CN109258270A - A kind of apricot implantation methods - Google Patents

A kind of apricot implantation methods Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109258270A
CN109258270A CN201811144215.5A CN201811144215A CN109258270A CN 109258270 A CN109258270 A CN 109258270A CN 201811144215 A CN201811144215 A CN 201811144215A CN 109258270 A CN109258270 A CN 109258270A
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China
Prior art keywords
apricot
soil
fruit
branch
fertilizer
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CN201811144215.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
崔文竹
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Yingshang County Bo Ling Family Farm
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Yingshang County Bo Ling Family Farm
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Priority to CN201811144215.5A priority Critical patent/CN109258270A/en
Publication of CN109258270A publication Critical patent/CN109258270A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/40Fabaceae, e.g. beans or peas
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H1/00Processes for modifying genotypes ; Plants characterised by associated natural traits
    • A01H1/02Methods or apparatus for hybridisation; Artificial pollination ; Fertility

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of apricot implantation methods, the following steps are included: selection of land builds orchard, selection of land builds orchard the following steps are included: field selects, selection soil horizon is deep, the soil is porous, porous leeward half tailo of tailo or open flat soil on the sunny side, avoids being easy to plant apricot in the mountain valley to sink in Schattenseite, ventilation slope and cold air;Site preparation and fertilization after determining planting site, carries out planting site to plough deeply site preparation, then vegetable soil excavates planting pit, planting pit area 1m2, after planting pit excavates.A kind of apricot implantation methods of the present invention, firstly, can preferably guarantee the size of apricot fruit, color is amorous, and sugar content increases, while can elongate the flower and fruit thinning time, it solves in working set, the inadequate problem of manpower, secondly, it can be improved orchard land area coverage rate, increase income, finally, can be improved soil water storage soil moisture conservation, increase soil fertility, brings better prospect of the application.

Description

A kind of apricot implantation methods
Technical field
The present invention relates to apricot field of planting, in particular to a kind of apricot implantation methods.
Background technique
Apricot is arbor, 5-12 meters high;Blade is oval in width egg shape or circle, 5-9 centimetres long, 4-8 centimetres wide, the anxious point of apex To short tapering, for basal circular to nearly heart, limb has a round blunt sawtooth, has pubescence, the long 2- of petiole between two sides is hairless or following arteries and veins 3.5 centimetres, hairless, base portion is often with 1-6 body of gland;
There are certain drawbacks in existing apricot plantation, the plantation of (1), existing apricot is devoted exclusive attention to output simply when in use, or When or because lack labour, without flower and fruit thinning management, cause small fruit head, colour-difference, pol low, eventually lead to Poor quality can not be sold, and influence economic benefit;(2), apricot is deep root crop, and root system is grown to longitudinal direction, but mitogenetic Ability is poor, is easy to influence the speed of growth of apricot for a long time;(3), the land utilization ratio in existing apricot plantation is insufficient, together When biological species it is less, influence the ecological balance in apricot garden, cause soil fertility insufficient;(4), the florescence passes through artificial pollination, work It measures larger, while not can be carried out and timely pollinating, moreover, nearly all self-sterility in most of apricot home made article, for this purpose, It is proposed that a kind of apricot implantation methods.
Summary of the invention
The main purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of apricot implantation methods, can effectively solve asking in background technique Topic.
To achieve the above object, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
A kind of apricot implantation methods, comprising the following steps:
(1), selection of land builds orchard;
(2), Cultivation;
(3), water and fertilizer management is carried out;
(4), periodically trimming;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control.
Preferably, step (1) selection of land construction orchard the following steps are included:
(1.1), field selects, and selection soil horizon is deep, the soil is porous, porous leeward tailo half tailo or open on the sunny side Flat soil, avoid Schattenseite, ventilation slope and cold air be easy sink mountain valley in plant apricot;
(1.2), site preparation and fertilization after determining planting site, carries out planting site to plough deeply site preparation, then vegetable soil excavates Planting pit, planting pit area 1m2, after planting pit excavates, soil thickness 0.5-0.6m is backfilled, backfill is by straw The soil constitution of thick fertilizer and curing, wherein plant knot bar thickness is in 18-22cm, and in 18-22cm, the soil of curing exists thick plumpness degree 8-12cm。
Preferably, step (2) Cultivation the following steps are included:
(2.1), selection of seedling will select the apricot nursery stock that kind is pure, guarantee that root system has 4-5 lateral root, main root length In 20cm or more, seedling is straight, and nursery stock diameter is between 0.8-1.0cm, and highly in 1m or more, fixed do will guarantee to have 5-6 a full Lateral bud, nursery stock is immersed in clear water for 24 hours before field planting, then dips the root-inducing powder of every liter of 50mg concentration, spring carry out Field planting;
(2.2), apricot is colonized, and is colonized in plains region and valley using rectangle, is embarked on journey with north and south, column are away from 3m, row Away from maintaining between 4-5m, if apricot is colonized in hillside, to transplant mode using contour, distance between rows and hills maintain 4m × 3m can be colonized after the backfill of planting pit is sunk, backfill a certain amount of vegetable soil into planting pit before field planting, Then nursery stock is placed in planting pit center, combs seedling root, it is ensured that seedling root, which does not knot, not to be bent, then backfill curing Soil, when being backfilling at planting pit 2/3, gently mention sapling, guarantee that soil and root system come into full contact with, then backfill is remaining Soil is stood solid with their feet, and is poured water immediately, overlay film soil moisture conservation;
(2.3), it manages after being colonized, after the apricot of spring field planting removes anti-dry frozen ground, does surely immediately, heading height maintains 60-80cm, clip falls in the position 1cm or more above full lateral bud when surely dry, after spring is surely dry will overlay film immediately, overlay film size For 0.8-1.2m2, the survival rate of apricot is checked after field planting, for the apricot not survived, or is lacked a more region, can be made It is reseeded in time with biennial heeled-in seedling.
