CN104718837A - Method for deepening and fertilizing middle-low yield argil rice field plough layer - Google Patents

Method for deepening and fertilizing middle-low yield argil rice field plough layer Download PDF

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CN104718837A
CN104718837A CN201510144380.0A CN201510144380A CN104718837A CN 104718837 A CN104718837 A CN 104718837A CN 201510144380 A CN201510144380 A CN 201510144380A CN 104718837 A CN104718837 A CN 104718837A
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soil
fertilizer
carclazyte
rice
paddy
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CN104718837B (en
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李录久
吴萍萍
王家嘉
樊洪金
马连
黄厚宽
汪明云
杨华
张华�
郭海
杨生华
桂召贵
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Institute of Soil and Fertilizer of Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Soil and Fertilizer of Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for deepening and fertilizing a middle-low yield argil rice field plough layer in the hilly areas of south China. The technology for direct wheat straw field return for soil improvement, the technology for applying organic fertilizer, curing the plough layer and improving soil fertility, the technology for deeply ploughing soil to transform the bad soil structure of middle-low yield argil, the technology for applying a soil conditioner to neutralizing hazardous substances, the technology for rice optimization fertilizer application and nitrogenous fertilizer operation management for soil nutrient balance, the technology for improving the soil nutrient deficiency condition and recovering soil fertility through scientific crop rotation and the like are integrated.

Description

A kind ofly middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer is made to deepen thick fertile method
Technical field
The present invention relates to farmland soil modifying and soil fertility fermenting fertilizer field, is exactly a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method.
Background technology
Carclazyte is one of large low yield paddy soil type of south China 5, national total area more than 1,000 ten thousand mu, mainly be distributed on the south the Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River of Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Henan etc. economizing, the wide geographic area in the middle and lower reach of Yangtze River and slightly south thereof, carclazyte SOIL DISTRIBUTION is wider, and area is larger.The carclazyte masses are referred to as " clear carclazyte ", " shallow lake plate soil ", " yellowish-white soil ", " bluish white soil ", " horse liver soil " etc., be originating primarily from Xiashu loess matrix, produce carclazyte process mainly soil pour water by earth's surface, draining, the long-term leaching of natural rain etc., rinsing, impact is oozed in side, topsoil soils clay is caused constantly to be flushed away loss, top soil body soil clay particle content constantly reduces, and flour sand content obviously raises, plough horizon becomes shallow gradually simultaneously, generally only has 9-11cm, significantly lower than the suitable plow layer of other soil types or 20cm thickness.
In recent years along with the development of industrial or agricultural and urbanization, Farmer Labors in City is worked and is increased, rural laborer's wretched insufficiency, the farming peasant that is in mostly is the old,weak,sick and disabled person, seldom have the ability to carry out soil deep tillage farming as traditional farming, many employings tractor carries out rotary tillage operation, and tilth generally only has 8-10cm.In addition the rolling of large-scale harvester tool during crop harvesting, causes plough horizon to shoal year by year.
There is more barrier factors in the shallow carclazyte of topsoil, there is a series of bad proterties: soil clay particle content is low, flour sand content is high, there is deposit and the albic horizon of flour sand shape, sand glues out of proportion, and nutrient is deficient, and soil fertility is barren, organic and effective N-P-K content is lower, the microelement deficiencies such as zinc; Replacement amount is little, and fertilizer conservation water-holding capacity is low; Unit weight is large, and effecive porosity is little, and venting and water permeable ability is weak, and aqueous vapor contradiction is serious, and more weak to the capacity of self-regulation of liquid manure gas heat, resistance is poor; Soil heat preservation ability is weak, soil is tight-lipped, and soil structure is poor, and it is weak that knot holds power, easily determines pulpboard knot, and suitable to plough the phase short, and when soil moisture content is bad, difficult difficulty of ploughing is harrowed, and rice transplanting is as not in time, and delayed rice transplanting or to do other farm work very difficult, easily misses the farming season.During rice cultivation, rice shoot tiller is slow, tillers few; During plantation Dry crop, easily harden after soil rain, often have an appointment the duricrust of 0-1.5cm in earth's surface, seedling is difficult to be unearthed, and emergence rate is low.Production shows as crop growing state difference, plant is thin and weak, and resistance is poor, and the later stage is easily de-fertile, and paddy rice middle and later periods leaf look dim, and yield level becomes lower than the 2-3 of local average yield.Therefore, carclazyte is a kind of typical middle low yield Types of Paddy Soils of south China.
