CN103011927B - Biomass tower type compost treatment device and method - Google Patents

Biomass tower type compost treatment device and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103011927B
CN103011927B CN201210588210.8A CN201210588210A CN103011927B CN 103011927 B CN103011927 B CN 103011927B CN 201210588210 A CN201210588210 A CN 201210588210A CN 103011927 B CN103011927 B CN 103011927B
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reaction tower
composting material
described
composting
blower fan
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CN201210588210.8A
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CN103011927A (en
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雷学军
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雷学军
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse
    • Y02W30/43Aerobic fermentation, e.g. composting

Abstract

The invention discloses a biomass tower type compost treatment device and method. The device and method have the advantages of enhancing the function of a microbial ecosystem, accelerating the decomposition of organic substances, promoting the maturity of composts, improving the composting efficiency and effectively preventing the spread of pathogenic bacteria and the diffusion of peculiar smells by using an efficient microbial agent through a closed composting operation method. Pollution-free organic farming is realized; lots of enzymes and active substances secreted by funguses while composting can be used as the best metabolic enhancer for crops, so that the disease and insect resistances can be increased; and the soil can be improved and activated for permanent farming so as to create a basis for pesticide-free organic farming and realize zero-emission and no pollution in the agricultural industry.

Description

The tower compost treatment Apparatus and method for of a kind of biomass

Technical field

The invention belongs to Deodor technical field in biomass landfill, be specifically related to the tower compost treatment Apparatus and method for of a kind of biomass.

Background technology

Organism is processed by high temperature aerobic composting, make unstable organism in composting material through bio-oxidation after a while and become thoroughly decomposed, forming stable in properties, harmless to farm crop, can be used as the composting production of soil improvement agent, be applied to farmland, can improve Soil structure, increase soil fertility.The biomass of not becoming thoroughly decomposed are directly used, because organic matter wherein does not reach enough stable, can hinder farm crop to the absorption of nitrogen, in roots of plants district forms anaerobic condition and increases soil the solvability of some heavy metal ion, the phytotoxicity material containing also can affect the normal growth of plant.Therefore, need to carry out resource utilization, innoxious compost treatment to biomass.Composting is by thermophilic fermentation, to make organism mineral, humify and the innoxious process that becomes the fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed under the effect of microorganism.In in plant materials, contain carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and various trace element.Yearly plant as fertilizer sources is returned this soil, and the soil organism can increase by 0.01% every year, to maintaining soil nutrient balance, plays active effect, also can improve soil aggregate and physicochemical character simultaneously.Agriculturally more can increase crop yield, save fertilizer amount, can promote agricultural sustainable development.

Compost reaction is the complex process of microbial activities, is subject to the factor impacts such as water ratio, temperature, ventilation oxygen-supplying amount, carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and pH value.The organism of solubility in composting process, sees through microbial cell wall and cytolemma and is absorbed by Institute of Micro-biology.Solid and colloidal organic matter matter are attached to outside microbe, and the enzyme of being secreted by Institute of Micro-biology is decomposed into after soluble substance, then infiltrate cell.Absorbed organism, a part is converted into the necessary nutritive substance of organism, and synthetic new cellular material makes microorganism growth breeding, produces more organisms; Another part is oxidized to simple inorganics, and emits the needed energy of biological production activity.Perishable organism is converted into the organic nutrient substance that soil easily absorbs, and the high temperature producing in composting process, has killed the pathogenic bacterium in compost material, parasitic ovum.

Biomass compost adopts plant special process and scientific matching exactly, after the operations such as pulverizing, enzyme, batching, batch mixing, makes biomass combined fertilizer.But pile of biomass fertilizer technology level is low at present, operation floor space is large, decomposed period long, easily produce stench etc.At present also by take the Apparatus and method for that plant produces biomass combined fertilizer as main employing composting mode, do not carry out batch production.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is intended to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, provides a kind of biomass tower compost treatment Apparatus and method for.Utilize high-effective microorganism microbial inoculum, adopt closed composting working method, strengthen the function of microbial ecosystem, accelerate the decomposition of organic substance, promote becoming thoroughly decomposed of compost material, improve composting efficiency, effectively prevent propagation and the emission of bad smell of pathogenic bacteria.

