CN108293929A - A method of improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable - Google Patents

A method of improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108293929A
CN108293929A CN201711019186.5A CN201711019186A CN108293929A CN 108293929 A CN108293929 A CN 108293929A CN 201711019186 A CN201711019186 A CN 201711019186A CN 108293929 A CN108293929 A CN 108293929A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
vegetables
vegetable
strand
planting
prawn culturing
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Pending
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CN201711019186.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
倪蒙
顾志敏
原居林
施建忠
房珍珍
储忝江
刘梅
孙翠萍
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Cixi Longwu Fisheries Professional Cooperative
Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
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Cixi Longwu Fisheries Professional Cooperative
Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
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Priority to CN201711019186.5A priority Critical patent/CN108293929A/en
Publication of CN108293929A publication Critical patent/CN108293929A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/02Watering arrangements located above the soil which make use of perforated pipe-lines or pipe-lines with dispensing fittings, e.g. for drip irrigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of methods improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, it specifically utilizes winter period of rest pond to plant the higher vegetables of economic value, a large amount of economic values higher vegetables is produced while purifying water, improving water environment.The method for improveing soil with strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable includes that the shrimp pool arranges, is colonized, irrigation and vegetables harvest.Multiple vegetables flakes are formed by horizontal and vertical ridging, adjacent vegetables flake selects different vegetable species to be colonized, and balances the water quality improvement effect of each region;Vegetable cultivation is without imposing chemical fertilizer and spraying insecticide, economical environment-protective, in addition good draining irrigation system, can be obtained the vegetables of high yield high quality.Pond prawn culturing is combined by the present invention with vegetables cultivation, is embodied the sustainable development that ecological benefits are taken into account with economic benefit, is had broad application prospects.

Description

A method of improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable
Technical field
The present invention relates to aquaculture fields, and in particular to a kind of to be changed using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable The method of good soil.
Background technology
Beach is the general name of seabeach, river shoal and lakeshore, and present beach generally refers to Coastal beach more, refers to coastal high water level of spring tide Tide leaching area between low tide.Beach is the important reserve land resources of China, has big area, distribution concentration, position The feature that condition is good, farming, animal husbandry and fishery multi-purpose development potential is big.Mudflat aquaculture is one of Oceanic Fishery, is referred to damp using seashore is located at Between band ooze or sand muddy ground band be subject to smooth, fill builds dam etc. and carries out sea-farming.Typically directly cultivated using beach , based on shellfish, seaweeds;Tidal range formula is built up after regulation or transformation, semi-enclosed or enclosed Yu Ponds are cultivated , it is in the majority with fish, shrimps.
Penaeus Vannmei is one of highest three big shrimps of world today's cultured output, and delicious meat, processing dressing percentage can Up to 67%, growth suitable temperature range is wide, can be grown at 18-32 DEG C, and proper salinity level is also wide, can be given birth under the conditions of salinity 1-40% It is long, it is a kind of excellent desalination cultivation kind, is suitable for growing in beach low-salt culturing area, such Coastal Area is transformed and is built up It is a kind of good Utilizing Resource Pattern that culture pond cultivates Penaeus Vannmei extensively.But traditional cultivation of storing fresh water blindly is pursued and is supported Benefit is grown, using the pattern of high investment high production, since the amount of feedstuff feeding is excessive, Water, phosphorus content are higher, can not be by Algae full utilization causes surplus, simultaneously because the uneven flourish for influencing algae of the nutrition such as N P and K of water body, leads The self-purification capacity of water body is caused to decline, pollutant largely accumulates in bed mud year by year so that cultivating pool environmental degradation seriously affects The yield and quality of Penaeus Vannmei.To give full play to the positive ecological functions of bed mud, inhibit its negative consequence, it is necessary to periodically Improving pond substrate.
