CN104521506A - High-quality and high-efficient cultivation technology for dry-land sweet potatoes - Google Patents

High-quality and high-efficient cultivation technology for dry-land sweet potatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104521506A
CN104521506A CN201410815066.6A CN201410815066A CN104521506A CN 104521506 A CN104521506 A CN 104521506A CN 201410815066 A CN201410815066 A CN 201410815066A CN 104521506 A CN104521506 A CN 104521506A
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sweet potato
potato
days
nursery
planting
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Inventor
孙哲
刘桂玲
高俊杰
郑建利
刘中良
史春余
田昌庚
赵丰玲
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TAI'AN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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TAI'AN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-quality and high-efficient cultivation technology for dry-land sweet potatoes. The method includes the steps that TaiZhong Sixth sweet potato blocks which are uniform and proper in size, healthy and free of illness are selected to be subjected to soaking treatment through gibberellin, and seed arrangement and seedling growing are properly carried out; decomposed manure is additionally applied before land preparation, a proper amount of potassium sulphate is applied to the bottom of a ridge in a centralized mode before ridging, covering of black mulching films and transplantation of potato seedlings are selectively carried out on the land rich in moisture after rain during the period from the last ten-day of April to the middle ten-day of May, a proper transplanting density is determined, and DA-6 solutions with the concentration being 40 mg/L are sprayed 20-30 days after transplantation and 30-40 days before harvesting to promote the sweet potato seedlings to grow in an earlier stage and protect the sweet potato seedlings from premature senility in a later stage.

