CN102323394A - Experimental apparatus and method for researching response characteristic of natural gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion - Google Patents

Experimental apparatus and method for researching response characteristic of natural gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion Download PDF

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CN102323394A
CN102323394A CN201110242531A CN201110242531A CN102323394A CN 102323394 A CN102323394 A CN 102323394A CN 201110242531 A CN201110242531 A CN 201110242531A CN 201110242531 A CN201110242531 A CN 201110242531A CN 102323394 A CN102323394 A CN 102323394A
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China
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pressure
gas
valve
hydrate
drilling fluid
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CN201110242531A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102323394B (en
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余义兵
宁伏龙
蒋国盛
张凌
刘力
王跃伟
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中国地质大学(武汉)
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Abstract

The invention relates to an experimental apparatus and a method for researching response characteristics of natural gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion. The apparatus comprises a drilling fluid cycling mechanism, a high and low constant temperature experiment box, a gas permeability mechanism, a water / gas injection mechanism, a confining pressure tracking mechanism, a back pressure mechanism, a detection mechanism, an outlet metering mechanism, a rock core transferring mechanism, a sampling mechanism and an industrial control computer. The experimental methods based on the apparatus comprise an experimental method for hydrate deposit gas permeability, an experimental method for intrusion of drilling fluid to hydrate deposit and dynamic monitoring of response characteristics of the hydrate deposit during the intrusion process, and a method for fidelity transferring of hydrate deposit core. The invention provides an early stage indoor research on response characteristics of natural gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion, so as to master influence rules of the drilling fluid intrusion on hydrate stratum physical properties, realize simulating fidelity transferring of a sample containing hydrate deposit and provide basis for future hydrate stratum exploitation and drilling safety and logging accuracy interpretation.

Description

The experimental provision and the experimental technique of response characteristic invaded on research gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of response characteristic is invaded on the gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid experimental provision and experimental technique of studying.
Background technology
Gas hydrate have characteristics such as energy density height, distribution is wide, reserves are big, are a kind of very potential novel substitute energys.But on the sky of hydrate exploration and Application and Development, also exist the reservoir quantitative description not enough so far, the production technique problem with Application and Development risk not little " three black clouds " that do not pass a test.Because containing the gas hydrate stratum is to have infiltrative porous medium body, energy and mass exchange can take place with it in drilling fluid inevitably in the drilling process, thereby influence wellbore stability, log response and evaluating reservoir.Be higher than at overvoltage drilling well and drilling fluid temperature under the situation of hydrate phase balance temperature here; Water-base drilling fluid displacement intrusion contains the gas hydrate decomposition that heat conduction causes under the gas hydrate stratum and the temperature difference and is coupled, and its process is a non-isothermal unstable state seepage flow diffusion process that comprises phase transformation.Only adopt common method for numerical simulation to have the shortcoming such as hypothesis and simplification of model; Can't react actual conditions really and accurately; Add that the activity of open-air hydrate formation actual well drilled is few; And operating difficulties, cost be high, have a big risk, and situation is often invisible in actual well drilled process the hole in, adopts actual logging mode to infer that also there are many uncertainties in all reservoir situation of well.Therefore people have also carried out some indoor simulation experiment study; Some experimental provisions have been designed; Set up the method for some experiments; Adopt the method for experimental simulation to carry out the research of methane hydrate resolution ratio such as once disclosing in domestic " modern geology " 3 phases in 2008 " methane hydrate decomposable process simulation experiment study ", adopted in the experiment and waited the characteristics of decomposition of holding the method research hydrates such as decomposition and the decomposition of different-grain diameter porous medium system normal pressure that heat up; State Intellectual Property Office discloses " the three-dimensional exploitation rerum natura test experience device that generates of a kind of gas hydrate " in June, 2011; Application number is 201010603251.0; Rerum natura changed when this device can accurately be measured exploitation, and the inner basic rerum natura in hydrate Tibetan changes in the time of being used for various hydrates generations of synthetic study and exploitation.But the weak point of above-mentioned experimental provision and method is only can be used for the simulation experiment study of hydrate recovery process, and drilling well activity and the drilling fluid thereof ignored in hydrate exploration and the recovery process are invaded the influence to hydrate formation.Therefore, the research hydrate formation is significant to realizing hydrate exploratory development safely and efficiently to the dynamic response characteristic of drilling fluid intrusion.
To above-mentioned condition; In earlier stage carrying out simulating lab test research earlier in the hydrate formation drilling well is a kind of rational selection; Be necessary through setting up a kind of experimental provision and experimental technique that can comprehensive simulation indoor; The dynamic response characteristic that the systematic study hydrate formation is invaded drilling fluid is for the safe and efficient exploratory development of hydrate is from now on provided fundamental basis and experiment instruction.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention one provides the experimental provision of a kind of ability synthetic study gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion response characteristic, and the 2nd, on the experimental provision basis of the research gas hydrate stratum that provides, provide a cover complete experimental technique to drilling fluid intrusion response characteristic.
