CN103004353A - Method for cultivating plants on basis of feeding nutrition liquid through capillary force - Google Patents

Method for cultivating plants on basis of feeding nutrition liquid through capillary force Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103004353A
CN103004353A CN2013100083921A CN201310008392A CN103004353A CN 103004353 A CN103004353 A CN 103004353A CN 2013100083921 A CN2013100083921 A CN 2013100083921A CN 201310008392 A CN201310008392 A CN 201310008392A CN 103004353 A CN103004353 A CN 103004353A
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China
Prior art keywords
plant
capillary force
liquid storage
storage container
nutrient solution
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CN2013100083921A
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Chinese (zh)
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王世平
娄玉穗
何建军
赵丽萍
赵慧
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Priority to CN2013100083921A priority Critical patent/CN103004353A/en
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Abstract

The invention provides a method for cultivating plants on the basis of feeding nutrition liquid through capillary force, applications of the method on the aspect of plant cultivation, and a cultivation system produced based on the method. According to the method, fertilizer water is transported and fed by utilizing capillary force, the fertilizer water management process is simple and effort-saving, and additional electricity or other energy resources are not required. The method is simple to operate, labor-saving and effort-saving, and applicable to cultivation of horticultural plants such as grapes, thereby being a water-saving, fertilizer-saving, energy-saving and environment-friendly efficient cultivation technology; the plants can absorb moisture by itself according to self growth and development demand, the fertilizer water management technology needed in culture of the plant is simplified, nutrition water of the plant can be well managed even by non-professionals, and the method can be used for planting small-scale mini vegetable gardens in family balconies, and the like, or large-area agriculture and forestry crops.

Description

Plant cultivation method based on the capillary force supplying nutrition liquid
Technical field
The present invention relates to farm-forestry crop culture technique field, particularly, the invention provides a kind of plant cultivation method that utilizes the capillary force supplying nutrition liquid.
Background technology
What the irrigation of crops was adopted from ancient times all is the technology of " irrigating the fields ", be about in the soil of Root Distribution that water is poured onto crops, utilize absorption affinity and the capillary interstice force retaining moisture of soil colloid, the crops root system absorbs moisture and dissolving nutritive element wherein by contacting with it.Even be described as the soilless culture (except water planting, the dense fog training) of modern culture technique, also be by water dropper nutrient solution and water to be delivered to the root Supporting Media, at first moistening root medium could be to crops for provisions moisture.The irrigation technique of " irrigating the fields " can cause lower percolation water and the surface evaporation dehydration of irrigation water.The availability of irrigation water and fertilizer nutrition is because of the different to some extent differences of crop species, soil types and weather conditions, but generally about 30%.Therefore, the irrigation technique of " irrigating the fields " formula can cause the lower of irrigation water and fertilizer nutrition to ooze waste, and causes the environmental problems such as secondary salinization of eutrophication pollution and the soil of underground water.Even in soilless culture, the quantity delivered of nutrient solution also is greater than normal growth and the production capacity of demand guarantee gardening plant, infiltrating irrigation can only reach about 15-20:80-85 than generally, the availability that is irrigation water and fertilizer nutrition only has about 80-85%, usually nutrient solution has 15-20% and is disposed in the greenhouse soil severe contamination greenhouse soil environment.As seen, the water supply of " irrigating the fields " formula can not independently supply provisions moisture according to the rich water demand of gardening plant growth for fertilizer technology, can cause the waste of nutrient solution, contaminated environment, nor the growth of energy accuracy controlling gardening plant.
Therefore, but this area in the urgent need to the high accuracy controlling of a kind of energy-saving and water-saving, nutrient utilization and eco-friendly culture technique.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the defective of " irrigating the fields " formula supplying nutrition liquid technology, develop a kind of water supply fertilizer method of utilizing capillary force.The capillary force transfusion band that is about to root system and root soil and inserts in the root soil is done as a whole, after the rising dehydration of the plant leaf blades such as grape, the flow of water from blade to the root system surface descends gradually, the moisture of its surrounding soil of Root Absorption, the flow of water that causes nearly root table soil descends, form the root system surface to the flow of water difference between the capillary force transfusion band that inserts rhizosphere soil, the moisture that the capillary force transfusion band is rich in and dissolving nutritive element wherein just can be transplanted on the root table by the capillary force transfusion band continuously along the flow of water is poor, on behind the Root Absorption, transport to blade, submerging in the nutrient solution in capillary force transfusion band lower end, can constantly absorb moisture from the lower end again after the flow of water of capillary force transfusion band upper end descends and the nutritive element that dissolves in is wherein transported to rhizosphere soil.In this cultivation system, plant can according to the autonomous quantity that absorbs liquid manure nutrition of adjusting of the size of transpiration rate, at the nutrition liquid pool ball-cock assembly is installed and is communicated with the water source, but the automatic makeup water-filling be realized rich water quality management autonomy-oriented and unmanned.And by regularly throw in the nutritional need of the simple operations assurance crop of fertilizer to the nutrition liquid pool.
