CN108086579A - 自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺 - Google Patents

自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺 Download PDF

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CN108086579A
CN108086579A CN201711310269.XA CN201711310269A CN108086579A CN 108086579 A CN108086579 A CN 108086579A CN 201711310269 A CN201711310269 A CN 201711310269A CN 108086579 A CN108086579 A CN 108086579A
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吴光伟
王智
毛芳芳
陈志惠
贾大强
熊凤鸣
欧涛
朱兆辉
马均涛
田永明
向正君
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CHONGQING SIBEIKEN ENERGY-SAVING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO LTD
Zhongjian Science And Technology Chengdu Co Ltd
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CHONGQING SIBEIKEN ENERGY-SAVING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO LTD
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺,保温装饰装配式墙板包括由内至外依次是混凝土结构层、保温层和饰面层,所述饰面层是硬质薄板,在每个硬质薄板的背面均嵌有内锚固件;在每个内锚固件内均插接有一个外锚固件;装配式墙板的制备工艺包括如下步骤:预制背面嵌有内锚固件饰面层的保温装饰一体板,固定模板;将保温装饰一体板逐个反铺在钢模板平台上;并在保温装饰一体板每个内锚固件上安装外锚固件;填板缝;放置预制钢筋网架或钢筋笼;浇注混凝土并振捣;养护;拆模。本发明得到的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺具有制作步骤简单,施工工期短,防火安全,节能保温,天然花岗石薄板饰面造价低的优点。

Description

自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及一种装配式建筑技术,具体涉及一种自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其 反打制备工艺。
背景技术
[0002] 随着我国绿色建筑及建筑工业化的发展,预制装配式混凝土建筑因其具有现场工 作量小、工期短、污染程度低、节约能源、绿色环保以及建筑质量高等优点逐渐发展为未来 建筑产业的主要建筑体系。近年来,我国积极探索发展预制装配式建筑,预制装配式建筑是 将建筑的部分或全部构件在工厂预制完成,然后运输到施工现场,将构件通过可靠的连接 方式组装而建成的建筑。目前,预制装配式建筑构件主要包括预制墙板、预制楼梯板、预制 叠合楼板、预制阳台等,其中具有保温、装饰、承重等综合功能于一体的预制墙板因其复杂 性和重要性成为业内人士的研发热点。市场上出现较多的预制装配式墙板做法主要是三明 治夹心墙板,反打石材预制墙板,以上预制墙板如果得到普遍性应用还存在很多问题。