The present invention in order to achieve the above object; The technical scheme of being taked is: a kind of hydrate formation is invaded response characteristic to drilling fluid experimental provision of studying is provided; Comprise circulation of drilling fluid mechanism, high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, perm-plug method mechanism, water/gas injecting mechanism and industrial computer, also be provided with core transfer device, ring pressure follower, back pressure mechanism, testing agency, outlet metering mechanism, sampling mechanism;
Described circulation of drilling fluid mechanism is made up of the well head annular space chamber of drilling fluid basin, temperature controller, circulation of drilling fluid pump and physical model mechanism; Temperature controller control drilling fluid temperature, drilling fluid circulates in the hydrate sediment that penetrates in the rock core fastener in the well head annular space chamber of physical model mechanism under the circulation of drilling fluid pumping action;
Described high cryogenic thermostat experimental box is the constant temperature experimental box able to programme of an industrial computer control; Be provided with physical model mechanism in the experimental box; Be provided with drilling fluid well head annular space chamber at physical model mechanism left end, top is provided with a sampling spot, and infrared camera is installed on the pulley track in the experimental box; With physical model mechanism axis alignment, but and move left and right; In physical model mechanism, be provided with rock core fastener, left end cap and right end cap are established in the rock core fastener left and right sides, and the test core is placed in the rock core fastener, rock core fastener axially on be provided with the measuring point of resistivity, pressure, temperature; Physical model mechanism links to each other with perm-plug method mechanism, water/gas injecting mechanism, sampling mechanism with valve, the tensimeter of controlled pressure through the high pressure line of its top, bottom and end; The sensor at ten erect-position measuring point places in the physical model mechanism links to each other with measuring mechanism with pressure duct through signal wire respectively; When shifting the hydrate sediment core that forms in the rock core fastener, the rock core fastener right-hand member linked to each other with the core transfer device realize transfer;
The nitrogen pipeline of three cover different osmotic power, the perviousness of testing high, medium and low three kinds of permeability hydrate sediments are respectively contained in described perm-plug method mechanism; Described water/gas injecting mechanism comprises liquid water injecting mechanism and rock gas injecting mechanism, and the liquid water injecting mechanism is made up of constant-flux pump and piston container; The rock gas injecting mechanism comprises natural gas bottle, reduction valve, gas boosting pump and gas meter, and through the amount of natural gas that gas meter control gets into physical model mechanism, the different saturation hydrate sediment is synthetic in the realization rock core fastener;
Described ring presses follower to press tracking pump and pressure transducer to form by ring, and ring is pressed the pressure differential in chamber and the rock core fastener inner chamber in the tracking physical model mechanism;
Described back pressure mechanism is made up of check valve, back pressure buffer container and backpressure pump; Pressure survey mechanism, resistivity measurement mechanism, flow detection, temperature control and testing agency are contained in said testing agency;
Described outlet metering mechanism is made up of gas-liquid separator, mass-flow gas meter and electronic balance; Described sampling mechanism adopts manual pump and piston sampler, the left end of the piston of piston sampler increase in advance one with physical model mechanism in equal pressure, realize isobaric sampling through moving back pump again;
Described industrial computer moves under Windows 2000 or XP environment, adopts the VB programming, to the collection and the processing of various pressure, temperature, resistivity, gas volume, liquid volume numerical value, controls the operation of each mechanism in good time.
Experimental provision of the present invention, described rock core fastener are evenly arranged 10 erect-position measuring points on it is axial, be separately installed with 10 pressure transducer C, 10 temperature sensors and 10 resistivity sensors.
Experimental provision of the present invention, described rock core fastener specification is φ 50mm, length 1200mm; Test core φ 50mm; Length 500~1200mm, the not enough 1200mm of test core length partly mends long through false core, and the test core can adopt natural core, artificial core or sand-packed model.Described false core is mended long being meant when the test core length can not fill up whole rock core fastener, utilizes false core that rock core fastener build-in test core is mended and grows to 1200mm to fill up whole rock core fastener.The false core of the one-tenth hollow cylinder of described false core such as stainless steel material system.
Experimental provision of the present invention; Described core fidelity transfer device is made up of outer chamber, inner chamber body, piston, manual pump, ring chamber, temperature controller, pressure controller, packing plate and joint, and outer chamber contains inner chamber body, and inner chamber body one end is equipped with piston; The other end is equipped with the packing plate; Joint is contained in the packing plate outside, and pressure controller is connected with inner chamber body, and temperature controller is connected with ring chamber.
In order to reach second purpose of the present invention; Provide a kind of described experimental provision is used to study response characteristic is invaded on the gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid experimental technique; Include hydrate sediment gas permeability test experiments method, drilling fluid is to the experimental technique of hydrate sediment dynamic response characteristic monitoring in the intrusion of hydrate sediment and the invasion procedure; Hydrate sediment core fidelity transfer method; Described hydrate formation gas permeability test experiments method is divided into basic, normal, high three kinds of different permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental techniques, and concrete steps are following:
(1) step of described low-permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
A. water filling: the liquid water in the liquid water reservoir vessel passes through constant-flux pump in the piston container A is injected the test core of rock core fastener;
B. gas injection: liquid water is opened natural gas bottle, CH after injecting and finishing 4Gas when natural atmospheric pressure is lower than the required pressure of experiment, is opened the supercharging of gas boosting pump through reduction valve, and gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter D, flows through valve 5.;
C. select hyposmosis gas injection pipeline, CH 4Gas through valve 6., valve 7., the hyposmosis pipeline that constitutes of Low-flow meter, get in the rock core fastener and test core, pressure reaches set pressure 8~12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core to be tested;
D insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, make that the test core left standstill 12~20 hours in the physical model mechanism under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures, in rock core fastener, form the hydrate sediment of low-permeability;
E. perm-plug method: carry out hypotonic experiment; This moment valve 1., valve 7., 6. valve open; Other valve closing is opened nitrogen cylinder A, and nitrogen gets into physical model mechanism through high-pressure pressure regulating valve B pressure regulation in the bottle to 4MPa; Gas infiltrates pressure and is shown by tensimeter E, through the permeability of Low-flow meter test low-permeability hydrate sediment;