In order to achieve the above object, technical scheme provided by the invention is:

The tower compost treatment equipment of described biomass comprises reaction tower; Described reaction tower top is provided with water inlet pipe, agitator motor, opening for feed and vapor pipe; The end that described water inlet pipe stretches into reaction tower inner chamber is provided with spray header; Described agitator motor is connected with the agitator in reaction tower; In described reaction tower tower, surrounding is provided with temperature sensor, humidity sensor and thief hole; Described reaction tower bottom is provided with opening for feed; Position lower than opening for feed in described reaction tower inner chamber is provided with filtering net; Described reaction tower bottom is provided with blast pipe and rising pipe; Described blast pipe is connected with blower fan, and the air outlet place of described blower fan is provided with airheater; Described rising pipe is connected with filtrate equalizing tank; Described filtrate equalizing tank is connected with water inlet pipe, and described water inlet pipe is provided with water pump.

The tower compost treatment equipment of described biomass can be vertical or horizontal.

The present invention also provides a kind of biomass compost treatment process based on the tower compost treatment equipment of above-mentioned biomass, comprises the steps:

(1) before compost by biomass sorting, fragmentation, screening, prepare burden, be mixed into composting material; Wherein, composting material length is 3~5cm, and the carbon-nitrogen ratio in composting material is 20~30:1, can be added with 50~100kg drystone ashes in every 1t composting material; In composting material, the carbon content such as fallen leaves, wood chip, branch, stalk, withered grass is higher, directly with it, carry out composting, be unfavorable for the synthetic of microorganism and grow, fermenting speed is slow, and the nitrogen contents such as fresh grass, tender leaf are high, can emit a large amount of ammonias and stink, also impact fermentation and composting, preferably both carry out a certain proportion of mixing, control applicable carbon-nitrogen ratio;

(2) by 50~100 times of compound beneficial bacteria powder thin ups, under normal temperature, cultivate 8~12 hours, obtain bacterium liquid;

(3) composting material is dropped into and sent out in reaction tower by opening for feed, start agitator motor and drive agitator rotation; Start water pump simultaneously, by water inlet pipe, cultured bacterium liquid in step (2) is sprayed on composting material; By humidity sensor, controlling humidity in reaction tower is 45~60%; Wherein, every 10t composting material is used the compound beneficial bacteria powder of 0.5kg, and composting material pH value is 6~9;

(4) open airheater, under the effect of blower fan, by blast pipe, in reaction tower, carry heating installation, after temperature reaches more than 40 ℃ in reaction tower, close airheater and blower fan, in reaction tower, composting material starts fermentation; During fermentation, controlling temperature in reaction tower is 50~60 ℃, when temperature is during lower than 50 ℃, starts airheater and blower fan to carry heating installation in reaction tower, when temperature is during higher than 60 ℃, starts blower fan and carry gas at normal temperature in reaction tower; Control humidity 50~60% in reaction tower, when humidity is lower than 50% time, by water pump, the water in filtrate equalizing tank is sprayed onto on composting material, when humidity is lower than 60% time, by blower fan, to carry air in reaction tower, dry up moisture; Wherein, filtrate regulates the pH value of pool inner water by lime powder, to be adjusted to 6~9; During fermentation, at interval of 10~12h, start blower fan and agitator motor once, continue 25~30min at every turn; Wherein, rate of venting is 10~1000L/min, and agitator speed is 15~20r/min;

(5) fermentation, by composting material turning after 5 days, is added compound beneficial bacteria powder while stir in composting material during turning, and addition is the compound beneficial bacteria powder of every 10t composting material interpolation 0.5kg; Spray for the second time cultured bacterium liquid in step (2), in reaction tower, humidity remains between 55~60%, composting material moves to discharge port one end in stirring, and the moisture that composting material produced in when fermentation concentrates on reaction tower bottom after filter screen, by rising pipe discharged to filtrate equalizing tank;

