CN107466754A - A kind of stereo ecological breeding method that rice loach vegetables combine - Google Patents

A kind of stereo ecological breeding method that rice loach vegetables combine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107466754A
CN107466754A CN201710671680.3A CN201710671680A CN107466754A CN 107466754 A CN107466754 A CN 107466754A CN 201710671680 A CN201710671680 A CN 201710671680A CN 107466754 A CN107466754 A CN 107466754A
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rice
breeding
loach
water
ditch
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陈小东
姚祥坦
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ZHEJIANG JIAXING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Zhejiang Sanyang Modern Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltd
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ZHEJIANG JIAXING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Zhejiang Sanyang Modern Agricultural Science And Technology Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of stereo ecological breeding method that rice loach vegetables combine, comprise the following steps:(1) field is transformed;(2) Rice Cropping and cultivation management;(3) melon of shutting out is planted:In the April of First Year, Du's melon seedling is planted on the outside ridge for ditch of breeding fish, Cultivate administration is carried out to Du's melon;(4) water caltrop is planted:In the May of First Year, water chestnut seedling is planted in ditch of breeding fish, Cultivate administration is carried out to water caltrop;(5) loach breeding:Every year before rice transplanting, put in a suitable place to breed in loach seedlings to the ditch of breeding fish and cultivated.The present invention is on the basis of original rice loach symbiosis breeding combines successfully, pass through the optimization of the layout to ditch of breeding fish, rice cropping mode etc., effectively improve the production efficiency of rice loach symbiosis, simultaneously, make full use of the space of breed fish ditch and field bank, the plantation such as aquatic vegetable is carried out, the output of unit area is greatly improved, the more preferable development of rice loach zoology breeding pattern can be effectively facilitated.

Description

The stereo ecological breeding method that a kind of rice-loach-vegetables combine
Technical field
The present invention relates to zoology breeding technical field, more particularly to the stereo ecological kind that a kind of rice-loach-vegetables combine The method of supporting.
Background technology
In recent years, with the increasingly quickening of urbanization process, China farmland gross area is in constantly reduction and shrink; At the same time, promote with the work of Rural Land Circulation, increase year by year and grain totally plantation in land transformation Contract cost In the case that benefit is low, the increasing soil that circulates is used to the of a relatively high industrial crops of productivity effect, thus have ignored The importance of grain security.
In addition, the extensive utilization with state-of-the-art technology in agricultural production, the mechanization of agricultural production, professional level The chemical agent such as more and more higher, chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, ripener largely uses in agricultural production.Although this promotees to a certain extent Entered the volume increase of grain, peasant increases income, but being excessively used for medicament not only make it that land fertility is more and more lower, and also results in Residual of the medicament in soil, makes farm environment heavily contaminated, is finally transported to agricultural product industrial chain terminal, causes agriculture The quality safety risk of product, so as to jeopardize the health of the mankind.
Under such severe situation, how Civilization of Eco-farm is built, greatly develop and meet peasant and national interests Recycling economy, promote ecological environment and agricultural production coordinated development on the premise of Ensuring Food Safety, turn into agricultural development Direction and outlet.
There are some researches show rice field synthesis breeding, which just progressively turns into, has " steady grain, promoting fishing, synergy, upgrading, ecology " etc. more The modern agricultural development new model of aspect function, it is with regard to a kind of sustainable agricultural development direction.Pass through rice and aquatic products Harmonic growth, specification agricultural chemicals uses so that the security of agricultural product is significantly increased and improved, and water The interaction and complementation of rice and aquatile utilize resource so that Rice Production system becomes more " clean ", and agricultural is raw The risk and pressure for producing pollution of area source are constantly alleviated, while the greenhouse gas emissions of paddy ecosystem also have larger amplitude The reduction of degree, so that rice and the rice field breeding binding pattern of aquatile symbiosis increasingly attract attention.