三明 治夹心墙板在一定阶段发挥了其预制装配式建筑构件的积极作用,但存在外叶墙板易翘曲 变形导致开裂、冷热桥位置多、保温连接件易错位、自动化生产程度低,保温板夹心层抗压 剪能力差的问题,严重的甚至会出现外叶墙板脱落的风险,极大的限制了其推广应用。反打 石材预制墙板能够满足装饰层与结构层于一体的装配式要求,但是并没有解决节能保温的 问题,同时由于传统石材反打技术采用石材的厚度不小于25mm,自重大、结构安全性差、对 扣件要求极高;石材资源耗用量大造成资源短缺,造价高等问题一直没有得到很好的解决; 为解决以上工艺的不足,申请人欲采用一种新型锚固件将保温装饰一体化板与石材反打技 术结合,将天然花岗石薄板石材、保温板和混凝土结构层固定在一起,通过天然花岗石薄板 饰面保温装饰一体板反打工艺生产装配式墙板。
发明内容
[0003] 针对上述现有技术的不足,本发明所要解决的技术问题是:克服天然花岗石薄板 脆性大、抗冲击差,泛碱、易渗透等问题,同时满足系统安全性要求,采用新型锚固件完成天 然花岗石薄板与混凝土结构层的自锚固连接固定,完成反打保温装饰生产装配式墙板的制 备工艺。
[0004] 为了解决上述技术问题,本发明采用了如下的技术方案: 一种自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板,它包括由内至外依次设置的混凝土结构层、保温层 和饰面层,其特征在于,所述保温层为纤维增强发泡水泥板,所述饰面层是硬质薄板,在每 两个相邻硬质薄板之间、每个硬质薄板的背面均嵌有至少一个内锚固件,所述内锚固件包 括由四块板材合围成一个封闭矩形的预埋框,在预埋框宽度方向的一侧设有向硬质薄板背 面方向凸出并嵌入硬质薄板内的饰面卡板;在每个内锚固件的预埋框内均插接有一个外锚 固件,所述外锚固件呈工字型或丁字形,由横向挡板和固定在横向挡板中部的竖向连接板 组成,外锚固件带有横向挡板的一端插入预埋框内,竖向连接板置于保温层内并穿过保温 层与混凝土结构层固定或者穿过保温层与与钢筋网架或钢筋笼直接连接。采用内锚固件和 外锚固件相配合的方式,将保温装饰一体板和混凝土结构层或直接与钢筋网格连接固定 在一起,将饰面板的荷载直接传递到混凝土结构层,进而当饰面板为硬质薄板时也能满足 墙体和装配要求。采用工厂预制的保温装饰一体板制作装配式墙体,既实现墙体制作规范 化的要求,还能减少施工周期,避免现场施工质量不好控制的问题,实现集保温、装饰、结构 等功能构造于一体的装配式建筑生产。
[0005] 进一步的,所述预埋框呈倒置的U形,且两侧侧边均向内折弯,所述折弯部分的板 材呈水平状态或末端向上倾斜,形成阻挡外锚固件中横向挡板脱落的挡板;在预埋框两侧 侧边之间具有一个供外锚固件中竖向连接板插入的插入口,所述插入口大于竖向连接板的 板厚。设置在预埋框中的插入口,主要是便于将外锚固件中的竖向连接板从其侧边插入。同 时,插入口的末端还会对外锚固件起阻挡作用,防止其滑到外部,起一个限位的作用,避免 扣件错位。另外,竖向连接板的外端会处于靠近内锚固件外沿处,从而整个外锚固件也会处 于内锚固件内侧,进而使得外锚固件外端处于饰面板侧边内。该锚固组件的安装方式可避 免相邻饰面板板缝填充时交错阻挡,在反打过程,保温装饰一体板板缝填充密实,防止现浇 混凝土时浆体漏到饰面层。
[0006] 进一步的,所述外锚固件中竖向连接板伸出保温层外的长度不小于25mm;每个内 锚固件上均设有两个饰面卡板,两个饰面卡板分别对称设置在预埋框左右两侧的侧边上, 且饰面卡板倾斜设置,饰面卡板与预埋框上表面之间的夹角为45〜60°,饰面卡板的凸出高 度大于等于4mm。设置两个饰面卡板,且将饰面卡板设计为倾斜样式后,不但能够增大饰面 卡板与饰面板之间的接触面积,增大摩擦力,而且倾斜设计后,饰面卡板内窄外宽,从而在 卡入饰面板内后,能很牢固地固定在饰面板内,角度的设置克服了天然花岗石薄板的等硬 质薄板脆性大,不易开槽安装扣件的问题。
[0007] 进一步的,所述保温层还可以采用岩棉板、EPS、XPS或聚氨酯、真空绝热板、泡沫陶 瓷以及泡沫玻璃制作。
