CN106278466B - A kind of agrocybe cultivation matrix and its preparation and cultural method - Google Patents

A kind of agrocybe cultivation matrix and its preparation and cultural method Download PDF

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CN106278466B
CN106278466B CN201610669401.5A CN201610669401A CN106278466B CN 106278466 B CN106278466 B CN 106278466B CN 201610669401 A CN201610669401 A CN 201610669401A CN 106278466 B CN106278466 B CN 106278466B
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agrocybe
accessory substance
matrix
cultivation matrix
sugar
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CN106278466A (en
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谢纯良
彭源德
洪益秋
严理
朱作华
龚文兵
胡镇修
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Hunan Zhongshi Agricultural Biotechnology Co ltd
Institute of Bast Fiber Crops of CAAS
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Hunan Zhongshi Agricultural Biotechnology Co ltd
Institute of Bast Fiber Crops of CAAS
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D3/00Calcareous fertilisers
    • C05D3/02Calcareous fertilisers from limestone, calcium carbonate, calcium hydrate, slaked lime, calcium oxide, waste calcium products
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Mycology (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Mushroom Cultivation (AREA)
  • Micro-Organisms Or Cultivation Processes Thereof (AREA)

Abstract

Matrix and its preparation and cultural method are planted the present invention relates to a kind of agrocybe, the matrix includes following siccatives by weight percentage:Ramie accessory substance 15 20%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 15 20%, hemp accessory substance 15 20% and cotton seed hulls 18 33%, in addition also include wheat bran, corn flour, sugar and the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent.Cultivation agrocybe is carried out using the cultivation matrix of the present invention, the agrocybe planted is fleshy hypertrophy, delicious flavour, quality better, fast growth, biological efficiency is high.

Description

A kind of agrocybe cultivation matrix and its preparation and cultural method
Technical field
The invention belongs to fungus growing technique field, it is related to a kind of agrocybe and plants matrix and its preparation and cultural method.
Background technology
Agrocybe also known as Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agroeybe cylindracea mycelia etc., are a kind of high protein, low-fat collection nutrition, health care With the Rare edible fungus of dietotherapy.Tea plant mushroom fruit body delicious flavour, gives off a strong fragrance, and stem is tender and crisp, and cap is plump, fresh and tender It is tasty, excellent taste, with very strong kidney tonifying effect and antitumor activity, be the big situation of selling well bacterium product in international mushroom class trade market ten it One, it is known as " China god mushroom ", the per kilogram on Japan, Singapore, the U.S., the European Community and China Hong Kong, Taiwan Province supermarket Dry product value is high 100 dollars.Investigated according to existing market, agrocybe saves the business taken on a certain scale in Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang etc. Product are produced, but product is still tightly sold, on the high side, and market potential is still very big, with wide DEVELOPMENT PROSPECT.Agrocybe passes through Factorial praluction, realizes anniversary fresh mushroom listing, can improve biological efficiency and adapt to the requirement of market diversification, promote tea tree Mushroom is developed to industrialization, scale and intensive direction.
With the development and the aggravation of market competition of mushroom industry, need badly find suit measures to local conditions, low production cost Culturing raw material substitute.Culturing raw material variation can make agrocybe manufacturing enterprise flexibly select raw material, it is ensured that the stabilization of industry Development.Agrocybe, which grows, needs the nutriments such as carbon source, nitrogen source, mineral matter, vitamin, and the country uses cottonseed mostly at present Shell, corncob and weed tree sawdust etc. are as culture matrix raw material, and mouthfeel is general, influences sales volume.
Crudefiber crop is the industrial crops of the great characteristic of China.The utilization to fiber crops is concentrated mainly on stem skin portion at present, for giving birth to Fiber is produced, the accessory substance for accounting for biological yield 60% or so is taken as bavin to burn or discarded.Crudefiber crop accessory substance (during fiber crops harvest, is removed tough Other compositions beyond hide fiber, including sesame slices and boon) in contain abundant cellulose, lignin, trace element, amino acid Deng.If enabling a large amount of cheap crudefiber crop accessory substances to be fully used, higher benefit has been given play to, it is necessary to make great efforts developing crudefiber crop Byproduct comprehensive utilization approach.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of cultivation matrix of agrocybe, agrocybe production cost, and agrocybe are reduced Fast growth, biological efficiency are high.