(2) step of described middle perviousness hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
Step a, b are identical with low-permeability hydrate sediment experimental technique;
C. infiltration gas injection pipeline in selecting, rock gas through valve 8., the middle infiltration pipeline that 9. constitutes of middle flowmeter and valve, the test core injects CH in rock core fastener 4Gas, pressure reaches set pressure 8~12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core to be tested;
D. insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, the test core was left standstill 12~20 hours, infiltrative hydrate sediment in rock core fastener, forming under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures;
E. perm-plug method: ooze experiment in carrying out, this moment valve 2., valve 3., valve 8., 9. valve open other valve closing; Among the nitrogen cylinder B gas earlier through high-pressure pressure regulating valve A pressure regulation to 4MPa; Gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter A, presses the pressure regulator valve pressure regulation to 0.6MPa again in the warp, and gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter B; Get into physical model mechanism then, through the permeability of perviousness hydrate sediment in the middle flowmeter test;
(3) step of described high osmosis hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
Step a, b are identical with low-permeability hydrate sediment experimental technique;
C. select high infiltration gas injection pipeline, rock gas through valve 10., valve , the high penetration pipe road that constituted of high flow capacity meter, the test core injects CH in rock core fastener 4Gas, pressure reaches set pressure 8~12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core to be tested;
D. insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, the test core was left standstill 12~20 hours under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures, in rock core fastener, form the hydrate sediment of high osmosis;
E. gas is surveyed and is oozed rate: carry out height and ooze experiment; This moment valve 2., valve 4., valve 10., valve opens; Other valve closing, to 4MPa, gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter A gas through high-pressure pressure regulating valve A pressure regulation among the nitrogen cylinder B; Press the pressure regulator valve pressure regulation to 0.6MPa in the warp; Gaseous tension shows by tensimeter B, again through the low pressure regulating pressure valve pressure regulation to 0.2MPa, gas infiltrates pressure and is shown by tensimeter C; Get into physical model mechanism, through the permeability of high flow capacity instrumentation examination high osmosis hydrate sediment.
A kind of drilling fluid of the present invention is following to the experimental technique step of hydrate sediment dynamic response characteristic monitoring in the intrusion of hydrate sediment and the invasion procedure:
(1) described hydrate sediment comprises that utilization test core as the synthetic hydrate sediment of framework material, is placed in the in-house core holding unit of physical model;
(2) drilling fluid is to the intrusion of hydrate sediment: the drilling fluid in the drilling fluid storage tank through temperature controller regulate reach 0~50 ℃ of experiment demand temperature after; Get into the well head annular space chamber of physical model mechanism through the circulation of drilling fluid pump; And circulated therein flows, and drilling fluid is gradually in the irruptive rock core holder in the hydrate sediment;
(3) dynamic response of monitoring in the invasion procedure: respectively through axially being uniformly distributed with along rock core fastener and being fixed in 10 temperature sensors on physical model structure top and temperature and pressure that 10 pressure transducer C test hydrate sediment in the invasion procedure changes; Through axially be uniformly distributed with and be fixed in the variation of hydrate sediment resistivity in 10 resistivity sensors test invasion procedures of physical model mechanism bottom along rock core fastener;
(4) infrared observation: the phase of infrared camera scanning through being installed on the pulley track is observed the Temperature Distribution and the variation of hydrate sediment in the rock core fastener in the physical model mechanism, analyzes dynamic invasion procedure of drilling fluid and decomposition of hydrate zone;
(5) sampling analyze and research: during sampling operation with wobble pump B to piston container B left end increase in advance one with rock core fastener in identical pressure; The joint of piston container B is connected to the sample connection of physical model mechanism; After connecting; Wobble pump B is moved back pump handle, in the sample sucker container B in the rock core fastener;
(6) software of the establishment of the industrial computer on the application apparatus carries out the collection of various data, forms database, and analysis also shows the response characteristic that the gas hydrate sediment is invaded drilling fluid.
Of the present inventionly be used to study the gas hydrate stratum drilling fluid is invaded the experimental technique of response characteristic, described hydrate sediment core fidelity transfer method step is following:
(1) unloads the right end cap of rock core fastener, the joint of core transfer device is connected with physical model mechanism right-hand member;
(2) regulate between core transfer device outer chamber and inner chamber body the temperature in the ring chamber through temperature controller and regulate the inner chamber body pressure inside through pressure controller to reduce the inner chamber body temperature inside;
(3), make the hydrate sediment core under the condition of heat-insulation pressure keeping, get into the core transfer device through the manual pump regulating piston when inner chamber body internal temperature, pressure and rock core fastener internal temperature, when pressure is identical, open the packing plate;
(4) close packing plate in the core transfer device, unload linking of core transfer device and physical model mechanism, realize that the fidelity of hydrate sediment shifts.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
(1) seeing that at present domestic none cover synthetic study hydrate formation is still invaded the experimental provision and the experimental technique of response characteristic to drilling fluid; The present invention can remedy the deficiency of this respect well; Utilize the experimental provision and the method for exploitation to carry out the experimental study of hydrate formation, for the safe and efficient exploratory development of hydrate is from now on provided fundamental basis to drilling fluid intrusion response characteristic.
(2) the present invention can test the permeance property that contains hydrate formation, grasps hydrate formation permeability and saturation degree relation and water and thing and decomposes the influence to zone permeability.
(3) the present invention combines the dynamic response characteristic that the comprehensive evaluation hydrate sediment is invaded drilling fluid with the infrared viewing technology with the physical parameter monitoring in the drilling fluid invasion procedure.
(4) the present invention's core transfer device capable of using is realized hydrate sediment synthetic in the rock core fastener is shifted aftertreatment, carries out the association study of intrusion of hydrate sediment drilling fluid and mechanical property.
(5) the present invention can be used for the hydrate scientific experiment and the research of related scientific research institutes, and the experimental provision and the technical service of safety drilling research are provided for open-air natural gas hydrate exploration and exploitation.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 studies response characteristic is invaded on the gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid experimental provision structural representation for the present invention.Fig. 2 is a core fidelity transfer device structural representation of the present invention.
