CN107718842A - 基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材及其制备方法 - Google Patents

基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材及其制备方法 Download PDF

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CN107718842A
CN107718842A CN201711043765.3A CN201711043765A CN107718842A CN 107718842 A CN107718842 A CN 107718842A CN 201711043765 A CN201711043765 A CN 201711043765A CN 107718842 A CN107718842 A CN 107718842A
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graphene
matrix
fretting map
nonmetallic tailings
science
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CN107718842B (zh
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黄聿新
黄昭烨
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Guangxi Xu Teng Industry Group Co Ltd
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Guangxi Xu Teng Industry Group Co Ltd
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    • C08L2205/00Polymer mixtures characterised by other features
    • C08L2205/14Polymer mixtures characterised by other features containing polymeric additives characterised by shape
    • C08L2205/16Fibres; Fibrils

Abstract

本发明公开了基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,包括位于中间的中间基体基体微发泡材料面层与分别压制在所述的中间基体基体微发泡材料面层相对两端面的科技木饰面材料面层和耐火饰面板材料面层;中间基体基体微发泡材料包括以下原料:轻质碳酸钙、石墨烯、膨胀蛭石、非金属尾矿、环氧树脂、硅灰石、阻燃母料、α‑型脱硫半水石膏、β‑型脱硫半水石膏、抗氧化剂和胶凝剂。本发明还公开了基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法。本发明制成的成品潮防效果好,不含甲苯和甲醛等有毒物质,绿色环保和使用寿命长,具有显著的抗老化霉变、保温隔热、防火、防水和轻质高强等性能,能在低温环境中具有良好的机械性能。

Description

基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材及其制备方法
【技术领域】
本发明涉及绿色环保的轻质多功能科技木装饰材料领域,特别涉及基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材及其制备方法。
【背景技术】
我国是世界上木材资源短缺的国家,据资料显示,我国人均木材消耗量为0.22m3,世界平均为0.65m3,发达国家平均为1.16m3,2010年木材供应缺口将达6000万m3。面对严峻形势和我国林业政策的调整,木材供应不足的局面将继续,寻找代木资源势在必行。植物纤维诸如秸秆、甘蔗、锯末等是自然界中最为丰富而且可以再生的生物质资源。比较有代表性的植物纤维资源化技术方案包括:人造木材(纤维板、刨花板、层板)和造纸,目前国内生产的各种人造木材主要有三种类型:一是以热固性聚合物如脲醛树脂、酚醛树脂为粘接剂的人造木材;二是以水泥、石膏、菱镁土为粘接剂的刨花板;三是以热塑性聚合物如聚乙烯、聚氯乙烯为代表的木塑材料。
很多人在装修时都喜欢使用木地板和木质装饰品,而木质材料在入住三五年后,一旦受潮,便会开始腐烂,使用寿命短、不妨火、不防水、不耐腐蚀、虫蛀(特别是白蚁灾害)。越来越多的人开始选用由科技木材制作的木塑产品。科技木材,是以木屑等初级生物质材料为主原料,利用高分子界面化学原理和塑料填充改性的特点,配混一定比例的塑料基料,经特殊工艺处理后加工成型的一种可逆性循环利用的基础性材料。其中木质材料包括木屑、刨花、竹屑、麦秸谷糠、椰壳、甘蔗渣和花生壳等。科技木材的适用范围广泛,几乎可涵盖所有原木、塑料、塑钢、铝合金等材料的使用领域,而且科技木材可回收利用,可提高经济效益,减少环境污染等具有积极的影响,具有广阔的市场前景。目前大多数科技木材虽然具有一定的防潮、防虫的功能,但是一但发生火灾会产生大量有毒烟气,对人体造成伤害,对环境污染破坏大,且在低温环境中的力学性能变化过大,无法在低温环境中使用,使用范围过窄。且现行的科技木材产品结构、功能单一,需要研究出更多的应用结构,以满足不同用户的不同需求。