The method of improving pond substrate is broadly divided into physics, chemistry, biological method at present, and physical method mainly uses mud Pumping receives excessive mud, this fado situation blocked up for mud also needs further chemically to carry out disinfection after dredging, Power consumption effort.Chemistry and biological method be by application chemistry, biological agent substrate is handled, it is of high cost, to operation and Injected volume requires also high.The problems such as to reduce cultivation risk, avoiding bottom material of pond for breeding evolutionary operation complicated, of high cost, ineffective, Change pure water in the past and produce aquaculture model, developing environmental integrated culture becomes novel effective bottom material of pond for breeding mode of ameliorating.Such as The Chinese invention patent of Patent No. CN103583292B discloses a kind of method using freshwater shrimp pond bed mud rice cultivation, shows Writing reduces nitrogen and phosphorus content in high temperature season breeding water body, reduces the harm of prawn growth, can significantly improve freshwater shrimp yield and quality, Rice best in quality can also be produced simultaneously, there is good economic benefit.But environmental integrated culture needs to rely on Region feature and cultivation feature etc. carry out specific aim exploitation, it is therefore desirable to for the culture of Penaeus vannamei exploitation one of Coastal beach The suitable environmental integrated culture mode of kind.
Invention content
It is improved using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable in order to solve the above technical problems, present invention offer is a kind of The method of soil improves bottom material of pond for breeding, produces the higher vegetables of a large amount of economic values, while it is not busy effectively to solve winter period of rest soil The problem of setting.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the specific technical solution that the present invention uses is as follows:
A method of soil being improved using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, is included the following steps:
(1)The shrimp pool arranges:At the beginning of annual 10 months, Penaeus Vannmei all goes out after the pool, and pond Zhong Shui is drained, and shines 2 week of the pool, In pond, surrounding digs the drainage ditch of a depth 0.5m, width 0.5m, is drained for rainy days;It removes in pond and is used after weeds sundries Rotary cultivator scarifying soil, horizontal and vertical ridging forms multiple vegetables flakes after raking;
(2)Field planting:Screen the vegetables of 2-3 kind low temperature seasons growth, the selection current year or prior year is fresh, full, germinating energy is strong Excellent vegetable seeds or healthy and strong vegetable seedling are colonized, and planting density is depending on vegetable variety;
(3)It irrigates:Fair weather is irrigated weekly once, after continuous rainy days, is drained in time;
(4)Vegetables harvest:Vegetables are gathered in next year January~2 month, and winter temperature is relatively low, grown after vegetables molding it is relatively slow, because This picking time is longer, can harvest by stages, extends the supply phase.
Preferably, 2~3m of the vegetable cultivation sector width, 3~5m of length, 0.2~0.4m of height, adjacent vegetables flake Between be spaced 0.3~0.5m.
Preferably, adjacent vegetables flake selects different vegetable species to be colonized.Since different vegetable is to nitrogen, phosphorus Degree of absorption it is inconsistent, adjacent growing area plantation different vegetable can play the complementary effect of balance, prevent regional area to list Kind element absorption difference causes water quality Territorial Difference big, to influence growth of the South America to white shrimp.
Preferably, the culture pond is connected to by the drainpipe that can be turned on and off in the setting of pool bottom surrounding with drainage ditch, The drainage ditch outlet is connected to cistern, and the cistern is equipped with filter assemblies.Rainy days or irrigate extra water can be by Drainpipe is stored in cistern through drainage ditch, and surrounding setting drainpipe in pool bottom accelerates drainage procedure and avoids soil soaking time mistake Long, draining, through filtering, precipitation process, can continue in cistern when condition of water quality meets water for irrigation.
Preferably, the irrigation method is that micro spray irrigation, furrow irrigation or both combine.Micro spray irrigation utilizes low-pressure pump and pipe Road system water delivery by specially designed Miniature atomized nozzle, water injection to aerial, and is dissipated under the action of low pressure water Fine mist, is sprinkled upon on crop branches and leaves or ground, and micro- spray can not only increase soil moisture, but also air humidity can be improved.Shape after ridging At the furrow of high convex ridge platform and indentation, ridge platform becomes vegetables flake, furrow in addition to by vegetable cultivation zoning may further be used into Row furrow irrigation does not destroy soil texture, saves using soil capillarity from bottom of trench and furrow bank to infiltration of ambient and moist soil Water, since each growing area surrounding of vegetables of the present invention has furrow, furrow irrigation to achieve noticeable achievement.Two ways has soil Good wetting effect can specifically be selected according to the humidity of air and soil.