Among the above-mentioned figure: the 1-temperature controller; 2-drilling fluid storage tank; The 3-valve 7.; 4-high-pressure pressure regulating valve B; The 5-valve 1.; 6-nitrogen cylinder A; The 7-Low-flow meter; 8-tensimeter E; 9-tensimeter A; 10-high-pressure pressure regulating valve A; The 11-valve 2.; 12-nitrogen cylinder B; Press pressure regulator valve among the 13-; 14-tensimeter B; The 15-valve 3.; The 16-valve 4.; The 17-low pressure regulating pressure valve; 18-tensimeter C; The 19-valve 6.; The 20-valve 8.; 21-gas boosting pump; 22-tensimeter D; The 23-valve 5.; The 24-natural gas bottle; The 25-reduction valve; The 26-valve 10.; Flowmeter among the 27-; 28-high flow capacity meter; The 29-valve 9.; 30-valve ; 31-liquid water reservoir vessel; The 32-constant-flux pump; 33-piston container A; The 34-left end cap; The 35-rock core fastener; The 36-ring is pressed the chamber; 37-tests core; The 38-resistivity sensor; 39-pressure transducer A; The high cryogenic thermostat experimental box of 40-(abbreviation experimental box); The 41-ring is pressed and is followed the tracks of pump; 42-physical model mechanism; The 43-electronic balance; The 44-right end cap; The 45-gas-liquid separator; The 46-mass-flow gas meter; 47-pressure transducer B; 48-wobble pump A; The 49-check valve; 50-back pressure buffer container; 51-tensimeter G; 52-tensimeter F; 53-pressure transducer C; The 54-temperature sensor; The 55-infrared camera; 56-wobble pump B; 57-piston container B; The 58-sample tap; 59-well head annular space chamber; The 60-pulley track; 61-circulation of drilling fluid pump; The 62-outer chamber; The 63-temperature controller; The 64-inner chamber body; The 65-piston; The 66-manual pump; The 67-ring chamber; The 68-pressure controller; 69-packing plate; The 70-joint.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment the present invention is made further detailed description.
Embodiment 1: a kind of experimental provision of studying the gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion response characteristic of the present invention, its structure such as Fig. 1.Comprise circulation of drilling fluid mechanism, experimental box, core transfer device, perm-plug method mechanism, water/gas injecting mechanism, ring pressure follower, back pressure mechanism, testing agency, outlet metering mechanism, sampling mechanism and industrial computer.
Described circulation of drilling fluid mechanism; The well head annular space chamber 59 that comprises temperature controller 1, drilling fluid storage tank 2 and circulation of drilling fluid pump 61 and physical model mechanism 42; Drilling fluid basin 2 volume 1000mL wherein; Temperature is controllable between room temperature is to-50 ℃, the injection maximum pressure 25MPa of circulation of drilling fluid pump 61, and flow range is controlled at 0.5~10ml/min.
Be provided with physical model mechanism 42, pulley track 60 and infrared camera 55 in the described high cryogenic thermostat experimental box 40: be provided with rock core fastener 35, ring pressure chamber 36, left end cap 34, right end cap 44, well head annular space chamber 59 in the physical model mechanism, sample tap 58 is located at physical model mechanism top; Test core 37 is placed in the rock core fastener 35, and rock core fastener 35 length are 1200mm, can take out core easily in addition at trouble free service under the 25MPa and corrosion-resistant.Test core 37 adopts artificial core, specification φ 50mm, length 1200mm; Infrared camera 55 is installed on the high cryogenic thermostat experimental box 40 inner pulley tracks 60; Itself and physical model mechanism axis alignment; And can be on pulley track move left and right; Be installed on the inner infrared camera associated program of industrial computer through operation and obtain data message in the infrared camera storage card; And carry out analyzing and processing and obtain temperature distribution image, appraisal drilling liquid is to the dynamic invasion procedure and the decomposition of hydrate zone of hydrate formation, contains the dynamic response characteristic of hydrate formation to the drilling fluid intrusion with intuitively observing to combine to analyze with data test.
Described perm-plug method mechanism; Comprise nitrogen cylinder A6, nitrogen cylinder B12, high-pressure pressure regulating valve B4 and high-pressure pressure regulating valve A 10, middle pressure pressure regulator valve 13, low pressure regulating pressure valve 17, Low-flow meter 7, middle flowmeter 27 and high flow capacity meter 28; And valve 1. 5, valve 2. 11, valve 3. 15, valve 4. 16, valve 5. 23, valve 6. 19, valve 7. 3, valve 8. 20, valve 9. 29, valve 10. 26, the pipeline of three kinds of different osmotic power being formed of valve 30, the hydrate sediment perviousness of testing the test core of high, medium and low three kinds of permeabilities respectively.Range of regulation 10~4MPa of high-pressure pressure regulating valve B4 and high-pressure pressure regulating valve A10 wherein; The middle range of regulation 4~0.6MPa that presses pressure regulator valve 13; Range of regulation 0.6~the 0.2MPa of low pressure regulating pressure valve 17; The flow range 30ml/min of Low-flow meter 7, the flow range 300ml/min of middle flowmeter 27, the flow range 3000ml/min of high flow capacity meter 28.
