CN105145489A - High-yield and high efficient culturing method for excellent food organism chiromidae larvae during aquaculture - Google Patents

High-yield and high efficient culturing method for excellent food organism chiromidae larvae during aquaculture Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105145489A
CN105145489A CN201510476324.7A CN201510476324A CN105145489A CN 105145489 A CN105145489 A CN 105145489A CN 201510476324 A CN201510476324 A CN 201510476324A CN 105145489 A CN105145489 A CN 105145489A
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pond
water
aquaculture
culturing
yield
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刘国锋
徐增洪
周鑫
水燕
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Freshwater Fisheries Research Center of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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Freshwater Fisheries Research Center of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates

Abstract

The invention provides a high-yield and high efficient culturing method for excellent food organism chiromidae larvae during aquaculture and belongs to the technical field of bait culturing during excellent fresh and alive bait culturing in aquaculture. The whole culturing process is formed by pond building, culture medium cast, seedling introduction, fertilizer application, pond beating, water body management and harvest as well as separation. The culturing pond is in a long strip shape with the length of 5 to 30m, the width of 1 to 1.2m and depth of 0.2 to 025m;a gradient is 0.5% to 1%; and a water discharging trench and a water discharging port are formed on one higher end. A chiromidae larvae high-efficient culturing technology is employed and waste material produced during agricultural production can be fully utilized to produce large scale of excellent fresh and alive chiromidae larvae in natural conditions; and biological baits for culturing products can be achieved.