Preferably, the step (3) carry out water and fertilizer management the following steps are included:
(3.1), soil is improved, reworked processing periodically is carried out to apricot Orchard Soil every year, improve soil, promote soil ripe Change, after annual fruit harvesting, autumn combine apply base manure, carry out soil improvement, plough deeply it is deep-controlled in 30-40cm, by table Layer vegetable soil is turned over to bottom, and bottom Immature soil is turned over to upper layer, in conjunction with soil improvement, guarantees that loosing soil is more Hole covers grass on tree disk, covers careless thickness in 18-22cm, in the ranks can between make the shallow roots crops such as beans, potato;
(3.2), fertilizing management, apricot are applied fertilizer mainly with base manure, top dressing and foliage dressing master, and base manure will adhere to organic fertilizer Based on, supplemented by chemical fertilizer, base manure, every plant of application organic fertilizer 20kg of childhood apricot, first fruiting period apricot are applied after fruit harvesting in the fall Every plant of application organic fertilizer 50kg, into after the best fruiting period, every plant of application organic fertilizer 100kg is applied using cyclic annular fertilizing method, deep In 30-50cm, top dressing is carried out in apricot growth animated period for degree control, before apricot, Hua Hou, stone phase carry out top dressing in time, Every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 0.8-1.2kg of earsh, every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 2kg of best fruiting period apricot, third time are applied fertilizer Based on phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer, apricot grows into the middle and later periods, in conjunction with foliage development situation, sprays foliar fertilizer in time, foliar fertilizer with The calcium phosphate solution of 0.3% urea liquid, 200 times of liquid, based on 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, foliar fertilizer in the morning and It applies at dusk;
(3.3), water management, annual apricot needs to carry out 3-4 irrigation, respectively in apricot budding period, fruit harvesting Phase and frozen soil phase carry out, and when irrigation, to determine irrigation volume in conjunction with field soil soil moisture content.
Preferably, the step (4) periodically trimming the following steps are included:
(4.1), childhood apricot is trimmed, and apricot carries out simple trimming in the infancy while this period will draw branch is slow to put, Cultivate middle-size and small-size fruit-bearing shoot cluster more;
(4.2), best fruiting period apricot is trimmed, the fruitful branch gradually cutting back update to growth 3-4, to result for years Long shoot will bounce back in time, the growth ability of restoration result branch, the long fruitful branch of short knot, in short fruit-bearing shoot cluster want appropriate cutting back;
(4.3), aging tree-pruning can suitably be trimmed with severe, and small fruitful branch wants more cutting backs are slow less to put, and be made full use of It grows branch, competitive branch and the branch of excessive growth and updates tree vigo(u)r, flower and fruit thinning processing, while cultivating honeybee, pollinated, controlled by honeybee Bloom temperature is 6~16 DEG C.
Preferably, step (5) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, selects the chemical pesticide of low toxicity and low residue, it is ensured that drug safety, rule Model medication operation.
