A kind of mechanical pretreatment system and technique for Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment
The present invention relates to field of sanitation, more particularly to a kind of machinery for Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment (product natural pond)
Pretreatment system and technique.
The distinguishing feature of China's domestic waste be food waste component accounting more than half, moisture content and content of organic matter pole
Height, directly fills waste of resource, and directly burning can be used for the moisture heating evaporation in rubbish significant portion heat, also easily produce
Raw nuisance；Implement to still need under a realistic situation for long process in front end categorized consumer waste, comprehensive treatment technique is for I
The only way which must be passed of state's garbage disposal.
Recent two decades carry out China related scientific research personnel have been done a large amount of introductions absorptions to life comprehensive garbage disposal and has groped to change
Enter work, anaerobic methane production is considered as meeting the integrated treatment developing direction of national conditions, and correlation engineering case last decade is in the big of China
Middle city occurs in succession, and exposed technical problem is a lot, is concentrated mainly on preprocessing part.
For example, Xiamen project is using " two stage cylinder screening+spring screening+photometric sorting+artificial separation " pretreatment work
Skill, technique chain is long, and organic matter loss late is high, and separating effect is still undesirable.
Beijing project uses " roller screening+vibrosieve " pretreating process, and it is high to sub-elect stage casing rubbish percentage of impurity, leads
Cause anaerobic system input and output material equipment attrition serious, frequently, system is unable to continuous and steady operation to blocking all the time.
Super-pressure (50-100MPa) the extruding separation equipment of Italian Vmpress companies, revolves three by hydraulic plunger
Turn chamber internal rubbish alternately separating dry space from moist space, device structure is complicated, and fluctuation of service, treating capacity is low, high energy consumption, invest and tie up
Repair maintenance cost high.
Patent publication No. CN202805696U Chinese patents are improved the extrusion technique of Vmpress, but still use super
The fashion of extrusion of high pressure, there is also above mentioned problem.
As can be seen here, the mechanical pretreatment system and technique of above-mentioned existing Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment (product natural pond),
Obviously inconvenience and defect have been still suffered from, and has urgently been further improved.A kind of material how is founded to receive and post processing spirit
The living, machinery of the Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment that organic matter separation rate is high, percentage of impurity is low, treating capacity is high, investment is low, energy consumption is low
Pretreatment system and technique, as the target that current industry need to improve.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention be to provide one kind can flexibly receive multiple types domestic waste (it is mixed receive, point
Class kitchen, classification food waste), post processing matching way it is various, organic matter separation rate is high, percentage of impurity is low, treating capacity is high, investment is low,
The mechanical pretreatment system and technique of the low Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment of energy consumption.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention is adopted the following technical scheme that：
A kind of mechanical pretreatment system for Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment, including the coarse crushing list for setting gradually
Unit, vertical shaft hammer grinding unit and dry and wet component extruding separative element, pass sequentially through conveyer link between each unit.
Further, the vertical shaft hammer grinding unit uses vertical shaft hammer grinder, including grinding crusher chamber, described to grind
Drive-type vertical shaft is provided with mill crusher chamber, upper and lower multilayer tup is provided with the drive-type vertical shaft；The grinding crusher chamber
Bottom is provided with discharging opening, and top is provided with feed hopper, and the feed hopper porch is horizontally arranged with double-roll type tripper；It is described
Double-roll type tripper includes a pair rollers for outwards rotating, and helical blade, the pair of roller are provided with described each roller
On helical blade be symmetrical set.
Further, the helical blade of positive and negative two rotation directions is provided with described each roller.
Further, the feed hopper uses dual channel, and the entrance of the dual channel is corresponding with two roller outsides respectively,
Upper cover plate is provided between the grinding crusher chamber and feed hopper, the upper cover plate is provided with two entrances, two entrances difference
Connected with dual channel.