Carclazyte area, Yangze river and Huai river hills between the Changjiang river-Huaihe River, the Qinling Mountains, the important agricultural producing areas of China, traffic convenience, photo-thermal water resource is enriched, densely populated, and agricultural production is flourishing, the richly endowed plentifulness of produce, crop yield is high, output capacity is high, is the important producing region of China paddy rice, wheat and rape, Ye Shi China grain, the important output area of oil plant.Therefore, deepen carclazyte plow layer thickness, farming area in Zuogong soil, fertile topsoil, increase soil fertility, for crop growth creates a loose fertile plow layer, to crop yields such as raising paddy rice, wheat and rapes, ensure national food security, promotion agricultural sustainable development all to there is important function.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides and be a kind ofly applicable to the method that southern area thickens fertile middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer, be integrated with wheat stalk direct returning to farmland conditioned soil soil technology, application of organic fertilizers fertilizing soil technology, soil deep tillage transformation carclazyte adverse soil mass construction techniques, enrich lime and regulate in soil acidity and farmland organic acid and poisonous and harmful substance technology, whole to form with the innovation such as paddy rice Optimum Fertilization Using, crop science crop rotation balanced soil nutrient technology.Apply this technology, straw light can be implemented after wheat or rape harvest and simplify quick direct returning to farmland, alleviate peasant's labour intensity, make full use of stalk nutrients resource, discharge N P and K and middle amount and micronutrient element for rice in utilization, improve utilization rate of fertilizer, reduce applying quantity of chemical fertilizer, reduce agriculture production cost, reduce crop straw burning, protection of the environment; Deepen plow layer thickness, improvement soil culture fertility, improves soil organic matter content simultaneously, promote that granular structure is formed, improve soil physical property, improve carclazyte fertilizer conservation water retention capacity, create a deep fertile soil plow layer, improve crop yield, promote agricultural sustainable development.
Make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen a thick fertile method, it is characterized in that:
Comprise following operating procedure:
(1) straw-returning, improvement soil
At the beginning of annual mid or late May to 6 month, carclazyte Tanaka, wheat maturation is gathered in the crops afterwards in time, implements straw directly returning to field, improvement soil;
(2) applying organic manure, slaking plow layer
Enrich the high-quality fertilizer 20-30t/hm become thoroughly decomposed 2, holostrome spreads fertilizer over the fields, and accelerates wheat stalk and rots to degrade, farming area in Zuogong soil, the plow layer of slaking rich soil;
(3) soil is ploughed deeply, transformation carclazyte adverse soil mass configuration
Plough deeply soil with the tractor of band trench plow, the clay below topsoil is turned over plough and comes up, thicken plow layer, increase topsoil clay content, regulate soil particle composition; Ploughing depth 16-18cm, turns over button and turns up soil tight, turned over by the wheat stalk of 90-95% and be embedded in the plough horizon of 11-16cm; Soil deep tillage need carry out 3-5 continuously, carries out once every year; First time ploughing depth 16-17cm, deepens 1-2cm gradually every year later, finally makes carclazyte plow layer thickness remain on 19-21cm;
(4) use soil conditioner, in and harmful substance
To pour water in time soaked field after implementing the soil deep tillage of the carclazyte field of straw directly returning to field, softening stalk, makes compost; Keep field water floor height in soil surface 0.5-1.5cm, make all to turn over the soil of ploughing and can be soaked in water; Spread fertilizer over the fields soil conditioner quicklime after soaked field 3-5 days, or dolomite dust or ash, regulate soil acidity, make its pH between 6.5-7.5, simultaneously and poisonous and harmful substance;
(5) Optimum and N-fertilizer management, balanced soil nutrient
Use base manure after the acid adjustment of soaked field, carry out Optimum, balanced soil nutrient; Fertilizing amount according to Labile soil organic carbon and rice varieties, the time of infertility nitrogenous fertilizer by N, phosphate fertilizer by P 2o 5k pressed by meter, potash fertilizer 2o meter, zinc fertilizer are by ZnO, and amount of application is respectively 150-210kg/hm 2, 50-80kg/hm 2, 60-100kg/hm 2and 3-5kg/hm 2; Base manure made by the nitrogenous fertilizer of 60% and potash fertilizer and all phosphate fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, uses before whole ground; The rear small tractor that applies fertilizer carries out whole harrowing a field with small-sized creeper, and rake the soil level degree of depth 7-9cm, rakes gently; Whole ground is timely transplanting rice rice shoot afterwards; Fertile and the potash fertilizer of remaining N topdresses, at twice in rice plant of tillering stage and booting stage respectively equivalent use;
(6) science crop rotation, recovers soil fertility
Chinese milk vetch is planted after rice harves, or pea or broad bean, carry out paddy rice--Chinese milk vetch, or paddy rice--pea or paddy rice--broad bean crop rotation; Or plant rape or vegetables, carry out paddy rice--rape or paddy rice--vegetable crop rotation, correct soil nutrient nutritional deficiency situation, recover soil fertility.