A first aspect of the present invention provides a kind of plant cultivation method, and the method comprising the steps of:
Provide the plant of a cultivation, and one is positioned at nutrient solution described plant outside and that directly do not contact with described plant; With
As medium, by capillary pore power described nutrient solution is transported to the plant root from the outside with the capillary force transfusion band, for described plant absorbing utilization.
In another preference, described capillary force transfusion band is made by the inner core with capillary pore material and for the periphery parcel cover that wraps up described inner core.
In another preference, described capillary force transfusion band is made by nonwoven and for the periphery parcel cover that wraps up described nonwoven.
In another preference, described parcel cover material is enough fine and close in to guarantee that root system can not penetrate or enter interior in-core.
In another preference, described capillary force transfusion band periphery parcel cover is permeable cloth or water permeable membrane, and described parcel cover is used for preventing that root system from can not penetrate or enter interior in-core.
In another preference, the periphery of described capillary force transfusion band parcel is applied mechanically polyamide fabric and is made.
In another preference, described nutrient solution is positioned at liquid storage container.
In another preference, nutrient solution and plant isolate mutually by the wall of dividing plate or liquid storage container wall or cultivating container.
In another preference, described liquid storage container can be plastic casing, plastic box, pipe, road, water channel or its combination.
In another preference, described dividing plate or chamber wall can be made with cement plate or plastic plate.
In another preference, described liquid storage container is positioned at the below of plant.
In another preference, the vertical range of described nutrient solution identity distance root system of plant is in 5cm.
In another preference, the component of described nutrient solution comprises water and the dissolving nutritive element for plant growth wherein.
In another preference, described capillary force transfusion band one end (plant end) is arranged in the soil of the described plant of cultivation, and the other end of capillary force transfusion band (nutrient solution end) submerges in the described nutrient solution.
In another preference, this system provides driving force by transpiration, by capillary force transfusion band Absorption of nourishment liquid, regulates and control described plant to the absorptive amount of nutrient solution by Transpiration Intensity.
In another preference, described plant is positioned at cultivating container, and has one or more perforates to be used for placing an end of capillary force transfusion band on the described cultivating container;
Preferably, described perforate is positioned at the cultivating container side, and apart from the distance on edge, the end less than the distance apart from upper edge.
In another preference, described perforate is 0.5-5cm, preferably 1-2cm apart from the distance on edge, the end.
In another preference, corresponding one or two perforate of each cultivating container or each plant, and the size of perforate and capillary force transfusion band cross-sectional area in the same size or basically identical.
In another preference, the size of described cultivating container perforate is more bigger than capillary force transfusion band cross-sectional area size.
In another preference, position of opening on the cultivating container is positioned at bottom center, and the aperture of bottom inside is inwardly protruding up, the inner core of capillary force transfusion band hangs in Absorption of nourishment liquid the nutrient solution under this aperture, the parcel cover that wraps up inner core then is enclosed within the affiliated projection outside, and the enough ropes of energy are fastening.
In another preference, described liquid storage container is provided with 1-2 perforate, is used for stretching into the capillary force transfusion band; Preferably, described perforate is positioned at the liquid storage container side, and is positioned at the top of liquid storage container liquid level, on the distance distance on edge less than distance at the bottom of the distance on edge.
In another preference, described perforate is 0.5-5cm, preferably 1-2cm apart from the distance on upper edge.And the size of perforate and capillary force transfusion band cross-sectional area in the same size or basically identical.
In another preference, the size of described perforate is more bigger than capillary force transfusion band cross-sectional area.
In another preference, the top cover perforate of liquid storage container, and described position of opening is corresponding with cultivating container bottom opening position.
In another preference, the position of opening on the position of opening on the cultivating container and the container of depositing nutrient solution is not corresponding or stagger up and down up and down, stretches into liquid storage container to prevent plant root.
In another preference, described liquid storage container also is provided with the liquid supply device for supplementing water and/or nutrient component; And/or
Also comprise the ball-cock assembly antipriming for the control amount infused on the described liquid supply device.
In another preference, described liquid supply device is the pipeline that is provided with switch and communicates with liquid storage container.Preferably, described liquid supply device is for can be disposable or repeat to add plastic bottle or the external pipe of nutrient solution or its combination.
In another preference, an end of described capillary force transfusion band (nutrient solution end) inserts Depth Nutrient Solution 〉=3cm, preferably 〉=and 5cm.