To achieve the above object, the technical scheme is that:A kind of agrocybe cultivation matrix, including by weight percentage Following siccatives of meter:Ramie accessory substance 15-20%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 15-20%, hemp accessory substance 15-20% and cotton seed hulls 18- 33%, in addition also include wheat bran, corn flour, sugar and the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent.
Further, the mass percent of wheat bran, corn flour, sucrose, calcium carbonate and pulverized limestone is:Wheat bran 12~18%, Corn flour 2~5%, sugar 0.5~1.5%, the inorganic matter 0.8~1.2% containing calcium constituent.
The accessory substance includes sesame slices and boon, not including bast fiber.
It is preferred that, the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent is calcium carbonate and pulverized limestone, calcium carbonate/pulverized limestone=1:(0.8~ 1.2)。
It is preferred that, the sugar is sucrose or glucose.
It is preferred that, it is aqueous in the matrix to account for the 60~70% of matrix gross weight, natural ph.
The preparation method of above-mentioned cultivation matrix, by crudefiber crop accessory substance, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, corn flour, sugar, the carbon after crushing Sour calcium and pulverized limestone are mixed with water by the mass ratio, then carry out autoclaving.
The method that agrocybe is cultivated using above-mentioned cultivation matrix, including inoculation, culture, mycelium stimulation and flower bud, and fruiting Step.
Further, the culture control temperature is at 22 DEG C~26 DEG C, and humid control is 65~70%.
Further, during flower bud, first three days day and night temperature is maintained at 15 DEG C~20 DEG C, and humidity is 90%~95%; Flower bud humidity is 85%~90% after 3 days;During fruiting, day and night temperature brings up to 20~25 DEG C, and humidity is 90%~95%.
The content of cellulose 35%-44% of boon, content of lignin 18%-23% in crudefiber crop accessory substance, and with quality Loose, water imbibition is extremely strong, the preferable physical characteristic of not hardened, gas permeability, suitably does the carbon source matrix of edible mushroom;And sesame slices albumen Matter content height (15%-24%), sesame slices are easily degraded, can as edible mushroom nitrogen source matrix.Ramie accessory substance content of cellulose: 44%, hemicellulose 11.9%, content of lignin 18.1%, protein content 12.09%;Bluish dogbane accessory substance content of cellulose: 42.31%, hemicellulose 22.58%, content of lignin 23.79%, protein content 12.84%;Hemp accessory substance cellulose contains Amount:35.85%, hemicellulose 22.4%, content of lignin 12.02%, protein content 11.72%.
In cultivation matrix of the present invention, carbon source is provided using cotton seed hulls, crudefiber crop accessory substance as major ingredient, supplemented by wheat bran and corn flour Material provides the nitrogen source needed for agrocybe growth.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has the advantages that:
(1) cultivation agrocybe is carried out using the cultivation matrix of the present invention, agrocybe can be utilized effectively in crudefiber crop accessory substance Crude protein, crude fat and sugar, the agrocybe that plants is fleshy hypertrophy, delicious flavour, quality better, and fast growth is biological Learn efficiency high (compared to only 17-19% is improved as control with cotton seed hulls culture medium).
(2) crudefiber crop accessory substance is agricultural by-products, is renewable resource, abundance, it is easy to collect, with low cost.Section The resources such as manpower, coal have been saved, environmental pollution is reduced, have met low-carbon environment-friendly theory.
(3) due to fiber crops, Pesticide use amount is few in process of production, and crudefiber crop accessory substance residues of pesticides are relatively low, do not have transgenosis product Kind, the edible mushroom produced using it as raw material more has safety guarantee.
Embodiment
With reference to embodiment, the invention will be further described.
