CN103026888A - Plant cultivation methods, cultivation modules and commercial uses thereof - Google Patents

Plant cultivation methods, cultivation modules and commercial uses thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103026888A
CN103026888A CN2013100043712A CN201310004371A CN103026888A CN 103026888 A CN103026888 A CN 103026888A CN 2013100043712 A CN2013100043712 A CN 2013100043712A CN 201310004371 A CN201310004371 A CN 201310004371A CN 103026888 A CN103026888 A CN 103026888A
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cultivation
plant
module
root
modules
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倪龙
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Abstract

The invention discloses various plant cultivation methods for getting rid of the constraint of natural conditions as much as possible and utilizing the industrial technology. Plants are cultivated in cultivation modules; and the various cultivation methods are formed by combining the characteristics of no leakage, full and tight covering, medium layering, enhanced mobility and the like, and the reference basis for the capacities and the shapes of the cultivation modules is defined. The invention further discloses the various cultivation modules used for the methods, and the various cultivation modules are formed by combining the characteristics that a main part does not leak, a covering part can be fully and tightly covered, the growth of the plants to the outside of the cultivation modules can not be limited, no obvious adverse effect on root system growth is generated, the cultivation measures aiming at a wrapping part are conveniently implement, a breathable material structure, a device for preventing water accumulation and the like are adopted. The invention further discloses three commercial uses of the plant cultivation methods and the cultivation modules: determining a production and sales supervising mode, carrying out fresh-keeping or rooting cultivation and producing plant cultivation goods easy to treat.

Description

Plant cultivation method, cultivation module and commercial use
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, relate in particular to the modular plant cultivation method, and be used for the cultivation module of said method.The invention still further relates to the commercial use of foregoing invention.
Background technology
It is the most frequently used plant cultivation mode that ground plants, and is subject to the constraint of natural conditions and the impact of environmental pollution.The liquid manure loss ratio that ground plants is larger, but the liquid manure that comprises of the approach of loss runs off, evaporates and be administered to outside the absorption region etc., thereby under abominable natural conditions, plant difficult with carrying out, root system prunings etc. implement inconvenience for the cultivation management measure of under ground portion or effect is limited, even tree crown pruning, harvesting etc., the applying pesticides chemical fertilizer, are excessively cultivated etc. also and may be worked the mischief and reduce fertility etc. environment for too inconvenience of macrophyte for the measure of acrial part.The industrialization degree that has in the plant husbandry based on the ground cultivation is very high, such as links such as the sowing in the corn planting, harvestings, but because being not easy to the reasons such as movement and liquid manure loss are larger, also be difficult to successfully manage in the face of the major disaster sex climate time, the U.S. was just because of the significantly underproduction of great drought corn in 2012.
Container culturing also is the plant cultivation mode of commonly using, and more controlled and be convenient to mobile, the constraint of natural conditions and liquid manure loss all further reduce, also alleviated simultaneously may endanger and be more suitable for utilizing industrial technology environment, but still have bottom outlet liquid manure to run off and surface evaporation equal loss situation, the water-tight vessel cultivation can't extensive use be generally limited to the special cultivation such as water planting and still has surface evaporation because of reasons such as easy ponding are airtight.Because cultivating container is generally only considered container function itself or is also taken into account attractive in appearance and mobility is considered few, heavier and above still being not easy to mobilely for large, also is difficult to carry out root system pruning etc. for container pack cultivation management measure partly.Cultivating container generally speaking can be not sufficiently large (cost is increased in enough conferences and forfeiture is easy to the advantages such as mobile), cultivating container may cause whole plant strain growth to be had a strong impact on to the Root growth adverse effect, so except the part horticultural gardening (mainly is middle-size and small-size plant, and generally also need to take to change the measures such as basin, root system pruning, implement inconvenient and fragile container) outside, container culturing is not suitable for cultivating for a long time.The time of container culturing be can prolong by control root cultivating container, basin flower-pot cover system etc., but more macrophyte and more long-term cultivation (root density is excessive still can to affect plant strain growth) still are difficult to be suitable for.Container culturing will be planted with being converted into or new container culturing can only be removed container, troublesome poeration and can not keep original advantage.The minority application industrialization degree of container culturing is very high, cultivates etc. such as tissue, but generally must be under the man-made environment condition of strict control, cost is higher, is difficult to general; And under the regular situation except grow seedlings link and part horticultural gardening, the sizable application of container culturing does not almost have.