Described liquid water injecting mechanism and rock gas injecting mechanism; Wherein the liquid water injecting mechanism is made up of liquid water reservoir vessel 31, constant-flux pump 32, piston container A 33, the working pressure 40MPa of constant-flux pump 32, flow 0~20ml/min; Piston container A 33 volume 1000ml, working pressure 32MPa.The rock gas injecting mechanism comprises natural gas bottle 24; Reduction valve 25; Gas boosting pump 21 and tensimeter D22; Valve 5. 23; Valve 7. 3; Valve 6. 19; Valve 8. 20; Valve 9. 29; Valve 10. 26; Valve 30; Low-flow meter 7; Middle flowmeter 27 constitutes with high flow capacity meter 28.When natural gas cylinder 24 pressure are higher than the required pressure of experiment; Rock gas injects physics prototype structure 42 by reduction valve 25 decompression backs; When natural atmospheric pressure is lower than experiment during required pressure, rock gas injects physics prototype structure after by 20 superchargings of gas boosting pump, and injecting gas pressure is shown by tensimeter D22.The amount of natural gas of injecting physics prototype structure confirms to inject amount of natural gas according to Low-flow meter 7, middle flowmeter 27 and high flow capacity meter 28 respectively when different permeability test core experiment.
Described ring presses follower to press tracking pump 41, pressure transducer A39 to form by ring; Ring is pressed and is followed the tracks of pump 41 cylinder body volume 100ml; Flow is adjustable between 0.01~30ml/min; Maximum loop is pressed 32MPa, but the retaining ring pressure is higher than rock core fastener 35 internal pressures in the experiment, and test core 37 is in all the time and is held tightly state in the assurance experimentation.
Described back pressure mechanism is made up of check valve 49, back pressure buffer container 50, wobble pump A48 and tensimeter G51, check valve 49 back pressure range of adjustment 0~25MPa, and the control fluctuating range is in ± 0.1MPa scope; Back pressure buffer container 50 working pressure 16MPa, volume 500ml; Wobble pump A48 MWP 32MPa.
Described temperature survey mechanism and pressure survey mechanism form 0.1 ℃ of temperature sensor precision by 54,10 the pressure transducer C53 of 10 temperature sensors that axially are uniformly distributed with along rock core fastener 35 and be fixed in physical model mechanism 42 tops; Pressure transducer C precision 0.25%F.S.
Described resistivity measurement mechanism is made up of 10 resistivity sensors 38 that axially are uniformly distributed with along rock core fastener 35 and be fixed in physical model mechanism 42 bottoms, and the measurement range of resistivity is 0~15000 Ω m, precision 1%.
Described outlet metering mechanism is made up of pressure transducer B47, tensimeter F52, gas-liquid separator 45, mass-flow gas meter 46 and electronic balance 43, and gas-liquid separator 45 is used for gas, liquid that check valve 49 outlets flow out and separates; Pressure transducer B47 and tensimeter F52 are used to monitor the pressure in exit; Electronic balance 43 is used to export liquid volume metering, range 4200g, precision 0.01g; Mass-flow gas meter 46 is used for the exit gas volume metering, flow control scope 0~1000ml/min, and working pressure 10MPa, the may command instantaneous delivery shows integrated flux.
With wobble pump B56 the piston in the piston container B 57 is pushed into the end when carrying out sampling operation; The joint of piston container B 57 is connected to the sample connection 58 of physical model mechanism; After connecting wobble pump B56 is moved back pump and handle, in the sample sucker container B 57 in the rock core fastener.
Referring to Fig. 2, described core fidelity transfer device is made up of outer chamber 62, temperature controller 63, inner chamber body 64, piston 65, manual pump 66, ring chamber 67, pressure controller 68, packing plate 69 and joint 70.Be provided with inner chamber body and ring chamber in the outer chamber, inner chamber body one end is equipped with piston, and the other end is equipped with the packing plate, and joint is contained in the packing plate outside, and pressure controller is connected with inner chamber body, and temperature controller is connected with ring chamber.
Described industrial computer is a data acquisition processing system; Software moves under Windows 2000 or XP environment, is connected with each mechanism through industrial computer, gathers numerical value such as pressure, temperature, resistivity, gas and the fluid flow line data of going forward side by side in good time and handles; Can show the each point parameter in real time; Realize man-machine conversation, operating personnel can realize unmanned after configuring parameter, and industrial computer is gathered the operation of all parameters and automaton automatically.The treated raw data form that generates of the data of industrial computer collection, analytical statement and curve map generate the database file form simultaneously, so that follow-up data is handled and analyzed and use.