[0008] 进一步的,所述硬质薄板为天然花岗石薄板或陶瓷薄板,且硬质薄板的厚度为不 小于7mm;在每块硬质薄板背面均开设有至少两个用于嵌入饰面卡板的燕尾槽,所述燕尾槽 的深度不小于4mm,燕尾槽槽底到硬质薄板正面的壁厚不小于3mm。采用天然花岗石薄板等 硬质薄板作为饰面层代替传统厚度25mm以上的厚石材,自重小,不但节约资源,节省材料造 价,还能减轻建筑物荷载。设置足够的燕尾槽深度和燕尾槽底到硬质薄板正面的壁厚高度 是在保证内锚固件饰面卡板充分卡入燕尾槽内的同时,而避免饰面板开槽位置因板厚过薄 受外力破坏,保护饰面板的完整性和有效的受力点。
[0009] —种自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板的反打制备工艺,所述装配式墙体结构如权0斤 述,其特征在于,装配式墙体的反打工艺包括如下步骤:步骤1,在工厂预制饰面层为硬质薄 板且饰面层背面嵌有至少一个内锚固件的保温装饰一体板;步骤2,在钢平台上固定模板, 所述模板为一个封闭的框状,模板的外形与墙体形状一致;步骤3,将多块步骤1中的保温装 饰一体板逐个反铺在钢平台上;步骤4,在每个内锚固件上装配一个外锚固件;步骤5,用发 泡材料填满相邻保温装饰一体板之间的所有板缝;步骤6,将预制好的钢筋网架或钢筋笼铺 设在保温装饰一体板上面,或直接在己铺好的保温装饰一体板上面铺设绑扎钢筋网架或钢 筋笼;步骤7,在钢筋网架或钢筋笼上固定装配式墙板用的部件;步骤8,向模板内浇注Jg凝 土并振捣,将混?规土表面抹平,形成混减土结构层;步骤9,养护;步骤1〇,脱模;步骤11、板缝 密封防水处理,并将装配式墙体起吊后按照设计要求进行组合安装。采用内锚固件和外锚 固件相配合的方式,将保温装饰一体板和混凝土结构层或直接与钢筋网架或钢筋笼连接固 定在一起,避免了目前装配式墙体普遍采用三明治式的夹心构造连接件易错位、安全系数 低等缺陷。
[0010]进一步的,所述保温装饰一体板的保温层为玻璃纤维增强保温板。采用玻璃纤维 增强保温板作为保温层后,既改善了保温板的热工性能,抗折强度,柔韧性,使纤维增强改 性发泡保温板规格尺寸可以做到l2〇〇mmX 1200mm,同时解决了保温板在反打过程中强度 低,易损坏等问题。同时,保温层与天然花岗石薄板复合后提高石材薄板的抗冲击性能,受 力不易破坏。
[0011]进一步的,步骤2中预制保温装饰一体板的具体制作方法如下:1)、准备长宽相同 的保温板和硬质薄板,并在硬质薄板背面的内锚固件安装位置处开设燕尾槽,以及在保温 板锚固件安装的相应位置切割安装口;2)、在每个燕尾槽内填充锚固胶,并在燕尾槽处安装 内锚固件,安装时,将内锚固件的两个饰面卡板插入燕尾槽内即可;3)、在装有内锚固件的 硬质薄板背面涂刷一层柔性无机粘结剂,然后再将保温板粘贴到硬质薄板背面,粘贴时,应 将安装口与内锚固件的预埋框一一对应;4)、将所有粘贴完保温板的保温装饰一体板堆码 施压,使保温装饰一体板连接结构更为牢固。采用柔性无机粘结剂粘结保温板和花岗石薄 板,取消了传统石材反打背涂处理工序,对天然花岗石薄板起隔离防泛碱的作用。
[0012] 上述工艺步骤简单, 与现有技术相比,本发明得到的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺具有如 下优点: 1、内锚固件安装克服了天然花岗石薄板安装着力点弱、脆性大,不易机械扣挂的难题。 外锚固件与内锚固件有效连接后,避免了扣件位置错位。外锚固件伸出保温层外并置于混 凝土结构层内或直接与钢筋网架或钢筋笼连接,从而将保温装饰一体板以及混凝土结构层 固定在一起,将饰面板的荷载通过外锚固件传递到混凝土结构层,保证安全。 ^013] 2、装配式墙体的饰面层采用了薄板石材代替厚石材,大大降低了建筑物自重,提 高建筑物的结构安全系数,节约石材资源,有利于缓解目前石材资源短缺的矛盾,同时,还 降低了石材作为饰面板的造价。