Summary of the invention
The present invention will solve liquid manure loss in the container culturing, be unsuitable for long-term cultivation, transform cultivation trouble, industrialization degree is not high and ground plants and container culturing in root system pruning etc. for the problems such as cultivation management measure inconvenience enforcement of under ground portion or wrapping portion.For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the object of the present invention is to provide the various plants cultivation method, satisfy different cultivation needs, and the multiple cultivation module that is suitable for said method is provided.The present invention has also proposed three kinds of commercial uses that bright prospects are arranged on the basis of foregoing invention: plant cultivation commodity, the fresh-keeping or cultivation of taking root are easily arranged in definite production and marketing prison pattern, production.
A kind of plant cultivation method of the present invention, can reduce to greatest extent the liquid manure loss with respect to plant with container culturing existingly, because the liquid manure loss in the reduce cultivation thereby compare that liquid manure amount of application and time number average can reduce under the normal condition, thereby simplified cultivation management, and providing feasible approach aspect the raising industrialization degree, its technical scheme is as follows:
A, with plant setting in the cultivation module, the sizes, shape, capacity, structure etc. of cultivation module are decided on concrete conditions such as floristics, cultivation purposes; The cultivation module is not limited to cultivating container, can also be cultivating facility and both combinations etc.; Can make by the unified cultivation module specification that comprises size, shape, capacity, structure etc. be convenient to that cultivation medium filling, plant are planted, liquid manure uses and contains the do mechanization operation that the control amount is used etc., better to utilize industrial technology;
B, non-leakage runs off to prevent that water is fertile; Non-leakage by the realization of cultivation module, as making the cultivation module with non-leakage materials such as plastics, potteries, only require short-term non-leakage also can adopt earth add the air-dry making of straw normal temperature cultivation module (this material easily dry and cracked, meet moisture and can soften, but a small amount of water in a short time again can seepage, can use in a short time, and be easy to manual intervention, water and to shorten its life-span); Non-leakage also can be by the realization that matches with cultivation medium of cultivation module, water-holding capacity by cultivation medium self and to the guidance capability of moisture, can reduce for the non-leakage requirement of cultivation module itself, as at outer cultivation medium with moisture guiding bottom and during not transverse movement, can only needing to keep the cultivation module to comprise the bottom, a part be non-leakage below interior gets final product;
C, prepare at least a cultivation medium and be used for planting plant, need not can not prepare in the other cultivation medium situation at some balled transplanting etc., needs simulating nature cultivation condition and (or) can prepare multiple cultivation medium when satisfying specific cultivation purpose; Cultivation medium is not limited to soil, nutrient solution and other soilless culture substrate, can also be three and other can provide mechanical support and (or) any combination of any material of nutrition supply; Can disposablely prepare as far as possible the required moisture of enough plant strain growths and nutrient, thereby simplify follow-up cultivation management operation;
The cultivation medium of d, filling connects to plant partly to be full of together cultivates module 80% above space, generally all will substantially be full of the cultivation module, but also the additional nutrient in back and functional mass is used as in the reserve part space; In the situations such as fresh-keeping cultivation, short-term cultivation, plant part and get final product by cultivation medium is coated, for specifically how much can not doing other requirement;
E, plant, can water first as required after planting, generally will irrigate; Then culture (cultivation module together with planting plant) is put, can be put cultivation hole, cultivating stand or other place that can put, in the situation that the anti-strong wind of needs, fall arrest can further be fixed;
F, carry out comprehensive and tight covering to reduce evaporation, the position that comprehensively refers to all potential evaporations particularly exposed surface all covers, but tightly refers to do not have other space rain cover etc. except keeping the plant growth position; This covering does not generally limit plant toward cultivation module outgrowth, implementation comprises the plastic membrane product that adopts Self-enclosing, can keep as required the plant growth position and allow rainwater etc. from then on enter the position, but in the situation that plant need not can limit plant toward outgrowth and not stay any position by covering toward outgrowth; If the cultivation module adopts soft material to make, can realize covering with the mode of tying up;
G, cultivation management is movable need to carry out that liquid manure is used etc. by cultivation, to note especially keeping breathing freely, drinking up the rain or prevent ponding, (the retention position formation funnel-form of loweing can absorb for cultivation medium that can be by adopting ventilative water conservation, the covering that rainwater was used, absorbs or was got rid of to liquid manure control amount, putting height can get rid of) etc. realize, under high-temperature condition, also can increase and cover heat insulation material.