石墨烯是一种由单层碳原子组成的平面二维结构,碳原子4个价电子中的3个以sp2杂化的形式与最近邻三个碳原子形成平面正六边形连接的蜂巢结构,另一个垂直于碳原子平面的σz轨道电子在晶格平面两侧如苯环一样形成高度巡游的大π键。这种二元化的电子价键结构决定了石墨烯独特而丰富的性能:sp2键有高的强度和稳定性,这使其组成的平面六角晶格有极高的强度、延展性和稳定性。滕朝阳(中国优秀硕士论文,FRP废渣/秸秆纤维木塑复合材料的制备与研究,2016)先采用氢氧化钠溶液处理秸秆纤维,然后添加石墨烯,以提高秸秆纤维与PVC树脂的界面粘结性,进而提高复合材料的机械性能、耐热性能和防水性能。缺点:氢氧化钠处理容易使木质纤维降解,破话木质纤维的结构,影响复合材料的机械性能。王长明等(高等学校化学学报,2010,31(6)、1252-1256)采用超临界二氧化碳制备超高分子量聚乙烯多孔微球,利用超临界二氧化碳的发泡技术,使聚乙烯微球的表面形成表面多孔、内部中空的结构。缺点:只研究超临界处理下人工合成塑料的结构状态的改变,未能研究与塑料结构根本不同的木质纤维经过超临界处理后的的结构状态的改变。上述研究均没有解决在低温条件下微发泡科技木材的力学性能急剧降低、阻燃性和防水防霉性差的问题。因此,研究一种能够在低温条件下具有良好力学性能、阻燃性能好、防水防霉性高的科技木材,对于拓展科技木材的使用范围具有深远的研究意义。
【发明内容】
为解决上述问题,本发明目的在于提供一种能够在低温条件下具有良好力学性能、阻燃性能好、防水防霉性高的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材及其制备方法。本发明制备而成的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材潮防效果好,不含甲苯和甲醛等有毒物质,更加绿色环保,使用寿命长,具有显著的抗老化霉变、保温隔热、隔音、防火、防水和轻质高强等性能,在安装过程中可锯、可刨、组合安装快速便捷,便于设计及安装,并且能够在低温环境中具有良好的机械性能。
为达到上述目的,本发明所采用的技术方案是:基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,包括位于中间的中间基体基体微发泡材料面层与分别压制在所述的中间基体基体微发泡材料面层相对两端面的科技木饰面材料面层和耐火饰面板材料面层;
所述的中间基体基体微发泡材料按重量百分比计包括以下原料:轻质碳酸钙25-70%、石墨烯0.05-15%、膨胀蛭石0.05-5%、非金属尾矿1-25%、环氧树脂10-30%、硅灰石0-10%、阻燃母料2-6%、α-型脱硫半水石膏0-10%、β-型脱硫半水石膏0-30%、抗氧化剂0.05-5%、憎水剂1-3%和胶凝剂0.05-5%;
所述的科技木饰面材料按重量百分比计包括以下原料:木质植物纤维材料10-30%、无机纤维20-50%、粘结剂5-30%、石墨烯0.05-15%、氧化镁0.05-15%、刚玉粉0.05-10%、硅灰石0.05-10%、抗氧化剂0.05-5%、憎水剂1-3%、增光剂0.05-5%、增固剂0.05-5%、胶凝剂0.05-10%、钙锌稳定剂0.05-5%、光稳定剂0.05-5%、硅烷偶联剂0.05-5%和色料0.05-5%;
所述的阻燃母料按重量百分比计,包括以下原料:三氧化二锑10-25%、氢氧化镁0.05-10%、氢氧化铝0.05-10%、二氧化硅1-25%、玻璃纤维5-30%、聚乙烯蜡1-6%、高压聚乙烯25-55%和石墨烯0.05-5%。
在本发明中,作为进一步说明,所述的非金属尾矿为大理岩尾矿、长石尾矿、石英尾矿、砂岩尾矿、玄武岩尾矿、辉绿岩尾矿、页岩尾矿、石灰岩尾矿和粉煤灰中的任意一种或多种。
在本发明中,作为进一步说明,所述的粘结剂为酚醛树脂、热熔胶粘剂、环氧树脂、橡胶粘结剂、耐冲击性高强度快固化含有机硅氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂、耐水性氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂与具有耐热性和耐水性的α-氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂中的任意一种或多种。
在本发明中,作为进一步说明,所述的胶凝剂为明胶、卡拉胶、黄原胶、海藻酸钠、琼脂和魔芋粉中的任意一种或多种。