(6) after turning, by temperature sensor, controlling temperature in reaction tower is 45~55 ℃, when temperature is during lower than 45 ℃, starts airheater and blower fan to carry heating installation in reaction tower, when temperature is during higher than 55 ℃, start blower fan to carry gas at normal temperature in reaction tower; By humidity sensor, control humidity 45~55% in reaction tower, when humidity is lower than 45% time, by water pump, the water in filtrate equalizing tank is sprayed onto on composting material, when humidity is lower than 55% time, by blower fan, to carry air in reaction tower, dry up moisture; Wherein, filtrate regulates the pH value of pool inner water by lime powder, to be adjusted to 6~9; After turning, at interval of 14~16h, start blower fan and agitator motor once, continue 15~20min at every turn, wherein, rate of venting is 10~1000L/min, and agitator speed is 15~20r/min; During summer, after turning, 5 days composting materials enter latter stage of ripening, and during winter, after turning, 7 days fertile raw materials enter latter stage of ripening, at this moment composting material are discharged from discharge port, and composting material is moved on to booth or outdoor lower degraded 5~7 days afterwards to becoming thoroughly decomposed completely;

(7) composting material after becoming thoroughly decomposed is completely spread out, make its seasoning or Exposure to Sunlight, the organism of difficult degradation in composting material is further decomposed, change into more stable material, by the moisture controlled of composting material 30~35%, broken by 0.1~2 mesh sieve except after macrobead compost finished product.

Below in conjunction with principle, the invention will be further described:

Before compost, biomass are carried out to sorting, fragmentation, screening, batching and mixing, for Composting Process provides suitable raw material.Composting material is mixture, comprises each kind of plant, mud, agricultural wastes etc.For reaching best composting reaction effect, need to add his organic or inorganic material, change proportion, the water ratio of composting material, the structure of raw material, increase the energy content in raw material, adjust porosity, be convenient to ventilate.

The raw material of handling well early stage drops in fermentation tower, and under microbial process, organism is by fast decoupled, and experience temperature raising period, pliotherm period, three processes of cooldown period are carried out Primary Fermentation.While carrying out Primary Fermentation, oxygen absorption rate is high, and heap temperature is higher, and volatile solid reduces in a large number, discharges more odorous gas.

In fermentation tower, in stockpile, temperature declines, volatile solid is while slowing down volatilization, enters the secondary fermentation stage, conventionally at fermentation tower, ferments outward, can be booth or outdoor under carry out.Effect is that the organism of difficult degradation is further decomposed, and changes into more stable material, finally obtains the product becoming thoroughly decomposed completely.This one-phase oxygen absorption rate is low, heap temperature is lower, Management and control measure is fairly simple.

Composting production after fermenting twice is suitably dried, broken, sieving gets final product packing and selling.

Compared with prior art, the compost finished product becoming thoroughly decomposed completely of gained after adopting present device and method to process, raw material volume compression changes greatly, is reduced to the 1/3-1/5 of raw material, free from extraneous odour and stink, loose and band are a little like the fragrance of earth, and plant can completely comparatively fast absorb.The pliotherm period of compost fermentation, substantially can kill pests and germ, even weed seed, by being applied to farmland and horticultural production after high temperature composting, can realize real pollution-free organic farming again, a large amount of enzymes of mushroom secretion and the metabolic improver of actives quality farm crop the best in composting process, can improve disease resistance and insect-resistance, improvement soil, activating soil is realized continuous farming forever, for exempting from agricultural chemicals organic farming, create basis, realize the Zero-discharge non-pollution of agriculture production.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the tower composting arrangement of biomass of the present invention;

In figure: 1, reaction tower, 2, temperature sensor, 3, agitator, 4, vapor pipe, 5, agitator motor, 6, water inlet pipe, 7, opening for feed, 8, thief hole, 9, discharge port, 10, filtering net, 11, blast pipe, 12, airheater, 13, blower fan, 14, water pump, 15, filtrate equalizing tank, 16, rising pipe, 17, spray header, 18, humidity sensor.