Further, grinding crusher chamber side wall is provided with the riser that multilayer is correspondingly arranged with tup；The orlop
Tup is less than 2cm with the distance of grinding crusher chamber bottom surface.
Further, the dry and wet component extruding separative element uses two grades of extrusion separators of hydraulic plunger type, including enters
Expect cut somebody's hair assembly, charging box assembly, extruding and discharge assembly, main extruding guiding assemblage, backward extrusion guiding assemblage；The main extruding
Guiding assemblage, charging box assembly, extruding and discharge assembly, backward extrusion guiding assemblage are located on same level axis, are sequentially connected；
The assembly of cutting somebody's hair that feeds is connected and is vertically arranged with above-mentioned horizontal axis with charging box assembly；And charging cut somebody's hair assembly with enter
Both hopper assemblies cooperatively form columnar spacer, and spacer side wall is provided with sieve aperture, the extruding and discharge assembly bag
Include screen drum.
Further, the coarse crushing unit uses Double-shaft shearing primary mill, the coarse crushing unit and vertical shaft hammer
Magnetic separator and big object supervision station are additionally provided between formula grinding unit.
Further, also including wet component pumping unit, the wet component pumping unit includes hydraulic plunger pumping unit.
A kind of mechanical pre-treatment processes for Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment, using above-mentioned for domestic waste
The mechanical pretreatment system of integrated treatment, including the extruding of coarse crushing processing step, vertical shaft hammer grinding technics step, dry and wet component
Separate process steps.
Further, the coarse crushing processing step is used to homogenize the house refuse of all kinds of complicated components, particle diameter control
System is in below 400mm；The broken particle diameter of the vertical shaft hammer grinding technics step, general slurry≤20mm, plastic fabric >=
200mm；The dry and wet component extruding separate process steps act on by vertical shaft hammer grinding technics the pressure of 10-50MPa
On the rubbish of step process, two grades of diameters of the screen drum of extrusion separator of the hydraulic plunger type are no more than 1000mm, the sieve
The mesh size of cylinder is no more than 40mm；The solid content of wet component is produced in 20-40%, hard impurity particle diameter is no more than 20mm, proterties is equal
It is even into cement paste, major part is water and suitable biochemical component；The dry component for producing, moisture content most as little as 35%.
At least there is advantages below by using above-mentioned technical proposal, the present invention：
1st, the present invention passes through using coarse crushing unit, vertical shaft hammer grinding unit can be to suitable in all kinds of domestic wastes
Biochemistry produces natural pond component and carries out " disorganization ", then produces natural pond component and hyperpyrexia by the extruding separative element completion of dry and wet component is preferably biochemical
Value is preferably heat-treated " extruding is separated " of component, and the wet component of generation can be delivered to the biochemical of integrated treatment and produce by hydraulic planger pump
Natural pond system.It is high that the present invention breaches existing domestic garbage comprehensive treatment mechanical pretreatment organic matter low separation efficiency, impurity content
Technical bottleneck, mechanical vertical shaft grinding extruding separation and culture technological principle is advanced, and rubbish receives strong adaptability, device integration
Height, continuous and steady operation, as raw material, output preferably biochemical wet component meets dry type or wet type to all kinds of house refuses with complicated component
Anaerobic fermentation post processing charging high organic concentration and low impurity content requirement, output are preferably heat-treated dry component and meet burning, gas
All kinds of thermal treatment process technologies charging calorific values requirements such as change, realize the cooperative disposal of multiple types domestic waste, it is ensured that compared with
Suitable biochemical organic matter separation rate high, is that Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment (product natural pond) provides one kind and more optimizes, is more suitable for, more
Reliable mechanical pre-treatment processes technology.
2nd, the suitable biochemical organic matter separation rate of system is higher than 75%；
3rd, the application vertical shaft hammer milling apparatus of innovation, by the organic matter pulp treatment in rubbish, rear end separates extruding and sets
Standby squeeze pressure reduces 50%, energy-conservation 35% compared with traditional handicraft.