在本发明中,作为进一步说明,所述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为5-8MHz、压强为25-40Pa和氮气气体流速为25-35mL/s的条件下处理25-40s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨10-900分钟,过250-500目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合10-300分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为250-450℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为35-70MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌5-10min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料10-600分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为35-70MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至50-80℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
优选地,所述科技木材规格尺寸为:长1220-2440mm、宽400-1220mm、厚5-50mm。
部分原料的功能介绍如下:
轻质碳酸钙,在本发明中用作填料,为制备中间基体基体微发泡材料的主体材料,可降低原料的中间基体基体微发泡材料的重量。
阻燃母料,阻燃母料具有优良阻燃效果,能有效阻止有机粘结剂受高温、明火加热燃烧。
环氧树脂,环氧树脂具有优良的物理机械性能、电绝缘性能、耐药品性能和粘结性能,在本发明中用作和其它物料粘结而成网状结构高聚物。
憎水剂,在本发明中使材料具有防水、抗渗和防潮的作用。
硅灰石、非金属尾矿、α-型脱硫半水石膏和β-型脱硫半水石膏,在本发明中用作制备中间基体基体微发泡材料,使材料具有质轻、高强度和微发泡的性能。
木质植物纤维材料,在本发明中为制备科技木饰面材料的主体材料。
氧化镁和膨胀蛭石,在本发明中用作提高管材的绝缘隔热性、耐高温性和耐磨性。
本发明具有以下有益效果:
1.本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材中的中间基体基体微发泡材料和科技木饰面材料均含有石墨烯,一方面中间基体基体微发泡材料通过石墨烯高比表面积、高吸附力的作用,使石墨烯与环氧树脂形成三维网状立体结构,从而将轻质碳酸钙、膨胀蛭石、非金属尾矿、硅灰石和石膏牢固地包覆在其中,增强了各个原料之间的作用力,即使在低温条件下也能保持该立体结构,从而降低了中间基体基体微发泡材料力学性能的变化程度,避免了中间基体基体微发泡材料在低温条件下容易脆裂的现象的发生。另一方面,科技木饰面材料通过石墨烯的二维片层结构,加强石墨烯和粘结剂之间的相互作用,吸附了大量的氧化镁、刚玉粉和硅灰石等原材料,然后均匀穿插于木质植物纤维材料的结构,形成致密的物理隔绝层,提高科技木饰面材料的阻燃性、防水抗渗、防霉性,同时提高科技木饰面材料中各原料紧密结合,维持科技木饰面材料在极端条件下的力学性能,进而提高使用寿命。
2.本发明能够将石墨烯高效分散在木质植物纤维材料中,为后续的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备提供前提条件。本发明将木质植物纤维材料通入超临界二氧化碳气体,利用超临界二氧化碳临界流体的性质,使石墨烯跟随二氧化碳气体的扩散而高速流动,最终进入木质植物纤维材料的内部结构中,提高石墨烯和木质植物纤维材料的相容性。
3.本发明采用以氮气为等离子气体来源的等离子处理石墨烯和非金属尾矿的混合物,利用氮气等离子气体的高速轰击,其一可以使石墨烯能够均匀嵌置于非金属尾矿中,避免了石墨烯分散不均匀、团聚现象的发生;其二,非金属尾矿在等离子气体的不断轰击下形成凹凸不平的表面和凹洞,为后续的基体微发泡材料的制备提供前提条件。
4.本发明所采用的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法能够科学设计、使不同的结构物质紧密结合,提高成品的力学性能和阻燃性。本发明先采用在材料进行微发泡处理后,使材料的内部结构形成泡孔结构,可钝化裂纹尖端,提高阻燃能力,还可克服材料脆性大、延展性差和抗冲击性低的缺点,降低材料的密度。然后本发明通过在中间基体基体微发泡材料的两端面分别压制科技木饰面材料和耐火饰面板材料后,先急速冷却冷却至50-80℃、后通过自然冷却的二次冷却技术手段;急速冷却能够使石墨烯结构中的碳原子在原材料的表面渗出,形成一层薄膜,进一步增加了石墨烯与各个原材料的接触面积,提高材料的力学性能;自然冷却能够使在急速冷却过程中生成的不稳定结构得到进一步巩固,保持了材料性能的稳定。本发明所采用的微发泡结构和二次冷却技术手段能够做到相互配合、相互促进,共同提高材料阻燃性能,所产生的效果远远高于单个技术手段所产生的效果的简单加和。