With China's policy for transferring rural land it is continuous clearly, agriculture industrialization paces accelerate, rice field scale management into To be possible, the steady grain synergistic function of rice field synthesis breeding has obtained the attention of various regions.Various regions combine one after another it is actual, explore rice~ New model and the new technologies such as fish, rice~crab, rice~shrimp, the rice~frog, rice~loach, and emerge it is large quantities of using extraordinary economic kind as It is leading, the thousand mu even ten thousand mu rice field synthesis breedings in flakes characterized by standardized production, scale exploitation, industrialization management Typical case, significant economic, society, ecological benefits are achieved, have obtained the great attention of various regions government and the active response of peasant.
Rice loach breeding binding pattern is one of breeding binding pattern that China's rice region is promoted mainly in recent years, there are some researches show, Loach is supported using rice field and makes full use of Ecological Environment of Paddy Field, has not only planted rice but also breeding loach, " rice protects loach, and loach eats bait, loach for formation The artificial production food chain in muck field ", can largely reduce the administration of the chemical agents such as agricultural chemicals, chemical fertilizer, while loach is made in field Into circulating for current, degradation even more is served to the chemical fertilizer remained in rice field, ecosystem energy is improved and turns Rate and material conversion ratio are changed, system sustainability is good, effectively protects agroecological environment so that the agricultural product of rice field output It is comparatively safe, it is a kind of typical ecological agricultural model.
But need in recent years it has also been found that certain technical problem also be present in the evolution of rice loach zoology breeding pattern Solve.
First, in breeding process, because the cultivation of loach causes during paddy growth to the requirement of agricultural chemicals more Strictly, the preventing and treating to late growth stage of rice pest and disease damage is tended not to well in place, so as to cause the rice yield underproduction.Secondly, In current rice loach zoology breeding pattern, because loach is breeded fish setting of ditch etc., big machinery is not only caused to be difficult to go to the field, together When also result in 15-20% or so land resource waste.
Therefore, it is necessary to probe into new zoology breeding again to solve the above problems, land resources utilization efficiency is improved.
The content of the invention
The invention provides the stereo ecological breeding method that a kind of rice-loach-vegetables combine, this method is entered using rice field While row rice loach symbiosis, make full use of loach breed fish ditch space plantation Mineral elements, utilize on the outside of ditch of breeding fish field bank plantation Du Melon, a set of foster loach under water of formation, water surface planting rice, Mineral elements, on the bank and the stereo ecological of Du's melon is planted in cultivation ditch top Breeding method;And loach feeding rice grub is utilized, Mineral elements purification loach breeding water body, the synthesis such as melon vine sunshading and temperature reducing of shutting out Ecological Measures, rice, loach, dish three are reached and have had a good harvest, overall economic efficiency is obvious.
Concrete technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
The stereo ecological breeding method that a kind of rice-loach-vegetables combine, including:
(1) field is transformed:Rice field is selected, two circle ridges are set in the periphery of rice field, is respectively inner side ridge With outside ridge, the ditch of breeding fish for breeding loach is dug out between two circle ridges, it is Rice Cropping that inner side ridge, which encloses region, Area;
(2) Rice Cropping and cultivation management:Annual early and middle ten dayses in June, rice seedling is transplanted to the paddy fields It is interior, rich water quality management and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control management are carried out to rice, until the ripe harvest of rice;
(3) melon of shutting out is planted:In the April of First Year, Du's melon seedling is planted on the outside ridge for ditch of breeding fish, melon to be shut out is stretched After climing, in the top built draws climing for ditch of breeding fish;It is later annual to carry out draws climing, and Cultivate administration is carried out to Du's melon;
(4) water caltrop is planted:In the May of First Year, water chestnut seedling is planted in ditch of breeding fish, Second Year starts to be dropped by the previous year Old water chestnut freely sprout to form new water caltrop, every year to water caltrop carry out Cultivate administration;
(5) loach breeding:Every year before rice transplanting, put in a suitable place to breed in loach seedlings to the ditch of breeding fish and cultivated.
In step (1), the rice field is the fertile clay or loam of soil property, be with plough sole, moisture holding capacity it is strong, no Backwater, impermeable field;The field periphery does not have disposal of pollutants enterprise, and irrigation water water quality meets the requirement of non-nuisance. Preferably, the area of the rice field is 3~5 mu;The area of ditch of breeding fish accounts for the 10~15% of rice field area.