The soil of nature along with degree of depth difference by different level, in some cultivations, also might need multiple different cultivation medium to be used in conjunction with, as for the very high or low-down situation of ambient temperature, can spread one deck organic matter on the top layer is incubated, therefore improve the above-mentioned plant cultivation method of the present invention with better simulating nature cultivation condition and (or) satisfy specific cultivation purpose, expansion comprises the range of application of the cultivation module of waterproof cultivating container greatly, its technical scheme is: will having not, the cultivation medium of same-action is deployed in the cultivation module by different level, comprise lower leaf, how inside and outside layering or its combination is specifically disposed and can be decided with reference to the soil layering of nature or according to the cultivation needs.
Sometimes need between grown place, protection ground, storage place, market and client ground, shift to realize the slitless connection producing, protect, store, sell, temporarily move on to the safety area, be adjusted to dense planting and vacate the soil when need not too many sunlight near maturation such as diastrous weather, large batch of movement more needs to carry out do mechanization operation; Tree crown pruning, root system pruning, harvesting, replacing or additional cultivation medium, add functional mass (such as bactericide, chemical root control material) etc. particularly those for the cultivation management measure of under ground portion, if plant can be shifted out even also need to fall and overturn then operate very conveniently, this demand of large-scale plant is stronger; Based on these two considerations, therefore improve the above-mentioned plant cultivation method of the present invention to implement easily above-mentioned cultivation and control measures, its technical scheme is: strengthen mobility conveniently manually or by plant equipment to implement to move, the operations such as loading and upset, not only improve mobility but also can improve industrialization degree, strengthening mobility can only carry out for the cultivation module, also can carry out for culture, as adding and arrange projection, depression, ring, uncinus, ribbon, ropy or other are fit to grab, carry, folder, hang and the auxiliary moving device such as hold, conveniently carry out artificial and (or) mechanization moves loading operation; Or adopt a kind of member that can wrap up culture, thereby make and be relatively independent of environment and can not combine together fully and reduce mobile difficulty, and when trunk (or stem) is not enough to carry culture weight and should not moves and load by trunk (or stem), should have corresponding bearing capacity and can move by this member, and can arrange as required and be convenient to implement mechanization folder, hook, the servicing unit of operation such as hang or be designed to itself just support structure and the shape of this do mechanization operation, as make the cage shape with respective carrier ability with metal or other material, the frame structure of netted grade.
Cultivating container is sufficiently large obviously can not to produce the significant adverse impact and the realization of impact cultivation purpose to root system, but uneconomical like this, therefore improve the above-mentioned plant cultivation method of the present invention, clearly determine the cultivation module capacity, the reference frame of shape, make the cultivation module need not sufficiently large also can substantially satisfy the whole cultivation of the plant phase in addition whole vegetative period needs, its technical scheme is as follows: the root system of 50%-80% or be no more than 10% when the cultivation capacity of module and shape only can be held plant root normal growth maximum space in the cultivation cycle, because the shared space of the root system of 50%-80% is much smaller than the space of the corresponding proportion of the actual growing space of whole root system and substantially enough for plant growth in a lot of situations, this can approach even surpass whole growing spaces of reality the maximum space of root system normal growth with regard to (such as seedling and small-sized plant) in the little situation; Or only can hold for the situation that control root measures such as taking root system pruning can better realize cultivating purpose and to take to control the whole Root growing spaces after the root measure or to be no more than 10%, the root system of taking to control after the root measure generally all is significantly less than the normal growth space; Or consider in the root growth situation need not, the capacity of cultivation module and the cultivation that shape only can be held the plant of planting enter part or are no more than 10%, in short-term, also can satisfy the cultivation needs when cultivating temporarily.
Under suitable natural conditions, need not to prevent the liquid manure evaporation, also there is simultaneously other situation of not paying close attention to or need not paying close attention to the liquid manure loss, can satisfy in the situation such as fertile needs of water saving joint such as adopting the drip irrigation measure, can not take the further fertile measure of water saving joint, therefore improve for above-mentioned plant cultivation method, further simplify the cultivation operation and save cost, its technical scheme is: in the situation that do not pay close attention to or need not to prevent the liquid manure evaporation, do not take comprehensively tight covering, comprise partial coverage, do not cover fully, and employing sandstone, straw, the imprecision materials such as stalk cover, and the situation that need not to avoid evaporating is except the obviously suitable lower outside humidity that also comprises of natural conditions such as rainfall or moisture abundance〉60% relatively moister environment, effective rainfall surpasses plant to situations such as arid tolerances; Run off in the situation that do not pay close attention to or need not pay close attention to liquid manure, can ignore for impervious requirement, infiltration or impermeablely all can; Can not take comprehensively tight covering in the situation that do not pay close attention to or need not pay close attention to the liquid manure loss yet, ignore simultaneously for impervious requirement.