Preferably, the vegetables of the low temperature season growth of the field planting step screening are 2 in broccoli, rape, potherb mustard ~3 kinds.
More preferably, the planting density of the broccoli is 40 × 40cm, and the planting density of potherb mustard is 40 × 30cm, The planting density of rape seed is 70-90/m3
Beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows:
1, annual March next year in October-is the beach less salt area culture of Penaeus vannamei intermittent phase, and cultivating large area pond is in the spare time State is set, and bottom of pond nutriment is abundant, is suitble to the plantation of vegetables.In the present invention economic value is planted using winter period of rest pond Higher vegetables, while purifying water, improving water environment, moreover it is possible to produce the higher vegetables of a large amount of economic values, produce Pond prawn culturing is combined with vegetables cultivation, absorbs mistake in sediment of pond environment using vegetables by raw considerable economic benefit Surplus nutriment especially nitrogen and phosphorus element embodies to achieve the purpose that optimize pond culture enhancement of environment bottom material of pond for breeding The sustainable development that ecological benefits are taken into account with economic benefit, has broad application prospects.
2, shrimp pool bottom organic matter is more, can meet vegetable growth needs, general without imposing chemical fertilizer, prawn pond bottom Planting vegetable belongs to rice field-upland field rotation, can effectively prevent vegetable insect disease, need not spray insecticide.Therefore the vegetable cultivation of the present invention Both cost has been saved, chemical fertilizer and pesticide has been also avoided to negative effect caused by soil and vegetables itself, ensures nutriment Irrigation and drainage work is carried out under the premise of source is abundant to obtain the vegetables of high yield high quality.The present invention is by being arranged drainage ditch Quick drainage is realized with cistern, is improved and is filled while saving water in such a way that micro spray irrigation, furrow irrigation or both combine Efficiency is irrigate, the furrow of each vegetables flake surrounding has not only divided different vegetables flakes, moreover it is possible to accelerate draining, while big The big effect for improving furrow irrigation.In addition, the present invention reaches better substrate improved effect by various vegetables mixed planting, it is adjacent Vegetables flake select different vegetable species to be colonized, ensure each region have sufficient absorption to nitrogen, phosphorus, realize The equilibrating of the nutrition such as the N P and K of water body.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of the winter period of rest strand prawn culturing pool of the present invention planting vegetable;
Fig. 2 is bottom material of pond for breeding variation table before and after South America prawn culturing pool plantation rape;
Fig. 3 is bottom material of pond for breeding variation table before and after South America prawn culturing pool plantation potherb mustard;
Fig. 4 is bottom material of pond for breeding variation table before and after South America prawn culturing pool plantation broccoli;
Fig. 5 is absorbing state table of three kinds of vegetables to culture pond bed mud Different Nutrition ingredient;
In figure:1- culture ponds, 2- vegetables flakes, 3- drainpipes, 4- drainage ditch, 5- cisterns, 6- micro spray irrigation systems.
Specific implementation mode you
With reference to embodiment, the invention will be further described.