Soil is the first element for carrying out agricultural production, and water is to carry out rice loach colza to support with reference to one of principal element, is carried out Rice loach dish stereo ecological breeding binding pattern, requires that breeding and planting region totality ecological environment will reach non-polluted farm product first The requirement of production, meanwhile, rice, Mineral elements plantation and loach breeding be required to enough moisture, therefore, water source of the present invention with Preferably, the indices of source quality meet Ministry of Agriculture's professional standard for river pollution-free, dissolved oxygen amount is higher or lake water《Without public affairs Evil food aquiculture fresh water water quality》Middle relevant regulations.
Preferably, the height of the inner side ridge is 0.2~0.3m, the height of outside ridge is 0.5~0.6m;It is described The top width of ditch of breeding fish is 1.5~1.8m, and bottom width is 1.0~1.2m, and depth is 1.3~1.5m.
Preferably, the inner side ridge, outside ridge and the inwall for ditch of breeding fish and bottom are equipped with impermeable film, It can prevent paddy fields and the water breeded fish in ditch from being oozed out by ridge, and prevent loach from being escaped from by ridge;The outside The periphery of ridge is provided with loach anti-escape network, for preventing loach from being escaped from by ridge.It is further preferred that the impermeable film is PEP profits Obtain film.
Breeded fish ditch and Rice Cropping for connection preferably, opening up one at interval of 15~25m on the inner side ridge The breach in area.
Preferably, the top of the rice field and surrounding are equipped with bird prevention net, for preventing birds to loach and rice The harm of paddy.
Preferably, the side of the rice field is also provided with the passage for connecting adjacent field and passing through for harvesting machinery.
Adjacent field is connected by the passage, can realize mechanized harvest;Tractor, rice transplanter, harvester etc. Big machinery can normally pass in and out while in the pre-buried hidden pipe in connection position so that the fish ditch-water physical efficiency that each rice loach symbiosis breeding combines Circulation, so as to which on the premise of normal loach breeding is ensured, Rice Production can realize that entire mechanization operates, so as to significantly Reduce the more awkward drawback of Rice Cropping big machinery in Traditional Rice loach breeding combination system.
In step (2), rice is sowed in mid or late May, early and middle ten dayses transplanting in June.Preferably, the rice seedlings Transplanted using width row mode, wherein, wide row is away from for 40cm, and narrow row is away from for 20cm, spacing in the rows 18cm.
2 DEG C of water temperature, 1 DEG C of ground temperature can be improved by carrying out Rice Cropping using above-mentioned width row mode, make rice effective tillering Phase postpones 10 days, and the effective tillering of individual plant highest saves kind, saving of labor, high yield up to 70 fringes, average grain number per spike up to 150, can every mu of saving Recruitment 30%.
Preferably, the kind of the rice is elegant water 134 or elegant water 121.
Further, the fertilizer management of rice includes:Using rape cake, sheep manure, rabbit excrement organic mixed fertilizer as base manure and Top dressing, it is administered in transplanting the previous day, amount of application is weight 200~250,000 gram/acre of giving money as a gift;Again in early July and the last ten-days period, point Top dressing twice, respectively the traditional organic fertilizer of administration is given money as a gift and weighs 30-50kg/ mus every time.
The not spraying pesticide during paddy growth, using green prevention and control technology.
Specifically, the insect pest preventing and controlling of rice include:
A) put trichogramma in a suitable place to breed to field in annual 8, September part, for preventing and treating snout moth's larva class insect pest, put in a suitable place to breed every time 25000/ Mu, puts number in a suitable place to breed depending on insect pest situation;Put in a suitable place to breed every time in continuous 4~5 days fine days and in the case of scraping southeaster, It is placed on uptake to put in a suitable place to breed, is advantageous to the diffusion mobility of cute conjunctivitis cutting edge of a knife or a sword, honeybee efficiency is put in raising;
B) since annual July, yellow plate is plugged in field, for preventing and treating rice lice class insect pest, every mu of yellow plate 40 of insertion~ 50 pieces, in good time yellow plate is carried out according to enrichment degree of the insect on yellow plate and substituted, until the ripe harvest of rice;
C) trapper equipped with gyplure is hung in field, for preventing and treating snout moth's larva class insect pest, every mu is hung 5~6;
D) solar deinsectization lamp is installed in field, deinsectization lamp is installed by 1/10 mu standards, pays attention to putting the trichogramma phase in a suitable place to breed Between close deinsectization lamp.