5.本发明其产品具有防潮防虫效果好,不含甲苯、甲醛等有毒物质,更加绿色环保,使用寿命长特点,还有显著的抗老化霉变、保温隔热、隔音、防火、防水、抗渗、轻质高强等性能,并且具有良好的机械加工异形性能,可钉、可锯、可刨、组合安装快速便捷、强度可靠、整洁美观,便于设计及安装。
6.本发明所采用的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,解决了国内现有的木材资源紧俏现状,能够充分合理、绿色利用木材资源,极大限度地满足市场对科技木材异型加工个性化设计要求,解决木塑制品带来的有毒物质威胁的弊端,提高产品性能,提高尾料的回收再利用率,还具有轻质、高强、防火、防水抗渗、抗霉变、抗腐蚀老化、安全绿色环保的优点,具有极大的发展前景。
【具体实施方式】
实施例1:
1.前期准备:
中间基体基体微发泡材料的配方:轻质碳酸钙25kg、石墨烯15kg、膨胀蛭石1kg、阻燃母料2kg、大理岩尾矿1kg、环氧树脂30kg、硅灰石10kg、α-型脱硫半水石膏10kg、β-型脱硫半水石膏3kg、抗氧化剂1kg、憎水剂1kg和明胶1kg。
科技木饰面材料的配方:木质植物纤维材料10kg、无机纤维24kg、酚醛树脂30kg、石墨烯15kg、氧化镁3kg、刚玉粉2kg、硅灰石10kg、抗氧化剂0.05kg、憎水剂1kg、增光剂0.05kg、增固剂0.05kg、明胶2kg、钙锌稳定剂1kg、光稳定剂0.85kg、硅烷偶联剂0.5kg和色料0.5kg;
阻燃母料的配方:三氧化二锑10kg、氢氧化镁0.05kg、氢氧化铝2kg、二氧化硅25kg、玻璃纤维5kg、聚乙烯蜡1kg、高压聚乙烯55kg和石墨烯1.95kg。
将上述所准备的物质用于下述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法中。
2.基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为5MHz、压强为25Pa和氮气气体流速为25mL/s的条件下处理25s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨10分钟,过250目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合10分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为250℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为35MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌5min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料10分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为35MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至50℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
科技木材规格尺寸为:长1220mm、宽400mm、厚5mm。
实施例2:
1.前期准备:
中间基体基体微发泡材料的配方:轻质碳酸钙40.9kg、石墨烯0.05kg、膨胀蛭石5kg、阻燃母料2kg、长石尾矿1kg、石英尾矿2kg、环氧树脂10kg、硅灰石1kg、α-型脱硫半水石膏1kg、β-型脱硫半水石膏30kg、抗氧化剂0.05kg、憎水剂2kg、卡拉胶2kg和黄原胶3kg。
科技木饰面材料的配方:木质植物纤维材料16kg、无机纤维23kg、热熔胶粘剂5kg、环氧树脂6kg、石墨烯0.05kg、氧化镁15kg、刚玉粉10kg、硅灰石5kg、抗氧化剂1kg、憎水剂2kg、增光剂3kg、增固剂1kg、卡拉胶1kg、黄原胶1kg、钙锌稳定剂3.9kg、光稳定剂0.05kg、硅烷偶联剂2kg和色料5kg。
阻燃母料的配方:三氧化二锑13kg、氢氧化镁5kg、氢氧化铝0.05kg、二氧化硅20kg、玻璃纤维11.95kg、聚乙烯蜡2kg、高压聚乙烯47kg和石墨烯1kg。
将上述所准备的物质用于下述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法中。
2.基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为6MHz、压强为28Pa和氮气气体流速为27mL/s的条件下处理30s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨100分钟,过300目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合100分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为300℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为50MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌7min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料100分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为50MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至60℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