In another preference, automatically regulate water level by ball-cock assembly, make the liquid storage container height of water level stable.
In another preference, described plant comprises ornamental plant and/or farm-forestry crop.
In another preference, described plant comprises flowers, fruit, shrub, trees, woody plant and herbaceous plant (comprising that greening grass, livestock breeding are with careless) etc., more preferably, described plant is selected from lower group: the flowers such as leaf vegetables, chrysanthemum, rose such as the solanaceous vegetableses such as the fruit such as grape, golden mandarin orange, muskmelon, tomato, cucumber, pimento and capsicum, little green vegetables, romaine lettuce.
A second aspect of the present invention provides a kind of plant cultivating device, comprising:
Liquid storage container, described liquid storage container are used for holding for required water or the nutrient solution of plant strain growth;
Cultivating container, described cultivating container are used for the cultivation plant and are arranged to be positioned at top or the side of described liquid storage container, and so that the root system of the plant of cultivating directly do not contact with nutrient solution with the interior water of liquid storage container; With
Capillary force transfusion band, wherein said capillary force transfusion band are configured to an end and are arranged in described liquid storage container and contact with described water or nutrient solution, and an end be arranged in described cultivating container and with contacted by root system or the root system place cultivation medium of cultivation plant.
In the present invention, described capillary force transfusion band from outside is transported to plant root by capillary pore power with described nutrient solution as pumped (conveying) medium, for described plant absorbing utilization.
In another preference, the cultivation medium that holds in the described cultivating container comprises soil and/or filler.
In another preference, planted in the described cultivating container to be implanted with plant or to plant and be implanted with plant.
A third aspect of the present invention provides a kind of plant cultivating device, comprising:
Capillary force transfusion band, described capillary force transfusion band from outside are transported to plant root by capillary pore power with described nutrient solution as medium, for described plant absorbing utilization;
Cultivating container, described culturing device are used for the cultivation plant;
Liquid storage container, described liquid storage container is used for holding water or nutrient solution; With
Optional liquid supply device, described liquid supply device is used for toward liquid storage container supplementing water and/or nutrient component.
In another preference, described liquid supply device is the pipeline that is provided with switch and communicates with liquid storage container.Preferably, described liquid supply device is for can be disposable or repeat to add plastic bottle or the external pipe of nutrient solution or its combination.
In another preference, described liquid supply device also comprises the ball-cock assembly antipriming for the control amount infused.
In another preference, automatically regulate water level by ball-cock assembly, make the liquid storage container height of water level stable.
In the present invention, described capillary force transfusion band from outside is transported to plant root by capillary pore power with described nutrient solution as pumped (conveying) medium, for described plant absorbing utilization.
In another preference, the cultivation medium that holds in the described cultivating container comprises soil and/or filler.
In another preference, planted in the described cultivating container to be implanted with plant or to plant and be implanted with plant.
A fourth aspect of the present invention provides a kind of purposes that is used for the cultivation plant such as the described culturing device of second aspect present invention.
In another preference, described device is used for cultivation ornamental plant or farm-forestry crop.
In another preference, described device is selected from lower group plant for cultivation: flowers, fruit, shrub, trees, woody plant and herbaceous plant (comprising greening grass, livestock breeding grass).
In should be understood that within the scope of the present invention, above-mentioned each technical characterictic of the present invention and can making up mutually between specifically described each technical characterictic in below (eg embodiment), thus consist of new or preferred technical scheme.As space is limited, this tired stating no longer one by one.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 has shown the cultivating container of the cultivation system that one embodiment of the present of invention provide, and wherein, 1 is cultivating container, and 10 is the wall of cultivating container, and 12 is the perforate of cultivating container wall.
Fig. 2 has shown the liquid storage container (pond) of the cultivation system that one embodiment of the present of invention provide, wherein, 2 is liquid storage container, 18 is the wall of liquid storage container, 14 is the perforate of liquid storage container wall, 20 is the top cover of liquid storage container, and 16 is the opening of liquid storage container top cover, is used for installing liquid supply device.
Fig. 3 has shown the liquid supply device of the cultivation system that one embodiment of the present of invention provide.
Fig. 4 has shown the capillary force transfusion band of the cultivation system that one embodiment of the present of invention provide.
Fig. 5 has shown that the system of the cultivation system that one embodiment of the present of invention provide arranges schematic diagram, and wherein: 1 is that cultivating container, 2 is that liquid storage container, 3 is liquid supply device, and 4 is the capillary force transfusion band, and 5 is the nutrient solution in the liquid storage container, and 6 is plant.