Description

A kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology
Technical field
The invention belongs to dry land crop high-yield culture technique field, be specifically related to a kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology.
Background technology
The country that China is shortage of water resources, arid takes place frequently, and arid ranks first to being lost in all abiotic stress of causing of crops, is only second to the loss that biotic damage by disease and insect causes.Sweet potato ( ipomoea batataslam.) be the fourth-largest grain energy supply plant in the world, the important grain of Ye Shi China, feed, energy dual-purpose crop.Sweet potato drought resistance is comparatively strong, but the yield of sweet potato loss caused because of water stress exceedes the summation of other environment stresses.In the northern area of China, sweet potato essentialspecies is implanted in mountain area and hills poor rainfed land block, often meets with drought stress in process of growth.Therefore, carry out nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technical research, to excavation arid, semiarid zone sweet potato productive potential, tool is of great significance.
At present, as the important crops of dry-land cultivation, there is the problem of following several respects in the way to manage of sweet potato, governs the raising of yield of sweet potato and quality: (1) sweet potato plastic mulching rate is lower, and efficiency of water application is low; (2) Potassium Fertilizer is not enough; (3) later stage nutrient sweet potato lacks, easy early ageing, causes nutrient content to accumulate not enough, affects edible quality.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to above weak point, provide a kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology, early sent out by short nursery, plastic mulching soil moisture conservation, optimize and execute the mode such as potassium, the short control of chemistry, to give full play in food sweet potato Thailand the yield potential of the good quality and high output kinds such as No. 6 in arid plot.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is: 1, a kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology, comprises the steps:
(1) nursery: select No. 6 summer potato potato blocks in Thailand between potato block weight 50-150g, healthy, anosis, soak with the gibberellin of 20 mg/L, carry out seeding nursery, nursery stage is suitably advanced at the beginning of 3 months, seeding density is that about 25kg/m2 is advisable, seedbed nursery 30 ~ 40 days.
(2) site preparation and fertilization: spread fertilizer over the fields the farmyard manure 2500-2800kg/ mu become thoroughly decomposed before whole ground, urea 15-20 kg/ mu, machinery is turned over leveling; Ridging adopts the ridging that paddles, and line-spacing 75-85cm, concentrates the potassium sulfate executing 50% at the bottom of ridge, and consumption is 40kg/ mu.
(3) covering with plastic film: need after ridging to carry out plastic mulching, mulch film should select thickness to be the black mulch film of 0.008mm, to play soil moisture conservation, heat, to control grass, thus promotes that potato seedling rooting is early sent out, reduces moisture loss.
(4) plant, rational close planting in good time.Should late April-mid-May between select rainwater after plant, to ensure that nonirrigated farmland sweet potato soil in seedling stage has better soil moisture content, according to potato block development characteristics, determine suitable sweet potato planting density, density should control at 3300-3600 plant/acre, should earthing in time when planting, reduce and destroy mulch film, use in each cave before planting and boil soybean or soya-bean cake, groundnut cake 2-3kg/ mu.
(5) the short seedling of early stageization control, later stage control is prolonged and is declined.Sweet potato plants latter 20 ~ 30 days, and spraying concentration is diethylamino ethanol caproate (DA-6) the solution 30kg/ mu of 40mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 5 days; About 30 days before results, spraying concentration was the DA-6 solution 30kg/ mu of 8-15 mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 3 days.DA-6 is the potassium dihydrogen phosphate preparation of 0.3% with concentration.
This beneficial effect of the invention is: on the basis ensureing nurturing staff, take multiple cultivation management measure, and to reduce moisture loss, short sweet potato, early root of hair strengthens seedling, the later stage prolongs for the purpose of the volume increase that declines, thus provides technological guidance for nonirrigated farmland sweet potato cultivating superior high-yield.Its concrete effect is: (1) soaks potato block by gibberellin, according to the rudiment characteristic determination amount of seed metering of sweet potato variety and nursery period, thus improves potato seedling quality (table 1); (2) by the effectively measures of fertilizer such as fertilizer and optimization potassium fertilizer application, promote the growth of sweet potato overground part cauline leaf, improve the drought-resistance ability of sweet potato, for the improvement of yield of sweet potato formation and quality provides basis; (3) by the soil moisture retention measure of plastic mulching, promote potato seedling early root of hair, improve improving activity of root system, thus improve sweet potato water absorbing capacity; (4) by rational planting density, the gross yield of sweet potato can be ensured and improve the commodity potato ratio of sweet potato; (5) by effective chemical regulation measure, improve sweet potato strong seedling in early stage further and prevent later stage early ageing.(the present invention and traditional planting technology comparative test the results are shown in Table 2).
Table 1 gibberellin is to the impact effect of potato block rudiment characteristic
Mensuration project potato block processing method Use gibberellin Do not use gibberellin
Emerge and count (individual/kg) 72 58
Potato height of seedling (cm) 37.6 34.8
Dan Miaochong (g/ strain) 11.61 10.48
The different culture technique of table 2 is to the impact effect of yield of sweet potato and quality
Mensuration project cultivation method The present invention Conventional management mode
Fresh tuber yield (kg/ mu) 2738.9 2411.3
Dry matter content (%) 33.1 31.8
Soluble sugar content (%) 7.8 6.9
Embodiment
In Thailand No. 6 by the common seed selection of Tai'an Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Shanghai Inst. Of Life Science, Cas Plate Physiology Environmental Research Institute, this variety yield is high, quality better, and after boiling, color and luster is yellowish, and taste face is sweet.Within 2009, participate in Shandong Province's Sweetpotato regional test, fresh tuber yield increases 388.9kg than contrast Xushen21 well mu, and amount of increase in production is 18.69%; Average yield per mu 752.3kg done by potato, and increase 100.29kg than contrast Xushen21 well every mu, amount of increase in production is 15.54%, average oven dry rate 32.20%.Potato dried starch content 71.00%, soluble sugar 7.20%, thick protein 4.12%, raw fiber 2.20%, carotene carotene content 3.39mg/100g.Within 2012 and 2013, identify respectively by Shandong Province's crop varietal approval committee and national sweet potato variety evaluation committee.
Embodiment 1
A kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) nursery: No. 6 summer potato potato blocks in the Thailand selecting 50g g size medium evenly, healthy, anosis, soak with the gibberellin of 20mg/L, carry out seeding nursery, nursery stage is suitably advanced at the beginning of 3 months, and seeding density is 25kg/m 2be advisable in left and right, seedbed nursery 30 ~ 40 days.
(2) site preparation and fertilization: Rational Application nitrogenous fertilizer, applying organic manure.Spread fertilizer over the fields farmyard manure 2500kg/ mu before whole ground, urea 15kg/ mu, machinery is turned over leveling; Ridging adopts the ridging that paddles, and line-spacing 75-85cm, concentrates the potassium sulfate executing 50% at the bottom of ridge, and consumption is about 40kg/ mu.
(3) covering with plastic film: need after ridging to carry out plastic mulching, mulch film should select thickness to be the black mulch film of 0.008mm, to play soil moisture conservation, heat, to control grass, thus promotes that potato seedling rooting is early sent out, reduces moisture loss.