Preferably, step (4.3) the flower and fruit thinning processing, flower thinning flower bud carry out after bud expands, terminate when blooming, Only retain the bud of two sides downward or upward, other wholes are erased, and base portion does not retain bud;Flower thinning, flower thinning since flowering stage, Until the fallen flowers phase can be carried out, retain the flower of two sides, remaining whole removes, and medium fruit branch and fruit spur will be dredged more, long fruit Branch is few to be dredged, and excessive growth fruit branch can not be dredged;Young fruit is dredged, young fruit is dredged in fruit and enters the stone phase, stabilization of bearing fruit can distinguish big fruitlet Real-time perfoming retains the harm of no disease pest, medium fruit big, color is dark green, retain middle part more than fruitful branch blade or in Between lean on the fruit of front, stay fruit amount flexibly to be grasped according to fruit size, long fruit branch retains 2~5, and medium fruit branch stays 1~3, short Fruit branch stays 1.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1, by carrying out flower and fruit thinning processing to apricot, it can preferably guarantee the size of apricot fruit, color is amorous, contains Sugar amount increases, while can elongate the flower and fruit thinning time, solves in working set, the inadequate problem of manpower;
2, in the ranks can between make the shallow roots crops such as beans, potato, both will not influence the growth of apricot, while can Orchard land area coverage rate is improved, income is increased;
3, by improvement soil, promote soil-ripening, can preferably improve the speed of growth of apricot, covered on tree disk Grass covers careless thickness in 18-22cm, can be improved soil water storage soil moisture conservation in this way, increases soil fertility;
4, using honeybee to the apricot inside apricot garden carry out cross-pollination can high heterosis, hybrid vigor, it is economical time saving simple and effective, The temperature range when florescence is defined, and should not exceed 18 DEG C, not only the pollination of honeybee is imitated in this way within the scope of 6~16 DEG C Fruit is good, and meets the biological property of apricot.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is that a kind of apricot implantation methods of the present invention make overall structure flow chart.
Specific embodiment
To be easy to understand the technical means, the creative features, the aims and the efficiencies achieved by the present invention, below with reference to Specific embodiment, the present invention is further explained.
Embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, comprising the following steps:
(1), selection of land build orchard, selection of land build orchard the following steps are included:
(1.1), field selects, and selection soil horizon is deep, the soil is porous, porous leeward tailo half tailo or open on the sunny side Flat soil, avoid Schattenseite, ventilation slope and cold air be easy sink mountain valley in plant apricot;
(1.2), site preparation and fertilization after determining planting site, carries out planting site to plough deeply site preparation, then vegetable soil excavates Planting pit, planting pit area 1m2, after planting pit excavates, backfill soil thickness 0.5m, backfill be by the thick fertilizer of straw and The soil constitution of curing, wherein plant knot bar thickness is in 20cm, and thick plumpness degree is in 20cm, and the soil of curing is in 10cm;
(2), Cultivation, Cultivation the following steps are included:
(2.1), selection of seedling will select the apricot nursery stock that kind is pure, guarantee that root system has 4-5 lateral root, main root length In 20cm or more, seedling is straight, and nursery stock diameter is between 0.9cm, and highly in 1m or more, fixed do will guarantee there are 5 full lateral buds, Nursery stock is immersed in clear water for 24 hours before field planting, the root-inducing powder of every liter of 50mg concentration is then dipped, is colonized in spring;
(2.2), apricot is colonized, and is colonized in plains region and valley using rectangle, is embarked on journey with north and south, column are away from 3m, row Away from maintaining between 5m, if apricot is colonized in hillside, mode is transplanted using contour, distance between rows and hills maintains 4m × 3m, It can be colonized after the backfill of planting pit is sunk, backfill a certain amount of vegetable soil into planting pit before field planting, so Nursery stock is placed in planting pit center afterwards, combs seedling root, it is ensured that seedling root, which does not knot, not to be bent, and then backfill cures Soil when being backfilling at planting pit 2/3, gently mentions sapling, guarantees that soil and root system come into full contact with, then the remaining soil of backfill Earth is stood solid with their feet, and is poured water immediately, overlay film soil moisture conservation;
(2.3), it manages after being colonized, after the apricot of spring field planting removes anti-dry frozen ground, does surely immediately, heading height maintains 70cm, clip falls in the position 1cm or more above full lateral bud when surely dry, overlay film, overlay film size to be immediately after spring is surely dry 1.0m2, the survival rate of apricot is checked after field planting, for the apricot not survived, or is lacked a more region, be can be used 2 years Raw heeled-in seedling is reseeded in time;
(3), carry out water and fertilizer management, carry out water and fertilizer management the following steps are included:
(3.1), soil is improved, reworked processing periodically is carried out to apricot Orchard Soil every year, improve soil, promote soil ripe Change, after annual fruit harvesting, autumn, which combines, applies base manure, carries out soil improvement, plough deeply it is deep-controlled in 35cm, surface layer is ripe Change Soil tillage to bottom, bottom Immature soil is turned over to upper layer, in conjunction with soil improvement, also to carry out weeding soil moisture conservation work Make, after apricot enters the season of growth, orchard is easy to appear weeds, to remove in time, guarantees that loosing soil is porous, covers on tree disk Grass, covers careless thickness in 20cm, in the ranks can between make the shallow roots crops such as beans, potato;
(3.2), fertilizing management, apricot are applied fertilizer mainly with base manure, top dressing and foliage dressing master, and base manure will adhere to organic fertilizer Based on, supplemented by chemical fertilizer, base manure, every plant of application organic fertilizer 20kg of childhood apricot, first fruiting period apricot are applied after fruit harvesting in the fall Every plant of application organic fertilizer 50kg, into after the best fruiting period, every plant of application organic fertilizer 100kg is applied using cyclic annular fertilizing method, deep In 40cm, top dressing is carried out in apricot growth animated period for degree control, before apricot, Hua Hou, stone phase carry out top dressing, young age in time Set every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 1.0kg, every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 2kg of best fruiting period apricot, third time fertilising with phosphate fertilizer and Based on potash fertilizer, apricot grows into the middle and later periods, in conjunction with foliage development situation, sprays foliar fertilizer in time, foliar fertilizer is with 0.3% urea The calcium phosphate solution of solution, 200 times of liquid, based on 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, foliar fertilizer applies in the morning and at dusk;
(3.3), water management, annual apricot need to carry out 3 irrigations, respectively in apricot budding period, fruit harvesting phase It is carried out with the frozen soil phase, when irrigation, to determine irrigation volume in conjunction with field soil soil moisture content;
(4), periodically trimming, periodically trimming the following steps are included:
(4.1), childhood apricot is trimmed, and apricot should not be trimmed overweight in the infancy, mainly to increase branch amount, accelerates fruit Tree growth, expands based on tree crown, while this period will draw branch is slow to put, and cultivate middle-size and small-size fruit-bearing shoot cluster more;
(4.2), best fruiting period apricot is trimmed, the fruitful branch gradually cutting back update to growth 3 years, to the length of result for years Branch will bounce back in time, the growth ability of restoration result branch, the long fruitful branch of short knot, in short fruit-bearing shoot cluster want appropriate cutting back;
(4.3), aging tree-pruning can suitably be trimmed with severe, and small fruitful branch wants more cutting backs are slow less to put, and be made full use of It grows branch, competitive branch and the branch of excessive growth and updates tree vigo(u)r, flower and fruit thinning processing, while cultivating honeybee, pollinated, controlled by honeybee Bloom temperature is 6 DEG C, and flower thinning flower bud carries out after bud expands, terminates when blooming, and only retains the bud of two sides downward or upward, Other wholes are erased, and base portion does not retain bud;Flower thinning, flower thinning is since flowering stage, until the fallen flowers phase can be carried out, retains The flower of two sides, remaining whole remove, and medium fruit branch and fruit spur will be dredged more, and long fruit branch is dredged less, and excessive growth fruit branch can not be dredged;It dredges Young fruit dredges young fruit and in fruit enters the stone phase, and stabilization of bearing fruit can distinguish the when progress of big fruitlet, retain no disease pest harm, in Deng the dark green fruit of big, color, retains the middle part more than fruitful branch blade or the intermediate fruit for leaning on front, stay fruit amount according to fruit Flexible in size is grasped, and long fruit branch retains 3, and medium fruit branch stays 2, and fruit spur stays 1;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control selects the chemical pesticide of low toxicity and low residue, it is ensured that drug safety, standardized drug's operation.
Embodiment 2
As shown in Figure 1, comprising the following steps:
(1), selection of land build orchard, selection of land build orchard the following steps are included:
(1.1), field selects, and selection soil horizon is deep, the soil is porous, porous leeward tailo half tailo or open on the sunny side Flat soil, avoid Schattenseite, ventilation slope and cold air be easy sink mountain valley in plant apricot;
(1.2), site preparation and fertilization after determining planting site, carries out planting site to plough deeply site preparation, then vegetable soil excavates Planting pit, planting pit area 1m2, after planting pit excavates, backfill soil thickness 0.5m, backfill be by the thick fertilizer of straw and The soil constitution of curing, wherein plant knot bar thickness is in 20cm, and thick plumpness degree is in 20cm, and the soil of curing is in 10cm;
(2), Cultivation, Cultivation the following steps are included:
(2.1), selection of seedling will select the apricot nursery stock that kind is pure, guarantee that root system has 4-5 lateral root, main root length In 20cm or more, seedling is straight, and nursery stock diameter is between 0.9cm, and highly in 1m or more, fixed do will guarantee there are 5 full lateral buds, Nursery stock is immersed in clear water for 24 hours before field planting, the root-inducing powder of every liter of 50mg concentration is then dipped, is colonized in spring;
