CN104261983B - A kind of preparation method of cultivation matrix - Google Patents

A kind of preparation method of cultivation matrix Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104261983B
CN104261983B CN201410487402.9A CN201410487402A CN104261983B CN 104261983 B CN104261983 B CN 104261983B CN 201410487402 A CN201410487402 A CN 201410487402A CN 104261983 B CN104261983 B CN 104261983B
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matrix
windrow
cultivation matrix
less
bacteria
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CN104261983A (en
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刘付东
曾凡强
梁燕霞
姚秋莉
刘杰凤
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ZHONGSHAN CHENGMING AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO., LTD.
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ZHONGSHAN BASIDE AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers
    • C05F11/08Organic fertilisers containing added bacterial cultures, mycelia or the like
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • C05F17/50Treatments combining two or more different biological or biochemical treatments, e.g. anaerobic and aerobic treatment or vermicomposting and aerobic treatment
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses the preparation method of a kind of cultivation matrix, belong to the fertile production technical field of agricultural.The method utilizes the edible fungi residues at least going out twice mushroom, after adding the Mixed Microbes anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and bacillus licheniformis, the compound bacteria aerobic fermentation adding bacillus subtilis, aspergillus niger and saccharomycete mixing again forms general matrix, add the nitric acid rare earth of polyacrylamide sum, stir, then carry out crushing and cross 4.75mm sieve, to obtain final product.Beneficial bacterium content of the present invention is high, can effectively suppress root disease, prevent nutrient loss, strong stress resistance, and effectively facilitate plant growth, and decompose matrix and can improve to the speed of crop with supply nutrient, applied widely, the problems such as EC value, salinity, miscellaneous bacteria can not worried with autogamy composite interstitial substance during use, need not need material is carried out high-temperature sterilization as other matrix yet.