The preparation of the cultivation matrix of following embodiments 1~4 and comparative example D1~9 and utilize the matrix carry out cultivation agrocybe Specific method it is as follows:
(1) crushing of crudefiber crop accessory substance:Sesame slices and boon after drying are ground into the particle that particle diameter is 2mm~5mm;
(2) dispensing:Siccative is mixed with water, the water content of cultivation matrix is controlled;
(3) pack sterilizing:The culture matrix of preparation is loaded to 17cm × 33cm bacterium bag using semi-automatic bagging production line In, carry out autoclaving, 121 DEG C, 2.5h~3h;
(4) it is inoculated with:It is inoculated with after the compost in bacterium bag and bag is down to room temperature, parent species mycelia is gripped using tweezers Mode, be seeded to the periphery center of compost, according to inoculation before and after bacterium bag weight difference, keep inoculum concentration be 1% or so.
(5) bacterium germination is managed:Bacterium bag after inoculation is put into the culturing room of dark surrounds and cultivated, indoor temperature is controlled 22 DEG C~26 DEG C, frequent ventilation, holding air is fresh, and humid control is 65~70%;
(6) management of producing mushroom:The intelligent mushroom room that the wet control gas of temperature automatically controlled control is moved into after bacterium bag sends out full bacterium is carried out after mycelium stimulation Timely flower bud.During flower bud, in order to prevent after mycelium stimulation charge level to dry, head 3d day and night temperatures be maintained at 15 DEG C~20 DEG C, humidity For 90%~95%.Flower bud humidity is 85%~90% after 3d.Then carry out during fruiting, fruiting, day and night temperature is brought up to 20~25 DEG C, humidity is 90%~95%;
(7) harvest.The mushroom that raising chamber has been cultivated moves to harvesting room, wins first batch of fresh mushroom, and fresh mushroom is gone The dirty, removal of impurity.Secondary bacterium germination, fruiting then are carried out by above-mentioned steps to bacterium bag.The mushroom that raising chamber has been cultivated moves to harvesting Room, wins second batch of fresh mushroom, and carry out decontamination, the removal of impurity to fresh mushroom.
Following comparative example D1~9 and embodiment 1~2 pass through adjustment by film solid media wheat bran and the consumption of corn flour Crudefiber crop accessory substance, the content of cotton seed hulls control carbon-nitrogen ratio.The embodiment of the present invention is with the increase of crudefiber crop accessory substance addition, cotton The consumption of seed shell is reduced.
Sugar used and the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent of the invention are to provide for sugar and calcium constituent needed for agrocybe growth, sugar For example can be sucrose or glucose, the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent for example can be calcium carbonate and pulverized limestone.
Embodiment 1
According to ramie accessory substance 15%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 15%, hemp accessory substance 15%, cotton seed hulls 33%, wheat bran 16%, Corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, so After add water to water content and reach 67.5% or so, stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, support Bacterium, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Embodiment 2
According to ramie accessory substance 20%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 20%, hemp accessory substance 20%, cotton seed hulls 18%, wheat bran 16%, Corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, so After add water to water content and reach 67.5% or so, stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, support Bacterium, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Embodiment 3
According to ramie accessory substance 17.5%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 17.5%, hemp accessory substance 17.4%, cotton seed hulls 29%, wheat Bran 12%, corn flour 5%, sucrose 0.5%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.6% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, pH It is worth for 6.5, then adds water to water content and reach 60% or so, stir, obtains culture matrix.Sterilized according to above-mentioned parameter, Inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Embodiment 4
According to ramie accessory substance 18%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 19%, hemp accessory substance 18.4%, cotton seed hulls 22%, wheat bran 18%, corn flour 2%, sucrose 1.5%, pulverized limestone 0.6%, calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, pH value For 6.5, then add water to water content and reach 70% or so, stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, connect Kind, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D1
According to ramie accessory substance 50% (mass percent, similarly hereinafter), cotton seed hulls 28%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sugarcane Sugar 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, is then added water to aqueous Amount reaches 67.5% or so, stirs, and obtains culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, Fruiting.