Embodiment 2: the present invention has proposed the experimental technique of a cover research gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid intrusion response characteristic on the basis of using the foregoing description 1 experimental provision; Hydrate sediment gas permeability test experiments method wherein; Be divided into basic, normal, high three kinds of different permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental techniques, the concrete operations step is following:
(1) step of described low-permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
A. water filling: the liquid water in the liquid water reservoir vessel 31 injects in the test core 37 of rock core fastener 35 through piston container A 33 through constant-flux pump 32; Said test core material adopts natural core, length 500mm, and 700mm length adopts hollow stainless steel cylinder to grow to 1200mm as false core benefit in addition, to fill up whole rock core fastener;
B. gas injection: liquid water is opened natural gas bottle 24, CH after injecting and finishing 4Gas when natural atmospheric pressure is lower than the required pressure of experiment, is opened 21 superchargings of gas boosting pump through reduction valve 25, and gaseous tension shows by tensimeter D22, the valve 5. 23 of flowing through;
C. select hyposmosis gas injection pipeline; CH4 gas through valve 6. 19, valve 7. 3, the hyposmosis pipeline that constitutes of Low-flow meter 7; Get into test core 37 in the rock core fastener 35, pressure reaches set pressure 12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core 37 to be tested;
D insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box 40, make that test core 37 left standstill 20 hours in the physical model mechanism 42 under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures, in rock core fastener 35, form the hydrate sediment of low-permeability;
E. perm-plug method: carry out hypotonic experiment; This moment valve 1. 5, valve 7. 3,6. valve 19 open; Other valve closing is opened nitrogen cylinder A6, and nitrogen gets into physical model mechanism 42 through high-pressure pressure regulating valve B4 pressure regulation in the bottle to 4MPa; Gas infiltrates pressure and is shown by tensimeter E8, through the permeability of Low-flow meter 7 test low-permeability hydrate sediments;
(2) step of described middle perviousness hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
Step a, b are identical with low-permeability hydrate sediment experimental technique;
C. infiltration gas injection pipeline in selecting; Rock gas through valve 8. 20, the 9. 29 middle infiltration pipelines that constitute of middle flowmeter 27 and valve; Test core 37 injects the CH4 gases in rock core fastener 35, and pressure reaches set pressure 10MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core 37 to be tested;
D. insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box 40, test core 37 was left standstill 18 hours, infiltrative hydrate sediment in rock core fastener 35, forming under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures;
E. perm-plug method: ooze experiment in carrying out, this moment valve 2. 11, valve 3. 15, valve 8. 20,9. valve 29 open other valve closing; Among the nitrogen cylinder B12 gas earlier through high-pressure pressure regulating valve A10 pressure regulation to 4MPa; Gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter A9, presses pressure regulator valve 13 pressure regulation to 0.6MPa again in the warp, and gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter B14; Get into rock core fastener 35 build-in test cores 37 then, through the permeability of perviousness hydrate sediment in middle flowmeter 27 tests;
(3) step of described high osmosis hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
Step a, b are identical with low-permeability hydrate sediment experimental technique;
C. select high infiltration gas injection pipeline; Rock gas through valve 10. 26, the high penetration pipe road that constituted of valve 30, high flow capacity meter 28; Test core 37 injects the CH4 gases in rock core fastener 35, and pressure reaches set pressure 8MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core 37 to be tested;
D. insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box 40, test core 37 was left standstill 16 hours under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures, in rock core fastener 35, form the hydrate sediment of high osmosis;
E. gas is surveyed and is oozed rate: carry out height and ooze experiment; This moment valve 2. 11, valve 4. 16, valve 10. 26, valve 30 opens; Other valve closing, to 4MPa, gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter A9 gas through high-pressure pressure regulating valve A10 pressure regulation among the nitrogen cylinder B12; Press pressure regulator valve 13 pressure regulation to 0.6MPa in the warp; Gaseous tension shows by tensimeter B14, again through low pressure regulating pressure valve 17 pressure regulation to 0.2MPa, gas infiltrates pressure and is shown by tensimeter C18; Get into test core 37, through the permeability of high flow capacity meter 28 test high osmosis hydrate sediments.
Embodiment 3: on the basis of using the foregoing description 1 experimental provision, study the gas hydrate stratum drilling fluid is invaded the experimental technique of response characteristic, wherein drilling fluid is following to the experimental technique step of hydrate sediment dynamic response characteristic monitoring in the intrusion of hydrate sediment and the invasion procedure:
(1) hydrate sediment is synthetic: rock core fastener 35 length 1200mm; Carrying out sand-packed model in advance is placed in the rock core fastener 35; To fill up rock core fastener, adopt step a, b synthesized hydrate sediment in the embodiment 2 low-permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental techniques;
(2) drilling fluid is to the intrusion of hydrate sediment: the drilling fluid in the drilling fluid storage tank 2 through temperature controller 1 regulate reach 30 ℃ after; Get into the well head annular space chamber 59 of physical model mechanism 42 through circulation of drilling fluid pump 61; And circulated therein flows, and drilling fluid is gradually in the irruptive rock core holder 35 in the hydrate sediments;
(3) dynamic response of monitoring in the invasion procedure: test the temperature and pressure variation of hydrate sediment in the invasion procedure respectively through 10 temperature sensors 54 axially being uniformly distributed with along rock core fastener 35 and being fixed in physical model structure 42 tops and 10 pressure transducer C53; Through axially be uniformly distributed with and be fixed in the variation of hydrate sediment resistivity in 10 resistivity sensors 38 test invasion procedures of physical model mechanism 42 bottoms along rock core fastener 35;
(4) infrared observation:, analyze dynamic invasion procedure of drilling fluid and decomposition of hydrate zone through being installed in the Temperature Distribution and the variation of hydrate sediment in the rock core fastener in the infrared camera 55 scanning physical model mechanisms 42 on the pulley track 60;
(5) sampling analyze and research: during sampling operation with wobble pump B56 to piston container B 57 left ends increase in advance one with rock core fastener 35 in identical pressure; The joint of piston container B 57 is connected to the sample connection 58 of physical model mechanism 42; After connecting; Wobble pump B56 is moved back pump handle, in the sample sucker container B 57 in the rock core fastener 35;
(6) installed software is carried out the collection of various data on the application apparatus industrial computer, forms database, and analysis also shows the response characteristic that the gas hydrate sediment is invaded drilling fluid.
Embodiment 4: with the method that the hydrate sediment core fidelity in embodiment 1 experimental provision shifts, the concrete operations step is following:
(1) unloads the right end cap 44 of physical model mechanism 42, the joint 70 of core transfer device is connected with physical model mechanism 42 right-hand members;
(2) regulate temperature in core transfer device outer chambers 62 and 64 ring chambers 67 of inner chamber body to reduce inner chamber body 64 temperature inside through temperature controller 63, regulate inner chamber body 64 pressure inside through pressure controller 68;
(3), make hydrate sediment under the condition of heat-insulation pressure keeping, get into the core transfer device through manual pump 66 regulating pistons 65 when inner chamber body 64 internal temperatures, pressure and rock core fastener 35 internal temperatures, when pressure is identical, open packing plate 69;
(4) close packing plate 69 in the core transfer device, unload linking of core transfer device and physical model mechanism 42, realized that promptly the fidelity of hydrate sediment shifts.