[0014] 3、天然花岗石薄板饰面保温装饰一体板反打工艺制备墙体,采用柔性无机粘结剂 固定保温板和天然花岗石薄板,解决了石材泛碱的问题,取消了石材背涂处理工序。天然花 岗石薄板与纤维增强改性发泡水泥保温板复合后,提高石材薄板的抗冲击性能,受力不易 破坏,真正实现采用天然花岗石薄板饰面生产装配式墙体。
[0015] 4、采用反打保温装饰一体板生产装配式墙体和内锚固件和外锚固件组合的方式, 避免了目前装配式墙体普遍采用三明治式的夹心构造和反打石材预制墙板的缺陷,既实现 墙体制作规范化的要求,简化操作步骤,还能减少施工周期,避免现场施工质量不好控制的 问题。
附图说明
[0016] 图1为实施例中装配式墙体的正面结构示意图; 图2为实施例中硬质薄板中燕尾槽的开设结构示意图; 图3为实施例中内锚固件的插入口呈条状时,内锚固件和外锚固件装配后的结构示意 图; 图4为实施例中内锚固件插入口处两侧侧板倾斜设置时,内锚固件和外锚固件装配后 的结构示意图; 图5为实施例中锚固件在每张预制保温装饰一体板分布结构示意图; 图6为实施例中装配式墙体的截面结构示意图; 图7为实施例中预制保温装饰一体板与锚固件安装后的截面结构示意图。
[0017]图中:硬质薄板1、内锚固件2、预埋框21、插入口 22、饰面卡板23、空腔24、外锚固件 3、横向挡板31、竖向连接板32、保温板4、安装口 41、混凝土结构层5。
具体实施方式
[0018]下面结合附图和实施例对本发明进一步说明。
[0019] 实施例: 本实施例提供的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板及其反打制备工艺,具体的,如图所示,自 锚固保温装饰装配式墙板包括由内至外依次设置的混凝土结构层5、保温层和饰面层,所述 保温层为纤维增强发泡水泥板,所述饰面层是硬质薄板1,在每个硬质薄板1的背面均嵌有 至少一个内锚固件2,所述内锚固件2包括中部具有空腔24的预埋框21,在预埋框21宽度方 向的一侧设有向硬质薄板1背面方向凸出并嵌入硬质薄板1内的饰面卡板23;在每个内锚固 件2的预埋框21内均插接有一个外锚固件3,所述外锚固件3呈工字型,由横向挡板31和固定 在横向挡板31中部并呈倒置的T字形的竖向连接板似组成,外锚固件3带有横向挡板31的一 端插入预埋框21内,竖向连接板32置于保温层内并穿过保温层与混凝土结构层5固定或者 穿过保温层直接与钢筋网架或钢筋笼连接,竖向连接板32伸出保温层外的长度不小于 25mm。在本实施例中,每块硬质薄版1上均嵌有四个呈矩形分布的内锚固件2,四个内锚固件 2分别与硬质薄板1的四个边角相邻,处于硬质薄板1的上下两个侧边内侧。具体的,上述外 锚固件3可采用截面呈丁字形或T字形的扣件代替。
[0020]在具体实施时,上述内锚固件2中的预埋框21结构如图3和图4所示,预埋框21截面 呈倒置U字型、且左右两侧板材均向内折弯,形成阻挡横向挡板31脱落的折弯板。具体的,上 述折弯板可以设置为水平状态(如图3所示),也可以倾斜设置(如图4所示),倾斜设置时,其 末端向上倾斜。预埋框21两侧的折弯板之间形成一个供外锚固件3中竖向连接板32插入的 插入口 22,所述插入口 22的宽度大于竖向连接板32的壁厚。
[0021]具体的,在每个内锚固件2上均设有两个饰面卡板23,两个饰面卡板23分别对称设 置在预埋框21左右两侧的侧边上,且饰面卡板23倾斜设置,饰面卡板23与预埋框21上表面 之间的夹角为45°,饰面卡板23的凸出高度大于等于4mm。
[0022]具体的,本实施例中的硬质薄板1为天然花岗石薄板或陶瓷薄板,且硬质薄板丄的 厚度不小于7mm;在每块硬质薄板1背面均开设有四个用于嵌入饰面卡板23的燕尾槽11,所 述燕尾槽11的深度不小于4mm,燕尾槽11槽底到硬质薄板1正面的壁厚不小于3mm。