A kind of cultivation module for the above-mentioned plant cultivation method of the present invention, its technical scheme is as follows:
A, comprise non-leakage main part, plant container into part as holding plant, can make of non-leakage material such as plastics, pottery, also can add the air-dry grade of straw normal temperature by earth and make the cultivation module that short-term is used; Except single layer structure, also can adopt sandwich construction;
B, comprise the cover part or support the use with the independently cover part that can play same function, independently the cover part can make or prepare separately, comprehensive tight main body covered part, and do not limit plant toward outgrowth, can be connected with main part or be separated from each other during as cultivation module part, implementation comprise adopt that plastic film is made, central authorities have a circular portion to be divided into four impartial fan-shaped, each fan-shaped circumference middle sections that separate to stay small part still to link to each other with remainder and do not come off and also can not affect the growth of planting plant at this circular portion.
A kind of improvement for the above-mentioned cultivation module of the present invention, avoid producing obvious adverse effect because of the k-index growth for plant strain growth, and in the situation that do not remove and can Natural Transformation plant or new cultivation module cultivation to ground, its technical scheme is: adopt because of making material or structural factor but not amount of capacity or other factors do not have significant adverse to affect on root growth; Significant adverse impact refer to cause plant strain growth obviously the dead root realized of undesired or other significant adverse cultivation purpose, teratogenesis or other to the having a strong impact on of root growth, can tolerate in the root growth and other on realize the impact of cultivation purpose little do not belong to the significant adverse impact; Also can avoid this significant adverse impact by liquid medium cultivations such as capacity increasing or employing water plantings, but be to rely on the characteristic of making material or structure itself to avoid here; Material is as being added the air-dry material that forms of straw normal temperature by earth, owing to itself also be a kind of cultivation medium, thereby the restriction that can not produce significant adverse; The amalgamation structure of structure such as easy disintegration, be put together by a plurality of subdivisions, adopt can be at the adhesive of the interior inefficacy that sets the deadline bonding or can be at the interior rotten mashed suturing with thread management etc. that sets the deadline between each subdivision, after the term of validity, structure is disintegrated naturally, and root system can no longer be hindered from the space continued growth between each subdivision.
A kind of improvement for the above-mentioned cultivation module of the present invention, can conveniently implement root system pruning, change cultivation medium, interpolation functional mass etc. are for the cultivation management measure of cultivation module wrapping portion, be particularly suitable for controlling the root cultivation, its technical scheme is: main part adopts is convenient to implement root system pruning etc. for the structure of the cultivation step of cultivation module wrapping portion, structure comprises lax cage shape, the framework of netted grade adds the parietal layer that outsourcing is easily removed or changed, but also can make the structure that the assembly by a plurality of foldings or quick detachable installation forms, open/dismantle corresponding assembly when needing, completely close again/set up.
Why existing fluid-tight cultivating container is difficult to popularization and application, airtight, easy ponding is main cause, except taking corresponding cultivation step such as liquid manure control amount use, also can expand from the performance that module improves this two aspect the range of application of cultivation module, its technical scheme is: improving aspect the permeability, can by adopt ventilative material and (or) structure realizes, material such as hydrophobic permeable membrane, structure is as adopting the non-tight structure; Then adopting anti-ponding design aspect the solution ponding problem, comprise a water storage device is set, be used for further improving buffering moisture ability, water storage device is as the part of main part or as another part of cultivation module, the moisture of accumulating space is arranged in the water storage device, and weepage holes is arranged, and but the seepage liquid substance enters water storage device in order to prevent solid matter from entering in the water storage device simultaneously, also can arrange one from inside outwards one-way cock or the device with similar functions, when water level in the module surpasses certain altitude, can flow out from this device; In the situation that not only need to improve gas permeability but also need to solve the ponding problem, adopt simultaneously above-mentioned two kinds of measures.