Described a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: the one of described carclazyte Tian Weicheng carclazyte field, carclazyte field, shallow lake, yellowish-white native field, horse liver soil field and bluish white native Tanaka.
Described a kind ofly middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer is made to deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: described straw directly returning to field refers to: after the wheat maturation of carclazyte field, use the combine getting wheat of band cutter sweep, while results, wheat stalk is cut to the length of 5-10cm, retains the arrish of 10-12cm height; Implement returning total stalks into fields, wheat stalk farm implements in heaps are spread out and spreads fertilizer over the fields evenly; Enrich carbonic hydroammonium 150-180kg/hm 2or urea 50-60kg/hm 2, regulate stalk C/N ratio to 5-6:1; Enrich stalk quick composting agent 50-60kg/hm 2, accelerate stalk and rot to degrade; The process of wheat stalk direct returning to farmland can be omitted in the carclazyte rice field that winter, wheat was not planted in leisure.
Described a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: also field operation is similar to wheat stalk for rape stalk.
Described a kind ofly middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer is made to deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: in step (5), nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and zinc fertilizer kind are respectively carbonic hydroammonium, superphosphate, potassium chloride and white vitriol, and consumption is followed successively by 530-740kg/hm 2, 410-670kg/hm 2, 60-100kg/hm 2and 15-25kg/hm 2, all use as base manure.In step (5), the kind of topdressing of nitrogenous fertilizer and potash fertilizer is respectively urea and potassium chloride, and consumption is respectively 130-180kg/hm 2and 40-60kg/hm 2.
Concrete operation method of the present invention is as follows:
Make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen a thick fertile method, comprise following operating procedure:
(1) straw-returning improvement soil annual late May is to early June, the Yangze river and Huai river hills between the Changjiang river-Huaihe River, the Qinling Mountains and adjacent domain carclazyte field thereof, results in time of racing against time after wheat maturation.Use the combine getting wheat with cutter sweep, while results, wheat stalk is cut, be switched to 8-10cm length, retain the arrish of 10-12cm height.Under normal weather conditions, wheat normal growth development condition, implement wheat stalk full dose direct returning to farmland.Wheat stalk farm implements in heaps are spread out and spreads fertilizer over the fields evenly.Enrich carbonic hydroammonium 150-180kg/hm 2or urea 50-60kg/hm 2, regulate wheat stalk C/N ratio to 5-6:1.Peasant household with good conditionsi enriches straw decomposing inoculant 40-60kg/hm 2, the dry fine earth mixing and stirring 3 times of quantity spreads fertilizer over the fields, and accelerates stalk and rots to degrade.Chemical fertilizer and straw decomposing inoculant are evenly spread fertilizer over the fields above stalk respectively.Rape stalk also field can refer to wheat stalk or interrelated data carries out.Winter, the field of leisure can use wheat stalk 4500kg/hm in addition 2, or rape stalk 3000kg/hm 2also field.Straw-returning also can not be carried out in area without stalk resource, omits the operating process of straw directly returning to field.
(2) applying organic manure slaking plow layer culture fertility enriches high-quality fertilizer through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed as person poultry muck 20-30t/hm such as pig manure, chicken manure, cow dungs 2, holostrome evenly spreads fertilizer over the fields on stalk, accelerates stalk and rots to degrade, promote that soil aggregate is formed, farming area in Zuogong soil, the plow layer of slaking rich soil.