(2.2), apricot is colonized, and is colonized in plains region and valley using rectangle, is embarked on journey with north and south, column are away from 3m, row Away from maintaining between 5m, if apricot is colonized in hillside, mode is transplanted using contour, distance between rows and hills maintains 4m × 3m, It can be colonized after the backfill of planting pit is sunk, backfill a certain amount of vegetable soil into planting pit before field planting, so Nursery stock is placed in planting pit center afterwards, combs seedling root, it is ensured that seedling root, which does not knot, not to be bent, and then backfill cures Soil when being backfilling at planting pit 2/3, gently mentions sapling, guarantees that soil and root system come into full contact with, then the remaining soil of backfill Earth is stood solid with their feet, and is poured water immediately, overlay film soil moisture conservation;
(2.3), it manages after being colonized, after the apricot of spring field planting removes anti-dry frozen ground, does surely immediately, heading height maintains 70cm, clip falls in the position 1cm or more above full lateral bud when surely dry, overlay film, overlay film size to be immediately after spring is surely dry 1.0m2, the survival rate of apricot is checked after field planting, for the apricot not survived, or is lacked a more region, be can be used 2 years Raw heeled-in seedling is reseeded in time;
(3), carry out water and fertilizer management, carry out water and fertilizer management the following steps are included:
(3.1), soil is improved, reworked processing periodically is carried out to apricot Orchard Soil every year, improve soil, promote soil ripe Change, after annual fruit harvesting, autumn, which combines, applies base manure, carries out soil improvement, plough deeply it is deep-controlled in 35cm, surface layer is ripe Change Soil tillage to bottom, bottom Immature soil is turned over to upper layer, in conjunction with soil improvement, also to carry out weeding soil moisture conservation work Make, after apricot enters the season of growth, orchard is easy to appear weeds, to remove in time, guarantees that loosing soil is porous, covers on tree disk Grass, covers careless thickness in 20cm, in the ranks can between make the shallow roots crops such as beans, potato;
(3.2), fertilizing management, apricot are applied fertilizer mainly with base manure, top dressing and foliage dressing master, and base manure will adhere to organic fertilizer Based on, supplemented by chemical fertilizer, base manure, every plant of application organic fertilizer 20kg of childhood apricot, first fruiting period apricot are applied after fruit harvesting in the fall Every plant of application organic fertilizer 50kg, into after the best fruiting period, every plant of application organic fertilizer 100kg is applied using cyclic annular fertilizing method, deep In 40cm, top dressing is carried out in apricot growth animated period for degree control, before apricot, Hua Hou, stone phase carry out top dressing, young age in time Set every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 1.0kg, every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 2kg of best fruiting period apricot, third time fertilising with phosphate fertilizer and Based on potash fertilizer, apricot grows into the middle and later periods, in conjunction with foliage development situation, sprays foliar fertilizer in time, foliar fertilizer is with 0.3% urea The calcium phosphate solution of solution, 200 times of liquid, based on 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, foliar fertilizer applies in the morning and at dusk;
(3.3), water management, annual apricot need to carry out 3 irrigations, respectively in apricot budding period, fruit harvesting phase It is carried out with the frozen soil phase, when irrigation, to determine irrigation volume in conjunction with field soil soil moisture content;
(4), periodically trimming, periodically trimming the following steps are included:
(4.1), childhood apricot is trimmed, and apricot should not be trimmed overweight in the infancy, mainly to increase branch amount, accelerates fruit Tree growth, expands based on tree crown, while this period will draw branch is slow to put, and cultivate middle-size and small-size fruit-bearing shoot cluster more;
(4.2), best fruiting period apricot is trimmed, the fruitful branch gradually cutting back update to growth 3 years, to the length of result for years Branch will bounce back in time, the growth ability of restoration result branch, the long fruitful branch of short knot, in short fruit-bearing shoot cluster want appropriate cutting back;
(4.3), aging tree-pruning can suitably be trimmed with severe, and small fruitful branch wants more cutting backs are slow less to put, and be made full use of It grows branch, competitive branch and the branch of excessive growth and updates tree vigo(u)r, flower and fruit thinning processing, while cultivating honeybee, pollinated, controlled by honeybee Bloom temperature is 11 DEG C, and flower thinning flower bud carries out after bud expands, terminates when blooming, and only retains the bud of two sides downward or upward, Other wholes are erased, and base portion does not retain bud;Flower thinning, flower thinning is since flowering stage, until the fallen flowers phase can be carried out, retains The flower of two sides, remaining whole remove, and medium fruit branch and fruit spur will be dredged more, and long fruit branch is dredged less, and excessive growth fruit branch can not be dredged;It dredges Young fruit dredges young fruit and in fruit enters the stone phase, and stabilization of bearing fruit can distinguish the when progress of big fruitlet, retain no disease pest harm, in Deng the dark green fruit of big, color, retains the middle part more than fruitful branch blade or the intermediate fruit for leaning on front, stay fruit amount according to fruit Flexible in size is grasped, and long fruit branch retains 3, and medium fruit branch stays 2, and fruit spur stays 1;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control selects the chemical pesticide of low toxicity and low residue, it is ensured that drug safety, standardized drug's operation.