In step (3), preferably, the plantation spacing of Du's melon is 1.5~2 meters, 1 plant of hero is planted every 10 plants of female plants Strain.Melon to shut out based on old melon receipts seed, and is perennial melon variety, it is not necessary to annual breeding cultivation, usually cultivation management is convenient, 7th, August part grows animated period for Du's melon, and the period, melon that Du's melon is grown is climing can be to South Lake in breed fish ditch and ditch on the occasion of the high warm season Water chestnut plays a part of a sunshading and temperature reducing, can accomplish underwater foster loach, water surface kind water chestnut, on ditch long melon ecological three dimensional-planting-breeding, it is raw State economic benefits.
In step (4), preferably, the water caltrop is Mineral elements.Mineral elements are acerous kind, and the kind is with the tender water chestnut that searches for food Based on, while after aging water chestnut fruit falls down, the coming year sprouts naturally, it is not necessary to plant again, and Mineral elements water chestnut fruit do not have it is sharp Angle, also will not be sharp that film impacts to what is laid in cultivation ditch.
Further, the Mineral elements plant 2 plants in ditch of breeding fish every 5 meters.
In step (4), preferably, the kind of the loach is Taiwan eel loach.
Further, preferably, the length of the loach seedlings is 3~5cm;It is 17000~19000 tails/mu to put quantity in a suitable place to breed. Loach seedlings are sterilized with 2000 times of potassium permanganate 15 minutes, the container equipped with loach seedlings is moved in ditch-water, is gradually added into field before putting in a suitable place to breed Water, after inside and outside water temperature balance, slowly by container lean, loach is allowed to swim in ditch of breeding fish.
Further, the water management in loach breeding is changed by the different times of paddy growth, including:Rice transplanting Before, ditch-water is concentrated in ditch of breeding fish less than field soil, loach;After rice transplanting work, ditch-water is equal with water in field;Mid-June~early July Rice plant of tillering stage, tiller is promoted using shallow water, water in field is maintained at 5cm or so;7~August, rice are in jointing-booting stage, and temperature is higher, Water in field is maintained at more than 10cm.During rice loach symbiosis, water shortage moisturizing typically is used, without changing water, avoids loach scratch dead.
Loach is a kind of aquatic products easily run away, meanwhile, how anti-escape bird pest is also than more serious, during loach breeding And anti-bird pest is always more scabrous problem during loach breeding, the present invention digs ditch of breeding fish by size, while with digging The soil of ditch reinforces ridge, forms an inner side ridge and outside ridge, and fish ditch wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, at the same bottom of trench, On the inside of ditch, ridge covering import black and white it is sharp film, while opened a gap on the ridge of inner side every a segment distance, breach connection rice Water in field ditch and breed fish ditch, and loach anti-escape network is set in outside ridge, field upper shelf is set up defences trammel net.Using import black and white profit Film, the film firmly, antiseepage, not only contribute to that loach is anti-escape, while the holding for the ditch that is also beneficial to breed fish.
During loach breeding, inspection on the one in the morning, afternoon and evening three times, it is found that loach anoxic is raised the nose above water to breathe, water temperature over-high adds in time Water;Do not sink after loach sunrise, timely medication sterilization.
Loach is omnivorousness small fishes, and feed resource is very wide, and water flea, earthworm, fly maggot etc. are the natural bait lifes of loach Thing, in the present invention, some insects such as planthopper, snout moth's larva larva and Mineral elements water chestnut disk in Rice Production produce after rotting Some microorganisms be loach predation object, in addition before loach seedlings are put, to impose organic fertilizer, with cultivate swum in water it is dynamic Plant.In order to obtain loach high yield, should it is daily or the next day feed certain artitificial food, its food species can using agricultural byproducts as Main such as rice bran, soya-bean cake, bean dregs, blood meal, wheat bran, arrange in pairs or groups a small amount of fish meal, dried silkworm chrysalis meal, it is also possible to which loach specific complex is raised Material.Feeding method is manually fed in ditch of breeding fish, and feed request is fresh, pollution-free, nothing is rotted, without going bad, and Feeding time is general At the morning 9 or so, feeding volume was eaten up in 3 hours~4 hours by loach and is defined.Into the loach phase, feedstuff feeding amount should be according to day Gas situation and loach growth, situation of ingesting etc. make appropriate adjustment.Residual bait will be removed in time.