Description

A kind of preparation method of cultivation matrix
[technical field]
The present invention relates to the preparation method of a kind of cultivation matrix, belong to agricultural fertile production technology neck Territory.
[background technology]
Cultivation matrix, is defined as according to Baidupedia: cultivation matrix initially originates from soilless culture Concept, refer to that the soil environment around crop deteriorates, had a strong impact on crop yield and Quality, people transfer to find substitute, fix root system of plant with solid matrix (medium), and By matrix absorption nutrient solution and oxygen.The most so-called cultivation matrix refers to replace soil to carry Support for crop machinery and the solid dielectric of material supply.And many times, surrounding soil environment Do not deteriorate, simply it is desirable to cultivation condition more preferable, make crop preferably grow.
Cultivation matrix can be divided into again inorganic matrix and organic substrate two kinds, inorganic matrix refer to sand, The materials such as chad, rock wool, vermiculite, perlite, expanded ceramsite, cinder, and organic substrate is Refer to bark, wood sawdust, peat, reed, mushroom slag, wormcast, coconut palm chaff, rotted leaf, foam Pigment, composite interstitial substance etc..In general, the cation exchange capacity of organic substrate is big, image height position The cation exchange capacity of peat soil is up to 140~160me/100g, and gravel is 0.1~1 Me/100g, but be not that the cation exchange capacity of inorganic matrix is the least, as vermiculite Cation exchange capacity is up to 100~150me/100g.Cation exchange capacity is in cultivation matrix One key factor, the most powerful cation exchange capacity the most more have powerful soda acid resiliency, Saline and alkaline resiliency, can make planting environment seem safety, and has powerful fertilizer conservation, feeder capability, Crop health can be made to become
In general, the standard being suitable for growing and cultivation includes that unit weight is 0.1~0.8g/cm3, pH is 6.5~7.0, but some requires that special crop is not necessarily suitable for this condition.Such as, some flowers Growth requires particularly severe, and its electrical conductivity (EC) value will be less than 0.8, and as tobacco, group is made Fixed cultivation matrix, will limit its EC value not higher than 0.8.With reference to other data, EC value is low To apply fertilizer in 0.5, the suitable EC value of vegetables is 1.0~2.6, the EC that general flowers are suitable Value is 1.3~2.75, and the total salt concentration of matrix requires as less than 500mg/Kg (namely 0.05%).However, it is noted that above data derive from and study widely and conclude, only tool Having referential, such as, the actual plantation of some vegetables such as cabbage heart, EC value has reached 3.2, also Can well grow in the same old way.
Current organic substrate, major part derives from mine working, such as turfy soil, the north in Zhaoqing The peat soil of side, these are all non-renewable resources, so country the most less supports this way. Another part matrix, then derive from discarded object reprocessing, such as cocoanut shell, mushroom slag, paper mill Reed foam etc., at present being made by these raw materials, matrix is the most fewer, and part is for fertilizer The production of material, part is the most directly abandoned, and causes waste or environmental pollution.
Some patents, such as " the preparation method of a kind of soilless plant cultivation matrix and by the party's legal system Standby matrix " (CN201410126225), by agriculture and forestry organic waste material, water, fermentation catalyst, Fermenting agent, bamboo vinegar and/or pyrolkigneous liquid mix and carry out fermentation process for the first time, prepare First fermentation substrate, then adds fermentation catalyst, water, bamboo vinegar in first time fermentation substrate Liquid and/or pyrolkigneous liquid, carry out second time fermentation process and get final product;" vegetable soilless culture matrix is cultivated Method " (CN201410109700), by by agricultural wastes proportioning, pretreatment, stacking, Turning, sieve, granulation, packaging and other steps complete.These patents all interosculate, it is simply that send out Ferment, referring again to some other patents, common ground the most just includes mixture.It is true that most base The making of matter all fermentation or (with) mode of mixture completes, difference includes filling a prescription not Same, functional difference, raw material are different etc., and the basic index how meeting matrix is (suitable EC value, salinity, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc.), and have required functional, then not Few patent lacks and embodies.As " inorganic planting substrate for plantation " (CN200410072723) With some other patent, add substantial amounts of chemicals, have and be greatly likely to result in EC value and increase, Unfavorable to this growth phase of seed to seedling stage.Meanwhile, the self character of matrix is (such as nutrient Low), in use, the most de-fertilizer can be caused due to the reason such as be diligent in watering.These are asked That inscribes is total, is all intended to solution." method for producing polyacrylamide cultivation substrate " (CN200910096582), although use polyacrylamide, but its preparation method is and boils Agar medium is similar, and adds the compounds such as ammonium sulfate, unconventional containing humus The inorganic matrix of organic substrate and such as haydite etc, although this cultivation matrix technique is simple, Speed of production is fast, but also can only promote in laboratory, and market acceptance level is low.Referring again to some Patent, the raw material of the inside say scope is very big, ratio says agriculture and forestry organic waste material, garden waste, Hardly realizing, branch is how different from the edible slag of wood chaff shape, it is impossible to the side of a kind of invention Method just can embrace a wide spectrum of ideas, it is necessary to raw material classification being processed, otherwise those are all unpractical Bright patent, has little significance.
[summary of the invention]
The invention aims to make up the deficiencies in the prior art, it is provided that a kind of low EC value, Low salt, cation exchange capacity (CEC) are big, water holding capacity is strong, plant growth effect is more notable, effectively The preparation method of the cultivation matrix of preventing and treating root disease.
The present invention for achieving the above object, by the following technical solutions:
The preparation method of a kind of cultivation matrix, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
A, choosing the edible fungi residues at least going out twice mushroom, regulation edible fungi residues moisture exists Between 50~65%, add lactic acid bacteria and the Mixed Microbes of bacillus licheniformis and stir, making Mixed Microbes concentration in material is not less than 100,000/gram materials, uses covered rearing with plastic film after windrow Completely, anaerobic fermentation 7~10 days are carried out;
B, open plastic sheeting, after windrow superficial drying, spill last layer bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and saccharomycete than the compound bacteria of 5~100:1:1 mixing, make in windrow multiple by bacterium number The concentration closing bacterium is not less than 500,000/gram windrows, turning, starts aerobic fermentation;
During c, aerobic fermentation, being spaced turning, treat that windrow moisture is less than 35%, temperature is less than When 40 DEG C, form general matrix, then by every cube of matrix add 1~10Kg polyacrylamide and The nitric acid rare earth of 0.001~0.1Kg, stirs, and then carries out crushing and cross 4.75mm sieve, Obtain cultivation matrix.
Edible fungi residues is chosen at least through the dreg after twice fruiting in planting process, and this dreg is Be not suitable for being used further to breed edible mushroom, EC value can be avoided again higher simultaneously.Dreg goes out food just During with bacterium workshop, general moisture between 50~65%, the just moisture condition of suitable fermentation, If the moisture condition of dreg is not between 50~65%, then to keep the skin wet to this moisture scope In.
Plastic sheeting in the present invention is preferably black plastic film, the windrow of covered with plastic film Air storage can carry out anaerobic fermentation.
During aerobic fermentation of the present invention, turning in every two days once, to force oxygen supply and to make under moisture Fall, material are uniform.
The present invention compared with prior art, has the advantage that
(1) it is much the most unidirectional organic fertilizer production of edible fungi residues has carried an outlet;
(2) this cultivation matrix mixture unclassified stores again after hot fermentation, applied widely, The problems such as EC value, salinity, miscellaneous bacteria can not worried with autogamy composite interstitial substance, during use yet Need not need material is carried out high-temperature sterilization as other matrix;
(3) beneficial bacterium content is high, can effectively suppress root disease, and effectively facilitate plant growth, Decompose matrix can improve to the speed of crop with supply nutrient;
(4) polyacrylamide added can effective water conservation, it is to avoid the behaviour of moisturizing of often watering Making, decrease nutrient loss, plant growth is better;
(5) nitric acid rare earth is paramagnetism fertilizer, and consumption is few, and effect is obvious, and crop can be used raw Long good, strong stress resistance.
[detailed description of the invention]
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail:
Embodiment 1:
A, selected the edible fungi residues of twice mushroom, regulation edible fungi residues moisture 50~55% it Between, add lactic acid bacteria and the Mixed Microbes of bacillus licheniformis and stir, making mixing in material Close bacteria concentration and reach 100,000/gram materials, complete with covered rearing with plastic film after windrow, carry out anaerobism Ferment 7 days;
B, open plastic sheeting, after windrow superficial drying, spill last layer bacillus subtilis, The compound bacteria that aspergillus niger and saccharomycete are mixed than 20:1:1 by bacterium number, mixes, makes heap In material, the concentration of compound bacteria reaches 500,000/gram windrows, turning, starts aerobic fermentation;
During c, aerobic fermentation, turning in every two days once, treats that windrow moisture is less than 35%, temperature When degree is less than 40 DEG C, then add 1Kg polyacrylamide and 0.001Kg by every cube of matrix Nitric acid rare earth, stirs, and then carries out crushing and cross 4.75mm sieve, obtains cultivation matrix.
After testing, the EC value of the cultivation matrix of embodiment 1 is 0.52, and salt is divided into 0.07%, It is extremely suitable for soilless culture.
Embodiment 2:
A, selected the edible fungi residues of three mushrooms, regulation edible fungi residues moisture 55~60% it Between, add lactic acid bacteria and the Mixed Microbes of bacillus licheniformis and stir, making mixing in material Close bacteria concentration and reach 200,000/gram materials, complete with covered rearing with plastic film after windrow, carry out anaerobism Ferment 10 days;
B, open plastic sheeting, after windrow superficial drying, spill last layer bacillus subtilis, The compound bacteria that aspergillus niger and saccharomycete are mixed than 5:1:1 by bacterium number, makes compound bacteria in windrow Concentration reaches 600,000/gram windrows, turning, starts aerobic fermentation;
During c, aerobic fermentation, being spaced turning, treat that windrow moisture is less than 35%, temperature is less than When 40 DEG C, then add 5Kg polyacrylamide and the nitric acid rare earth of 0.01Kg by every cube of matrix, Stir, then carry out crushing and cross 4.75mm sieve, obtain cultivation matrix.
After testing, the EC value of the cultivation matrix of embodiment 2 is 0.48, and salt is divided into 0.06%, It is extremely suitable for soilless culture.
Embodiment 3:
A, selected the edible fungi residues of twice mushroom, regulation edible fungi residues moisture 60~65% it Between, add lactic acid bacteria and the Mixed Microbes of bacillus licheniformis and stir, making mixing in material Close bacteria concentration and reach 150,000/gram materials, complete with covered rearing with plastic film after windrow, carry out anaerobism Ferment 8 days;
B, open plastic sheeting, after windrow superficial drying, spill last layer bacillus subtilis, The compound bacteria that aspergillus niger and saccharomycete are mixed than 100:1:1 by bacterium number, makes compound bacteria in windrow Concentration reach 800,000/gram windrows, turning, start aerobic fermentation;
During c, aerobic fermentation, being spaced turning, treat that windrow moisture is less than 35%, temperature is less than When 40 DEG C, then add 10Kg polyacrylamide and the nitric acid rare earth of 0.1Kg by every cube of matrix, Stir, then carry out crushing and cross 4.75mm sieve, obtain cultivation matrix.
After testing, the EC value of the cultivation matrix of embodiment 1 is 0.71, and salt is divided into 0.10%, It is extremely suitable for soilless culture.