4th, the wet component of this technique output improves more than 5 degrees Celsius compared with room temperature, and subsequent fermentation nature, percentage of impurity is low, organic
Matter content is high and well mixed, solve biogas engineering high solid anaerobic digestion system that input and output material is difficult and material homogenizes is tired
Difficult two hang-ups.
5th, material receives adaptable, and this technique can receive rubbish from cooking and kitchen (drink) rubbish of city classification,
Composting can be received, a kind of technique realizes various waste sub-prime cooperative disposals.
6th, this pretreating process is strong with the matching capacity of integrated treatment (product natural pond) aftertreatment technology, and wet component can be using dry
Formula anaerobic posttreatment, it would however also be possible to employ wet type anaerobic posttreatment；Dry component moisture content can as little as 35%, directly can be burnt without combustion-supporting
Burn, it is also possible to as the preparing raw material of RDF.
7th, this technique fully relies on plant equipment and completes Core Feature, and technique chain is short, stable and reliable operation, and core sets
Standby to realize production domesticization, cost of investment is low.
Brief description of the drawings
Above-mentioned is only the general introduction of technical solution of the present invention, in order to better understand technological means of the invention, below
With reference to accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail with specific embodiment.
Fig. 1 is the mechanical pre-treatment processes flow chart of Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment；
Fig. 2 is coarse crushing unit core device structure (Double-shaft shearing primary mill) schematic diagram；
Fig. 3 is vertical shaft hammer grinder side structure schematic view；
Fig. 4 is the grinding crusher chamber partial cutaway schematic of vertical shaft hammer grinder；
Fig. 5 is the part side structure schematic view (feed hopper+tripper side structure schematic view) of vertical shaft hammer grinder；
Fig. 6 is the tripper overlooking the structure diagram of vertical shaft hammer grinder；
Fig. 7 is vertical shaft hammer grinder main structure diagram；
Fig. 8 is the upper cover plate structural representation of vertical shaft hammer grinder；
Fig. 9 is that dry and wet component extrudes separating technology unit nucleus equipment (two grades of extrusion separators of hydraulic plunger type) vertical view knot
Structure schematic diagram；
Figure 10 is that dry and wet component extrudes separating technology unit nucleus equipment (two grades of extrusion separators of hydraulic plunger type) main view
Figure 11 is that wet component pumps the memory cell heart equipment (hydraulic planger pump) structural representation.
Above-mentioned is only the general introduction of technical solution of the present invention, in order to better understand technological means of the invention, below
With reference to accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail with specific embodiment.
Shown in reference picture 1, the mechanical pre-treatment processes for Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment (product natural pond) of the invention, its
Principle can abstract be " tissue abrasion destruction+extruding separate "；Main three processing step units for including being sequentially connected, slightly
Fragmentation cell, vertical shaft hammer grinding unit, dry and wet component extruding separative element, its nucleus equipment are respectively Double-shaft shearing and slightly break
Broken machine (as shown in Figure 2), vertical shaft hammer grinder (as shown in figures 3-8), hydraulic plunger type two grades of extrusion separators (such as Fig. 9,10
It is shown)；The wet component that dry and wet component extruding separative element is produced can also be sent out by wet component pumping unit, and its nucleus equipment is adopted
With hydraulic plunger pump configuration as shown in figure 11.Can be by conveyer, such as belt conveyor, chain belt between each processing step unit
Conveyer or conveying worm etc., are linked.
Each nucleus equipment is described in detail below：
(1) coarse crushing unit, its nucleus equipment is Double-shaft shearing primary mill, with reference to shown in 2.It is special for some
Rubbish, can also increase the equipment such as magnetic separator, big part thing inspection station between the unit and vertical shaft hammer grinding unit, treat and grind
The rubbish of mill carries out preliminary broken sorting pretreatment.