Under suitable natural conditions, need not to prevent liquid manure loss evaporation, also there is simultaneously other situation of not paying close attention to or need not paying close attention to the liquid manure loss, therefore improve the above-mentioned cultivation module of the present invention to save cost, its technical scheme is: in the situation that do not pay close attention to and need not to pay close attention to the liquid manure evaporation, can remove the cover part; Run off in the situation that do not pay close attention to and need not to pay close attention to liquid manure, can ignore for the non-leakage requirement of main part, need not adopt non-leakage material or structure, permeate and impermeablely all can; In the situation that do not pay close attention to and need not to pay close attention to the liquid manure loss, adopt simultaneously above-mentioned two kinds of measures.
A kind of definite production and marketing prison pattern, the owner, manager, sellers, regulator and End-Customer etc. are aborning to can easily cultivated plant being distinguished, select and trace to the source in any time post sales, be particularly suitable for needing trust plantation, the plant of unique definite subject matter to entrust one's child to the care of sb., place an order in advance, the situations such as process supervision and subsequent supervision, its technical scheme is: culture is carried out unique identification, unique identification can adopt the forms such as bar code, two-dimension code, and carrier can be label, directly printing figure message or both combinations; Simultaneously can be anti-tamper, distort and comprise to the destruction, adulterium, replacement that identify itself with to the replacement of cultivated plant, cultivation medium etc., anti-tamper can the employing seals bar, adopts anti-tamper cultivation module and other anti-tamper mode to realize, do not affect liquid manure and uses the cultivation management measure enforcement that waits necessity but will be undertaken by the mode that water injection hole is annotated or other does not destroy mark action; When adopt sealing the bar mode, sometimes need a plurality of strip of paper used for sealings and be attached to key aspect, such as the sealing part of cover part, then need when separating with main part in the cover part to be attached to simultaneously on two parts preventing and separate.
A kind of fresh-keeping or cultivation application of taking root, can solving agricultural product, especially to eat leaf be the problems such as main vegetables prolong storage period, its technical scheme is: will need fresh-keeping plant to plant with roots and soil into the cultivation module, then being trimmed to that root system is excessive only stays the root system of the necessary continued growth kept to get final product, cultivation module capacity and shape then get final product with residue root system that can accommodating belt soil, band soil is very few replenishes some soil, then cover and realize cultivating the fixing of module and the plant of planting with the mode such as tie up, make the plant still can continued growth and without putrefaction by keeping growing environment; It more than is a kind of root cultivation that has; also can carry out the unrooted cultivation; by the melon and fruit to band branch or stalk; the specially treated of doing similar cultivation of the fracture of flowers and branch etc.; endways (for melon and fruit then be it with stalk or the end of branch) process with the cultivation medium that adds the functional mass with fresh-keeping function or hestening rooting; to prolong melon and fruit; the freshness date of flowers or promote that branch is taken root; then planting enters to cultivate in the module; the cultivation module can be held cultivation and enter partly to get final product; some agricultural product such as cauliflower etc. are having in the root cultivation situation still growth can make edible part ageing and are reducing value, just can be fresh-keeping by the unrooted cultivation.
A kind ofly produce the application of easily arranging the plant cultivation commodity, this commodity preserve moisture and fertility, conveniently moving, cultivation management is simplified, and because that cultivation medium etc. almost completely is sealed is coated, be difficult for attracting and growing mosquito, fully without this class negative interaction, if planting vegetable can be realized viewing and admiring simultaneously, edible (and being environmental protection), the functions such as environment purification, be very suitable for promoting in cities and towns, its technical scheme is: adopt main part impermeable, the cultivation module that the cover part can cover fully, capacity and shape can satisfy the cultivation needs and get final product, the required cultivation condition of the plant strain growth that disposable preparation is enough, use with the liquid manure that reduces as far as possible in vegetative period, can directly use as using plant growth position, the cover part funnel of to lower.
