CN102962242A - Harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit board with components - Google Patents

Harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit board with components Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102962242A
CN102962242A CN201210508840XA CN201210508840A CN102962242A CN 102962242 A CN102962242 A CN 102962242A CN 201210508840X A CN201210508840X A CN 201210508840XA CN 201210508840 A CN201210508840 A CN 201210508840A CN 102962242 A CN102962242 A CN 102962242A
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belt
conveyer belt
separator
components
level
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CN201210508840XA
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CN102962242B (en
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明果英
方寅斗
周斌
熊艳艳
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MILUO WANRONG ELECTRONIC WASTE TREATMENT CO Ltd
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MILUO WANRONG ELECTRONIC WASTE TREATMENT CO Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/82Recycling of waste of electrical or electronic equipment [WEEE]

Abstract

The invention relates to harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit boards with components. The equipment comprises a first-level conveyor belt, a compound crusher, a two-level conveyor belt, a permanent magnet deironing separator, an eddy current separator, a three-level conveyor belt, a two-level hammer crusher, a four-level conveyor belt, a three-level hammer flake type crusher, a material conveying fan, a vibrating separator, a cyclone separator, a bag type dust collector, a draught fan and activated carbon adsorption tower. The method comprises the steps that: crushing the waste circuit boards with components into fragments in the compound crusher, separating out irons through the permanent magnet deironing separator, and separating out copper, aluminum and other nonferrous metals on a belt of the eddy-current separator; entering the two-level hammer crusher for further dissociation and crushing, and separating out irons; and driving the balance of materials to enter the three-level hammer flake type crusher, and fully crushing the materials into powder with 60-100 meshes to the vibrating separator. The method and equipment have the advantages that the investment is few, the energy consumption is low, the running cost is low, and the process and the operation are simple, and the production efficiency can be greatly improved and no secondary pollution is caused.