Embodiment

Describe the preferred technical scheme of the present invention below in detail, but provided embodiment is provided.

embodiment 1

Referring to Fig. 1, described biomass compost treatment facility comprises reaction tower 1; Described reaction tower 1 top is provided with water inlet pipe 6, agitator motor 5, opening for feed 7 and vapor pipe 4; The end that described water inlet pipe 6 stretches into reaction tower 1 inner chamber is provided with spray header 17; Described agitator motor 5 is connected with the agitator 3 in reaction tower 1; In described reaction tower 1 tower, surrounding is provided with temperature sensor 2, humidity sensor 18 and thief hole 8; Described reaction tower 1 bottom is provided with opening for feed 9; Position lower than opening for feed 9 in described reaction tower 1 inner chamber is provided with filtering net 10; Described reaction tower 1 bottom is provided with blast pipe 11 and rising pipe 16; Described blast pipe 11 is connected with blower fan 13, and the air outlet place of described blower fan 13 is provided with airheater 12; Described rising pipe 16 is connected with filtrate equalizing tank 15; Described filtrate equalizing tank 15 is connected with water inlet pipe 6, and described water inlet pipe 6 is provided with water pump 14.

embodiment 2

A biomass compost treatment process based on the tower compost treatment equipment of biomass described in embodiment 1, comprises the steps:

(1) before compost by biomass sorting, fragmentation, screening, prepare burden, be mixed into composting material; Wherein, composting material length is 3~5cm, and the carbon-nitrogen ratio in composting material is 20~30:1, can be added with 50~100kg drystone ashes in every 1t composting material; In composting material, the carbon content such as fallen leaves, wood chip, branch, stalk, withered grass is higher, directly with it, carry out composting, be unfavorable for the synthetic of microorganism and grow, fermenting speed is slow, and the nitrogen contents such as fresh grass, tender leaf are high, can emit a large amount of ammonias and stink, also impact fermentation and composting, preferably both carry out a certain proportion of mixing, control applicable carbon-nitrogen ratio;

(2) by 50~100 times of compound beneficial bacteria powder thin ups, under normal temperature, cultivate 8~12 hours, obtain bacterium liquid;

(3) composting material is dropped into and sent out in reaction tower by opening for feed, start agitator motor and drive agitator rotation; Start water pump simultaneously, by water inlet pipe, cultured bacterium liquid in step (2) is sprayed on composting material; By humidity sensor, controlling humidity in reaction tower is 45~60%; Wherein, every 10t composting material is used the compound beneficial bacteria powder of 0.5kg, and composting material pH value is 6~9;

(4) open airheater, under the effect of blower fan, by blast pipe, in reaction tower, carry heating installation, after temperature reaches more than 40 ℃ in reaction tower, close airheater and blower fan, in reaction tower, composting material starts fermentation; During fermentation, controlling temperature in reaction tower is 50~60 ℃, when temperature is during lower than 50 ℃, starts airheater and blower fan to carry heating installation in reaction tower, when temperature is during higher than 60 ℃, starts blower fan and carry gas at normal temperature in reaction tower; Control humidity 50~60% in reaction tower, when humidity is lower than 50% time, by water pump, the water in filtrate equalizing tank is sprayed onto on composting material, when humidity is lower than 60% time, by blower fan, to carry air in reaction tower, dry up moisture; Wherein, filtrate regulates the pH value of pool inner water by lime powder, to be adjusted to 6~9; During fermentation, at interval of 10~12h, start blower fan and agitator motor once, continue 25~30min at every turn; Wherein, rate of venting is 10~1000L/min, and agitator speed is 15~20r/min;