Embodiment 3
As shown in Figure 1, comprising the following steps:
(1), selection of land build orchard, selection of land build orchard the following steps are included:
(1.1), field selects, and selection soil horizon is deep, the soil is porous, porous leeward tailo half tailo or open on the sunny side Flat soil, avoid Schattenseite, ventilation slope and cold air be easy sink mountain valley in plant apricot;
(1.2), site preparation and fertilization after determining planting site, carries out planting site to plough deeply site preparation, then vegetable soil excavates Planting pit, planting pit area 1m2, after planting pit excavates, backfill soil thickness 0.5m, backfill be by the thick fertilizer of straw and The soil constitution of curing, wherein plant knot bar thickness is in 20cm, and thick plumpness degree is in 20cm, and the soil of curing is in 10cm;
(2), Cultivation, Cultivation the following steps are included:
(2.1), selection of seedling will select the apricot nursery stock that kind is pure, guarantee that root system has 4-5 lateral root, main root length In 20cm or more, seedling is straight, and nursery stock diameter is between 0.9cm, and highly in 1m or more, fixed do will guarantee there are 5 full lateral buds, Nursery stock is immersed in clear water for 24 hours before field planting, the root-inducing powder of every liter of 50mg concentration is then dipped, is colonized in spring;
(2.2), apricot is colonized, and is colonized in plains region and valley using rectangle, is embarked on journey with north and south, column are away from 3m, row Away from maintaining between 5m, if apricot is colonized in hillside, mode is transplanted using contour, distance between rows and hills maintains 4m × 3m, It can be colonized after the backfill of planting pit is sunk, backfill a certain amount of vegetable soil into planting pit before field planting, so Nursery stock is placed in planting pit center afterwards, combs seedling root, it is ensured that seedling root, which does not knot, not to be bent, and then backfill cures Soil when being backfilling at planting pit 2/3, gently mentions sapling, guarantees that soil and root system come into full contact with, then the remaining soil of backfill Earth is stood solid with their feet, and is poured water immediately, overlay film soil moisture conservation;
(2.3), it manages after being colonized, after the apricot of spring field planting removes anti-dry frozen ground, does surely immediately, heading height maintains 70cm, clip falls in the position 1cm or more above full lateral bud when surely dry, overlay film, overlay film size to be immediately after spring is surely dry 1.0m2, the survival rate of apricot is checked after field planting, for the apricot not survived, or is lacked a more region, be can be used 2 years Raw heeled-in seedling is reseeded in time;
(3), carry out water and fertilizer management, carry out water and fertilizer management the following steps are included:
(3.1), soil is improved, reworked processing periodically is carried out to apricot Orchard Soil every year, improve soil, promote soil ripe Change, after annual fruit harvesting, autumn, which combines, applies base manure, carries out soil improvement, plough deeply it is deep-controlled in 35cm, surface layer is ripe Change Soil tillage to bottom, bottom Immature soil is turned over to upper layer, in conjunction with soil improvement, also to carry out weeding soil moisture conservation work Make, after apricot enters the season of growth, orchard is easy to appear weeds, to remove in time, guarantees that loosing soil is porous, covers on tree disk Grass, covers careless thickness in 20cm, in the ranks can between make the shallow roots crops such as beans, potato;
(3.2), fertilizing management, apricot are applied fertilizer mainly with base manure, top dressing and foliage dressing master, and base manure will adhere to organic fertilizer Based on, supplemented by chemical fertilizer, base manure, every plant of application organic fertilizer 20kg of childhood apricot, first fruiting period apricot are applied after fruit harvesting in the fall Every plant of application organic fertilizer 50kg, into after the best fruiting period, every plant of application organic fertilizer 100kg is applied using cyclic annular fertilizing method, deep In 40cm, top dressing is carried out in apricot growth animated period for degree control, before apricot, Hua Hou, stone phase carry out top dressing, young age in time Set every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 1.0kg, every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 2kg of best fruiting period apricot, third time fertilising with phosphate fertilizer and Based on potash fertilizer, apricot grows into the middle and later periods, in conjunction with foliage development situation, sprays foliar fertilizer in time, foliar fertilizer is with 0.3% urea The calcium phosphate solution of solution, 200 times of liquid, based on 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, foliar fertilizer applies in the morning and at dusk;
(3.3), water management, annual apricot need to carry out 3 irrigations, respectively in apricot budding period, fruit harvesting phase It is carried out with the frozen soil phase, when irrigation, to determine irrigation volume in conjunction with field soil soil moisture content;
(4), periodically trimming, periodically trimming the following steps are included:
(4.1), childhood apricot is trimmed, and apricot should not be trimmed overweight in the infancy, mainly to increase branch amount, accelerates fruit Tree growth, expands based on tree crown, while this period will draw branch is slow to put, and cultivate middle-size and small-size fruit-bearing shoot cluster more;
(4.2), best fruiting period apricot is trimmed, the fruitful branch gradually cutting back update to growth 3 years, to the length of result for years Branch will bounce back in time, the growth ability of restoration result branch, the long fruitful branch of short knot, in short fruit-bearing shoot cluster want appropriate cutting back;
(4.3), aging tree-pruning can suitably be trimmed with severe, and small fruitful branch wants more cutting backs are slow less to put, and be made full use of It grows branch, competitive branch and the branch of excessive growth and updates tree vigo(u)r, flower and fruit thinning processing, while cultivating honeybee, pollinated, controlled by honeybee Bloom temperature is 16 DEG C, and flower thinning flower bud carries out after bud expands, terminates when blooming, and only retains the bud of two sides downward or upward, Other wholes are erased, and base portion does not retain bud;Flower thinning, flower thinning is since flowering stage, until the fallen flowers phase can be carried out, retains The flower of two sides, remaining whole remove, and medium fruit branch and fruit spur will be dredged more, and long fruit branch is dredged less, and excessive growth fruit branch can not be dredged;It dredges Young fruit dredges young fruit and in fruit enters the stone phase, and stabilization of bearing fruit can distinguish the when progress of big fruitlet, retain no disease pest harm, in Deng the dark green fruit of big, color, retains the middle part more than fruitful branch blade or the intermediate fruit for leaning on front, stay fruit amount according to fruit Flexible in size is grasped, and long fruit branch retains 3, and medium fruit branch stays 2, and fruit spur stays 1;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control selects the chemical pesticide of low toxicity and low residue, it is ensured that drug safety, standardized drug's operation.