科技木材规格尺寸为:长2000mm、宽1000mm、厚18mm。
实施例3:
1.前期准备:
中间基体基体微发泡材料的配方:轻质碳酸钙41kg、石墨烯5.95kg、膨胀蛭石1kg、阻燃母料3.95kg、砂岩尾矿13kg、玄武岩尾矿10kg、辉绿岩尾矿2kg、环氧树脂12kg、硅灰石0.05kg、α-型脱硫半水石膏6kg、抗氧化剂2kg、憎水剂3kg、海藻酸钠0.05kg。
科技木饰面材料的配方:木质植物纤维材料12kg、无机纤维36kg、橡胶粘结剂2kg、耐冲击性高强度快固化含有机硅氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂3kg、石墨烯6kg、氧化镁4kg、刚玉粉0.05kg、硅灰石7kg、抗氧化剂2kg、憎水剂2kg、增光剂5kg、增固剂2kg、海藻酸钠1kg、琼脂7kg、魔芋粉2kg、钙锌稳定剂5kg、光稳定剂2.9kg、硅烷偶联剂0.05kg和色料1kg。
阻燃母料的配方:三氧化二锑16kg、氢氧化镁3kg、氢氧化铝10kg、二氧化硅15kg、玻璃纤维17.95kg、聚乙烯蜡4kg、石墨烯0.05kg和高压聚乙烯34kg。
将上述所准备的物质用于下述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法中。
2.基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为7MHz、压强为35Pa和氮气气体流速为30mL/s的条件下处理33s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨500分钟,过400目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合200分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为400℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为45MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌9min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料300分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为60MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至70℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
科技木材规格尺寸为:长1500mm、宽800mm、厚20mm。
实施例4:
1.前期准备:
中间基体基体微发泡材料的配方:轻质碳酸钙53kg、石墨烯5kg、膨胀蛭石1kg、阻燃母料6kg、玄武岩尾矿5kg、辉绿岩尾矿3kg、页岩尾矿3kg、环氧树脂11kg、硅灰石4kg、β-型脱硫半水石膏1kg、抗氧化剂5kg、憎水剂2kg和琼脂1kg。
科技木饰面材料的配方:木质植物纤维材料10kg、无机纤维47kg、橡胶粘结剂1kg、耐冲击性高强度快固化含有机硅氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂3kg、耐水性氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂2kg、具有耐热性和耐水性的α-氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂1kg、石墨烯2kg、氧化镁2kg、刚玉粉3kg、硅灰石2kg、抗氧化剂5kg、憎水剂3kg、增光剂0.95kg、增固剂5kg、明胶0.5kg、卡拉胶1kg、琼脂1kg、钙锌稳定剂0.05kg、光稳定剂5kg、硅烷偶联剂5kg和色料0.5kg。
阻燃母料的配方:三氧化二锑20kg、氢氧化镁8kg、氢氧化铝6kg、二氧化硅8kg、玻璃纤维20kg、聚乙烯蜡6kg、高压聚乙烯30kg和石墨烯2kg。
将上述所准备的物质用于下述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法中。