Comparative example D2
According to ramie accessory substance 78%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% Formula, is mixed to join in mixer, pH value is 6.5, then adds water to water content and reach 67.5% or so, stir, obtain Obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D3
According to bluish dogbane accessory substance 50%, cotton seed hulls 28%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, Calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, is then added water to water content and is reached 67.5% or so, Stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D4
According to bluish dogbane accessory substance 78%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% Formula, is mixed to join in mixer, pH value is 6.5, then adds water to water content and reach 67.5% or so, stir, obtain Obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D5
According to hemp accessory substance 30%, cotton seed hulls 48%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, Calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, is then added water to water content and is reached 67.5% or so, Stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D6
According to hemp accessory substance 50%, cotton seed hulls 28%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, Calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, is then added water to water content and is reached 67.5% or so, Stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D7
According to hemp accessory substance 78%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% Formula, is mixed to join in mixer, pH value is 6.5, then adds water to water content and reach 67.5% or so, stir, obtain Obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D8
According to ramie accessory substance 26%, bluish dogbane accessory substance 26%, hemp accessory substance 26%, cotton seed hulls 0%, wheat bran 16%, Corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, calcium carbonate 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, so After add water to water content and reach 67.5% or so, stir, obtain culture matrix.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, support Bacterium, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Comparative example D9
Control medium:According to cotton seed hulls 78%, wheat bran 16%, corn flour 4%, sucrose 1%, pulverized limestone 0.5%, carbonic acid Calcium 0.5% is formulated, and is mixed to join in mixer, and pH value is 6.5, is then added water to water content and is reached 67.5% or so, stirring Uniformly, culture matrix is obtained.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, flower bud, fruiting.
Implementation result
Above-described embodiment and comparative example are with the scale of each 40 bottles of processing, and formula is shown in Table 1, the result such as table 2 of processing.
Culture medium prescription table (the unit of table 1:Quality %)
The different substrates of table 2 proportioning cultivation agrocybe effect
Note:Same column difference lowercase letter indication difference significantly (P in table<0.05)
The agrocybe mycelium length of the embodiment of the present invention 1 and 2 is 0.293cmd-1~0.296cmd-1, one batch of fresh mushroom weight For 95.1g~97g, regrowth hair fresh mushroom weight is 49g~50g, and biological efficiency is 103%~105%.
Comparative example D9 contrast discoveries with not adding crudefiber crop accessory substance, the agrocybe mycelium length ratio of the embodiment of the present invention 1 and 2 Comparative example D9 improves 11%~12%, and one batch of fresh mushroom improves 16%~18% than comparative example D9 again, and regrowth hair fresh mushroom compares comparative example again D9 improves 25~28%, and biological efficiency improves 16.6%~18.6% than comparative example D9.
By D1 and D2, D3 and D4, D6 and D7 contrast are it can be found that the addition of cotton seed hulls is (although accordingly reduce crudefiber crop Accessory substance) heavy mycelium length, one batch of fresh mushroom, regrowth hair fresh mushroom weight and biological efficiency can be increased substantially.
D1, D3, D6 and D9 are contrasted and found, in the case where being added without crudefiber crop accessory substance, even if cotton seed hulls is significantly increased Amount, still result in mycelium length, one batch of fresh mushroom weight, regrowth hair fresh mushroom weight and slightly decline with biological efficiency.
Embodiment 2 and D8 are contrasted and found, in the case where the species and amount that crudefiber crop accessory substance is added are suitable, cotton is added without Seed shell can't cause heavy mycelium length, one batch of fresh mushroom, regrowth hair fresh mushroom weight and biological efficiency significant change.
D8 and D9 contrasts find that, in the case where the total amount of crudefiber crop accessory substance and cotton seed hulls is suitable, cotton seed hulls is to mycelia length Speed, one batch of fresh mushroom weight and biological efficiency impact effect are more notable.
Contrast D1, D3, D6 to find, the effect of three kinds of crudefiber crop accessory substances is substantially similar, but ramie accessory substance can be carried substantially High biological efficiency.