Embodiment
The inventor has invented a kind of plant cultivation method based on the capillary force supplying nutrition liquid through long-term and deep research.After the rising dehydration of the plant leaf blades such as grape, the flow of water from blade to the root system surface descends gradually, the moisture of its surrounding soil of Root Absorption, the flow of water that causes nearly root table soil descends, form the root system surface to the flow of water difference between the capillary force transfusion band that inserts rhizosphere soil, the moisture that the capillary force transfusion band is rich in and dissolving nutritive element wherein just can be transplanted on the root table by the capillary force transfusion band continuously along the flow of water is poor, on behind the Root Absorption, transport to blade, submerging in the nutrient solution in capillary force transfusion band lower end, can constantly absorb moisture from the lower end again after the capillary force transfusion band upper end flow of water descends and the nutritive element that dissolves in is wherein transported to rhizosphere soil.Based on this principle, the inventor has finished the present invention.
As used herein, term " container " refers to can be used in any article of depositing the materials such as soil or nutrient solution, and representational example comprises: plastic casing, Plastic Drum, plastic tank, water pipe, pipeline, water channel, or its combination.
The capillary force transfusion band
The capillary force transfusion band utilizes the capillary acting in conjunction of holding force between hollow billet wall and hydrone and water to carry moisture or nutrient solution to root system of plant.Described capillary force transfusion band is made by the inner core with capillary pore material and for the periphery parcel cover that wraps up described inner core.
Described inner core is made by the material with capillary pore, as making with nonwoven.
The material of described capillary force transfusion band periphery parcel cover needs enough fine and close in to guarantee that root system can not penetrate or enter interior in-core, and such as permeable cloth or water permeable membrane, in another preference, the periphery of described capillary force transfusion band parcel is applied mechanically polyamide fabric and made.
In another preference, described capillary force transfusion band can wrap up nonwoven strip with polyamide fabric and make.
Cultivation method
Among the present invention, the water or the nutrient solution that are used for pouring directly do not contact with the plant of cultivating, but carry foster moisture by the capillary force transfusion band.After the rising dehydration of plant leaf blade, the flow of water from blade to the root system surface descends gradually, the moisture of its surrounding soil of Root Absorption, the flow of water that causes nearly root table soil descends, form the root system surface to the flow of water difference between the capillary force transfusion band that inserts rhizosphere soil, the moisture that the capillary force transfusion band is rich in and dissolving nutritive element wherein just can be transplanted on the root table by the capillary force transfusion band continuously along the flow of water is poor, on behind the Root Absorption, transport to blade, submerging in the nutrient solution in capillary force transfusion band lower end, can constantly absorb moisture from the lower end again after the flow of water descends and the nutritive element that dissolves in is wherein transported to rhizosphere soil.In the cultivation process, irrigation volume is by plant evaporation intensity regulation and control, thus moisture and nutrient can be accomplished as required, accurately, the autonomous supply, cause the waste of undergrowth and moisture or nutrient solution thereby avoided plant because irrigate too much or very few.
In a preference, the reservoir vessel of water or nutrient solution is separated by dividing plate or chamber wall and plant root.Preferably, described dividing plate or chamber wall material can be cement or plastics.When the plant cultivation of small household ornamental type, also can select lucite as dividing plate or chamber wall.Liquid storage container can be plastic casing, plastic box, pipeline or its combination.
One of capillary force transfusion band is arranged in root system of plant, and the Root Distribution of described plant is around described capillary force transfusion band.The other end of capillary force transfusion band is arranged in liquid storage container.
Preferably, liquid storage container can be connected with liquid supply device, is convenient to add continuously entry or nutrient solution, and it is stable to keep liquid level (water level).
In another preference, described liquid supply device is for repeating to add the plastic bottle of nutrient solution or the external water source of other tool floating ball water stop valves.
By selecting suitable cultivation system parts, cultivation method provided by the invention can be used for amateur resident and carries out plant cultivation in the narrow and small light spaces that has such as balconies, the mini orchard of the balcony that founds a family, vegetable garden and garden; Or be used for the extensive cultivation such as crops, forest, be particularly useful in facility, cultivating and carrying out water-saving culture in arid areas such as deserts, northwest.