With respect to plant and container culturing existingly, plant cultivation method advantage provided by the invention is: save cost, streamlining management, be conducive to make plant husbandry to break away from as far as possible the constraint of natural conditions and better utilize industrial technology, except carrying out conventional cultivation, also can be suitable for abominable reach cultivation and the cultivation of control root etc. under the environment that originally is unsuitable for cultivating.The present invention also provides multiple cultivation module, can better meet the needs of above-mentioned cultivation method with respect to existing cultivation module, relying on does not simultaneously have significant adverse impact, is convenient to implement the characteristics such as cultivation step for wrapping portion root growth, also can make above-mentioned cultivation method be suitable for long-term cultivation, transform the needs such as cultivation.By above-mentioned cultivation method and (or) cultivation module, also can set up definite production and marketing prison pattern, produce multiple commercial application the such as easily arranging plant cultivation commodity, the fresh-keeping or cultivation of taking root, and make up cultivation, with plant setting of the same race, not of the same race in same or different cultivation module, or have be planted in the cultivation module, other can cultivate in the ground, combine, realize enhancing productivity, land utilization rate and the demand such as attractive in appearance.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the front view with the cultivation module of water storage device.1. main part, 2. cover part, 3. water storage device, 4. opening, 5. weepage holes
The invention will be further described below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
A kind of general cultivation is cultivated as example take the garden of sponge gourd.Concrete steps are as follows:
A, preparing size is the cultivating container of the interior hollow round column shape of the high 20cm of being of 20cm for diameter, water storage device 3 high 5cm wherein, weepage holes 5 is arranged at water storage device 3 tops, main part 1 usefulness durable hard plastics are made, can reuse for a long time, cover part 2 is connected with main part 1 and makes with breathable films, it is the circle of 3cm that centre has a diameter, be divided into four equalizations fan-shaped, separated by opening 4 between each is fan-shaped, each fan-shaped circumference middle section stays small part still to link to each other with all the other cover parts, makes fan-shaped membrane be difficult for dropping and is not easily affected sponge gourd by jack-up to grow, and be provided with on one side one and symmetrical ring-type auxiliary moving device;
Organic sandy loam is rich in b, selection, suitably adds well-rotted farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer, fully mixes; Mat (bottom does not spread, because water storage device is arranged) in one deck straw braiding of container inside shop is used for the control root first, prevents root system misgrowth, and then soil is loaded into container;
C, with the sponge gourd seedling band soil cultivating container of planting from middle circle hole, cover part, each fan-shaped part of cover part is tiled naturally cover exposed surface, moisture fertilizer reaches when watering first field planting when preparing medium as far as possible and adds in full amount, thereby the time can not use liquid manure in growth, also can bloom, critical period of result suitably replenishes liquid manure.
Embodiment 2
General cultivation under a kind of facility cultivation is grown seedlings as example with corn, and concrete steps are as follows:
A, preparation size are the cultivating container of the interior empty square shape of 3 * 3 * 3cm, main part 1 usefulness earth adds that straw normal temperature is air-dry to be formed, can not remove during transplanting, do not have cover part (this example is because can keep moist subenvironment, so needn't cover in booth);
B, the suitable and more moistening Nutrition Soil of configuration also are filled to cultivating container are full of substantially, then be seeded into cultivating container central authorities, each container is broadcast a seed, after planting water first a small amount of water, make obviously moistening getting final product of seed surrounding soil, note trying not to make container to be drenched, again the cultivating container of having seeded is concentrated intensive put on the inner greenhouse ground or on the frame so that centralized management and save the place; After germination, reach to transplant before two days and can suitably replenish 1-2 time liquid manure, emerge during to the 3-4 leaf.
Embodiment 3
A kind of heavy industrialization is cultivated, and can be suitable for the industrial cultivation needs of world today staple crops, take maize culture as example.In heavy industrialization cultivation, can set up medium factory, to satisfy for a large amount of needs of cultivation medium and can reduce destruction for environment.Concrete steps are as follows:
A, behind the root system normal growth space with reference to the adult plant of corn under the common natural conditions, determining to prepare size is the cultivating container of the interior hollow round column shape of the high 30cm of being of 20cm for diameter, main part 1 usefulness durable hard plastics are made, can reuse for a long time, water storage device 3 high 3cm wherein, weepage holes 5 is arranged at water storage device 3 tops, cover part 2 and main part 1 be separate and make with breathable films, it is the 5cm circle that centre has a diameter, be divided into four equalizations fan-shaped, separated by opening 4 between each is fan-shaped, each fan-shaped circumference middle section stays small part still to link to each other with all the other cover parts, guarantee that fan-shaped membrane is difficult for dropping and does not affect growth, the cover part is divided into two by axial symmetry so that do mechanization operation, and is provided with on one side one and symmetrical ring-type auxiliary moving device;
B, select the soil of suitable corn growth, and add as required nutrient component and organic matter, improve soil function, can stir the soil process equipment of smashing function soil selected, configuration is processed processing by having;
C, press container size 95% behind the water storage device capacity of rejecting and calculate loadings, mat (bottom does not spread, because water storage device is arranged) in one deck straw braiding of container inside shop is used for the control root first, prevents root system misgrowth, and then soil is loaded into container, can pass through the equipment Quantitative charging;
D, with the corn cultivation module of planting, adopt two strain mode of planting, can with two of corn seedlings among the embodiment 2 together side by side (attention direction) integral body plant in the new cultivation module;
E, water first after planting and irrigate, will irrigate especially the old cultivating container of seedling, make soil seem that obviously moistening and water storage device holds full water nearly and divides but also do not overflow, the water yield is watered in estimation according to the Nutrition Soil situation, can quantitatively water at the rear employing equipment of estimation;
F, covering: with two parts in cover part from corresponding both sides to the centre main body covered part, and make between two parts and do not have the space, then two ends are bonding;
G, intensive putting in the cultivating container Neighbor Set of the seedling of having planted, to plant grow to 30cm when high orientation be put in the cultivation hole of digging in advance in the land for growing field crops, can be put into by the equipment that is similar to sower in the cultivation hole or dig pit first and put again;
I, press growth needs and replenish liquid manure, can according at that time situation estimation liquid manure amount of application, then adopt the drip irrigation facility quantitatively to water from the opening part of cover film.