Loach breeding First Year, after late rice harvests, water temperature is down to 10 DEG C~15 DEG C, and loach food ration reduces, you can enters Row fishing.General more methods for carrying out artificial lower pond using water is drained and catching.Loach can disposably be caught can also basis Market needs to catch by several times, also allows for it and is passed the winter naturally in fish ditch and rice field, is caught on demand.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
(1) present invention is planted on the basis of original rice loach symbiosis breeding combines successfully by the layout to ditch of breeding fish, rice The optimization of training mode etc., the production efficiency of rice loach symbiosis is effectively improved, meanwhile, the space of breed fish ditch and field bank is made full use of, The plantation such as aquatic vegetable is carried out, the output of unit area is greatly improved, the more preferable of rice loach zoology breeding pattern can be effectively facilitated Development.
(2) present invention using rice field carry out rice loach symbiosis while, make full use of loach breed fish ditch space plant South Lake Water chestnut, using field bank plantation Du's melon on the outside of ditch of breeding fish, a set of foster loach under water is formed, water surface planting rice, Mineral elements, on the bank and is supported Grow the stereo ecological breeding method of plantation Du melon above ditch;And loach feeding rice grub is utilized, Mineral elements purification loach is supported The comprehensive ecological measure such as water body, Du's melon vine sunshading and temperature reducing is grown, has reached rice, loach, dish three and has had a good harvest, overall economic efficiency is obvious.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
The stereo ecological breeding method that a kind of rice-loach-vegetables combine, specifically includes following steps:
(1) field is transformed:Select the fertile loam of soil property and with the strong rice field of plough sole, moisture holding capacity;The rice Field periphery does not have disposal of pollutants enterprise, and irrigation water water quality meets the requirement of non-nuisance;Set in the periphery of rice field Two circle ridges, are respectively inner side ridge and outside ridge, and the height of inner side ridge is 30cm, and the height of outside ridge is 50cm, It is paddy fields that inner side ridge, which encloses region,.
The ditch of breeding fish for breeding loach is dug out between two circle ridges, the top width for ditch of breeding fish is 1.5m, and bottom is wide Spend and account for the 14.0% of total rice field area for 1.0m, depth 1.5m, the area for ditch of breeding fish;Inner side ridge, outside ridge with And the inwall for ditch of breeding fish and bottom be equipped with black and white PEP it is sharp film;The periphery of outside ridge is provided with high 50cm loach anti-escape network, On the ridge of inner side at interval of 20m open up one be used for connect breed fish ditch and the breach of paddy fields, the top of rice field with Surrounding is equipped with high 2.5m bird prevention net.
The area of rice field is 4 mu, and the adjacent field of connection is also provided with the side of rice field and is led to for harvesting machinery The passage crossed;Adjacent rice field uses identical implant cast two-by-two, is connected by the passage, is formed one big Eco-species growing area.
(2) Rice Cropping and cultivation management:Select high-quality, Resistant, anti-fall kind ' elegant water 134 ', in annual 5 months The last ten-days period carry out rice growing, and in annual early and middle ten dayses in June, rice seedling are transplanted to paddy fields, rice seedlings are adopted Transplanted with width row mode, wherein, wide row is away from for 40cm, and narrow row is away from for 20cm, spacing in the rows 18cm.
Using rape cake, sheep manure, rabbit excrement organic mixture as base manure and top dressing, base manure amount of application is given money as a gift by there is fertilizer Weigh 200,000 grams/acre, rice seedling transplanting or so first half of the month it is artificial uniformly shed after row tractor rotary tillage again, site preparation;Rice After living, depending on the growth of cereal crop seedlings again in early July and the last ten-days period, top dressing at twice, depending on the fertilising of seedling growth situation (in the present embodiment, every time Each application of organic fertilizers, which is given money as a gift, weighs 40kg/ mus).