(3) large and middle tractor ploughing deeply soil remediation carclazyte adverse soil mass configuration band trench plow ploughs deeply soil, break continuous rotary tillage in recent years and lack the blocked up tillage pan ploughed deeply farming and formed, clay below topsoil and clay loam are turned over plough come up, increase plow layer thickness, improve topsoil clay content, reduce flour sand content, regulate soil sand to glue ratio, the bad proterties of improvement carclazyte topsoil flour sand too high levels, improves soil water-reataining fertilizer-keeping ability.Ploughing depth 16-18cm, turns over button and turns up soil tight, turned over by the wheat stalk of 90-95% and be embedded in the plough horizon of 11-16cm.Soil deep tillage needs to carry out 3-5 continuously, and first time ploughing depth 16-17cm, deepens 1-2cm every year later, finally make plow layer thickness remain on 19-21cm.
(4) to use in modifying agent and harmful substance implement the field soil deep tillage of straw directly returning to field after to pour water in time soaked field, make compost.Sufficient irrigation, keeps field water layer depth higher than soil 0.5-1.5cm, makes all to turn over the soil of ploughing and can be soaked in water, stalk is fully absorbed water softening, be convenient to make compost and later stage rice transplanting.The soaked field later stage uses soil conditioner quicklime or white clouds or ash, regulates soil acidity, makes pH be held in 6,5-7.5, simultaneously sweetening of the soil organic acid and poisonous and harmful substance.Quicklime amount of application is 120-150kg/hm 2.
(5) Optimum and nitrogen potash fertilizer management balanced soil nutrient used base manure after soaked field 3-5 days, carried out Optimum, balanced soil nutrient.Fertilizing amount according to soil fertility basis and rice varieties characteristic, whether application of organic fertilizers and enforcement straw-returning, the time of infertility nitrogenous fertilizer by N, phosphate fertilizer by P 2o 5k pressed by meter, potash fertilizer 2o meter, zinc fertilizer are by ZnO, and amount of application is respectively 150-210kg/hm 2, 50-80kg/hm 2, 60-100kg/hm 2and 3-5kg/hm 2; Base manure made by the nitrogenous fertilizer of 60% and potash fertilizer and all phosphate fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, uses before whole ground; The rear small tractor that applies fertilizer carries out whole harrowing a field with small-sized creeper, and rake the soil level degree of depth 7-9cm, rakes gently, prevents from excessively harrowing a field being turned over to bring up by buried wheat stalk floating on the water surface, affects follow-up rice transplanting.Whole ground is timely transplanting seedlings afterwards, prevents carclazyte paddy soil shallow lake pulpboard knot, rice transplanting difficulty.Fertile and the potash fertilizer of remaining N topdresses, at twice in rice plant of tillering stage and booting stage respectively equivalent use;
(6) after science crop rotation recovers soil fertility rice harves, Chinese milk vetch is planted to the carclazyte field of leisure in winter, or pea or broad bean, carry out paddy rice--Chinese milk vetch, or paddy rice--pea or paddy rice--broad bean crop rotation, makes full use of leguminous plant nitrogen fixing capacity and root system penetration capacity and to foster and apply fertilizer vegetable soil.Also wheat planting district plantation rape or vegetables, paddy rice--rape or paddy rice--vegetable crop rotation can be carried out, correct soil nutrient nutritional deficiency situation, recover soil fertility.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is:
Compared with existing farming technique, of the present inventionly thicken fertile carclazyte topsoil method, add straw-returning improvement soil, applying organic manure is fostered and apply fertilizer plow layer, plough deeply soil remediation carclazyte adverse soil mass configuration, use in soil conditioner and harmful substance, Optimum and process and the technological means such as N-fertilizer management balanced soil nutrient and crop science crop rotation recovery soil fertility, nearly be only rotary tillage lack deep ploughing formed deep tillage pan break, increase plow layer thickness, and the bottom soil body is glued heavy clay or clay loam and turn over plough and come up, increase topsoil clay content, reduce powder sand grain content, soil sand is regulated to glue ratio, strengthen the permeable ventilation capacity of the soil body, improvement soil, culture fertility, regulate acidity, improve the bad physical behavior of carclazyte, improve soil body preserve moisture and fertility ability, for crop growth creates a loose fertile plow layer environment, and optimizing application fertilising and nitrogenous fertilizer, potash fertilizer is planned strategies for administrative skill, facilitate the raising of plant growth and output, overcome common straw-returning stalk and accumulate in the drawback that upper soll layer affects rice transplanting, avoid routine to plough deeply farming and lack to foster and apply fertilizer and cause that the top layer immature soil is too much, nutrient is deficient and imbalance causes crop failure, decrease crop straw burning, alleviate environmental pollution, there is the multiple effects such as recycle stalk and fertilizer nutrients resource, farming area in Zuogong soil remediation middle-and-low-yielding fields promote productivity of cultivated land, volume increase abridged edition increases income and preserve the ecological environment.