Description

Method and apparatus with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource recovery
Technical field
The present invention relates to environment protection method, equipment and regenerated resources field, be specifically related to a kind of method and apparatus with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource recovery.
Background technology
Abandoned printed circuit board had both contained various heavy and the harmful substances such as lead, cadmium, igelite, brominated flame retardant on the one hand as the significant components of electron wastes, had potential environmental pollution; Contain again on the other hand multiple common metal and the rare precious metals such as copper, gold, silver, have higher recycling and be worth.
Along with the enforcement of China's strategy of sustainable development, environmental protection to be had higher requirement, the recovery of electronic waste becomes the thorny problem that majority state faces with utilization.China has become the production and consumption big country of household electrical appliance at present, only upgrade 2% calculating to scrap in year, the annual 4 large class household electrical appliance of eliminating just reach 2,000 ten thousand, add that in the whole society popularizing the update cycle of using only has the high-tech electronic products such as computer, mobile phone of 2-4, and the novel household appliance product of the super quality and competitive price that continue to bring out, so that renewal is scrapped up to more than 2,500 ten thousand in actual year of China's household electrical appliance.Printed circuit board (PCB) (PCB) is as the critical component in the discarded household electrical appliances, and it reclaims and the resource problem has become the hot issue of being badly in need of solution.In addition, so far, there are about 1000 of printed substrate manufacturing enterprises on ground in China, PCB in China output in 2006 is 12 964 ten thousand m2,12,800,000,000 dollars of annual value of production have become the first producing country of PCB, and a large amount of leftover pieces in the production process, the recovery of scrapping plate also face great difficult problem.
Abandoned printed circuit board is the mixture of glass fiber reinforced plastics and various metals, belong to typical electron wastes, the discarded circuit board that grows with each passing day adds produces a large amount of leftover bits that wiring board produces, if do not deal carefully with and dispose, not only can cause a large amount of losses of useful resources, and can produce serious harm to environment.The method of tradition stacking or landfill, not only take large quantity space, and contained heavy metal such as mercury, chromium, cadmium etc. and macromolecule organic are difficult to degraded under field conditions (factors), harmful components can be passed through water, atmosphere, soil entered environment, can cause potential, long-term and expendable harm to human health and ecological environment, wherein contained lead is second largest source plumbous in the municipal waste.
" discarded circuit board " is not " refuse ", but untapped " Secondary resource " has very high recycling and be worth.Metal content in the wiring board is equivalent to tens times of metal content in the common mineral to hundreds of times, and the content of metal is up to 40%, and maximum is copper, also has in addition gold, aluminium, nickel, lead, silicon metal etc., wherein is no lack of rare metal; And the rich ore tenor of occurring in nature super only 3%~5%.Have statistics to show, the 1t waste printed circuit board can extract the gold about 300g.The materials such as the scolding tin on the printed substrate and plastics also are the valuable sources that can be recovered utilization.Therefore, the useless circuit board technology of research and development harmless treatment band components and parts has become the key subjects in regenerated resources field.
The wiring board of scrapping is implemented effectively to process and the resource recycling, can greatly slow down the consumption to Resources, alleviate environmental pollution, have positive effect and important meaning to setting up resource-conserving and environment-friendly society, developing a circular economy.
The main treatment technology of present old circuit board: pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, Physical.
Pyrometallurgy extraction noble metal has simply, convenient and rate of recovery high, but causes the shortcomings such as secondary pollution, other metal recovery rate is low, treatment facility is expensive owing to exist organic matter to produce pernicious gas in burning process;
It is the technology of commonly using, extract noble metal from waste electric products that wet method is controlled technology for gold, the basic principle that wet method is controlled technology for gold mainly is to utilize noble metal can be dissolved in the characteristics of nitric acid and chloroazotic acid etc., it is removed from waste electric products and reclaimed from liquid phase.Compare with pyrogenic process, wet method is controlled the waste gas of technology for gold discharging residue relatively less, that extract behind the noble metal and also is easy to process, but the waste liquid that produces is more, the complex treatment process of waste liquid, and cost is very high.Environment is caused certain potential threat.
The physical treatment method mainly includes the multiple technologies such as Mechanical Crushing, elutriation and magnetic absorption.At present, the physical treatment method is mainly used in metal such as aluminium, recovery of copper, utilizes the strength rotational flow separator to reclaim aluminium from the PCB of PC such as the U.S., and by the control charging rate, the purity of gained aluminium concentrate is 85%, and the rate of recovery is more than 90%; Sweden utilizes the motorized pulleys electrostatic separator to reclaim copper, and by design and operation parameter optimization, the grade of gained copper concentrate is 93%~99%, and the rate of recovery is up to 95%~99%.Present domestic employing physical treatment method is mainly separated metal in the waste electric products and nonmetal.But above-mentioned physical method can only be processed the wiring board of not being with components and parts.For with the wiring board of components and parts because of above it with various electronic devices and components, the method for the method handling components that pass through molten tin that adopts at present belongs to hand-manipulated, inefficiency, the molten tin waste gas of generation, complex treatment process, processing cost is higher, and environment is produced very large potential threat.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is: for the present situation of above-mentioned prior art band components and parts old circuit board processing and the problem of existence, a kind of method and apparatus of processing harmless treatment and resource recovery with the components and parts old circuit board is provided, manufacturing cost and the operating cost of equipment is low, technique simple, processing ease, without dust, without gas leakage, without waste water, without waste sludge discharge, do not produce secondary pollution, safety and environmental protection, the resource recycling rate is high.
The technical solution used in the present invention is:
Method with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource recovery of the present invention is:
1) old circuit board with components and parts is added on the one-level conveyer belt, under the traction of conveyer belt motor, enter in the one-level disintegrating machine, by collision in the disintegrating machine, rubbing motion, components and parts on the wiring board are fully dissociated, and make the broken frustillatum of wiring board;