[0023]具体的,上述自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板的反打工艺包括如下步骤:步骤1,在工 厂预制饰面层为硬质薄板1且饰面层背面嵌有至少一个内锚固件2的保温装饰一体板;步骤 2,在钢十a上固定模板,所述模板为一个封闭的框状,模板的外形与墙体形状一致;步骤3, 将多块步骤2中的保温装饰一体板逐个反铺在钢平台上;步骤4,并在每个内锚固件2上装配 一个外锚固件3;步骤5,用发泡材料填满相邻保温装饰一体板之间的所有板缝;步骤6,将预 制好的钢筋网架或钢筋笼铺设在保温装饰一体板上面,或直接在己铺好的保温装饰一体板 上面铺设绑扎钢筋网架或钢筋笼;步骤7,在钢筋网架或钢筋笼上固定装配式墙板用的部 件;步骤8,向模板内浇注混凝土并振捣,将混凝土表面抹平,形成混凝土结构层5;步骤9,养 护;步骤10,脱模;步骤11、板缝密封胶防水,并将装配式墙体起吊后按照设计要求进行组合 安装。墙体脱模时的表面温度与环境温度的差值不宜超过25°C,脱模后进行养护,可选择 自然养护、自然养护加养护剂或加热养护。加热养护条件应通过试验确定,宜在常温下预养 护2_6h,升、降温度不应超过20°C/h,最髙温度不宜超过70°C,以防止保温材料变形造成 对墙体的破坏。
[0024]上述施工步骤中,外锚固件3可以在预制保温装饰一体板铺设完成,并用发泡材料 填满所有板缝前进行装配。
[0025]步骤2中预制保温装饰一体板的具体制作方法如下:1)、准备长宽相同的保温板4 和硬质薄板1,并在硬质薄板1背面的内锚固件安装位置处开设燕尾槽11,以及在保温板的 锚固件相应安装位置切割安装口 41;2)、在每个燕尾槽11内填充锚固胶,并在燕尾槽11处安 装内锚固件2,安装时,将内锚固件2的两个饰面卡板23插入燕尾槽11内即可;3)、在装有内 锚固件2的硬质薄板1背面涂刷一层柔性无机粘结剂,然后再将保温板4粘贴到硬质薄板1背 面,粘贴时,应将安装口41与内锚固件2的预埋框21—一对应;4)、将所有粘贴完保温板4的 保温装饰一体板堆叠后施压,使保温装饰一体板连接结构更为牢固。
[0026]最后需要说明的是,以上实施例仅用以说明本发明的技术方案而非限制技术方 案,尽管申请人参照较佳实施例对本发明进行了详细说明,本领域的普通技术人员应当理 解,那些对本发明的技术方案进行修改或者等同替换,而不脱离本技术方案的宗旨和范围, 均应涵盖在本发明的权利要求范围当中。

Claims (8)

1. 一种自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板,它包括由内至外依次设置的混凝土结构层(5)、保 温层和饰面层,其特征在于,所述饰面层是硬质薄板(1),硬质薄板(1)的背面均嵌有至少一 个内锚固件(2),所述内锚固件(2)包括中部具有空腔(24)的预埋框(21),在预埋框(21)宽 度方向的一侧设有向硬质薄板(1)背面方向凸出并嵌入硬质薄板(1)内的饰面卡板(23);在 每个内锚固件(2)的空腔(24)内均插接有一个外锚固件(3),所述外锚固件(3)呈工字型或 丁字形,由横向挡板(31)和固定在横向挡板(31)中部的竖向连接板(32)组成,外锚固件⑶ 带有横向挡板(31)的一端插入预埋框(21)的空腔(24)内,竖向连接板(32)置于保温层内并 穿过保温层与混凝土结构层(5)固定或者穿过保温层与钢筋网架或钢筋笼直接连接。
2. 根据权利要求1所述的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板,其特征在于,所述预埋框(21)呈 倒置的U形,且两侧侧边均向内折弯,所述折弯部分的板材呈水平状态或末端向上倾斜,形 成阻挡外锚固件(3)中横向挡板(31)脱落的挡板;在预埋框(21)两侧侧边之间具有一个供 外锚固件(3)中竖向连接板(32)插入的插入口(22),所述插入口(22)大于坚向连接板(32) 的板厚。
3.根据权利要求2所述的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板,其特征在于,所述外锚固件(3) 中竖向连接板(32)伸出保温层外的长度不小于25mm;在每个内锚固件(2)上均设有两个饰 面卡板(23),两个饰面卡板(2¾分别对称设置在预埋框(21)左右两侧的侧边上,且饰面卡 板(23)倾斜设置,饰面卡板(23)与预埋框(21)上表面之间的夹角为45〜60。,饰面卡板(23) 的凸出高度大于等于4mm。