Of the present inventionly thicken fertile middle low yield carclazyte Tagayasu Den and be applicable to Anhui, Hubei, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Henan and Jiangxi etc. as layer method and economize carclazyte area.Through Changfeng County, Anhui Province, Feixi County etc., many ground is tested for many years, and the demonstration in the district of multiple counties and cities of city such as Hefei, Mount Huang, Xuancheng, Chuzhou, Huainan, six peaces, Wuhu and applying, thicken fertile middle low yield carclazyte rice field effect very remarkable, more obvious to low yield carclazyte effect.Application the present invention-thicken fertile middle low yield carclazyte field plow layer technology, soil plough horizon thickness increases 0.7-1.1cm, and unit weight reduces 6.4-9.2%, and porosity increases 3.9-5.8 percentage point, and permeable ventilation capacity strengthens.Clay content increases 2.5%, and sand grains and powder sand grain content reduce by 1.8 and 0.9 percentage points, >2mm bulky grain water-stable aggregate showed increased, and carclazyte unit weight bad physical behavior that is too high and shallow lake pulpboard knot is improved.Soil organic matter content increases by 8.7%, and full nitrogen and content of tatal phosphorus raise 9.9% and 10.5% respectively; Soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content increases by 11.8%, and available phosphorus improves 9.4%, and available potassium increases by 15.5%, and cation exchange capacity improves 19.1%.Rice grain increase of production 15.6%, increases income 2536 yuan/hm 2.Fertilizer utilization efficiency improves 10.2%, and nutrient loss reduces.Meanwhile, crop straw burning reduces, and improve air and environmental quality, ecological environment benefit is very remarkable.
The invention discloses one to be applicable to hilly regions in south China and to make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, be integrated with low yield carclazyte adverse soil mass construction techniques in wheat stalk direct returning to farmland conditioned soil soil technology, applying organic manure slaking plow layer culture fertility technology, soil deep tillage transformation, use in soil conditioner and harmful substance technology, paddy rice Optimum balanced soil nutrient technology, crop science crop rotation are corrected soil nutritional deficiency situation and recovered the contents such as soil fertility technology.Compared with existing farming technique, of the present inventionly thicken fertile carclazyte topsoil method, add straw directly returning to field improvement soil, application of organic fertilizers is fostered and apply fertilizer plow layer, plough deeply soil remediation carclazyte adverse soil mass configuration, enrich lime and regulate soil acidity sweetening of the soil poisonous and harmful substance, optimize fertilization of rice balanced soil nutrient, and crop science crop rotation recovers process and the technological means such as soil fertility, by only carry out in recent years rotary tillage operation lack deep ploughing formed deep tillage pan break, increase carclazyte paddy field plow layer thickness, improve topsoil clay content, soil sand is regulated to glue ratio, strengthen the permeable ventilation capacity of the soil body, improvement soil, culture fertility, for crop growth creates a loose fertile plow layer environment, and apply paddy rice nitrogen potash fertilizer pipe and to plan strategies for reason technology, facilitate the raising of paddy growth and output, overcome common straw-returning stalk and accumulate in the drawback that upper soll layer affects rice transplanting, avoid routine to plough deeply farming and lack to foster and apply fertilizer and cause that the top layer immature soil is too much, nutrient is deficient and imbalance causes crop failure, decrease crop straw burning, alleviate environmental pollution, there is the multiple effects such as recycle stalk and fertilizer nutrients resource, farming area in Zuogong soil remediation middle-and-low-yielding fields promote productivity of cultivated land, volume increase abridged edition increases income and preserve the ecological environment.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment, the present invention is further illustrated.
Embodiment 1
A kind of effect-2012 making middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method year field comparative's test (place: Luo Tang township, Changfeng County, Anhui Province).