Embodiment 4
Abominable natural conditions such as saline land, a kind of desert desert or originally the be not suitable for cultivation under the environment of planting is take the desert cultivation of branched Chinese tamarisk as example.Also can carry out first Adaptive planting, in control environment, wait after the growth several months root system more powerful, when plant adaptability is stronger (before container disintegrates) be transplanted to again under the natural environment.Concrete steps are as follows:
A, preparing size is that the 30cm height is the interior hollow round column shape cultivating container of 100cm for diameter, main part 1(is except water storage device 3) adopt the legibility body structure (to be put together by a plurality of subdivisions, each subdivision is bonding with the adhesive that can lose efficacy in the certain hour, the term of validity 1-2 that guarantees is no more than 3 years and gets final product, can after disintegration, continue to utilize original water storage device preserve moisture and fertility simultaneously by absorbing water-fertilizer nutrient in the external environment condition to the container outgrowth), water storage device 3 high 10cm wherein, weepage holes 5 is arranged at water storage device 3 tops, water storage device 3 usefulness durable hard plastics are made, can long-term role (more than 10 years), water storage device 3 has equally distributed 5 interior hollow round columns (weepage holes is arranged) from the top to the bottom, including soil can absorb water from water storage device automatically, cover part 2 and main part 1 be connected and make with breathable films, it is the circle of 20cm that centre has a diameter, be divided into 4 equalizations fan-shaped, separated by opening 4 between each is fan-shaped, each fan-shaped circumference middle section stays small part still to link to each other with all the other cover parts, guarantees that fan-shaped membrane is difficult for dropping and does not affect growth;
B, selection sandy loam add by weight 20% organic matter with the increase fertility and improve the water-retaining effect ability, and pack cultivation medium into cultivating container until near full; With the seedling band soil cultivating container of planting from middle circle hole, cover part, water first after planting, irrigate and make soil seem that obviously moistening and water storage device holds full; Covering each fan-shaped part naturally tiles and covers exposed surface; The cultivating container of the seedling of having planted is put in the cultivation hole of digging in advance, and banketing on every side makes it uprightly be difficult for shaking, and further avoids evaporating at the surface coverage sandy soil; Regularly carry out if having ready conditions liquid manure replenish (as half a year once or longer), as do not have condition then not replenish.
Embodiment 5
A kind of control root cultivation is take the honey peach cultivation as example.The cultivation main points are as follows:
A, preparation size are the cultivating container of the nearly ellipse orbicule of interior sky (bottom and top are flat) of the high 45cm of being of 60cm for diameter, there is not the cover part, main part adopts the lax frame structure that is welded by reinforcing bar, can carry culture, be convenient to the mobile culture body and be convenient to implement root system pruning etc. for the cultivation step of cultivation module wrapping portion; In order to prevent that cultivation medium is scattered, bottom and the mat that spreads straw and compile on every side also can be used for antiseep and control root;
The loam that b, selection are suitable for suiting, added by weight for 20% organic also the mixing with increase fertility and raising water-retaining effect ability, cultivation medium pack into cultivating container until near full, with the native cultivation module of planting from the top of seedling band, water first after planting and irrigate, then integral body is put in the cultivation hole of digging in advance, but rational close planted can not disturb because will adopt the measure of control root can make each other in cultivation;
C, before can bearing fruit, (may need to cultivate the several years) and later whole product term in, (behind the picking fruit) shifts out culture integral body in the fall, its root system is pruned, promote flower bud differentiation, and remove redundant root system, and then reappose in the cultivation hole, can apply fertilizer in passing, change this moment or additional cultivation medium and add the functional mass such as bactericide etc.