(4) plant, rational close planting in good time.The feature on the low side according to Shandong Province in Spring rainwater, should plant after late April selects rainwater, to ensure that nonirrigated farmland sweet potato soil in seedling stage has better soil moisture content.According to potato block development characteristics, determine suitable sweet potato planting density, density should control at 3300 plants/acre, should earthing in time when planting, and reduces and destroys mulch film, use and boil soybean or soya-bean cake, groundnut cake 2kg/ mu before planting in each cave.First overlay film after cultivation seedling, should reduce destruction mulch film as far as possible, water sufficient water in nest, timely earthing ensures survival rate.
(5) the short seedling of early stageization control, later stage control is prolonged and is declined.Sweet potato fertility is suffered from drought huge on the impact of growth of sweet potato and yield composition early stage, and therefore, plant latter 20 ~ 30 days, spraying concentration is diethylamino ethanol caproate (DA-6) the solution 30kg/ mu of 40mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 5 days.About 30 days before results, spraying concentration was the DA-6 solution 30kg/ mu of 8mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 3 days.DA-6 is the potassium dihydrogen phosphate preparation of 0.3% with concentration.
Embodiment 2
A kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) nursery: No. 6 summer potato potato blocks in the Thailand selecting 150 g sizes medium evenly, healthy, anosis, soak with the gibberellin of 20mg/L, carry out seeding nursery, nursery stage is suitably advanced at the beginning of 3 months, and seeding density is 25kg/m 2be advisable in left and right, seedbed nursery 30 ~ 40 days.
(2) site preparation and fertilization: Rational Application nitrogenous fertilizer, applying organic manure.Spread fertilizer over the fields farmyard manure 2800kg/ mu before whole ground, urea 20 kg/ mu, machinery is turned over leveling; Ridging adopts the ridging that paddles, and line-spacing 75-85cm, concentrates the potassium sulfate executing 50% at the bottom of ridge, and consumption is about 40kg/ mu.
(3) covering with plastic film: need after ridging to carry out plastic mulching, mulch film should select thickness to be the black mulch film of 0.008mm, to play soil moisture conservation, heat, to control grass, thus promotes that potato seedling rooting is early sent out, reduces moisture loss.
(4) plant, rational close planting in good time.The feature on the low side according to Shandong Province in Spring rainwater, planted after should selecting rainwater between late April to mid-May, to ensure that nonirrigated farmland sweet potato soil in seedling stage has better soil moisture content.According to potato block development characteristics, determine suitable sweet potato planting density, density should control at 3600 plants/acre, should earthing in time when planting, and reduces and destroys mulch film, use and boil soybean or soya-bean cake, groundnut cake 3kg/ mu before planting in each cave.First overlay film after cultivation seedling, should reduce destruction mulch film as far as possible, water sufficient water in nest, timely earthing ensures survival rate.
(5) the short seedling of early stageization control, later stage control is prolonged and is declined.Sweet potato fertility is suffered from drought huge on the impact of growth of sweet potato and yield composition early stage, and therefore, plant latter 20 ~ 30 days, spraying concentration is diethylamino ethanol caproate (DA-6) the solution 30kg/ mu of 40mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 5 days.About 30 days before results, spraying concentration was the DA-6 solution 30kg/ mu of 15 mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 3 days.DA-6 is the potassium dihydrogen phosphate preparation of 0.3% with concentration.
Embodiment 3
A kind of nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) nursery: No. 6 summer potato potato blocks in the Thailand selecting 100 g sizes medium evenly, healthy, anosis, soak with the gibberellin of 20mg/L, carry out seeding nursery, nursery stage is suitably advanced at the beginning of 3 months, seeding density is that about 25kg/m2 is advisable, seedbed nursery 30 ~ 40 days.
(2) site preparation and fertilization: Rational Application nitrogenous fertilizer, applying organic manure.Spread fertilizer over the fields farmyard manure 2600kg/ mu before whole ground, urea 18kg/ mu, machinery is turned over leveling; Ridging adopts the ridging that paddles, and line-spacing 75-85cm, concentrates the potassium sulfate executing 50% at the bottom of ridge, and consumption is about 40kg/ mu.
(3) covering with plastic film: need after ridging to carry out plastic mulching, mulch film should select thickness to be the black mulch film of 0.008mm, to play soil moisture conservation, heat, to control grass, thus promotes that potato seedling rooting is early sent out, reduces moisture loss.
(4) plant, rational close planting in good time.The feature on the low side according to Shandong Province in Spring rainwater, planted after should selecting rainwater between late April to mid-May, to ensure that nonirrigated farmland sweet potato soil in seedling stage has better soil moisture content.According to potato block development characteristics, determine suitable sweet potato planting density, density should control at 3400 plants/acre, should earthing in time when planting, and reduces and destroys mulch film, use and boil soybean or soya-bean cake, groundnut cake 2-3kg/ mu before planting in each cave.First overlay film after cultivation seedling, should reduce destruction mulch film as far as possible, water sufficient water in nest, timely earthing ensures survival rate.
(5) the short seedling of early stageization control, later stage control is prolonged and is declined.Sweet potato fertility is suffered from drought huge on the impact of growth of sweet potato and yield composition early stage, and therefore, plant latter 20 ~ 30 days, spraying concentration is diethylamino ethanol caproate (DA-6) the solution 30kg/ mu of 40mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 5 days.About 30 days before results, spraying concentration was the DA-6 solution 30kg/ mu of 10 mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 3 days.DA-6 is the potassium dihydrogen phosphate preparation of 0.3% with concentration.
Certainly, above-mentioned explanation is not limitation of the present invention, and the present invention is also not limited in above-mentioned citing, and the change that those skilled in the art make in essential scope of the present invention, remodeling, interpolation or replacement also should belong to protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a nonirrigated farmland sweet potato High efficiency and high quality cultivation technology, is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
(1) nursery: select No. 6 summer potato potato blocks in Thailand between potato block weight 50-150g, healthy, anosis, soak with the gibberellin of 20 mg/L, carry out seeding nursery, nursery stage is at the beginning of 3 months, and seeding density is that about 25kg/m2 is advisable, seedbed nursery 30 ~ 40 days;
(2) site preparation and fertilization: spread fertilizer over the fields the farmyard manure 2500-2800kg/ mu become thoroughly decomposed before whole ground, urea 15-20 kg/ mu, machinery is turned over leveling; Ridging adopts the ridging that paddles, and line-spacing 75-85cm, concentrates the potassium sulfate executing 50% at the bottom of ridge, and consumption is 40kg/ mu;
(3) covering with plastic film: need after ridging to carry out plastic mulching, mulch film should select thickness to be the black mulch film of 0.008mm, to play soil moisture conservation, heat, to control grass, thus promotes that potato seedling rooting is early sent out, reduces moisture loss;
(4) plant in good time, rational close planting, should late April-mid-May between select rainwater after plant, to ensure that nonirrigated farmland sweet potato soil in seedling stage has better soil moisture content, according to potato block development characteristics, determine suitable sweet potato planting density, density should control at 3300-3600 plant/acre, timely earthing when planting, reduces and destroys mulch film, uses and boil soybean or soya-bean cake, groundnut cake 2-3kg/ mu before planting in each cave;
(5) the short seedling of early stageization control, later stage control is prolonged and is declined, and sweet potato plants 20 ~ 30 days afterwards, and spraying concentration is diethylamino ethanol caproate (DA-6) the solution 30kg/ mu of 40mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 5 days; About 30 days before results, spraying concentration was the DA-6 solution 30kg/ mu of 8-15 mg/L, 2 times, two minor ticks 3 days; DA-6 is the potassium dihydrogen phosphate preparation of 0.3% with concentration.
CN201410815066.6A 2014-12-25 2014-12-25 High-quality and high-efficient cultivation technology for dry-land sweet potatoes Pending CN104521506A (en)