Be the white-clay type paddy soil that planform image matching is grown for examination soil, organic and available state N P and K and Zn content all lower, rice yield is low and unstable for a long time, be typical in low yield paddy field.
A kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method to comprise following 6 operating procedures:
(1) before straw-returning improvement soil wheat in May maturation, the convenient part of local transit select in advance 1 fertility evenly, irrigation and drainage easily in low yield carclazyte rice field, area about 2 mu.After late May wheat maturation, results in time of racing against time.Use the combine getting wheat with cutter sweep, while results, wheat stalk is cut to 5-10cm length, the arrish height of reservation is at 10-12cm.Manually do the ridge of a wide 80cm of high 50cm at the middle part of field after harvesting wheat and spread plastic film, rice field is divided into 2 pieces, wherein one piece of application method of the present invention is implemented to thicken rich soil plow layer technology, referred to as " thick fertile topsoil " process, and another block CK in contrast.The field of " thick fertile topsoil ", implements wheat stalk total crop return, uses farm implements to be spread out wheat stalk in heaps and spreads fertilizer over the fields evenly.Meanwhile, carbonic hydroammonium 150kg/hm is enriched 2and stalk quick composting agent 60kg/hm 2, straw decomposing inoculant mixes and stirs the dry fine earth of 3 times of quantity.Chemical fertilizer and straw decomposing inoculant are evenly spread fertilizer over the fields above stalk respectively.Contrast field, hugs clean with farm implements by stalk and shifts out, and according to peasant's Normal practice rotary tillage in former years 8-10cm, fertilising also wholely, plants same rice seedling with " thick fertile topsoil " field same time, same specification.
(2) applying organic manure vegetable soil plow layer, culture fertility enriches the high-quality fertilizer through fully becoming thoroughly decomposed--pig manure 22.5t/hm 2(fresh weight), holostrome spreads fertilizer over the fields, the plow layer of slaking rich soil.
(3) soil deep tillage farming transformation carclazyte adverse soil mass configuration is with the large and middle tractor ploughing deeply plough to carry out soil deep tillage to " thick fertile topsoil " field, break the blocked up tillage pan in recent years formed, clay below topsoil and clay loam are all turned over plough come up, increase plow layer thickness.Ploughing depth controls at 16-18cm, turns over button and turns up soil tight, turned over by the crops straw of 90-95% and be embedded in the plough horizon of 11-16cm.
(4) use in soil conditioner and soaked field of pouring water in time after harmful substance soil deep tillage, make compost.To pour water abundance, keep field water layer depth higher than soil 0.5-1.5cm, make all to turn over the soil of ploughing and can be soaked in water.Use quicklime 150kg/hm 2, regulate soil acidity in 6.5-7.5, simultaneously harmful and noxious substance in sweetening of the soil.
(5) Optimum and use base manure after N-fertilizer management balanced soil nutrient soaked field 3-5 days.According to test rice varieties used, in conjunction with wheat stalk direct returning to farmland and the fertilizer used, the time of infertility nitrogenous fertilizer by N, phosphate fertilizer by P 2o 5k pressed by meter, potash fertilizer 2o meter, zinc fertilizer are by ZnO, and amount of application is respectively 180,90,90 and 5kg/hm 2.Base manure made by the nitrogenous fertilizer of 60% and potash fertilizer and all phosphate fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, uses before whole ground, and 40% remaining nitrogen potash fertilizer topdresses.The rear small tractor that applies fertilizer carries out whole harrowing a field with small-sized creeper, and the degree of depth of raking the soil level rests in 7-9cm, rakes gently, prevents from buried wheat stalk to turn over to bring out.Whole ground is timely transplanting seedlings afterwards.
(6) science crop rotation plants rape after recovering soil fertility rice harves, carries out paddy rice-rape rotation, makes full use of the penetration capacity culture fertility of rape root, vegetable soil, corrects soil nutritional deficiency situation, recovers soil fertility.