Description

The high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture
Technical field
The present invention relates to the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in a kind of aquaculture, belong in aquaculture the bait cultural technique field of cultivating high-quality fresh living bait biology.
Background technology
Chironomus larvas belongs to the aquatic oligochaetes of Annelida, and body colour is scarlet, is worldwide kind, and live in the bed muds such as humus is many, the ditch of miniflow water, pond, lake or sewage, larva inhabits the place such as lakes and marhshes and storage cistern.Some kind utilizes algae, detritus, fine sand, mud etc. to nest with the filiform of salivary gland secretion, or utilizes water plants to nest.The general perch of Overwintering Larvae, on the shallow top layer of bed mud, is not nested.Due to chironomus larvas, to have crude protein content high, and nutrient component comprehensively and supply is more stable etc. that feature is widely used in the seed rearing of high-grade economic freshwater fish in recent years as desirable biological feed.As the early stage bait of crab opening, the palatability of chironomus larvas is better, can meet the nutrition physiology demand of bucket crab completely, significantly improve the survival rate of seed rearing.
At present, be mainly derived from natural rivers as the chironomus larvas of aquatic products bait supply in aquaculture to fish for.In the economic fish seed breeding phase, plant needs to engross chironomus larvas as bait deposit usually.In especially seedling fostering stage in aquaculture process, often need a large amount of open-mouthed baits based on chironomus larvas.Existing chironomus larvas supply is difficult to meet the need of market, and cultivates in actual production mainly with artificial feed of throwing something and feeding.Along with the rise in price of feed material and the raising of production cost, the benefit of high investment aquaculture model of artificial feed of throwing something and feeding in a large number declines year by year, the difficulty that increases income of raiser is also continuing to increase, and therefore must find new feed replacement technology to make up weak point in above-mentioned aquaculture.Utilize the waste material in agricultural production to produce chironomus larvas afterwards by fermentation, can effectively solve this contradiction, the discarded production material that rural area of simultaneously can dissolving is a large amount of, reach the object of recycling economy.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome above-mentioned weak point, the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality bait chironomus larvas in a kind of aquaculture is provided.
According to technical scheme provided by the invention, the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture, step is:
(1) pond is built: the culture pond cultivating chironomus larvas builds up strip, long 10-30 rice, wide 1-1.2 rice, dark 0.2-1.0 rice; The rectangular slab of stone that Chi Geng is the most handy 0.25 meter wide is built into, and also can construct with the building materials such as brick and cement, walks trample to facilitate feeding and management personnel.Preferably spread old-fashioned and inflexible at the bottom of pond or stamp tabia (pond, the hard end can not process).Require that pond has the ratio of 0.5%-1% to fall, and establish drain ditch and discharge outlet at higher one, drainage mouth all needs to install fence, in case the biological harmful animal such as fish, spiral shell is swarmed into.Culture pond will have certain length, otherwise feed, the very most of meeting of fertilizer of throwing in are taken away by flowing water.If when cannot build up rectangular pond by place restriction, can suit measures to local conditions to build up meander shape, circulation shape pond etc.
(2) medium is thrown in: the bed material of medium can be selected and be rich in organic mud, mixes into appropriate loose matter (bagasse etc.), organic matter (cow dung etc.).Program to culture pond filling medium is: first at the bottom of pond place mat one deck bagasse or other be rich in the fibre object of sugar, consumption is 2-3kg/m 2.Layer overlay mud immediately, makes gross thickness reach 10-12cm, adds water and floods basal plane immersion, basal dressing (fermentation maturity) after 2-3 days, and consumption is pig, ox, chicken manure 10kg/m altogether 2.Be about the mud of 3-5cm before inoculation again at surface paving thick layer, sprinkle the mixed feed such as wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour of skim through fermentation process, consumption is 150-250g/m 2.Finally add water, make water layer cultivation basal plane having 2-5cm.
(3) inoculate: be sprinkling upon equably on the cultivation basal plane of culture pond felling and transporting the kind of returning.The length of the size of inoculum concentration and the height of chironomus larvas output and distance first time harvest date is proportionate.
(4) topdress: after inoculation to before gathering every 10-15 days, every mu should impose the muck 200-250kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed; From beginning of gathering, after each receipts, impose muck 200-300kg at once, to promote the fast numerous speed of chironomus larvas long.Throw something and feed fertilizer time, should stir first dilute with water, except foreign material such as burring slags, more evenly splash in media surface, be sure not to spread into lumps and be deposited in culture pond.To water inlet be closed before feeding intake, scatter and disappear in order to avoid feed drifts about.
(5) pond, arena and water body manage: method is, with T-shaped wooden rake, the medium of culture pond is beaten 1 time in earnest, intentionally moss, weeds is beaten in mud.Beat the effect in pond, one is to prevent medium from hardening; Two is can by the metabolic waste of chironomus larvas, the pernicious gas expeling of raising (fertilizer) material decomposition generation; Three is numerous lifes that effectively can suppress moss, duckweed, weeds; Four is often to keep media surface smooth, is conducive to water flow stationary unimpeded.Depth of water regulation and control are more suitable at 3-5cm.The fair weather in early spring, daytime, Chi Shui can be more shallow, and to utilize solar energy to improve pond temperature, night then suitably deepens, in order to be incubated and antifreeze; Summer High Temperature phase Chi Shuiyi more deeply, to reduce light radiation.Too large current not only can be taken away and cultivate nutriment on basal plane and ovum cocoon, also can aggravate the physical consumption of chironomus larvas self, unfavorable to volume increase.But too small flow velocity even for a long time hydrostatic state is unfavorable for again the eliminating of the harmful substances such as the supply of dissolved oxygen and metabolic waste, thus causes water quality deterioration, chironomus larvas mortality.Usually every mu of culturing pool has the flow of 5-10 kilogram each second.Chironomus larvas is very responsive to harmful substances such as water Pesticides, so the pastille Chi Shui of industrial wastewater, the water in field just spraying agricultural chemicals or treatment fish disease can not enter cultivate pond.