Table 1 is to honey bees pollination under different temperatures in embodiment 1-3, and every plant of quantity of bearing fruit, test result is as follows:
Bloom temperature (DEG C) Every plant of quantity of bearing fruit (a)
Embodiment 1 6 30
Embodiment 2 11 38
Embodiment 3 16 33
By 1 experimental data of table it is found that apricot implantation methods of the present invention, quantity of bearing fruit as the temperature rises are continuously increased, When temperature continues to increase, quantity of bearing fruit is begun to decline, while being pollinated using honeybee, and artificial pollination is avoided, and can be saved Heterosis, hybrid vigor can be improved secondly, carrying out cross-pollination by honeybee pollination to the investment of pollination in manpower and financial resources, finally, also Economic well-being of workers and staff can be increased by cultivation honeybee, separately embodiment 2 is optimal selection as shown in Table 1.
The above shows and describes the basic principles and main features of the present invention and the advantages of the present invention.The technology of the industry Personnel are it should be appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and the above embodiments and description only describe this The principle of invention, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, various changes and improvements may be made to the invention, these changes Change and improvement all fall within the protetion scope of the claimed invention.The claimed scope of the invention by appended claims and its Equivalent thereof.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of apricot implantation methods, comprising the following steps:
(1), selection of land builds orchard;
(2), Cultivation;
(3), water and fertilizer management is carried out;
(4), periodically trimming;
(5), the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control.
2. a kind of apricot implantation methods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step (1) selection of land builds orchard The following steps are included:
(1.1), field selects, and selects that soil horizon is deep, the soil is porous, porous leeward half tailo of tailo or open flat on the sunny side Smooth soil avoids being easy to plant apricot in the mountain valley to sink in Schattenseite, ventilation slope and cold air;
(1.2), site preparation and fertilization after determining planting site, carries out planting site to plough deeply site preparation, then vegetable soil excavates field planting Cave, planting pit area 1m2, after planting pit excavates, backfill soil thickness 0.5-0.6m, backfill be by the thick fertilizer of straw and The soil constitution of curing, wherein plant knot bar thickness is in 18-22cm, and thick plumpness degree is in 18-22cm, and the soil of curing is in 8- 12cm。
3. a kind of apricot implantation methods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step (2) Cultivation includes Following steps:
(2.1), selection of seedling will select the apricot nursery stock that kind is pure, guarantee that root system has 4-5 lateral root, main root length exists 20cm or more, seedling is straight, and nursery stock diameter is between 0.8-1.0cm, and highly in 1m or more, fixed do will guarantee to have 5-6 a full Nursery stock is immersed in clear water for 24 hours before field planting, then dips the root-inducing powder of every liter of 50mg concentration, determined in spring by lateral bud It plants;
(2.2), apricot is colonized, and is colonized in plains region and valley using rectangle, is embarked on journey with north and south, and column are away from 3m, line-spacing dimension It holds between 4-5m, if apricot is colonized in hillside, mode is transplanted using contour, distance between rows and hills maintains 4m × 3m, etc. It can be colonized after to the backfill sinking of planting pit, backfill a certain amount of vegetable soil into planting pit before field planting, then Nursery stock is placed in planting pit center, combs seedling root, it is ensured that seedling root, which does not knot, not to be bent, and the soil of curing is then backfilled Earth when being backfilling at planting pit 2/3, gently mentions sapling, guarantees that soil and root system come into full contact with, then the remaining soil of backfill Earth is stood solid with their feet, and is poured water immediately, overlay film soil moisture conservation;
(2.3), it manages after being colonized, after the apricot of spring field planting removes anti-dry frozen ground, does surely immediately, heading height maintains 60- 80cm, clip falls in the position 1cm or more above full lateral bud when surely dry, overlay film, overlay film size to be immediately after spring is surely dry 0.8-1.2m2, the survival rate of apricot is checked after field planting, for the apricot not survived, or is lacked a more region, be can be used Biennial heeled-in seedling is reseeded in time.