The cultivation system that is used for the ornamental type plant cultivation
Take accompanying drawing as example, illustrated among Fig. 1 at height 15-20cm, the side central authorities of the cultivating containers (hereinafter referred to as cultivating container) such as plastic basin (case) that volume is about 10-20L apart from the bottom about 1cm to open at the place 5cm wide, 0.6-0.8cm high square orifice (hereinafter referred to as zone of capillarity socket 12), (long * wide * thick: the end of 50cm * 5cm * 0.5cm) penetrates in the cultivating container from zone of capillarity socket 12 with as shown in Figure 4 capillary force transfusion band, the mixed soil 1cm that cultivating container bottom filling agent enriches capillary porosity is thick, the capillary force transfusion band is inserted into cultivating container central authorities from zone of capillarity socket 12 and vertically holds up afterwards, on every side the filling agent soil that enriches the capillary pore on cultivating container along below 2cm place, with plant fixings such as grapes in wherein, make root system be evenly distributed in the capillary force transfusion band around.Prepare in addition a long 8-10cm of Length Ratio cultivating container, plastic basin (case) (hereinafter referred to as liquid storage container) with cover as shown in Figure 2, open the square orifice that 5cm is wide, 0.6-0.8cm is high (hereinafter referred to as zone of capillarity socket 14) along about 1.5-2cm place on its long limit one side, distance, the liquid storage container lid is opened diameter 8-10cm circular port (hereinafter referred to as fluid infusion bottle jack 16) away from zone of capillarity socket 2 one sides.Give and to inject nutrient solution in the liquid storage container to 14 times 2cm of zone of capillarity socket.The cultivating container of the gardening plants such as the grape of planting is stacked on the liquid storage container, make the zone of capillarity socket 12 of cultivating container and zone of capillarity socket 14 consistencies from top to bottom of liquid storage container, to be inserted into from the capillary force transfusion band other end that cultivating container zone of capillarity socket 12 exposes the zone of capillarity socket 14 of liquid storage container, make submerge nutrient solution in the liquid storage container of capillary force transfusion band, submerged depth is no less than 5cm, utilize capillary force that the nutrient solution of liquid storage container (water and dissolving nutritive element wherein) is carried the gardening plant root soils such as grape of cultivating in the cultivating container, grow for it.The plastic bottle (hereinafter referred to as the fluid infusion bottle) of as shown in Figure 3 similar Coke bottle is filled nutrient solution, after opening bottle cap or spiling to bottle cap, insertion is positioned at the fluid infusion bottle jack of the liquid storage container lid other end, the fluid infusion bottleneck nutrient solution liquid level in the liquid storage container that will submerge, when nutrient solution all drains off in the fluid infusion bottle, nutrient solution is filled it up with in taking-up, again inserts the fluid infusion bottle jack of liquid storage container lid, and the nutrient solution liquid level that bottleneck submerges in the liquid storage container gets final product.
The assembling all parts obtains cultivation system as shown in Figure 5, can continue the gardening plants such as cultivating grape in described system.
Major advantage of the present invention is:
1) in this cultivation system provided by the invention, do not have in theory a water or nutrient solution and leak and to be spread across outside the system, and avoided the problem of a large amount of seepages of moisture and evaporation in " irrigating the fields " formula irrigation method.More preferably, cultivation system provided by the invention can independently absorb water and nutritive element according to plant evaporation power and growth requirement, realize supplying with as required accurately and autonomous the supply, accomplish the rich water supply of " 30 as required a province " of " water resource zero waste ", " fertilizer nutrition zero loss ", " environmental key-element zero burden ", " rich water as required accurately, the autonomous supply " and " rich water quality management is economized the labour ".
2) technology provided by the present invention does not need to drop into manpower and instrument and equipment monitoring root soil moisture and nutrition condition, more not needing to do complicated decision-making judges, can avoid amateur, the rawness resident plants tree, water dilutional hyponatremia or not enough problem in planting vegetables and growing flower, as long as the floating ball water stop valve is installed in liquid storage container, and be communicated with the water source, even often travel on business trips outside, withered dead phenomenon can not occur yet, be fit to very much amateur, the rawness resident sets (grape in narrow and small light space kinds that has such as balconies, gold mandarin orange etc.), (tomato plants vegetables, cucumber and little green vegetables etc.) and (chrysanthemum of growing flower, rose), the mini orchard of balcony that founds a family, vegetable garden and garden.Also can use in crops large tracts of land facility cultivation kind.
Below by specific embodiment technical scheme of the present invention is further described.Should be understood that these embodiment only to be used for explanation the present invention and be not used in and limit the scope of the invention.The experimental technique of unreceipted actual conditions in the following example, usually according to normal condition, or the condition of advising according to manufacturer.Unless otherwise indicated, otherwise percentage and umber calculate by weight.
Embodiment 1. individual plant plant culture systems 1
One, assembly
1) cultivating container:
As shown in Figure 1, cultivating container 1 is that (length * wide * height: 39.2cm * 30.5cm * 18.5cm), volume is about 22L to plastic box.Sidewall 10 and bottom surface (not shown) around cultivating container has, and about 1-2cm place has respectively the rectangular opening that 5cm is long, 0.5cm is wide (being 17.1cm apart from the two side ends distance) as perforate 12 to the centre in plastic box one side apart from the bottom, is used for laying the capillary force transfusion band.