(6) gather and be separated: the fertility of chironomus larvas is extremely strong.Newly-built culture pond inoculation just entered Period of reproductive peak after 25-35 days, and can keep flourishing long time always.But the life-span of chironomus larvas is not long, therefore gathering in time is also one of key measure obtaining high yield.Collecting method can take overnight cut off the water supply or reduce discharge, causes pond anoxic, and chironomus larvas clustering is now agglomerating, the floating water surface.Within 2nd day, just can dip worm group in water with the dab net that polyethylene screen cloth is made easily early in the morning.The amount of gathering of each polypide is as the criterion with " the worm group " dragged on light cultivation basal plane.This amount of gathering can not affect its population regularities power, and polypide also can not be caused not in time to sprout wings and reduce output because gathering.
Beneficial effect of the present invention: the present invention adopts the efficient raising technology of this chironomus larvas, the waste material that can make full use of in agricultural production produces the fresh and alive chironomus larvas of high-quality, under field conditions (factors) in a large number as the biological feed of cultured product.
Embodiment
The related facility of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas high yielding culture technology in aquaculture provided by the invention, is made up of cultivation pond, medium, miniflow water system.First pond is built, bottom pond, spread medium, cladding thickness is the sediment of pond of 10cm, then adds medium according to demand, stirs evenly with sediments, starts to cultivate after pouring water.
Embodiment 1
(1) pond is built: long 5-10m is built up, wide 1.2m, dark 0.25m in the pond of cultivating chironomus larvas.Establish drain ditch and discharge outlet at higher one, drainage mouth all installs fence, in case the biological harmful animal such as fish, spiral shell is swarmed into.
(2) medium is thrown in: the bed material of medium can be selected and be rich in organic mud, mixes into appropriate loose matter (bagasse etc.), organic matter (cow dung etc.).First layer overlay mud at the bottom of pond, makes gross thickness reach 10-12cm, then throws in medium (adopting the medium that Hai'an, Jiangsu produces in present case) and with rake mixing, adds water and flood basal plane immersion, make water layer cultivation basal plane having 2-5cm.
(3) inoculate: be sprinkling upon equably on the cultivation basal plane of culture pond felling and transporting the chironomus larvas kind of returning.
(4) topdress: after inoculation to before gathering every 10-15 days, every mu should impose the muck 200kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed; From beginning of gathering, after each receipts, impose muck 200kg/ mu at once, to promote the fast numerous speed of chironomus larvas long.Throw something and feed fertilizer time, should stir first dilute with water, except foreign material such as burring slags, more evenly splash in media surface.
(5) pond, arena and water body manage: method is, with T-shaped wooden rake, the medium in pond is beaten 1 time in earnest, intentionally moss, weeds is beaten in mud.Depth of water regulation and control are more suitable at 3-5cm.Every mu of culturing pool has the flow of 5-10kg each second.
(6) gather and be separated: newly-built pond just enters Period of reproductive peak after inoculating 30 days, and can keep flourishing long time always.Collecting method can take overnight cut off the water supply or reduce discharge, causes pond anoxic, and chironomus larvas clustering is now agglomerating, the floating water surface.Within 2nd day, just can dip worm group in water with the dab net that polyethylene screen cloth is made easily early in the morning.The amount of gathering of each polypide is as the criterion with the worm group dragged on light cultivation basal plane.
Embodiment 2
The high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture, step is:
(1) build pond: set up the culture pond cultivating chironomus larvas, culture pond is strip, meander ring stream shape, long 30m, wide 1.2m, dark 0.8m; Than reducing to 1%, establish drain ditch and discharge outlet at higher one, drainage mouth all installs fence;
(2) medium is thrown in: place mat one deck loose matter bottom culturing pool, consumption is 3kg/m 2, layer overlay mud immediately, makes gross thickness reach 12cm, and add water and flood basal plane immersion, basal dressing after 3 days, fertilizing amount is 10kg/m 2, again at the mud of surface paving thick layer 5cm before inoculation, sprinkle skim mixed feed, consumption is 250g/m 2; Finally add water, make the water layer having 5cm above cultivation basal plane;
(3) inoculate: be sprinkling upon on the cultivation basal plane of culture pond equably by felling and transporting the chironomus larvas returned; Control temperature is 25 DEG C, pH8, and Dissolved Oxygen in Water content is 5mg/L;
(4) topdress: after inoculation to before gathering every 20 days, impose the muck 200kg/ mu that becomes thoroughly decomposed; From beginning of gathering, after each receipts, impose muck 300kg/ mu at once;
(5) pond, arena and water body manage: the medium of culture pond is beaten dynamic 1 time with T-shaped wooden rake, moss, weeds are beaten in mud, and depth of water regulation and control are at 5cm, and flow is 10kg/s;