(5) fermentation, by composting material turning after 5 days, is added compound beneficial bacteria powder while stir in composting material during turning, and addition is the compound beneficial bacteria powder of every 10t composting material interpolation 0.5kg; Spray for the second time cultured bacterium liquid in step (2), in reaction tower, humidity remains between 55~60%, composting material moves to discharge port one end in stirring, and the moisture that composting material produced in when fermentation concentrates on reaction tower bottom after filter screen, by rising pipe discharged to filtrate equalizing tank;

(6) after turning, by temperature sensor, controlling temperature in reaction tower is 45~55 ℃, when temperature is during lower than 45 ℃, starts airheater and blower fan to carry heating installation in reaction tower, when temperature is during higher than 55 ℃, start blower fan to carry gas at normal temperature in reaction tower; By humidity sensor, control humidity 45~55% in reaction tower, when humidity is lower than 45% time, by water pump, the water in filtrate equalizing tank is sprayed onto on composting material, when humidity is lower than 55% time, by blower fan, to carry air in reaction tower, dry up moisture; Wherein, filtrate regulates the pH value of pool inner water by lime powder, to be adjusted to 6~9; After turning, at interval of 14~16h, start blower fan and agitator motor once, continue 15~20min at every turn, wherein, rate of venting is 10~1000L/min, and agitator speed is 15~20r/min; During summer, after turning, 5 days composting materials enter latter stage of ripening, and during winter, after turning, 7 days fertile raw materials enter latter stage of ripening, at this moment composting material are discharged from discharge port, and composting material is moved on to booth or outdoor lower degraded 5~7 days afterwards to becoming thoroughly decomposed completely;

(7) composting material after becoming thoroughly decomposed is completely spread out, make its seasoning or Exposure to Sunlight, the organism of difficult degradation in composting material is further decomposed, change into more stable material, by the moisture controlled of composting material 30~35%, broken by 0.1~2 mesh sieve except after macrobead compost finished product.

Claims (7)