2) liquid storage container:
As shown in Figure 2, plastic box (length * wide * height: 49.2cm * 30.5cm * 18.5cm), volume is about 27.8L, on plastic box long side identity distance one end 17.1cm, distance, open the rectangular opening that 5cm is wide, 0.5cm is high (distance apart from two side ends is followed successively by 17.1cm, 27.1cm) as perforate 14 along about 2-3cm place, in addition broadside one side of liquid storage container lid hit exactly inside 2cm with interior hole of opening diameter 10cm as perforate 16, be used for inserting the fluid infusion bottle.
3) liquid storage bottle:
As shown in Figure 3, do liquid storage bottle with the plastic bottle of 1 liter of diameter 9cm, volume.
4) capillary force transfusion band:
As shown in Figure 4, with the dark brown polyamide fabric of long 52cm, wide 11cm, doubling also is bonded as the long shell-like bag of long 52cm, wide 5.5cm, inserts the nonwoven strip of long 50cm, wide 5cm, thick 0.5cm.
Two, make
The making step of cultivation system is as follows: (take " huge peak " grape (V.Ishiharawase * V.Centennial) kind as example)
1) capillary force transfusion band and the vine of planting are set in the cultivating container: spread the thick composite soil (sandy loam: peat (or vermiculite or other organic goods, materials and equipments such as coconut palm health or rice chaff)=5:1) of 2cm to cultivating container 1 bottom, the zone of capillarity socket 12 of capillary force transfusion band 4 from cultivating container inserted, and level vertically is pulled up on the cultivating container along isometry position after being pulled to the centre of cultivating container, give and fill above-mentioned composite soil in the cultivating container, and vine moved into simultaneously, root system is evenly distributed on around the capillary force transfusion band, banket and to the distance cultivating container, get final product along 2-3cm, with the 2-3cm that turns back downwards on the capillary force transfusion band, use the composite soil compacting, prevent that root system from growing into the capillary force transfusion band from port in.
2) liquid storage container fluid injection and fluid infusion bottle arrange: inject the fertile nutrient solutions of making of soilless culture nutrient fluid such as Huo Gelande prescription or Japanese vegetable garden experimental formula to liquid storage container to 2-3cm place, zone of capillarity socket 14 below, nutrient solution EC value is adjusted to 1.0~1.6 and gets final product.After building liquid storage container top cover 20, with filling the fluid infusion bottle 3 (bottle cap is opened the circular port of diameter 5mm) of above-mentioned nutrient solution, pour into fluid infusion bottle jack 16, make submerge nutrition liquid level in the liquid storage container of bottleneck.
3) install: as shown in Figure 5, to be provided with the capillary force transfusion band and the cultivating container 1 viny of planting places the nutrient solution and setting above the liquid storage container 2 of fluid infusion bottle of having annotated, make the zone of capillarity socket 12 of cultivating container and zone of capillarity socket 14 consistencies from top to bottom of liquid storage container, the capillary force transfusion band that the zone of capillarity socket 12 of cultivating container is hung out inserts the zone of capillarity socket 14 of liquid storage container, makes the capillary force transfusion band 4 at least 5cm that submerges in the nutrient solution in the liquid storage container.Irrigate composite soil in the cultivating container and moistening capillary force transfusion band with aforesaid nutrient solution, so far install.Place sun-drenched position to get final product mounted system, when nutrient solution is about to flow in the fluid infusion bottle, take out the fluid infusion bottle, again insert in the circular port of liquid storage container lid after filling nutrient solution, make submerge nutrition liquid level in the liquid storage container of the bottleneck of fluid infusion bottle.
Embodiment 2 individual plant plant culture systems 2
Repeat embodiment 1, difference is, (the distance back gauge is about 15.3cm in the plastic box bottom surface centre as cultivating container, be about 19.6cm apart from the minor face distance) locate out the rectangular opening that 5cm is long, 0.5cm is wide, around the rectangular opening of cultivating container inside bottom, paste the resin plate of thick 0.3cm, high 3cm.The inner core of capillary force transfusion band is stretched out in this jack, the capillary force transfusion band then be enclosed within resin plate by overlay film (cloth), and fastening with line, prevent that root system from stretching into and being elongated to along inner core the nutrient solution of liquid storage container from this slit.Be 15.3cm, be 19.6cm apart from side minor face distance at distance limit, plastic box top one lateral extent as liquid storage container, opposite side minor face distance is for opening the rectangular opening that 5cm is long, 0.5cm is wide in the 29.6cm place, make two holes in correspondence with each other, the inner core of capillary force transfusion band is extend into the nutrient solution in this jack.Planting with embodiment 1, (take " huge peak " grape (V.Ishiharawase * V.Centennial) kind as example), nutrient management etc. are all with embodiment 1 for vine.