(6) gather and be separated: newly-built culture pond just enters Period of reproductive peak after inoculating 30 days, when gathering, overnight is cut off the water supply or is reduced discharge, cause pond anoxic, larva now can emersion to the water surface clustering agglomerating, within second day, dip worm group in water early in the morning with the dab net that polyethylene screen cloth is made, the amount of gathering is as the criterion with the worm group dragged on light cultivation basal plane at every turn.
Embodiment 3
The high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture, step is:
(1) build pond: set up the culture pond cultivating chironomus larvas, culture pond is strip, meander ring stream shape, long 15m, wide 1.1m, dark 0.5m; Than reducing to 0.8%, establish drain ditch and discharge outlet at higher one, drainage mouth all installs fence;
(2) medium is thrown in: place mat one deck loose matter bottom culture pond, consumption is 2kg/m 2, layer overlay mud immediately, makes gross thickness reach 10cm, and add water and flood basal plane immersion, basal dressing after 2 days, fertilizing amount is 8kg/m 2, again at the mud of surface paving thick layer 4cm before inoculation, sprinkle skim mixed feed, consumption is 200g/m 2; Finally add water, make the water layer having 4cm above cultivation basal plane;
(3) inoculate: be sprinkling upon on the cultivation basal plane of culture pond equably by felling and transporting the chironomus larvas returned; Control temperature is 23 DEG C, pH7, and Dissolved Oxygen in Water content is 4mg/L;
(4) topdress: after inoculation to before gathering every 20 days, impose the muck 200kg/ mu that becomes thoroughly decomposed; From beginning of gathering, after each receipts, impose muck 250kg/ mu at once;
(5) pond, arena and water body manage: the medium of culture pond is beaten dynamic 1 time with T-shaped wooden rake, moss, weeds are beaten in mud, and depth of water regulation and control are at 4cm, and flow is 8kg/s;
(6) gather and be separated: newly-built culture pond just enters Period of reproductive peak after inoculating 30 days, when gathering, overnight is cut off the water supply or is reduced discharge, cause pond anoxic, larva now can emersion to the water surface clustering agglomerating, within second day, dip worm group in water early in the morning with the dab net that polyethylene screen cloth is made, the amount of gathering is as the criterion with the worm group dragged on light cultivation basal plane at every turn.
It should be noted that, the above-mentioned culture pond mentioned is built, the using and miniflow water technology of medium, not only comprise the artificial indoors artificial culture system built, be also included within the dissimilar water body such as river course, river bend, arm of lake, the present invention does not limit this.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all any amendments done within the spirit and principles in the present invention, equivalent replacement and improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture, is characterized in that step is:
(1) build pond: set up the culture pond cultivating chironomus larvas, culture pond is strip, meander ring stream shape, long 5-30m, wide 1-1.2m, dark 0.2-1.0m; Than reducing to 0.5%-1%, establish drain ditch and discharge outlet at higher one, drainage mouth all installs fence;
(2) medium is thrown in: place mat one deck loose matter bottom culture pond, consumption is 2-3kg/m 2, layer overlay mud immediately, makes gross thickness reach 10-12cm, and add water and flood basal plane immersion, basal dressing after 2-3 days, fertilizing amount is 5-10kg/m 2, again at the mud of surface paving thick layer 3-5cm before inoculation, sprinkle skim mixed feed, consumption is 150-250g/m 2; Finally add water, make the water layer having 2-5cm above cultivation basal plane;
(3) inoculate: be sprinkling upon on the cultivation basal plane of culture pond equably by felling and transporting the chironomus larvas returned; Control temperature is 20-25 DEG C, pH7-8, and Dissolved Oxygen in Water content is 4-5mg/L;
(4) topdress: after inoculation to before gathering every 20 days, impose the muck 200kg/ mu that becomes thoroughly decomposed; From beginning of gathering, after each receipts, impose muck 200-300kg/ mu at once;
(5) pond, arena and water body manage: the medium of culture pond is beaten dynamic 1 time with T-shaped wooden rake, moss, weeds are beaten in mud, and depth of water regulation and control are at 3-5cm, and flow is 5-10kg/s;
(6) gather and be separated: newly-built culture pond just enters Period of reproductive peak after inoculating 30 days, when gathering, overnight is cut off the water supply or is reduced discharge, cause pond anoxic, larva now can emersion to the water surface clustering agglomerating, within second day, dip worm group in water early in the morning with the dab net that polyethylene screen cloth is made, the amount of gathering is as the criterion with the worm group dragged on light cultivation basal plane at every turn.
2. the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: the rectangular slab of stone that in step (1), culture pond Chi Geng 0.25m is wide is built into, or constructs with building materials; Spread old-fashioned and inflexible at the bottom of pond or stamp tabia.
3. the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: in step (2) loose matter be bagasse or other be rich in the fibre object of sugar; Described base manure is one or more mixture of the pig of fermentation maturity, ox or chicken manure; Mixed feed is the mixture of one or more in the wheat bran of fermentation process, rice bran or corn flour.
4. the high-yield and high-efficiency cultural method of high-quality food organisms chironomus larvas in aquaculture as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: mud described in step (2) throw in before through 60 eye mesh screens, to remove comparatively ratchel, foreign material.
CN201510476324.7A 2015-08-06 2015-08-06 High-yield and high efficient culturing method for excellent food organism chiromidae larvae during aquaculture Pending CN105145489A (en)

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CN108094768A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-06-01 吉林农业大学 It cultivates wriggler stalk fermentation matrix and its cultivates wriggler method
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CN108477080A (en) * 2018-03-23 2018-09-04 福建省淡水水产研究所 The enrichment procedure of high-quality biological feed chironomus larvas in a kind of rice fish culture
WO2022024588A1 (en) * 2020-07-28 2022-02-03 株式会社日立製作所 Sludge processing system and sludge processing method

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Application publication date: 20151216