The not spraying pesticide during paddy growth, using green prevention and control technology, it is specially:
A) put trichogramma in a suitable place to breed to field in annual 8, September part, for preventing and treating snout moth's larva class insect pest, put in a suitable place to breed every time 25000/ Mu, puts number in a suitable place to breed depending on insect pest situation;Put in a suitable place to breed, put in continuous 4 days fine days and in the case of scraping southeaster every time Mouth of being in the wind is put in a suitable place to breed, and in favor of the diffusion mobility of trichogramma, honeybee effect is put in raising;
B) since annual July, yellow plate is plugged in field, for preventing and treating rice lice class insect pest, every mu is inserted yellow 45 pieces of plate, In good time yellow plate is carried out according to enrichment degree of the insect on yellow plate to substitute, until the ripe harvest of rice;
C) trapper equipped with gyplure is hung in field, for preventing and treating snout moth's larva class insect pest, every mu is hung 6;
D) solar deinsectization lamp is installed in field, deinsectization lamp is installed by 1/10 mu standards, pays attention to putting the trichogramma phase in a suitable place to breed Between close deinsectization lamp.
(3) melon of shutting out is planted:In the April of First Year, Du's melon seedling is planted on the outside ridge for ditch of breeding fish, melon to be shut out is stretched After climing, in the top built draws climing for ditch of breeding fish;It is later annual to carry out draws climing, and Cultivate administration is carried out to Du's melon;The plantation of Du's melon Spacing is 2 meters, and 1 plant of staminiferous plant is planted every 10 plants of female plants;Melon shut out based on old melon receipts seed, and is perennial melon variety, is not required to Want annual breeding cultivation.
(4) water caltrop is planted:In the May of First Year, the water chestnut seedling of Mineral elements is planted in ditch of breeding fish, Second Year starts by preceding The old water chestnut to drop for 1 year freely sprouts to form new water caltrop, and does appropriate thinning.Mineral elements start in September part, ripe successively, can Manually harvested once every 3-5 days weekly, collecting method is sitting on water chestnut bucket for worker harvests ripe okra fruit listing in batches.
(5) loach breeding:It is 3~5cm by length every year before rice transplanting, quantity is the Taiwan eel of 18000 tails/mu The loach seedlings of loach are put in a suitable place to breed to breeding fish in ditch, put in a suitable place to breed before with 2000 times of potassium permanganate sterilization loach seedlings 15 minutes, by the appearance equipped with loach seedlings Device is moved in ditch-water, is gradually added into water in field, after inside and outside water temperature balance, slowly by container lean, allows loach to swim in ditch of breeding fish.
Water management in loach breeding is changed by the different times of paddy growth, including:Before rice transplanting, ditch-water is less than Field soil, loach are concentrated in ditch of breeding fish;After rice transplanting work, ditch-water is equal with water in field;Mid-June~early July is rice tillering Phase, tiller is promoted using shallow water, water in field is maintained at 5cm;7~August, rice are in jointing-booting stage, and temperature is higher, and water in field is maintained at More than 10cm;During rice loach symbiosis, water shortage moisturizing typically is used, without changing water, avoids loach scratch dead.In loach breeding During, inspection on the one in the morning, afternoon and evening three times, it is found that loach anoxic is raised the nose above water to breathe, water temperature over-high adds water in time;Do not sink after loach sunrise, Timely medication sterilization.
In order to obtain loach high yield, should it is daily or the next day feed certain artitificial food, its bait is special multiple using loach Close feed.Feeding method is manually fed in ditch of breeding fish, and for Feeding time at the morning 9, feeding volume is small 3 hours~4 with loach When interior eat up be defined.
Loach breeding First Year, after late rice harvests, water temperature is down to 10 DEG C~15 DEG C, and loach food ration reduces, and is caught Drag for.The method for carrying out artificial lower pond using water is drained and catching.
The stereo ecological breeding of rice-loach-vegetables combination is carried out using above-mentioned breeding method, is made with rice loach plant breeding model For control, since the First Year of breeding, the yield and economic benefit of rice, loach, Mineral elements and melon of shutting out are determined.