(2) vertical shaft hammer grinding unit, its nucleus equipment is vertical shaft hammer grinder, with reference to shown in Fig. 3,4, including is ground
Mill crusher chamber 21, drive-type vertical shaft 22 is provided with grinding crusher chamber 21, is upper drive-type shown in figure, on drive-type vertical shaft 22
It is provided with upper and lower multilayer tup 23；Grinding crusher chamber bottom is provided with discharging opening 24, and top is provided with feed hopper 25, feed hopper 25
Porch is horizontally arranged with double-roll type tripper 26；Coordinate shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6, double-roll type tripper 26 includes a pair outwards rotations
Roller 261,262, helical blade 263,264 is provided with each roller, each helical blade 263,264 be respectively adopted just,
Anti- two rotation directions；Helical blade 263,264 on a pair of rollers is symmetrical set.
Three kinds applied in current environmental sanitation represent type grinder to be had：Vertical sorting, vertical do not sort and horizontal sorting；
The problem of presence is：(1) it is only capable of receiving material of the particle diameter less than 120mm after screening；(2) treating capacity it is maximum no more than 12 tons/it is small
When；(3) feeding manner of helical feed can only be received；(4) import equipment investment is high with operation cost, and after-sale service is bad.
And the above-mentioned vertical shaft hammer grinder that the present invention is used, belong to vertical not sorting type grinder, enter to adapt to big particle diameter material
Broken cavity, while avoiding using the cantilever shaft structure of high cost, the present invention devises double-roll type tripper (four-way tripper),
Tripper is made up of the roller that a pair outwards rotate, can be by material point to both sides；Simultaneously positive and negative two rotation directions are designed with roller
Helical blade, be highly 5 centimeters, play a part of on the basis of avoiding material from twining axle to both sides sub-material.
Coordinate shown in Fig. 7, feed hopper 25 uses dual channel, the entrance of dual channel is corresponding with two roller outsides respectively, grinds
Upper cover plate 27 is provided between mill crusher chamber and feed hopper, is coordinated shown in Fig. 8, upper cover plate 27 is provided with two entrances 271, two
Entrance is connected with dual channel respectively.Dual channel and double entrances can ensure that the big particle diameter rubbish of bulk is passed through, and not cause equipment
Blocking.In addition, the dual channel design of science also can guarantee that and be fallen into grinding crusher chamber by material self gravitation.
Coordinate again shown in Fig. 4, grinding crusher chamber side wall is provided with the riser 28 (liner plate) that multilayer is correspondingly arranged with tup 23；
Tup 23 coordinates with riser 28 to be sheared, is ground, and the accumulation of material, orlop tup and grinding crusher chamber bottom surface are not easily caused
Distance be less than 2cm, make it because of gap is excessive material will not be caused to twine axle.
Above-mentioned vertical shaft hammer grinder can receive non-classified house refuse, rubbish from cooking and kitchen garbage, use
Feeding manner can be that belt can also be spiral, fill up the market vacancy；But other three classes are only subjected to dividing in environmental sanitation
Kitchen garbage after class, and can only be fed by spiral.Other performance parameter is contrasted (only with kitchen garbage with economic index
Contrast), refer to table 1.
The performance parameter of table 1 and economic index contrast table
By after this vertical shaft hammer grinder, the unit weight of kitchen garbage improves 20%, the corresponding place for making whole technique
Reason amount improves 20%；The pulping rate of extrusion equipment improves 15%, and whole system production capacity improves 15%；Because system effectiveness is improved, it is
The ton energy consumption reduction by 30% of system.