Claims (3)

1. the preparation method of a cultivation matrix, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
A, choosing the edible fungi residues at least going out twice mushroom, regulation edible fungi residues moisture exists Between 50~65%, add lactic acid bacteria and the Mixed Microbes of bacillus licheniformis and stir, making Mixed Microbes concentration in material is not less than 100,000/gram materials, uses covered rearing with plastic film after windrow Completely, anaerobic fermentation 7~10 days are carried out;
B, open plastic sheeting, after windrow superficial drying, spill last layer bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and saccharomycete than the compound bacteria of 5~100:1:1 mixing, make in windrow multiple by bacterium number The concentration closing bacterium is not less than 500,000/gram windrows, turning, starts aerobic fermentation;
During c, aerobic fermentation, being spaced turning, treat that windrow moisture is less than 35%, temperature is less than When 40 DEG C, form general matrix, then by every cube of matrix add 1~10Kg polyacrylamide and The nitric acid rare earth of 0.001~0.1Kg, stirs, and then carries out crushing and cross 4.75mm sieve, Obtain cultivation matrix.
The preparation method of a kind of cultivation matrix the most according to claim 1, its feature exists It is black plastic film in described plastic sheeting.
The preparation method of a kind of cultivation matrix the most according to claim 1, its feature exists During aerobic fermentation, turning in every two days is once.
CN201410487402.9A 2014-09-22 2014-09-22 A kind of preparation method of cultivation matrix Active CN104261983B (en)

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CN105985164A (en) * 2015-03-02 2016-10-05 天津市植物保护研究所 Microbial seedling raising medium formula
CN105175106A (en) * 2015-08-17 2015-12-23 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所 Crop cultivation matrix and preparation method therefor
CN105660337A (en) * 2016-03-21 2016-06-15 中山市承铭农业技术开发有限公司 Culture medium and preparation method thereof
CN105585388A (en) * 2016-03-29 2016-05-18 中山市承铭农业技术开发有限公司 Culture medium based on filter mud and manufacturing method thereof
CN105613243A (en) * 2016-03-29 2016-06-01 中山市承铭农业技术开发有限公司 Crop straw based culture medium and making method thereof
CN105794614A (en) * 2016-03-29 2016-07-27 中山市承铭农业技术开发有限公司 Cultivation matrix based on sawdust and preparation method thereof
CN106034811A (en) * 2016-06-07 2016-10-26 江苏水木农景股份有限公司 Application of edible mushroom residues in preparation of carya cathayensis seeding culturing substrates
CN106332718A (en) * 2016-08-25 2017-01-18 合肥市田然农业科技园有限公司 Rapid loquat seedling culture method
CN106489598A (en) * 2016-10-31 2017-03-15 江苏沿江地区农业科学研究所 Medium of Container Seedling and preparation method thereof
CN107266148A (en) * 2017-08-02 2017-10-20 重庆文理学院 A kind of floriculture substrate and preparation method thereof
CN108605808A (en) * 2018-04-16 2018-10-02 合肥云都棉花有限公司 A kind of culture substrate for saline-alkali tolerant raising seedling of cotton
CN108719335A (en) * 2018-05-07 2018-11-02 柯江波 Sustained release bacteriostatic agent and preparation method for Vegetable culture medium processing

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CN102643120A (en) * 2011-02-17 2012-08-22 潍坊市云涛有机肥料有限公司 Preparation method of organic fertilizer
CN103073362A (en) * 2012-12-12 2013-05-01 四川农业大学 Bentonite and fungal dreg compounded water-retention fertilizer-conservation cultivation matrix and its preparation method

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102643120A (en) * 2011-02-17 2012-08-22 潍坊市云涛有机肥料有限公司 Preparation method of organic fertilizer
CN103073362A (en) * 2012-12-12 2013-05-01 四川农业大学 Bentonite and fungal dreg compounded water-retention fertilizer-conservation cultivation matrix and its preparation method

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Inventor after: Liu Fudong

Inventor after: Zeng Fanqiang

Inventor after: Zeng Songqing

Inventor after: Liang Yanxia

Inventor after: Yao Qiuli

Inventor after: Liu Jiefeng

Inventor before: Liu Fudong

Inventor before: Zeng Fanqiang

Inventor before: Liang Yanxia

Inventor before: Yao Qiuli

Inventor before: Liu Jiefeng

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Effective date of registration: 20170505

Address after: The exhibition of Guangdong Torch Development Zone, 528400 East Road Zhongshan City, No. 16 digital building room 1706

Patentee after: ZHONGSHAN CHENGMING AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CO., LTD.

Address before: 528400 Guangdong city in Zhongshan Province, the first Gilbert Torch Development Zone, Road No. 1 3 floor 3 card

Patentee before: Zhongshan Baside Agricultural Science and Technology Co., Ltd.

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