Comparative test result, applies " thick fertile topsoil " of the present invention technology, and carclazyte paddy field plow layer thickness increases to 16.5cm by the 15.8cm contrasted and thickens 0.7cm increase by 4.4%; The bulk density of soil is by the 1.670g/cm contrasted 3be down to 1.516g/cm 3reduce by 9.2%; Soil porosity increases to 42.79% raising 5.81 percentage points by 36.98%, and venting and water permeable ability strengthens, and carclazyte unit weight bad physical behavior that is too high and shallow lake pulpboard knot is improved.In addition, soil sand grains and flour sand content decline 1.8 and 0.9 percentage points respectively, medium silt and fine silt quantity remain basically stable, clay content improves 2.5 percentage points, the ratio of flour sand grain/clay declines 0.456, soil aggregate increasing number, preserve moisture and fertility ability is strengthened (table 1).
The impact of table 1 the present invention-thick fertile topsoil technology dialogue soil particle mechanical composition
Table 2 is visible, implement the rice field of " thick fertile topsoil ", soil organic matter content comparatively contrasts rising 8.7%, full nitrogen and content of tatal phosphorus improve 9.9% and 10.5% respectively, and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content increases by 11.8%, and available phosphorus content improves 9.4% relatively, quick-acting potassium content increases by 15.5%, cation exchange capacity CEC improves 19.1%, and plough horizon nutrient content significantly improves, and fertilizer-preserving ability significantly strengthens.
Table 2 the present invention--thick fertile topsoil technology is on the impact of carclazyte nutrient content
Table 3 illustrates, implements the field of thick fertile plow layer technology, and rice plant height increases 2.2cm, and number of productive ear increases 7.8 ten thousand fringes/hm 2, spike of rice length increases 0.8cm, and number of grain per ear increases 20.6, and ripening rate improves 4.9 percentage points, and thousand kernel weight weightening finish 0.4g, grain yield increases by 15.6%, increases income 2536 yuan/hm 2(paddy and lime price are by market price 2.40 and 0.20 yuan/kg calculated at that time).
Table 3 the present invention-thick fertile carclazyte topsoil technology is on the impact of paddy growth and output
Embodiment 2
The effect of the farming area in Zuogong low yield carclazyte that " thickens fertile topsoil technology "
The method of application " thick fertile topsoil technology " farming area in Zuogong low yield carclazyte is with embodiment 1.
In this embodiment, select Yan Dian township, Feixi County to be test site, being low yield white-clay type paddy soil during planform image matching is grown for examination soil, is local main Types middle-and-low-yielding fields.
Table 4 is visible, application the present invention-" thick fertile topsoil " technology, and carclazyte plow layer thickness increases 1.1cm, and the bulk density of soil declines 6.4%, and porosity improves 3.85 percentage points.Paddy soil >2mm, 2-0.25mm and >0.25mm tri-particle diameter water stability performance increase 2.9,1.1 and 3.9 percentage points respectively, relatively improve 9.3%, 2.5% and 5.2%; The small particle diameter of <0.053mm reduces 1.4 percentage points, and relatively decline 12.4%, soil structure is improved, and the effect of improvement low yield carclazyte of fostering and apply fertilizer is more obvious.
Table 4 the present invention-thick fertile topsoil technology is on the impact of carclazyte paddy soil physical behavior
Table 5 is visible, and after application " thick fertile topsoil technology ", rice grain output increases 1065kg/hm 2, volume increase 15.8%, increases income 2803 yuan/hm 2(paddy and lime calculate by 2.66 and 0.20 yuan/kg respectively).Nitrogenous fertilizer agronomy efficiency increases 1.22kg seed/kg N, Nitrogen apparent recovery fraction improves 2.89 percentage points, physiological efficiency absolute value raises 3.86kg seed/kg N, and nitrogenous fertilizer wilfully force of labor increases 1.21kg seed/kg N, relatively improves 7.2%, 10.2%, 12.1% and 2.5%.