2.基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为7MHz、压强为34Pa和氮气气体流速为29mL/s的条件下处理36s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨600分钟,过400目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合200分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为380℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为55MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌6min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料300分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为52MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至65℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
科技木材规格尺寸为:长1400mm、宽1000mm、厚12mm。
实施例5:
1.前期准备:
中间基体基体微发泡材料的配方:轻质碳酸钙70kg、石墨烯1kg、膨胀蛭石0.05kg、阻燃母料5kg、石灰岩尾矿3kg、粉煤灰2kg、环氧树脂10kg、硅灰石1kg、α-型脱硫半水石膏1.05kg、β-型脱硫半水石膏1kg、抗氧化剂3kg、憎水剂2kg、明胶0.4kg和魔芋粉0.5kg。
科技木饰面材料的配方:木质植物纤维材料30kg、无机纤维50kg、耐水性氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂3kg、具有耐热性和耐水性的α-氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂4kg、石墨烯0.9kg、氧化镁0.05kg、刚玉粉1kg、硅灰石0.05kg、抗氧化剂1kg、憎水剂5kg、增光剂1kg、增固剂0.9kg、钙锌稳定剂1kg、光稳定剂1kg、硅烷偶联剂1.05kg和色料0.05kg。
阻燃母料的配方:三氧化二锑25kg、氢氧化镁10kg、氢氧化铝2kg、二氧化硅1kg、玻璃纤维30kg、聚乙烯蜡2kg、高压聚乙烯25kg和石墨烯5kg。
将上述所准备的物质用于下述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法中。
2.基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为8MHz、压强为40Pa和氮气气体流速为35mL/s的条件下处理40s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨900分钟,过500目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合300分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为450℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为70MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌10min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料600分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为70MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至80℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
科技木材规格尺寸为:长2440mm、宽1220mm、厚50mm。
试验1:
储能模量测试试验:按实施例1-5的方法制备步骤(1)中的石墨烯和非金属尾矿,压制成片,以不添加石墨烯的聚乙烯作为对照例1,石墨烯和聚乙烯采用简单混炼处理的预处理材料作为对照例2,应用动态热机械分析仪检测所有样品的动态储能模量:升温速率10℃/min、频率1Hz、升温区间为60~180℃。记录在100℃下样品的储能模量,结果见表1。
表1:
由表1可知:在相同的温度条件下,储能模量越高,说明样品的弹性越高,该样品的应力传递效果越好,界面相容性也就越好。本发明实施例制备的样品的储能模量远远高于对比例1和对比例2的储能模量,说明本发明对石墨烯和非金属尾矿的处理手段能够显著增强石墨烯和非金属尾矿的结合,提高石墨烯和非金属尾矿的相容性。
试验2:
力学性能测试:按实施例1-5的制备方法各制备10000g基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材样品,在用密封袋密封后,在20℃下进行抗弯测试,记录抗弯强度初始值和抗弯弹性模量初始值;然后在-196℃下液氮处理48h,之后在室温下保持24h后进行抗弯测试,记录抗弯强度末值和抗弯弹性模量末值,计算抗弯强度变化率和抗弯弹性模量变化率,以配方中不含有石墨烯的科技木材为对照例,在万能制样机上切割成性能测试所需的样条,具体步骤参照GB T 9341-2000,全部结果见表2。