(3) nucleus equipment of dry and wet component extruding separative element uses two grades of extrusion separators of hydraulic plunger type, with reference to figure
9th, shown in Figure 10, including charging cut somebody's hair assembly 31, charging box assembly 32, extruding and discharge assembly 33, it is main extruding guiding assemblage 34,
Backward extrusion guiding assemblage 35；Main extruding guiding assemblage 34, charging box assembly 32, extruding and discharge assembly 33, backward extrusion are oriented to 35
Assembly is located on same level axis, is sequentially connected；Charging cut somebody's hair assembly 31 with feed box assembly 32 be connected and with above-mentioned water
Flat axis is vertically arranged；And both cooperatively form columnar spacer 321 with box assembly 32 is fed to feed assembly 31 of cutting somebody's hair, in advance
The pressure side wall of chamber 321 is provided with sieve aperture, and the extruding and discharge assembly include screen drum 331.It is public that the said equipment specifically refers to mandate
Accuse number utility model patent for being CN205416441U.
(4) nucleus equipment of wet component pumping unit uses hydraulic plunger pumping unit, as shown in figure 11, may also include one
A little supporting pipeline valves.
Mechanical pre-treatment processes process for Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment of the invention is walked including coarse crushing technique
Suddenly, vertical shaft hammer grinding technics step, dry and wet component extruding separate process steps, wet component pumping processing step.
(1) coarse crushing processing step：
Domestic waste, including unfiled mixed receipts rubbish and sorted rubbish from cooking and kitchen (drink) rubbish, by
Special transportation vehicle is unloaded to factory, can be delivered to rubbish by the conveying equipments such as carrier bar, spiral or engineering machinery or hanging grapple
In Double-shaft shearing primary mill.The main broken function of Double-shaft shearing primary mill is by the moving knife that rotates with the axis and is fixed on
Stationary knife in frame coordinates completion, and all band swords of each edge on knife, twin shaft band moving knife low speed rotation (is usually no more than 30 revs/min
Clock), the cutting of the cutting edge of driven knife and stationary knife is rolled and torn by the material into disintegrating machine, realizes the broken bag and big part thing of packing material
Tear up, tear up size controlling in below 400mm, uniformly fall on a conveyor by gravity through the rubbish after coarse crushing, some feelings
Condition, can first pass through the ferromagnetic class material in magnetic separator removal rubbish, then can not be crushed through excessive part supervision station removal flexibility
The big part thing of strip, then vertical shaft hammer grinder is delivered to by conveyer, meet entering for the vertical shaft hammer grinding unit equipment
Material is required.
(2) vertical shaft hammer grinding technics step：
Rubbish material through coarse crushing enters grinding crusher chamber from the top of vertical shaft hammer grinder, with driving vertical shaft and hammer
The material of head contact accelerates to move out under the action of the centrifugal, and (being typically not less than 400 revs/min) is rotated at a high speed with vertical shaft is driven
Combination tup (generally 4 layers, every layer of 6 tup) and the broken cavity wall riser of grinding by the further vertical shaft grinding of rubbish, lead to
Cross under punching press, collision and the multiple action of shearing force, by the disorganization of the suitable biochemical organic matter fraction in rubbish, size is shown
Write and reduce, form pulpous state；The size of the flexible material in rubbish but changes less simultaneously.When the size of material is by efficient contracting
Reduce to and be suitable for during by gap, material leaves vertical shaft mill working area immediately, and is unloaded through discharging opening (chute) by gravity
Material, overall process is carried out continuously.Above-mentioned tup has from clearing apparatus with vertical shaft is driven, and tup uses demountable structure；Vertical shaft hammer
The broken particle diameter of grinder, general slurry≤20mm, plastic fabric >=200mm；Broken particle diameter by frequency control or can be torn open
Tup is unloaded to be adjusted.