The making of the extensive cultivation system such as embodiment 3. crops, forest
At plastic box (length * wide * height: 39.2cm * 30.5cm * 18.5cm, volume 22L) the about 1-2cm in long side identity distance bottom opens at place 2 rectangular openings that 5cm is long, 0.5cm is wide (rectangular opening mid point distance is closed on side apart from being 9.8cm, mid point interval, two holes is 19.6cm), as cultivating container.
At the plastic conduit (rectangular tube of length * wide * height=300cm * 10cm * 10cm, or diameter 10cm round tube, volume 30L (rectangular tube) or 23.6L (round tube)) the top with one group of the rectangular opening that spaced 5cm is long, 0.5cm is wide of 19.6cm, as liquid storage container (length of plastic conduit can according to the adjustment of cultivation space size).Reservoir sealed at both ends is used for connecting water source (the water supply pipe standard press in the aperture, is in charge of or 6 is in charge of and is advisable with 4, and the edge is apart from base 1-2cm under the hole) in the bottom section perforate of reservoir.
With another plastic box or stainless steel case (length * wide * height: 39.2cm * 30.5cm * 18.5cm, volume 22L) as preparation nutrient solution container (compounding device), base portion perforate (edge is apart from base 1-2cm under the hole) at compounding device one end is used for being connected with liquid storage container.In the top perforate of the compounding device other end (on the hole along apart from about top margin 5cm), the inboard floating ball water stop valve that connects of the case in hole, the case outside is connected with uninterrupted water source.Liquid storage container is adjusted to level, be communicated with the hole of compounding device one end bottom, by the adjusting of floating ball water stop valve, make the liquid level of compounding device and liquid storage container be lower than liquid storage container top capillary force Flexible water pipe insert port 2 about 2-3cm, prevent that nutrient solution from overflowing.
Method with embodiment 1 arranges the capillary force Flexible water pipe in cultivating container, load Nutrition Soil and the horticultural crop such as the grape of planting after, in a row place the liquid storage container top, the lower end of capillary force Flexible water pipe is inserted in the square opening of liquid storage container, foster moisture in absorption and the upper fortune liquid storage container is to cultivating container implants rhizosphere soil, for the plant absorbing utilization.Plant absorbing can cause the liquid level of liquid storage container and compounding device to descend, the sinking of floating ball water stop valve can be opened switch, automatically from water recharging water to compounding device and liquid storage container, keep the nutrition liquid level of liquid storage container to the height (apart from top capillary force Flexible water pipe insert port 1-2cm) of setting.According to requirement and the nutrient solution consumption of cultivated plant growth to nutrient solution concentration, calculate the demand of fertilizer nutrition, regularly load weighted fertilizer is dissolved into the compounding device and gets final product.
The growth experiment of embodiment 4 plant in cultivation system
(kind of V.Ishiharawase * V.Centennial) is as material take life in 4 years of the same size potted plant " huge peak " grape, mode according to embodiment 1 is cultivated, record concentration and the quantity of the nutrient solution that consumes in 1 annually cultivating, calculate the input amount (deducting the amount in the Nutrition Soil) of nutritive element.In the season of growth branches and leaves of summer pruning are preserved with the collecting fruit oven dry of gathering.Also dry at the plant dissection that resting stage will cultivate after finishing, pulverize together with branches and leaves and fruit dry sample that the season of growth collects, measure the content of various nutritive elements, deduct the content of the nutritive element of homotype tree before testing as the net absorption of a growth cycle, compare with otal investment and be utilization rate of fertilizer.And pile up the cultivation bed of high 50cm, wide 100cm with same Nutrition Soil in the same period, press spacing cultivation life in same 4 years potted plant " huge peak " grape of 80cm, supply with the nutrient solution of same concentration with drip irrigation, quantity delivered is take the thick cultivation bed of moistening 50cm as degree, every strain needs the 4.5L nutrient solution at every turn approximately, the soil water potential critical value that begins the drip irrigation supplying nutrition liquid in fruit expanding period and maturing stage is successively-50mbar and-130m bar.Process individual plant for two kinds and all stay 5 at the tip, every tip stays 1 on fruit ear.
Result such as following table, capillary force transfusion band are processed the availability of macroelement between 93%-97%, are higher than the availability that contrasts 39%-45% far away.The 41%-48% that the water that the capillary force transfusion band is processed and macroelement input amount only have drip irrigation to process, water saving joint fertilizer efficiency fruit significantly.