Claims (7)

1. study response characteristic is invaded on the gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid experimental provision for one kind; Comprise circulation of drilling fluid mechanism, high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, perm-plug method mechanism, water/gas injecting mechanism and industrial computer, it is characterized in that: also be provided with core transfer device, ring pressure follower, back pressure mechanism, testing agency, outlet metering mechanism, sampling mechanism;
Described circulation of drilling fluid mechanism is made up of the well head annular space chamber of drilling fluid basin, temperature controller, circulation of drilling fluid pump and physical model mechanism; Temperature controller control drilling fluid temperature, drilling fluid circulates in the hydrate sediment that penetrates in the rock core fastener in the well head annular space chamber of physical model mechanism under the circulation of drilling fluid pumping action;
Described high cryogenic thermostat experimental box is the constant temperature experimental box able to programme of an industrial computer control; Be provided with physical model mechanism in the experimental box; Be provided with drilling fluid well head annular space chamber at physical model mechanism left end, top is provided with a sampling spot, and infrared camera is installed on the pulley track in the experimental box; With physical model mechanism axis alignment, but and move left and right; In physical model mechanism, be provided with rock core fastener, left end cap and right end cap are established in the rock core fastener left and right sides, and the test core is placed in the rock core fastener, rock core fastener axially on be provided with the measuring point of resistivity, pressure, temperature; Physical model mechanism links to each other with perm-plug method mechanism, water/gas injecting mechanism, sampling mechanism with valve, the tensimeter of controlled pressure through the high pressure line of its top, bottom and end; The sensor at ten erect-position measuring point places in the physical model mechanism links to each other with measuring mechanism with pressure duct through signal wire respectively; When shifting the hydrate sediment core that forms in the rock core fastener, the rock core fastener right-hand member linked to each other with the core transfer device realize transfer;
The nitrogen pipeline of three cover different osmotic power, the perviousness of testing high, medium and low three kinds of permeability hydrate sediments are respectively contained in described perm-plug method mechanism; Described water/gas injecting mechanism comprises liquid water injecting mechanism and rock gas injecting mechanism, and the liquid water injecting mechanism is made up of constant-flux pump and piston container; The rock gas injecting mechanism comprises natural gas bottle, reduction valve, gas boosting pump and gas meter, and through the amount of natural gas that gas meter control gets into physical model mechanism, the different saturation hydrate sediment is synthetic in the realization rock core fastener;
Described ring presses follower to press tracking pump and pressure transducer to form by ring, and ring is pressed the pressure differential in chamber and the rock core fastener inner chamber in the tracking physical model mechanism;
Described back pressure mechanism is made up of check valve, back pressure buffer container and backpressure pump; Pressure survey mechanism, resistivity measurement mechanism, flow detection, temperature control and testing agency are contained in said testing agency;
Described outlet metering mechanism is made up of gas-liquid separator, mass-flow gas meter and electronic balance; Described sampling mechanism adopts manual pump and piston sampler, the left end of the piston of piston sampler increase in advance one with physical model mechanism in equal pressure, realize isobaric sampling through moving back pump again;
Described industrial computer moves under Windows 2000 or XP environment, adopts the VB programming, to the collection and the processing of various pressure, temperature, resistivity, gas volume, liquid volume numerical value, controls the operation of each mechanism in good time.
2. the experimental provision of response characteristic is invaded on research gas hydrate according to claim 1 stratum to drilling fluid; It is characterized in that: described rock core fastener is evenly arranged 10 erect-position measuring points on it is axial; Be separately installed with 10 pressure transducer C, 10 temperature sensors and 10 resistivity sensors.
3. the experimental provision of response characteristic is invaded on research gas hydrate according to claim 1 stratum to drilling fluid; It is characterized in that: described rock core fastener specification is φ 50mm; Length 1200mm, test core φ 50mm, length 500~1200mm; The not enough 1200mm of test core length partly mends long through false core, the test core adopts natural core, artificial core or sand-packed model.
4. the experimental provision of response characteristic is invaded on research gas hydrate according to claim 1 stratum to drilling fluid; It is characterized in that: described core fidelity transfer device is made up of outer chamber, inner chamber body, piston, manual pump, ring chamber, temperature controller, pressure controller, packing plate and joint; Outer chamber contains inner chamber body; Inner chamber body one end is equipped with piston, and the other end is equipped with the packing plate, and joint is contained in the packing plate outside; Pressure controller is connected with inner chamber body, and temperature controller is connected with ring chamber.