(3) dry and wet component extruding separate process steps
Rubbish after being ground through vertical shaft hammer delivers to the nucleus equipment liquid that dry and wet component extrudes separative element by conveyer
In two grades of extrusion separators of compression leg plug, it can be acted on by vertical shaft hammer milled processed huge pressure (10-50MPa)
Rubbish on, rubbish is extruded in a special surface is covered with the screen drum in hole, wet in rubbish to have because huge pressure
Machine thing component can be extruded from the hole on screen drum surface, so as to realize being separated with the dry component of residue.It is covered with the screen drum diameter in hole not
More than 1000mm；The screen drum aperture for being covered with hole is no more than 40mm；Wherein, wet organic matter is general also known as wet component, solid content is done
In 20-40%, hard impurity particle diameter is no more than 20mm, and uniformly into cement paste, major part is water and suitable biochemical component to proterties, is fitted very much
Together in the next life generation gas in the factory of anaerobic digestion.Wet component enters in hydraulic planger pump surge bunker by conveyer.
The dry component of residue is also referred to as dry component, and moisture content most as little as 35%, major part is plastics and type of wood and bamboo ignitable components, and dry component falls
To conveyer, and it is transported in compartment by conveyer, the dry component in this part is by screening, crushing, metal and non-ferrous metal
The step such as separation, be easily processed as high-quality RDF.
(4) wet component pumping processing step
The nucleus equipment hydraulic planger pump of wet component pumping unit is applied to the long distance of thick solid and solid content material high
From transmission, particularly on one point to having more preferable economy and reliability in multiple spot course of conveying.Hydraulic planger pump generally by
Plunger in two cavitys is alternately accomplished suction and the action of discharge material, and the pressure provided by hydraulic system pushes material
In steel pipe, remote, multi-point the continuous conveying of the wet component of extruding is realized.
When anaerobic digestion factory (within general 30 meters) closer to the distance, conveying worm, belt conveyor and bucket can be used
The combination transfer technique of the equipment such as formula elevator substitutes pumping technology.
When anaerobic digestion factory distance super remote (general more than 5 kilometers), can be by conveying worm or belt conveyor
Wet component is directly loadable into the vehicle with closed compartment etc. equipment, pumping technology is substituted by vehicle transport.
It is high that the present invention breaches existing domestic garbage comprehensive treatment mechanical pretreatment organic matter low separation efficiency, impurity content
Technical bottleneck, mechanical vertical shaft hammer grinding extruding separation and culture technological principle is advanced, and rubbish receives strong adaptability, equipment collection
High, the continuous and steady operation into degree, all kinds of house refuses with complicated component as raw material, output preferably biochemical wet component meet dry type or
Wet type anaerobic fermentation post processing charging high organic concentration and low impurity content requirement, output are preferably heat-treated dry component satisfaction and burn
All kinds of thermal treatment process technologies charging calorific values requirements such as burning, gasification, realize the cooperative disposal of multiple types domestic waste, protect
Card suitable biochemical organic matter separation rate higher, is that Urban Domestic Waste Comprehensive Treatment (product natural pond) provides a kind of more optimization, more suitable
Conjunction, more reliable mechanical pre-treatment processes technology.
Finally, the advantage then to technique of the invention (hereinafter referred to as grinding extrusion process) carries out following comparative illustration：
1st, material is received and post processing flexibility contrast：Shown in reference table 2, grinding extrusion process can receive all kinds of rubbish
Rubbish, while the slurries of suitable dry fermentation and wet type fermentation can be produced, post processing selection is more flexible, and the dry component of production can
To be directly heat-treated, mustn't be biological dewatered again, shown in reference table 2.
The material of table 2 is received and post processing flexibility contrast table
2nd, organic matter separation rate is compared：The organic matter separation rate of the conventional sieving technology in the country is only 40%, of the invention
Grinding extrusion process can reach more than 75%, refer to table 3.
The organic matter separation rate deck watch of table 3
3rd, nucleus equipment economy is compared：Table 4 is referred to, low, energy consumption is invested low.
The nucleus equipment economy deck watch of table 4
The above, is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, and any formal limitation is not made to the present invention, this
Art personnel make a little simple modification, equivalent variations or modification using the technology contents of the disclosure above, all fall within this hair
In bright protection domain.