From the point of view of Rice Production, this method can make water temperature improve 2 DEG C using wide-and narrow-row mode cultivation, and ground temperature improves 1 DEG C, Rice productive tiller stage is set to postpone 10 days, coordinating high yield and high quality disease resisting rice kind, ' elegant water 134 ', province's kind, saving of labor, high yield, can Every mu of saving recruitment 30%, more common rice loach breeding combination cultivation mode yield can improve nearly 5% or so.
By the breeding method of the present embodiment, rice net area yield is 556,000 grams/acre, is calculated by 85% rice area, Per mu yield is 472,000 grams/acre, above-mentioned breeding method using ecological ideas cultivation mode, during Rice Production it is whole not Pesticide grown chemical fertilizer, rice selling price is based on 16 yuan/kilogram after processing, rice milling yield 70%, 5286.4 yuan of per mu yield value, more traditional Common rice production model remarkable benefit improves.
From the point of view of loach production, the present embodiment method uses wide-and narrow-row mode cultivation, is more beneficial for mud during paddy growth Activity of the loach in rice field, loach is promoted faster to grow, while in the present embodiment method, due to South Lake during summer high temperature Water chestnut, the effect of sheltering from heat or light of Du's melon etc., can effectively reduce by 5 DEG C of loach breeding water body temperature of surface water during high temperature, while Mineral elements Growth can effectively purify ditch water quality of breeding fish, and reduce due to body eutrophication, Quan Miangai caused by Paddy fields and loach raising Kind loach living environment, so as to reduce the disease of loach breeding process so that whole rice-loach-ordering system is more beneficial for loach Growth.
The more common rice field loach breeding method of loach cultivated under the present embodiment method can effectively reduce the high temperature life of loach Disease is managed, reduces the correlative charges more than 50% of loach disease control, and loach yield can improve 10% or so, use is above-mentioned Embodiment method breeding loach, loach can reach 0.06-0.065 kilograms per tail, and every mu is put in a suitable place to breed 18000 tails, puts survival rate in a suitable place to breed More than 85%, yield rate 70% or so, capture rate 90%, per mu yield is 578,000 grams/acre or so, by 50 yuan of loach average price/ Kilogram calculate, per mu yield value is up to 28900 yuan or so.It can also reduce simultaneously to improve caused by loach breeding Water quality changes water The influence of fertilizer loss and external river environment, reduce loach large-scale cultivation influences on the potential pollution of local water environment.
In terms of the Mineral elements condition of production, loach breeding ditch (ditch of breeding fish) plantation South Lake is utilized using above-mentioned breeding method Water chestnut, loach is breeded fish water body carry out effectively purification and summer high temperature during shelter from heat or light reduce temperature of surface water while, due to this kind The system of supporting is in the environment of a closing, and early stage water temperature is high compared with outer river 3-5 DEG C, favourable Mineral elements nutrient growth, and summer High temperature season, due to the growth of the tendril for melon of shutting out on the bank, Mineral elements are served with the effect of a cooling of sheltering from heat or light again, is advantageous to the summer Season high temperature season Mineral elements fruit setting, so as to promote Mineral elements ahead of time list.
Found through experiment, Mineral elements are planted using the present embodiment method, in mid-June, row is sealed in the completion of Mineral elements can, Water chestnut disk is sturdy, and Mineral elements can is bloomed at the beginning of 7 months, Mineral elements can the can at the beginning of August realize primary recovery, more traditional outer river Cultivation can do sth. in advance listing 1 or so, and relatively common interior pool cultivation mode can list 10 days or so ahead of time, and early go public Mineral elements city Field price highest can sell for 30 yuan/kg, remarkable in economical benefits.
In addition, Mineral elements are planted using above-described embodiment method, due to excreta, the feed of loach in loach feeding process Residue rots to wait the growth for Mineral elements to improve the nutrient of abundance, while loach breeding can effectively reduce that water chestnut firefly is chrysomelid etc. to be done harm to The harm of worm, more traditional South Lake planting type, artificial and agriculture chemical expenditure can be greatly decreased, while can greatly improve Mineral elements yield, washed one's face integrating by the water surface, Mineral elements yield can account for the core of the gross area 14% up to 1,200,000 grams/acre by cultivation ditch Meter, per mu yield is up to 168 kilograms, and based on yuan/kilogram of average price 8, per mu yield value is up to 1344 yuan.