4.根据权利要求1或2或3所述的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板,其特征在于,所述保温层 可以是发泡水泥保温板、硬泡聚氨酯保温板、挤塑聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料板、模塑聚苯乙烯泡沫 塑料板、岩棉板、泡沫陶瓷板、泡沫玻璃板、玻化微珠无机保温板、石墨聚苯板或热固性改性 聚苯板、真空绝热板制作,也可以是在发泡水泥保温板、硬泡聚氨酯保温板、挤塑聚苯乙烯 泡沫塑料板、模塑聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料板、岩棉板、泡沫陶瓷板、泡沫玻璃、玻化微珠无机保温 板、石墨聚苯板或热固性改性聚苯板、真空绝热板上下表面进行纤维增强制作而成的纤维 增强保温板。
5.根据权利要求1或2或3所述的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板,其特征在于,所述硬质薄 板(1)为天然花岗石薄板或陶瓷薄板,且硬质薄板(1)的厚度不小于7〇1111;在每块硬质薄板 (1)背面均开设有至少两个用于嵌入饰面卡板(23)的燕尾槽a 1),所述燕尾槽a D的深度 不小于4mm,燕尾槽(11)槽底到硬质薄板⑴正面的壁厚不小于3_。
6.—种自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板的反打制备工艺,所述装配式墙体结构如权丨所述, 其特征在于,装配式墙体的反打工艺包括如下步骤:步骤i,在工厂预制饰面层为硬质薄板 (1)且背面嵌有至少1个如权5所述的内锚固件(2)的保温装饰一体板;步骤2,在钢平台上固 定模板,所述模板为一个封闭的框状,模板的外形与设计墙板形状一致;步骤3,将多块步骤 2中的保温装饰一体板逐个反铺在钢平台上;步骤4,并在每个内锚固件(2)上装配一个如权 4所述的外锚固件(3);步骤5,用发泡材料填满相邻保温装饰一体板之间的所有板缝;步骤 6,将预制好的钢筋网架或钢筋笼按设计要求安装固定在保温装饰一体板上面,或直接在已 铺好的保温装饰一体板上面绑扎钢筋网架或钢筋笼;步骤7,在钢筋网架或钢筋笼上固定装 配式墙板用的部件;步骤8,向模板内浇注混凝土并振捣,将混凝土表面抹平,形成混凝土结 构层(5);步骤9,养护;步骤10,脱模;步骤u、板缝密封防水处理,并将装配式墙体起吊后按 照设计要求进行组合安装。
7.根据权利要求6所述的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板的反打制备工艺,其特征在于,所 述保温装饰一体板的保温层设有玻璃纤维增强层。 A
8.根据权利要求6所述的自锚固保温装饰装配式墙板的反打制备工艺,其特征在于,步 骤2中预制保温装饰一体板的具体制作方法如下:1)、准备长宽相同的保温板(4)和硬质薄 板(1),并在硬质薄板(1)背面的内锚固件安装位置处开设燕尾槽(11),以及在保温板的锚 固件相应安装位置切割安装口(41) ;2)、在每个燕尾槽(11)内填充锚固胶,并在燕尾槽(11) 处安装内锚固件(2),安装时,将内锚固件(2)的两个饰面卡板(23)插入燕尾槽(11)内即可; 3) 、在装有内锚固件(2)的硬质薄板a)背面涂刷一层柔性无机粘结剂,然后再将保温板(4) 粘贴到硬质薄板(1)背面,粘贴时,应将安装口(41)与内锚固件(2)的预埋框(21) —一对应; 4) 、将所有粘贴完保温板(4)的保温装饰一体板堆叠后施压,使保温装饰一体板连接结构更 为牢固。
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