It can illustrate herein, the addition control of cotton seed hulls can improve effect within the specific limits, crudefiber crop accessory substance Effect to a certain extent can part replacement cotton seed hulls.Due to above-mentioned " effect of three kinds of crudefiber crop accessory substances is substantially similar ", Three kinds of crudefiber crop accessory substances be there is no indication that while the effect added can be more preferable than adding same amount of single crudefiber crop accessory substance.
But, embodiment 3 and D1, D3, D6 are contrasted, in the case where cotton seed hulls addition is essentially identical, three kinds of crudefiber crops The addition of accessory substance is a kind of than adding, and can significantly improve heavy mycelium length, one batch of fresh mushroom, regrowth hair fresh mushroom weight and biology effect Rate.
Therefore, certain Synergistic is generated between three kinds of crudefiber crop accessory substances and between cotton seed hulls in the present invention Effect.To make further contrast, using following cultivation matrixes:25-38 parts of industrial hemp cane bits, 35-53 parts of weed tree sawdusts, 16-20 portions of wheat bran, 0.8-1.2 portions of plaster of paris, 0.8-1.2 portions of sucrose.According to above-mentioned parameter sterilizing, inoculation, bacteria, mycelium stimulation, urge Flower bud, fruiting.Found by statistical analysis, the formula mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency are below comparative example D5.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of agrocybe cultivation matrix, it is characterised in that including following siccatives by weight percentage:Ramie accessory substance 15- 20%th, bluish dogbane accessory substance 15-20%, hemp accessory substance 15-20% and cotton seed hulls 18-33%, in addition also include wheat bran, jade Ground rice, sugar and the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent, wheat bran 12~18%, corn flour 2~5%, sugar 0.5~1.5%, the nothing containing calcium constituent Machine thing 0.8~1.2%.
2. agrocybe cultivation matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the accessory substance includes sesame slices and boon, no Including bast fiber.
3. the agrocybe cultivation matrix according to one of claim 1~2, it is characterised in that the inorganic matter containing calcium constituent For calcium carbonate and pulverized limestone, calcium carbonate/pulverized limestone=1:(0.8~1.2).
4. the agrocybe cultivation matrix according to one of claim 1~2, it is characterised in that the sugar is sucrose or grape Sugar.
5. the agrocybe cultivation matrix according to one of claim 1~2, it is characterised in that aqueous in the matrix to account for matrix total The 60~70% of weight, natural ph.
6. the preparation method of one of a kind of Claims 1 to 5 cultivation matrix, it is characterised in that by the crudefiber crop by-product after crushing Thing, cotton seed hulls, wheat bran, corn flour, sugar, calcium carbonate and pulverized limestone are mixed with water by the mass ratio, then enter horizontal high voltage Sterilizing.
7. the method that a kind of one of utilization Claims 1 to 55 cultivation matrix cultivates agrocybe, it is characterised in that including connecing Kind, culture, mycelium stimulation and flower bud, and the step of fruiting.
8. the method for cultivation agrocybe according to claim 7, it is characterised in that culture control temperature 22 DEG C~ 26 DEG C, humid control is 65~70%.
9. the method for cultivation agrocybe according to claim 7, it is characterised in that during flower bud, first three days is warm round the clock Difference is maintained at 15 DEG C~20 DEG C, and humidity is 90%~95%;Flower bud humidity is 85%~90% after 3 days;During fruiting, round the clock The temperature difference brings up to 20~25 DEG C, and humidity is 90%~95%.
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CN108967046A (en) * 2018-09-14 2018-12-11 江苏品品鲜生物科技有限公司 A kind of true pleurotus cornucopiae cultivation matrix and preparation method thereof
CN109197390A (en) * 2018-09-25 2019-01-15 中国农业科学院麻类研究所 A kind of edible fungus species Storaged media and its application and store method
CN110122173A (en) * 2019-06-06 2019-08-16 云南绿新生物药业有限公司 A method of hickory chick is planted using industrial hemp processing waste and hemp plantation soil
CN113229103A (en) * 2021-03-31 2021-08-10 黑龙江省科学院高技术研究院 Seedbed soil for rice seedling raising and seedling raising method thereof

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