Embodiment 6
A kind of cultivation that prolongs storage period is used, and take romaine lettuce as example, this is a kind of root cultivation that has, and the cultivation main points are as follows:
A, prepare size for diameter be the 4cm height for the interior hollow round column body of 5cm and adopt flexible plastic to make bag-shaped cultivating container, without water storage device 3, cover part 2 long 1cm are to be connected with main part 1, seem main part and naturally extend;
B, romaine lettuce band soil is extracted in ground, cut above the main root of 5cm and make incision position smooth, if band soil increases band soil at least root system is coated with substantially by soil, the cultivation module of then planting is tied up with cord, does not fall to get final product; Can partly carry out protective package to the romaine lettuce edible in case of necessity; Generally liquid manure need be do not replenished, foliage-spray liquid manure can be carried out in case of necessity.
Embodiment 7
A kind of application of hestening rooting cultivation is taken root cultivation as example take the fairy bamboo branch, and this is a kind of unrooted cultivation, and the cultivation main points are as follows:
A, prepare size for diameter be the 2cm height for the interior hollow round column shape of 4cm and adopt flexible plastic to make bag-shaped cultivating container, cover part 2 long 1cm are to be connected with main part 1, seem main part 1 and naturally extend;
B, prepare medium targetedly, add a small amount of bactericide and taking root liquid in nutritive water, each container is prepared 3ml; The interior air of rear emptying bag of planting makes the root system surface be smeared covering by cultivation medium as far as possible, then ties up sealing with cord; General vertical placement is not flowed out cultivation medium and is got final product;
C, treat that root grows to about 2cm after taking root and to transplant.

Claims (11)

1. plant cultivation method in the cultivation module, is characterized in that plant setting: non-leakage, and comprehensive tight the covering.
2. plant cultivation method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: cultivation medium by different level, strengthen mobility or both combinations.
3. plant cultivation method according to claim 2 is characterized in that: permeate, do not take comprehensively tight covering or both combinations.
4. according to claim 1,2 or 3 described plant cultivation methods, it is characterized in that: cultivation module capacity and shape only can hold 50%-80% Root growth space when the plant root normal growth is maximum in the cultivation phase or be no more than 10%, only can hold take to control the whole Root growing spaces after the root measure or be no more than 10% or the cultivation that only can hold the plant of planting enter partly or be no more than 10%.
5. cultivate module for one kind, comprise main part and cover part or the matching used independently cover part that can play same function, it is characterized in that: main part is non-leakage, and the cover part is tight main body covered part and can not limit plant toward cultivation module outgrowth comprehensively.
6. cultivation module according to claim 5 is characterized in that: main part does not have significant adverse impact, main part to be convenient to implement that both possess simultaneously for the cultivation management measure of module wrapping portion or main part because making material or structural factor on root growth.
7. cultivation module according to claim 5 is characterized in that: adopt ventilative material or structure, the anti-water collecting device of employing or both combinations.
8. cultivation module according to claim 6 is characterized in that: adopt ventilative material or structure, the anti-water collecting device of employing or both combinations.
9. it is characterized in that according to claim 6 or 8 described cultivation modules: main part is permeable, do not have cover part or both combinations.
10. a kind of business model of setting up of plant cultivation method according to claim 1 and 2 or claim 5,6,7 or 8 described cultivation modules is characterized in that: unique identification, and anti-tamper.
11. plant cultivation method according to claim 1 and 2 or claim 5,6,7 or 8 described cultivation modules are carried out fresh-keeping or the cultivation of taking root, and perhaps produce and easily arrange the plant cultivation commodity.
CN2013100043712A 2013-01-07 2013-01-07 Plant cultivation methods, cultivation modules and commercial uses thereof Pending CN103026888A (en)

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CN106358935A (en) * 2016-08-30 2017-02-01 河北省林业科学研究院 Container-grown nursery stock intensive planting method with mobile planting effect
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Application publication date: 20130410