表2:
由表2可知:初始抗弯强度的数值越高,说明样品的力学性能越好。实施例1-5样品的初始抗弯强度远远高于对照例,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够显著提高材料的力学性能;
初始抗弯弹性模量的数值越高,说明样品的力学性能越好。实施例1-5样品的初始抗弯弹性模量远远高于对照例,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够显著提高材料的力学性能;
抗弯强度变化率的数值越小,说明在低温环境中样品力学性能的变化程度越低,性能的保持程度越高;实施例1-5样品的抗弯强度变化率远远低于对照例,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够在低温环境中保持由于的力学性能;
抗弯弹性模量变化率的数值越小,说明在低温环境中样品力学性能的变化程度越低,性能的保持程度越高;实施例1-5样品的抗弯弹性模量变化率远远低于对照例,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够在低温环境中保持优异的力学性能。
试验3:
阻燃级别测试:按实施例1-5的制备方法各制备10000g基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材样品,以配方中不含有石墨烯的科技木材为对照例,采用垂直燃烧性能测试阻燃级别。垂直燃烧实验是评定材料燃烧等级的一种主要方法,与实际情况比较相符,且模拟性比较好,其中阻燃等级为HB、V-2、V-1和V-0逐级递减,V-0阻燃级别最高,阻燃性能最优。样品按照GB/T2918-1996割成样条,在温度25℃、相对湿度50±5%条件下分别调节48h,在垂直燃烧仪上做阻燃性能测试评估阻燃级别。全部结果见表3。
表3:
对照例 实施例1 实施例2 实施例3 实施例4 实施例5
阻燃级别 V-1 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0 V-0
由表3可知:阻燃级别中,V-0级别的阻燃性能高于V-1级别的阻燃性能,对比例1-5的阻燃级别为高于对照例的V-1级,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够显著提高材料的阻燃性。
试验4:
吸水性测试:按实施例1-5的制备方法各制备10000g基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材样品,以配方中不含有石墨烯的科技木材为对照例,按照GB/T 1934.1-2009进行测试,测试结果见表4。
表4:
对照例 实施例1 实施例2 实施例3 实施例4 实施例5
吸水率 2.51% 0.11% 0.15% 0.12% 0.11% 0.13%
由表4可知:吸水后的材料会导致材料变形、力学性能和防腐抗菌性能的下降,最终材料的使用寿命缩短,因此吸水率越低,材料的防水性越高。实施例1-5的吸水率远远低于对照例的吸水率,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够显著提高材料的防水性。
试验5:
表面接触角试验:按实施例1-5的制备方法各制备10000g基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材样品,以配方中不含有石墨烯的科技木材为对照例,使用接触角测量仪检测样品的接触角,测试结果见表5。
表5:
对照例 实施例1 实施例2 实施例3 实施例4 实施例5
接触角 73度 124度 128度 125度 122度 126度
由表5可知:接触角主要用于分析材料表面的润湿性。接触角越大,表明复合材料的表面疏水性越强。相反,接触角越小,表明复合材料表面的亲水性越强。实施例1-5的接触角远远低于对照例的接触角,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够显著提高材料的防水、抗渗性。
试验6:
防霉等级测试:按实施例1-5的制备方法各制备10000g基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材样品,以配方中不含有石墨烯的科技木材为对照例,参照ASTM G 21-2002标准进行试验,采用的菌种有黑曲菌、绳状青霉菌、绿霉菌和出芽霉菌,将样品放入霉菌老化试验箱中,该试验箱在28-30℃下培养真菌来检验材料的抗菌能力。人工抗菌试验的周期为28天,试验结束后取出样品,在灭菌设备中进行灭菌处理,霉变等级衡量指标见表6,检测结果见表7。
表6:
表7:
对照例 实施例1 实施例2 实施例3 实施例4 实施例5
防霉级数 3级 0级 0级 0级 0级 0级