4. a kind of apricot implantation methods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the step (3) carries out water and fertilizer management The following steps are included:
(3.1), soil is improved, reworked processing periodically is carried out to apricot Orchard Soil every year, improve soil, promote soil-ripening, After annual fruit harvesting, autumn, which combines, applies base manure, carries out soil improvement, ploughs deeply deep-controlled in 30-40cm, and surface layer is cured Soil tillage turns over bottom Immature soil to upper layer to bottom, in conjunction with soil improvement, guarantees that loosing soil is porous, is setting Cover grass on disk, cover careless thickness in 18-22cm, in the ranks can between make the shallow roots crops such as beans, potato;
(3.2), fertilizing management, apricot apply fertilizer mainly with base manure, top dressing and foliage dressing master, base manure to adhere to be with organic fertilizer It is main, supplemented by chemical fertilizer, apply base manure after fruit harvesting in the fall, every plant of application organic fertilizer 20kg of childhood apricot, first fruiting period apricot is every Strain applies organic fertilizer 50kg, and into after the best fruiting period, every plant of application organic fertilizer 100kg is applied, depth using cyclic annular fertilizing method In 30-50cm, top dressing is carried out in apricot growth animated period for control, before apricot, Hua Hou, stone phase carry out top dressing in time, children Every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 0.8-1.2kg of age tree, every plant of application compound nitrogen phosphate fertilizer 2kg of best fruiting period apricot, third time fertilising with Based on phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer, apricot grows into the middle and later periods, in conjunction with foliage development situation, sprays foliar fertilizer in time, foliar fertilizer is with 0.3% Urea liquid, 200 times of liquid calcium phosphate solution, based on 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, foliar fertilizer is in the morning and at dusk It applies;
(3.3), water management, annual apricot need to carry out 3-4 irrigation, respectively in the apricot budding period, the fruit harvesting phase and The frozen soil phase carries out, and when irrigation, to determine irrigation volume in conjunction with field soil soil moisture content.
5. a kind of apricot implantation methods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: periodically trimming includes the step (4) Following steps:
(4.1), childhood apricot is trimmed, and apricot carries out simple trimming in the infancy while this period will draw branch is slow to put, train more Support middle-size and small-size fruit-bearing shoot cluster;
(4.2), best fruiting period apricot is trimmed, the fruitful branch gradually cutting back update to growth 3-4, to the long shoot of result for years To bounce back in time, the growth ability of restoration result branch, the long fruitful branch of short knot, in short fruit-bearing shoot cluster want appropriate cutting back;
(4.3), aging tree-pruning can suitably be trimmed with severe, and small fruitful branch wants more cutting backs are slow less to put, and to be made full use of and quite be grown Branch, competitive branch and the branch of excessive growth update tree vigo(u)r, flower and fruit thinning processing, while cultivating honeybee, are pollinated by honeybee, blooming control Temperature is 6~16 DEG C.
6. a kind of apricot implantation methods according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step (5) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, choosing Select the chemical pesticide of low toxicity and low residue, it is ensured that drug safety, standardized drug's operation.
7. a kind of apricot implantation methods according to claim 5, it is characterised in that: at step (4.3) flower and fruit thinning Reason, flower thinning flower bud carry out after bud expands, terminate when blooming, and only retain the bud of two sides downward or upward, other wholes are smeared It removes, base portion does not retain bud;Flower thinning, flower thinning, until the fallen flowers phase can be carried out, retain the flower of two sides since flowering stage, Remaining whole removes, and medium fruit branch and fruit spur will be dredged more, and long fruit branch is dredged less, and excessive growth fruit branch can not be dredged;Young fruit is dredged, children is dredged Fruit enters the stone phase in fruit, stabilization of bearing fruit, and can distinguish the when progress of big fruitlet, retains no disease pest harm, medium big, color Dark green fruit retains the middle part more than fruitful branch blade or the intermediate fruit for leaning on front, stays fruit amount flexible according to fruit size It grasps, long fruit branch retains 2~5, and medium fruit branch stays 1~3, and fruit spur stays 1.
CN201811144215.5A 2018-09-29 2018-09-29 A kind of apricot implantation methods Pending CN109258270A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110839465A (en) * 2019-10-25 2020-02-28 合肥市都宝利农业科技有限公司 Planting method of apricot trees
CN111492824A (en) * 2020-04-03 2020-08-07 北京林业大学 Method for promoting seed development of shiny-leaved yellowhorn

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110839465A (en) * 2019-10-25 2020-02-28 合肥市都宝利农业科技有限公司 Planting method of apricot trees
CN111492824A (en) * 2020-04-03 2020-08-07 北京林业大学 Method for promoting seed development of shiny-leaved yellowhorn

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