1. a biomass compost treatment facility, is characterized in that, described equipment comprises reaction tower (1); Described reaction tower (1) top is provided with water inlet pipe (6), agitator motor (5), opening for feed (7) and vapor pipe (4); The end that described water inlet pipe (6) stretches into reaction tower (1) inner chamber is provided with spray header (17); Described agitator motor (5) is connected with the agitator (3) in reaction tower (1); In described reaction tower (1) tower, surrounding is provided with temperature sensor (2), humidity sensor (18) and thief hole (8); Described reaction tower (1) bottom is provided with discharge port (9); Position lower than discharge port (9) in described reaction tower (1) inner chamber is provided with filtering net (10); Described reaction tower (1) bottom is provided with blast pipe (11) and rising pipe (16); Described blast pipe (11) is connected with blower fan (13), and the air outlet place of described blower fan (13) is provided with airheater (12); Described rising pipe (16) is connected with filtrate equalizing tank (15); Described filtrate equalizing tank (15) is connected with water inlet pipe (6), and described water inlet pipe (6) is provided with water pump (14).
2. the biomass compost treatment process based on the tower compost treatment equipment of biomass described in claim 1, comprises the steps:
(1) before compost by biomass sorting, fragmentation, screening, prepare burden, be mixed into composting material; Composting material length is 3~5cm, and the carbon-nitrogen ratio in composting material is 20~30:1;
(2) by 50~100 times of compound beneficial bacteria powder thin ups, under normal temperature, cultivate 8~12 hours, obtain bacterium liquid;
(3) composting material is dropped in reaction tower by opening for feed, start agitator motor and drive agitator rotation; Start water pump simultaneously, by water inlet pipe, cultured bacterium liquid in step (2) is sprayed on composting material; By humidity sensor, controlling humidity in reaction tower is 45~60%; Wherein, every 10t composting material is used the compound beneficial bacteria powder of 0.5kg, and composting material pH value is 6~9;
(4) open airheater, under the effect of blower fan, by blast pipe, in reaction tower, carry heating installation, after temperature reaches more than 40 ℃ in reaction tower, close airheater and blower fan, in reaction tower, composting material starts fermentation; During fermentation, controlling temperature in reaction tower is 50~60 ℃, and controls humidity 50~60% in reaction tower; At interval of 10~12h, start blower fan and agitator motor once, continue 25~30min at every turn; Wherein, rate of venting is 10~1000L/min, and agitator speed is 15~20r/min;
(5) fermentation, by composting material turning after 5 days, is added compound beneficial bacteria powder while stir in composting material during turning, and addition is the compound beneficial bacteria powder of every 10t composting material interpolation 0.5kg; Spray for the second time cultured bacterium liquid in step (2), humidity remains between 55~60% in reaction tower, and the moisture that composting material produces when fermentation concentrates on reaction tower bottom after filter screen, by rising pipe discharged to filtrate equalizing tank;
(6), after turning, by temperature sensor, controlling temperature in reaction tower is 45~55 ℃, by humidity sensor, controls humidity 45~55% in reaction tower; At interval of 14~16h, start blower fan and agitator motor once, continue 15~20min at every turn, wherein, rate of venting is 10~1000L/min, and agitator speed is 15~20r/min; During summer, after turning, 5 days composting materials enter latter stage of ripening, and during winter, after turning, 7 days composting materials enter latter stage of ripening, at this moment composting material are discharged from discharge port, and composting material is moved on to booth or outdoor lower degraded 5~7 days afterwards to becoming thoroughly decomposed completely;
(7) composting material after becoming thoroughly decomposed is completely spread out, is made its seasoning or Exposure to Sunlight, then broken and through 0.1~2 mesh sieve except after macrobead compost finished product.
3. method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, in described step (1), is added with 50~100kg drystone ashes in every 1t composting material.
4. method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, in described step (1), by after biomass batching, contains fallen leaves, wood chip, branch, stalk, withered grass, fresh grass and tender leaf in biomass.
5. method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, in described step (4), when in reaction tower, temperature is lower than 50 ℃, start airheater and blower fan and carry heating installation in reaction tower, when temperature is higher than 60 ℃ in reaction tower, starts blower fan and carry gas at normal temperature in reaction tower; In reaction tower, humidity lower than 50% time, is sprayed onto the water in filtrate equalizing tank on composting material by water pump, and in reaction tower, humidity lower than 60% time, is carried air by blower fan in reaction tower, dries up moisture; Wherein, filtrate regulates the pH value of pool inner water by lime powder, to be adjusted to 6~9.
6. method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, in described step (6), when in reaction tower, temperature is lower than 45 ℃, start airheater and blower fan and carry heating installation in reaction tower, when temperature is higher than 55 ℃ in reaction tower, starts blower fan and carry gas at normal temperature in reaction tower; In reaction tower, humidity lower than 45% time, is sprayed onto the water in filtrate equalizing tank (15) on composting material by water pump, and in reaction tower, humidity lower than 55% time, is carried air by blower fan in reaction tower, dries up moisture; Wherein, filtrate regulates the pH value of pool inner water by lime powder, to be adjusted to 6~9.
7. method as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, in described step (7), it is 30~35% that composting material is dried to its moisture content.
CN201210588210.8A 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 Biomass tower type compost treatment device and method CN103011927B (en)

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CN103214290B (en) * 2013-04-23 2014-08-20 中国农业大学 Intelligent aerobic composting reactor system
CN103319222B (en) * 2013-07-19 2014-07-30 重庆普天庆能科技有限公司 Full-automatic rapid high-temperature fermentation composting bin
CN103694002B (en) * 2014-01-02 2016-05-18 广西三堡农业科技有限公司 A kind of vertical continuous solid-state fermentation device
CN105016802B (en) * 2015-07-10 2018-06-15 河南恩赛姆生物科技有限公司 A kind of bioreactor and the method using bioreactor conversion solid organic castoff
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