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Cited By (6)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104855116A (en) * 2015-06-02 2015-08-26 山东省农业科学院作物研究所 Cultivation method for improving yield of sweet potatoes in hilly and mountainous areas of northern potato planting region
CN104969744A (en) * 2015-06-14 2015-10-14 安徽徽大农业有限公司 Efficient purple sweet potato seedling method
CN105075622A (en) * 2015-08-20 2015-11-25 张月媚 Technology for cultivating and sun-curing Wenzhou honey sweet potato jujubes
CN105493680A (en) * 2015-12-21 2016-04-20 狄正兴 Cultivation method for covering sweet potato furrows with wheat straw
CN106961978A (en) * 2017-04-07 2017-07-21 山东农业大学 A kind of year-round supply method of fresh type sweet potato root tuber
CN108739183A (en) * 2018-06-11 2018-11-06 彭阳县壹珍药业有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods of Radix Astragali high yield

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CN102487714A (en) * 2011-12-19 2012-06-13 吴太平 Cultivating method of sweet potato in dry land
CN103314754A (en) * 2013-06-26 2013-09-25 山东省农业科学院 Sweet potato cultivation method using whole-course chemical control

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104855116A (en) * 2015-06-02 2015-08-26 山东省农业科学院作物研究所 Cultivation method for improving yield of sweet potatoes in hilly and mountainous areas of northern potato planting region
CN104855116B (en) * 2015-06-02 2017-07-04 山东省农业科学院作物研究所 A kind of cultural method for improving northern potato area hilly and mountainous land yield of sweet potato
CN104969744A (en) * 2015-06-14 2015-10-14 安徽徽大农业有限公司 Efficient purple sweet potato seedling method
CN105075622A (en) * 2015-08-20 2015-11-25 张月媚 Technology for cultivating and sun-curing Wenzhou honey sweet potato jujubes
CN105075622B (en) * 2015-08-20 2018-09-04 张月媚 A kind of cultivation of Wenzhou sweetness sweet potato jujube and solarization technique
CN105493680A (en) * 2015-12-21 2016-04-20 狄正兴 Cultivation method for covering sweet potato furrows with wheat straw
CN106961978A (en) * 2017-04-07 2017-07-21 山东农业大学 A kind of year-round supply method of fresh type sweet potato root tuber
CN108739183A (en) * 2018-06-11 2018-11-06 彭阳县壹珍药业有限责任公司 A kind of implantation methods of Radix Astragali high yield

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Application publication date: 20150422