The availability of table 1 capillary force transfusion band supplying nutrition liquid and drip irrigation relatively
Figure BDA00002720627700121
Figure BDA00002720627700131
The plant culture test of the cultivation system that Comparative Examples 1 cultivating container hole is relative with the liquid storage container hole
Repeat embodiment 1, difference is, locates out the square opening that 5cm is long, 0.5cm is wide in the plastic box bottom surface centre (the distance back gauge is about 15.3cm, is about 19.6cm apart from the minor face distance) as cultivating container, is used for laying the capillary force transfusion band; Be 15.3cm, be 19.6cm apart from side minor face distance at distance limit, plastic box top one lateral extent as liquid storage container, opposite side minor face distance is for opening the square orifice that 5cm is wide, 0.5cm is high in the 29.6cm place, make two holes in correspondence with each other, be used for the cultivating grape tree (take " huge peak " grape (V.Ishiharawase * V.Centennial) kind as example).
The result:
In the cultivation process, after about 1 month, the white root of plant begins to stretch in the liquid storage container along capillary force Flexible water pipe wall, and about about 2 months, white root putresced, and tree body shoot and leaf growth is obstructed, and engenders the blade yellow, and is finally withered.
Conclusion
Capillary force Flexible water pipe socket is located at the side, can prevents that root system from going deep into liquid storage container.Even there is root system to grow from socket, also can in time be found, prevent that by manual intercept it from continuing to extend.
All quote in this application as a reference at all documents that the present invention mentions, just as each piece document is quoted separately as a reference.Should be understood that in addition those skilled in the art can make various changes or modifications the present invention after having read above-mentioned instruction content of the present invention, these equivalent form of values fall within the application's appended claims limited range equally.

Claims (10)

1. a plant cultivation method is characterized in that, comprises step:
Provide the plant of a cultivation, and one is positioned at nutrient solution described plant outside and that directly do not contact with described plant; With
As medium, by capillary pore power described nutrient solution is transported to the plant root from the outside with the capillary force transfusion band, for described plant absorbing utilization.
2. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, described capillary force transfusion band is made by the inner core with capillary pore material and for the periphery parcel cover that wraps up described inner core.
3. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, described nutrient solution is positioned at liquid storage container.
4. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, described capillary force transfusion band one end (plant end) is arranged in the soil of the described plant of cultivation, and the other end of capillary force transfusion band (nutrient solution end) submerges in the described nutrient solution.
5. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, has one or more following features:
Described plant is positioned at cultivating container, and has one or more perforates to be used for placing an end of capillary force transfusion band on the described cultivating container; Preferably, described perforate is positioned at the cultivating container side, and apart from the distance on edge, the end less than the distance apart from upper edge; And/or
Described liquid storage container is provided with 1-2 perforate, is used for stretching into the capillary force transfusion band; Preferably, described perforate is positioned at the liquid storage container side, and is positioned at the top of liquid storage container liquid level, on the distance distance on edge less than distance at the bottom of the distance on edge.
6. method as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that, described liquid storage container also is provided with the liquid supply device for supplementing water and/or nutrient component; And/or
Also comprise the ball-cock assembly antipriming for the control amount infused on the described liquid supply device.
7. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, described plant comprises ornamental plant and/or farm-forestry crop.
8. a plant cultivating device is characterized in that, comprising:
Liquid storage container, described liquid storage container are used for holding for required water or the nutrient solution of plant strain growth;
Cultivating container, described cultivating container are used for the cultivation plant and are arranged to be positioned at top or the side of described liquid storage container, and so that the root system of the plant of cultivating directly do not contact with nutrient solution with the interior water of liquid storage container; With
Capillary force transfusion band, wherein said capillary force transfusion band are configured to an end and are arranged in described liquid storage container and contact with described water or nutrient solution, and an end be arranged in described cultivating container and with contacted by root system or the root system place cultivation medium of cultivation plant.
9. a plant cultivating device is characterized in that, comprising:
Capillary force transfusion band, described capillary force transfusion band from outside are transported to plant root by capillary pore power with described nutrient solution as medium, for described plant absorbing utilization;
Cultivating container, described culturing device are used for the cultivation plant;
Liquid storage container, described liquid storage container is used for holding water or nutrient solution; With
Optional liquid supply device, described liquid supply device is used for toward liquid storage container supplementing water and/or nutrient component.
10. the purposes of culturing device as claimed in claim 8 or 9 is characterized in that, is used for the cultivation plant.
CN2013100083921A 2013-01-09 2013-01-09 Method for cultivating plants on basis of feeding nutrition liquid through capillary force Pending CN103004353A (en)

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CN106759074A (en) * 2017-01-04 2017-05-31 华东师范大学 A kind of aerial artificial swamp landscape structure
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Application publication date: 20130403