由表7可知:防霉级数越低,说明样品的防霉效果越好。实施例1-5的防霉级别均为0级,远远低于对照例的级数,说明本发明所制备的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材能够显著提高科技木材的防霉性。
上述说明是针对本发明较佳可行实施例的详细说明,但实施例并非用以限定本发明的专利申请范围,凡本发明所提示的技术精神下所完成的同等变化或修饰变更,均应属于本发明所涵盖专利范围。

Claims (5)

1.基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,其特征在于:包括位于中间的中间基体基体微发泡材料面层与分别压制在所述的中间基体基体微发泡材料面层相对两端面的科技木饰面材料面层和耐火饰面板材料面层;
所述的中间基体基体微发泡材料按重量百分比计包括以下原料:轻质碳酸钙25-70%、石墨烯0.05-15%、膨胀蛭石0.05-5%、非金属尾矿1-25%、环氧树脂10-30%、硅灰石0-10%、阻燃母料2-6%、α-型脱硫半水石膏0-10%、β-型脱硫半水石膏0-30%、抗氧化剂0.05-5%、憎水剂1-3%和胶凝剂0.05-5%;
所述的科技木饰面材料按重量百分比计包括以下原料:木质植物纤维材料10-30%、无机纤维20-50%、粘结剂5-30%、石墨烯0.05-15%、氧化镁0.05-15%、刚玉粉0.05-10%、硅灰石0.05-10%、抗氧化剂0.05-5%、憎水剂1-3%、增光剂0.05-5%、增固剂0.05-5%、胶凝剂0.05-10%、钙锌稳定剂0.05-5%、光稳定剂0.05-5%、硅烷偶联剂0.05-5%和色料0.05-5%;
所述的阻燃母料按重量百分比计,包括以下原料:三氧化二锑10-25%、氢氧化镁0.05-10%、氢氧化铝0.05-10%、二氧化硅1-25%、玻璃纤维5-30%、聚乙烯蜡1-6%、高压聚乙烯25-55%和石墨烯0.05-5%。
2.根据权利要求1所述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,其特征在于:所述的非金属尾矿为大理岩尾矿、长石尾矿、石英尾矿、砂岩尾矿、玄武岩尾矿、辉绿岩尾矿、页岩尾矿、石灰岩尾矿和粉煤灰中的任意一种或多种。
3.根据权利要求1所述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,其特征在于:所述的粘结剂为酚醛树脂、热熔胶粘剂、环氧树脂、橡胶粘结剂、耐冲击性高强度快固化含有机硅氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂、耐水性氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂与具有耐热性和耐水性的α-氰基丙烯酸酯粘结剂中的任意一种或多种。
4.根据权利要求1所述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材,其特征在于:所述的胶凝剂为明胶、卡拉胶、黄原胶、海藻酸钠、琼脂和魔芋粉中的任意一种或多种。
5.根据权利要求1-4任意一项所述的基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材的制备方法,其特征在于:包括以下步骤:
(1)中间基体基体微发泡材料的制备:按中间基体基体微发泡材料配方准确称重石墨烯和非金属尾矿,混合均匀后,放入等离子体处理仪中,在等离子放电频率为5-8MHz、压强为25-40Pa和氮气气体流速为25-35mL/s的条件下处理25-40s,加入中间基体基体微发泡材料配方的剩余材料,用磨机混料研磨10-900分钟,过250-500目筛,然后进入高速旋转混合机混合10-300分钟,混合均化完全后,通过挤出设备,在温度为250-450℃、挤出速度为200r/min、压模压力为35-70MPa的条件下进行加热微发泡,最后放入储蓄仓备用,得到混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料;
(2)科技木饰面材料的制备:按科技木饰面材料配方准确称重木质植物纤维材料和石墨烯,放入高压反应釜中,升温至31℃,然后通入二氧化碳气体,使高压反应釜的压力达72.9MPa,启动搅拌装置,以200r/min的速度进行搅拌5-10min后,加入科技木饰面材料配方的剩余材料,然后通过搅拌机搅拌混料10-600分钟,混合均化完全后,压制成型备用;
(3)压模成形:将混合均化完全的基体微发泡材料通过挤出机挤出成型,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的顶面以压力为35-70MPa的条件压制一层科技木饰面材料,在挤出成型后的基体微发泡材料的底面恒压压制一层耐火饰面板材料,随后送到急冷装置中极冷至50-80℃,得到冷冻后的压模成性材料;
(4)自然冷却:将冷冻后的压模成性材料输送到自然冷却养护环境中进行冷却,得到基于石墨烯与非金属尾矿微发泡科技木板材成品。
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