Table 5 the present invention-thick fertile carclazyte plow layer technology is on the impact of rice yield and fertilizer utilization efficiency

Claims (6)

1. make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen a thick fertile method, it is characterized in that:
Comprise following operating procedure:
(1) straw-returning, improvement soil
At the beginning of annual mid or late May to 6 month, carclazyte Tanaka, wheat maturation is gathered in the crops afterwards in time, implements straw directly returning to field, improvement soil;
(2) applying organic manure, slaking plow layer
Enrich the high-quality fertilizer 20-30 t/hm become thoroughly decomposed 2, holostrome spreads fertilizer over the fields, and accelerates wheat stalk and rots to degrade, farming area in Zuogong soil, the plow layer of slaking rich soil;
(3) soil is ploughed deeply, transformation carclazyte adverse soil mass configuration
Plough deeply soil with the tractor of band trench plow, the clay below topsoil is turned over plough and comes up, thicken plow layer, increase topsoil clay content, regulate soil particle composition; Ploughing depth 16-18 cm, turns over button and turns up soil tight, turned over by the wheat stalk of 90-95% in the plough horizon being embedded in 11-16 cm; Soil deep tillage need carry out 3-5 continuously, carries out once every year; First time ploughing depth 16-17 cm, the annual 1-2 of intensification gradually cm, finally makes carclazyte plow layer thickness remain on 19-21 cm later;
(4) use soil conditioner, in and harmful substance
To pour water in time soaked field after implementing the soil deep tillage of the carclazyte field of straw directly returning to field, softening stalk, makes compost; Keep field water floor height in soil surface 0.5-1.5 cm, make all to turn over the soil of ploughing and can be soaked in water; Spread fertilizer over the fields soil conditioner quicklime after soaked field 3-5 days, or dolomite dust or ash, regulate soil acidity, make its pH between 6.5-7.5, simultaneously and poisonous and harmful substance;
(5) Optimum and N-fertilizer management, balanced soil nutrient
Use base manure after the acid adjustment of soaked field, carry out Optimum, balanced soil nutrient; Fertilizing amount according to Labile soil organic carbon and rice varieties, the time of infertility nitrogenous fertilizer by N, phosphate fertilizer by P 2o 5k pressed by meter, potash fertilizer 2o meter, zinc fertilizer are by ZnO, and amount of application is respectively 150-210 kg/hm 2, 50-80 kg/hm 2, 60-100 kg/hm 2with 3-5 kg/hm 2; Base manure made by the nitrogenous fertilizer of 60% and potash fertilizer and all phosphate fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, uses before whole ground; The rear small tractor that applies fertilizer carries out whole harrowing a field with small-sized creeper, and rake the soil level degree of depth 7-9 cm, rakes gently; Whole ground is timely transplanting rice rice shoot afterwards; Fertile and the potash fertilizer of remaining N topdresses, at twice in rice plant of tillering stage and booting stage respectively equivalent use;
(6) science crop rotation, recovers soil fertility
Chinese milk vetch is planted after rice harves, or pea or broad bean, carry out paddy rice--Chinese milk vetch, or paddy rice--pea or paddy rice--broad bean crop rotation; Or plant rape or vegetables, carry out paddy rice--rape or paddy rice--vegetable crop rotation, correct soil nutrient nutritional deficiency situation, recover soil fertility.
2. according to claim 1ly a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: the one of described carclazyte Tian Weicheng carclazyte field, carclazyte field, shallow lake, yellowish-white native field, horse liver soil field and bluish white native Tanaka.
3. according to claim 1ly a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: described straw directly returning to field refers to: after the wheat maturation of carclazyte field, use the combine getting wheat of band cutter sweep, while results, wheat stalk is cut to the length of 5-10 cm, retains the arrish of 10-12 cm height; Implement returning total stalks into fields, wheat stalk farm implements in heaps are spread out and spreads fertilizer over the fields evenly; Enrich carbonic hydroammonium 150-180 kg/hm 2or urea 50-60 kg/hm 2, regulate stalk C/N ratio to 5-6:1; Enrich stalk quick composting agent 50-60 kg/hm 2, accelerate stalk and rot to degrade; The process of wheat stalk direct returning to farmland can be omitted in the carclazyte rice field that winter, wheat was not planted in leisure.
4. according to claim 1ly a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: also field operation is similar to wheat stalk for rape stalk.
5. according to claim 1ly a kind ofly make middle low yield carclazyte paddy field plow layer deepen thick fertile method, it is characterized in that: in step (5), nitrogenous fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer and zinc fertilizer kind are respectively carbonic hydroammonium, superphosphate, potassium chloride and white vitriol, and consumption is followed successively by 530-740 kg/hm 2, 410-670 kg/hm 2, 60-100 kg/hm 2with 15-25 kg/hm 2, all use as base manure.
6. in step (5), the kind of topdressing of nitrogenous fertilizer and potash fertilizer is respectively urea and potassium chloride, and consumption is respectively 130-180 kg/hm 2with 40-60 kg/hm 2.
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