In terms of Du's melon plantation situation, Du's melon is planted using above-mentioned breeding method, using the method for root division, due to melon of shutting out Root division First Year yield positive results it is less, by above-mentioned breeding method, rice loach dish ecology three dimensional-planting-breeding system that an area is 4 mu System, peripheral 250 meters of field stalk Zhou Changwei, calculated by one plant of Du's melon seedling of every 2 meters plantations, 125 plants of seedlings can be planted, First Year can produce Du's melon Sub- double centner or so, 25 kilograms of the melon seeds of Du per per mu yield is rolled over, Second Year can produce 150 kilograms or so of melon seeds of Du, roll over Du's melon seeds per per mu yield 37.5 kilograms, since the 3rd year, yield can substantially be stablized at 250 kilograms or so, and every mu of folding can produce Du's melon seeds 62.5 thousand Gram, calculated by yuan/kilogram of procurement price 45, the first annual value of production is up to 1125 yuan/mu, and the second annual value of production is up to 1687.5 yuan/mu, from the 3rd Year starts, and the output value can be stablized in 2800 yuan/mu or so substantially.

Claims (10)

1. the stereo ecological breeding method that a kind of rice-loach-vegetables combine, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) field is transformed:Rice field is selected, two circle ridges are set in the periphery of rice field, is respectively inner side ridge and outer Side ridge, the ditch of breeding fish for breeding loach is dug out between two circle ridges, it is paddy fields that inner side ridge, which encloses region,;
(2) Rice Cropping and cultivation management:Annual early and middle ten dayses in June, rice seedling is transplanted to the paddy fields, right Rice carries out rich water quality management and prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control management, until the ripe harvest of rice;
(3) melon of shutting out is planted:In the April of First Year, Du's melon seedling is planted on the outside ridge for ditch of breeding fish, melon to be shut out is stretched climing Afterwards, in the top built draws climing for ditch of breeding fish;It is later annual to carry out draws climing, and Cultivate administration is carried out to Du's melon;
(4) water caltrop is planted:In the May of First Year, water chestnut seedling is planted in ditch of breeding fish, Second Year starts to be dropped by the previous year old Water chestnut freely sprouts to form new water caltrop, carries out Cultivate administration to water caltrop every year;
(5) loach breeding:Every year before rice transplanting, put in a suitable place to breed in loach seedlings to the ditch of breeding fish and cultivated.
2. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the height of the inner side ridge be 0.2~ 0.3m, the height of outside ridge is 0.5~0.6m;The top width of the ditch of breeding fish is 1.5~1.8m, bottom width 1.0 ~1.2m, depth are 1.3~1.5m.
3. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the side also company of being provided with of the rice field Lead to adjacent field and the passage passed through for harvesting machinery.
4. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the rice seedlings use width row mode Transplanted, wherein, wide row is away from for 40cm, and narrow row is away from for 20cm, spacing in the rows 18cm.
5. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the kind of the rice be elegant water 134 or Elegant water 121.
6. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the plantation spacing of Du's melon is 1.5~2 Rice, 1 plant of staminiferous plant is planted every 10 plants of female plants.
7. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the water caltrop is Mineral elements.
8. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the Mineral elements are in ditch of breeding fish every 5 2 plants of rice plantation.
9. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the length of the loach seedlings is 3~5cm;Put It is 17000~19000 tails/mu to support quantity.
10. stereo ecological breeding method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that the water management in the loach breeding, Including:Before rice transplanting, ditch-water is concentrated in ditch of breeding fish less than field soil, loach;After rice transplanting work, ditch-water is equal with water in field;Mid-June Rice plant of tillering stage~early July, tiller is promoted using shallow water, water in field is maintained at 5cm;7~August, rice are in jointing-booting stage, temperature Higher, water in field is maintained at more than 10cm.
CN201710671680.3A 2017-08-08 2017-08-08 A kind of stereo ecological breeding method that rice loach vegetables combine Pending CN107466754A (en)

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Application publication date: 20171215