Example 1
A method of soil being improved using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, is included the following steps:
(1)The shrimp pool arranges:At the beginning of annual 10 months, Penaeus Vannmei all goes out after the pool, and culture pond water is drained, and shines 2 week of the pool. As shown in Figure 1, digging the drainage ditch 4 of a depth 0.5m, wide 0.5m in 1 surrounding of culture pond, drained for rainy days, the culture pond 1 drainpipe 3 by that can be turned on and off in the setting of pool bottom surrounding is connected to drainage ditch 4, the outlet of the drainage ditch 4 and cistern 5 connections.It removes and uses rotary cultivator scarifying soil in pond after weeds sundries, horizontal and vertical ridging forms multiple vegetables after raking Growing area 2 and furrow are spaced between the adjacent vegetables flakes of the vegetables flake 2 width 3m, length 5m, height 0.3m 2 0.4m.(2)Field planting:Broccoli is selected, rape, vegetables of three kinds of the potherb mustard as plantation, selection is for the year or the prior year is fresh, full Excellent vegetable seeds full, germinating energy is strong or healthy and strong vegetable seedling are colonized, and planting density broccoli is 40 × 40cm, snow In 40 × 30cm of luxuriant, rape seed is according to 80/m3It is spread in vegetables flake 2, adjacent vegetables flake 2 selects different Vegetable species are colonized.(3)It irrigates:Fair weather is irrigated weekly once, and the irrigation method is micro spray irrigation, furrow irrigation or two Person combines, and after continuous rainy days, drains in time.Micro spray irrigation realized by micro spray irrigation system 6, the micro spray irrigation system 6 Including low-pressure pump and pipe-line system, by the Miniature atomized nozzle on pipeline, water injection to aerial, and tiny mist is dissipated into Drop, is sprinkled upon on crop branches and leaves or ground.Furrow irrigation is to supply water to realize by cistern 5, and the cistern 5 is equipped with filter assemblies, row Water through filtering, precipitation process, meets and is discharged into drainage ditch 4 by the outlet of cistern 5 after water for irrigation condition in the cistern 5, Enter furrow through drainpipe 3, using soil capillarity from bottom of trench and furrow bank to infiltration of ambient and moist soil.(4)Vegetables Harvesting:Vegetables are gathered in next year January~2 month, and winter temperature is relatively low, grown after vegetables molding it is relatively slow, therefore picking time compared with It is long, it can harvest by stages, extend the supply phase.
Bottom material of pond for breeding before and after vegetable cultivation is tested, assay method is as follows:PH, which is measured, uses electrode method, full nitrogen It measures and uses Kjeldahl method HJ 717-2014, total phosphorus yield alkali fusion-molybdenum-antimony anti-spectrophotometric method HJ632-2011, ammonia nitrogen, Asia Measurement Klorvess Liquid extraction-spectrophotometry HJ 634-2012 of nitrate nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, effective phosphorus yield are used Sodium bicarbonate extraction-molybdenum-antimony anti-spectrophotometric method HJ704-2014, full potassium measuring method NY/T 87-1988.Test result is such as Shown in Fig. 2-5.
It can to sum up obtain, broccoli, rape, the plantation of three kinds of vegetables of potherb mustard influences the pH value of bottom material of pond for breeding little, guarantor It is the pH ranges for being suitble to Penaeus Vannmei growth 7.0~8.0 to hold, and three kinds of vegetables have nitrogen, phosphorus different degrees of absorption, But it emphasizes particularly on different fields, uptake maximum of the rape to phosphorus but seldom, uptake of the potherb mustard to nitrogen to the absorption of nitrogen in three kinds of vegetables Big but few to the absorption of phosphorus, broccoli is to the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus all very well but to the absorption difference of potassium.Therefore one of which is individually planted Vegetables can not ensure there is good absorption to different nutriments, if point three pieces of regions are each in culture pond by three kinds of vegetables From concentrating plantation that different zones nutrient component difference can be caused big, water quality is uneven.Therefore, three kinds of vegetables mixed plantings can make pair The absorption equilibrium of different nutriments, more preferably to the improvement of bottom material of pond for breeding.
Embodiment described above is only explanation of the invention, is not limitation of the present invention, people in the art Member belongs to protection scope of the present invention according to the equivalent transformation of the invention made and modification.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of method improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, which is characterized in that including following Step:
(1)The shrimp pool arranges:At the beginning of annual 10 months, Penaeus Vannmei all goes out after the pool, and pond Zhong Shui is drained, and shines 2 week of the pool, In pond, surrounding digs the drainage ditch of a depth 0.5m, width 0.5m, is drained for rainy days;It removes in pond and is used after weeds sundries Rotary cultivator scarifying soil, horizontal and vertical ridging forms multiple vegetables flakes after raking;
(2)Field planting:Screen the vegetables of 2-3 kind low temperature seasons growth, the selection current year or prior year is fresh, full, germinating energy is strong Excellent vegetable seeds or healthy and strong vegetable seedling are colonized, and planting density is depending on vegetable variety;
(3)It irrigates:Fair weather is irrigated weekly once, after continuous rainy days, is drained in time;
(4)Vegetables harvest:Vegetables are gathered in next year January~2 month, and winter temperature is relatively low, are grown after vegetables molding relatively slowly,
Therefore picking time is longer, can harvest by stages, extends the supply phase.
