction and vertical direction;
Step 400, in above-mentioned experimentation, by back pressure system by control negative pressure sample cavity output pressure to adjust each experiment Displacement pressure size needed for process, data acquisition process unit control the processing step of each experimentation, data acquisition and Output analysis result.
18. experimental method according to claim 17, which is characterized in that
The saturation distribution situation of sample different zones is obtained by the relation value between the resistivity and saturation degree of acquisition;Pass through The list of current sea bottom hydrate reservoir shale flour sand porous media is calculated in inlet and outlet gas flowmeter and fluid flow evaluation Phase and multiphase permeability.
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