5. one kind is used to study response characteristic is invaded on the gas hydrate stratum to drilling fluid experimental technique with the described experimental provision of claim 1; Include hydrate sediment gas permeability test experiments method, drilling fluid is to the experimental technique of hydrate sediment dynamic response characteristic monitoring in the intrusion of hydrate sediment and the invasion procedure; Hydrate sediment core fidelity transfer method; It is characterized in that: described hydrate sediment gas permeability test experiments method, be divided into basic, normal, high three kinds of different permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental techniques, concrete steps are following:
(1) step of described low-permeability hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
A. water filling: the liquid water in the liquid water reservoir vessel passes through constant-flux pump in the piston container A is injected the test core of rock core fastener;
B. gas injection: liquid water is opened natural gas bottle, CH after injecting and finishing 4Gas when natural atmospheric pressure is lower than the required pressure of experiment, is opened the supercharging of gas boosting pump through reduction valve, and gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter D, flows through valve 5.;
C. select hyposmosis gas injection pipeline, CH 4Gas through valve 6., valve 7., the hyposmosis pipeline that constitutes of Low-flow meter, get in the rock core fastener and test core, pressure reaches set pressure 8~12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core to be tested;
D insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, make that the test core left standstill 12~20 hours in the physical model mechanism under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures, in rock core fastener, form the hydrate sediment of low-permeability;
E. perm-plug method: carry out hypotonic experiment; This moment valve 1., valve 7., 6. valve open; Other valve closing is opened nitrogen cylinder A, and nitrogen gets into physical model mechanism through high-pressure pressure regulating valve B pressure regulation in the bottle to 4MPa; Gas infiltrates pressure and is shown by tensimeter E, through the permeability of Low-flow meter test low-permeability hydrate sediment;
(2) step of described middle perviousness hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
Step a, b are identical with low-permeability hydrate sediment experimental technique;
C. infiltration gas injection pipeline in selecting, rock gas through valve 8., the middle infiltration pipeline that 9. constitutes of middle flowmeter and valve, the test core injects CH in rock core fastener 4Gas, pressure reaches set pressure 8~12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core to be tested;
D. insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, the test core was left standstill 12~20 hours, infiltrative hydrate sediment in rock core fastener, forming under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures;
E. perm-plug method: ooze experiment in carrying out, this moment valve 2., valve 3., valve 8., 9. valve open other valve closing; Among the nitrogen cylinder B gas earlier through high-pressure pressure regulating valve A pressure regulation to 4MPa; Gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter A, presses the pressure regulator valve pressure regulation to 0.6MPa again in the warp, and gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter B; Get into physical model mechanism then, through the permeability of perviousness hydrate sediment in the middle flowmeter test;
(3) step of described high osmosis hydrate sediment testing permeability experimental technique:
Step a, b are identical with low-permeability hydrate sediment experimental technique;
C. select high infiltration gas injection pipeline, rock gas through valve 10., valve , the high penetration pipe road that constituted of high flow capacity meter, the test core injects CH in rock core fastener 4Gas, pressure reaches set pressure 8~12MPa and keeps stopping gas injection after 2~3 hours in the core to be tested;
D. insulation: regulate the temperature of high cryogenic thermostat experimental box, the test core was left standstill 12~20 hours under 4 ℃ of constant temperatures, in rock core fastener, form the hydrate sediment of high osmosis;
E. perm-plug method: carry out height and ooze experiment; This moment valve 2., valve 4., valve 10., valve opens; Other valve closing, to 4MPa, gaseous tension is shown by tensimeter A gas through high-pressure pressure regulating valve A pressure regulation among the nitrogen cylinder B; Press the pressure regulator valve pressure regulation to 0.6MPa in the warp; Gaseous tension shows by tensimeter B, again through the low pressure regulating pressure valve pressure regulation to 0.2MPa, gas infiltrates pressure and is shown by tensimeter C; Get into physical model mechanism, through the permeability of high flow capacity instrumentation examination high osmosis hydrate sediment.
6. according to claim 5ly be used to study the gas hydrate stratum drilling fluid is invaded the experimental technique of response characteristic, it is characterized in that: described drilling fluid is following to the experimental technique step of hydrate sediment dynamic response characteristic monitoring in the intrusion of hydrate sediment and the invasion procedure:
(1) described hydrate sediment comprises that utilization test core as the synthetic hydrate sediment of framework material, is placed in the in-house core holding unit of physical model;
(2) drilling fluid is to the intrusion of hydrate sediment: the drilling fluid in the drilling fluid storage tank through temperature controller regulate reach 0~50 ℃ of experiment demand temperature after; Get into the well head annular space chamber of physical model mechanism through the circulation of drilling fluid pump; And circulated therein flows, and drilling fluid is gradually in the irruptive rock core holder in the hydrate sediment;
(3) dynamic response of monitoring in the invasion procedure: respectively through axially being uniformly distributed with along rock core fastener and being fixed in 10 temperature sensors on physical model structure top and temperature and pressure that 10 pressure transducer C test hydrate sediment in the invasion procedure changes; Through axially be uniformly distributed with and be fixed in the variation of hydrate sediment resistivity in 10 resistivity sensors test invasion procedures of physical model mechanism bottom along rock core fastener;
(4) infrared observation: the phase of infrared camera scanning through being installed on the pulley track is observed the Temperature Distribution and the variation of hydrate sediment in the rock core fastener in the physical model mechanism, analyzes dynamic invasion procedure of drilling fluid and decomposition of hydrate zone;
(5) sampling analyze and research: during sampling operation with wobble pump B to piston container B left end increase in advance one with rock core fastener in identical pressure; The joint of piston container B is connected to the sample connection of physical model mechanism; After connecting; Wobble pump B is moved back pump handle, in the sample sucker container B in the rock core fastener;
(6) software of the establishment of the industrial computer on the application apparatus carries out the collection of various data, forms database, and analysis also shows the response characteristic that the gas hydrate sediment is invaded drilling fluid.
7. according to claim 5ly be used to study the gas hydrate stratum drilling fluid is invaded the experimental technique of response characteristic, it is characterized in that: described hydrate sediment core fidelity transfer method step is following:
(1) unloads the right end cap of rock core fastener, the joint of core transfer device is connected with physical model mechanism right-hand member;
(2) regulate between core transfer device outer chamber and inner chamber body the temperature in the ring chamber through temperature controller and regulate the inner chamber body pressure inside through pressure controller to reduce the inner chamber body temperature inside;
(3), make the hydrate sediment core under the condition of heat-insulation pressure keeping, get into the core transfer device through the manual pump regulating piston when inner chamber body internal temperature, pressure and rock core fastener internal temperature, when pressure is identical, open the packing plate;
(4) close packing plate in the core transfer device, unload linking of core transfer device and physical model mechanism, realize that the fidelity of hydrate sediment shifts.
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