2. the method according to claim 1 for improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, special Sign is:The vegetable cultivation sector width 2~3m, 3~5m of length, 0.2~0.4m of height, are spaced between adjacent vegetables flake 0.3~0.5m.
3. the method according to claim 1 for improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, special Sign is:Adjacent vegetables flake selects different vegetable species to be colonized.
4. the method according to claim 1 for improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, special Sign is:The culture pond is connected to by the drainpipe that can be turned on and off in the setting of pool bottom surrounding with drainage ditch, the draining Canal outlet is connected to cistern, and the cistern is equipped with filter assemblies.
5. the method according to claim 1 for improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, special Sign is:The irrigation method is that micro spray irrigation, furrow irrigation or both combine.
6. the method according to claim 1 for improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, special Sign is:The vegetables of the low temperature season growth of the field planting step screening are 2~3 kinds in broccoli, rape, potherb mustard.
7. the method according to claim 6 for improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable, special Sign is:The planting density of the broccoli is 40 × 40cm, and the planting density of potherb mustard is 40 × 30cm, the kind of rape seed Density in planting is 70-90/m3
CN201711019186.5A 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 A method of improveing soil using strand prawn culturing pool winter period of rest planting vegetable Pending CN108293929A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108834980A (en) * 2018-08-29 2018-11-20 合肥万丰生态稻虾养殖专业合作社 A kind of synthesis plant breeding model of cray and rape
CN111468533A (en) * 2020-03-12 2020-07-31 南宁市巨洋农牧有限公司 Method for repairing bottom soil of aquaculture pond
CN113115738A (en) * 2019-12-31 2021-07-16 郑昭源 Culture pond capable of being quickly combined and constructed

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101045237A (en) * 2006-12-22 2007-10-03 薄学锋 Method for improving medium or serious saline and alkaline land by the sea, and comprehensive utilization of the same
CN103719005A (en) * 2014-01-08 2014-04-16 常州市武进区水产技术推广站 Ecological breeding method for freshwater shrimp and bengal waterdropwort herb crop rotation
CN103907466A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-07-09 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所 Method for utilizing slack-winter-season mariculture pond to plant New Zealand spinach
CN104719243A (en) * 2013-12-20 2015-06-24 唐强 Method for alternately breeding turtles and planting vegetables

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101045237A (en) * 2006-12-22 2007-10-03 薄学锋 Method for improving medium or serious saline and alkaline land by the sea, and comprehensive utilization of the same
CN104719243A (en) * 2013-12-20 2015-06-24 唐强 Method for alternately breeding turtles and planting vegetables
CN103719005A (en) * 2014-01-08 2014-04-16 常州市武进区水产技术推广站 Ecological breeding method for freshwater shrimp and bengal waterdropwort herb crop rotation
CN103907466A (en) * 2014-04-15 2014-07-09 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所 Method for utilizing slack-winter-season mariculture pond to plant New Zealand spinach

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108834980A (en) * 2018-08-29 2018-11-20 合肥万丰生态稻虾养殖专业合作社 A kind of synthesis plant breeding model of cray and rape
CN113115738A (en) * 2019-12-31 2021-07-16 郑昭源 Culture pond capable of being quickly combined and constructed
CN111468533A (en) * 2020-03-12 2020-07-31 南宁市巨洋农牧有限公司 Method for repairing bottom soil of aquaculture pond

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Application publication date: 20180720