2) the fritter shape wiring board after the fragmentation and the mixture of components and parts are fallen on the two-stage conveying band from the discharging opening of one-level disintegrating machine; Contain iron, copper aluminium and wiring board in these mixtures;
3) on the two-stage conveying band suspended magnetic separator is installed, when these mixtures passed through magnetic separator, iron was separated from mixture;
4) separated mixture behind the iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, be evenly distributed on the eddy current separator belt by oscillating feeder, and the non-ferrous metals such as copper aluminium are wherein sorted out;
5) mainly be the quite little components and parts of volume that fritter shape wiring board and minority are not dissociated by remaining mixture behind separation of iron, the copper aluminium; It enters in the secondary breaker under the traction of three grades of conveyer belts, and then small size components and parts on the block wiring board and be embedded on a small quantity that iron on the wiring board is further dissociated hereinto, fragmentation are fallen on the level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen; When its under the traction of level Four conveyer belt, during near the driven magnetic roller of level Four conveyer belt, the iron that dissociates in the two-stage crushing is sorted out; Rest materials enters in the tertiary crusher, and tertiary crusher is fully broken into about 60-100 purpose powder with it;
6) 60-100 purpose metal and non-metal powder are delivered to vibrating separating sieve by feeding fan, obtain metal and nonmetal component after vibrating sorting, thereby reach the purpose of separation.Metal and nonmetal component are sold as product respectively;
7) vibrating separating sieve has covered suction opeing, it links to each other with cyclone separator, sack cleaner, and link to each other with air-introduced machine by pipeline, wherein fine dust is collected through cloth bag, the technology waste gas that system is produced purifies, fan outlet links to each other with activated carbon absorption tower, makes it pass through to purify again after the active carbon adsorption.
Equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery, comprise the one-level conveyer belt that connects is installed successively, composite crusher, the two-stage conveying band, permanent-magnetic iron expeller, eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts, the secondary hammer mill, the level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers, material handling fan, oscillating separator, cyclone separator, sack cleaner, air-introduced machine, activated carbon adsorber, the output of one-level conveyer belt connects the feed hopper of composite crusher, the discharge bucket of composite crusher connects the two-stage conveying band, the overhung of two-stage conveying band permanent-magnetic iron expeller, the outlet of two-stage conveying band is connecting the vibratory feed unit of eddy current separator front end, the discharging opening of eddy current separator is connecting three grades of conveyer belt inputs, three grades of conveyer belt outputs connect secondary hammer crushing machine inlet capable, the discharging opening of secondary hammer mill connects level Four conveyer belt input, level Four conveyer belt output connects the charging aperture of three grades of hammer crushers, three grades of hammer crusher discharging openings connect the material handling fan input, the material handling fan output connects oscillating separator, the top of oscillating separator is by pipeline and cyclone separator, sack cleaner links to each other, sack cleaner top opposite side links to each other with air-introduced machine, and air-introduced machine links to each other with activated carbon absorption tower again; Above-mentioned disintegrating machine integral body is in the enclosed workplace, has effectively controlled noise pollution, and the dust that produces during simultaneously fragmentation, gas with foreign flavor all respectively by sack cleaner and the collection of activated carbon tower and absorption, do not cause any pollution to environment.
In the technique scheme, the composite crusher structure is: frame is installed on the support, and motor, motor shroud, bearing block, disintegrating machine casing are installed on the frame.Drive pulley is connected with driven pulley on the rotating shaft by belt on the motor; Rotating shaft is installed on the frame by bearing, bearing base, rotating shaft extends upwardly to broken case always, be equipped with on around the broken cabinet wall by the fixing stationary knife of bolt-connection, cutter supporter and running roller installation disk are housed on the rotating shaft in the broken case, cutting knife is housed on the cutter supporter, and running roller is installed disk and by bearing pin rotating band discaling roll wheel is installed; Broken case lower position is provided with discharging bin, is equipped with on the discharging bin and scrapes charging tray, scrapes charging tray and is fixed on the rotating shaft; Broken case top is discharge bucket, and both use bolt-connection; The discharge bucket top is feed hopper, and both also use bolt-connection; Broken case, discharge bucket, feed hopper three form one; The feed hopper top connects the outlet of negative pressure dust.
In the technique scheme, the structure of permanent-magnetic iron expeller is: stainless steel initiatively cylinder and driven cylinder are installed in frame, motor is installed on the frame, by belt motor pulley is connected with drive roll belt pulley, driven pulley, carrying roller is fixed on the frame up and down, play a supportive role, permanent magnet is installed in up and down between the belt, and is fixed on the frame.
In the technique scheme, conveyer belt structure is: conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form ring-like confining zone; Carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material of carrying above; Tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, produces frictional force between assurance and driving drum and makes conveyer belt non-slip; During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and by the operation of frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening through certain distance and changes down process procedure over to one.
In the technique scheme, the structure of eddy current separator is: top is oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body, and the bottom is the frame that the square steel assembly welding becomes, and oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body are fixed by bolts on the frame respectively.The compositions such as vortex flow belt roller, belt, driven cylinder, adjusting striker plate, discharging opening are fixed on the vortex flow main body on the frame, when vibrating motor is worked, vibratory feed unit produces vibration, material is evenly distributed on the belt, motor-driven belt drive roll also drives belt and travels forward, in the driven cylinder magnet is housed, and its rotation of motor-driven is arranged and produces alternating magnetic field; Driven cylinder is other to be equipped with adjustable striker plate, and the striker plate bottom is provided with two discharging openings.
In the technique scheme, the structure of secondary hammer mill is: top body and lower framework bolt-connection.Two bearing blocks about the body outer wall is equipped with, in order to supporting spindle, knife rest is installed on the main shaft, and tup is installed on the knife rest; Main shaft one end is equipped with the balance flywheel, the main shaft other end is equipped with belt pulley, belt pulley on the main shaft links by belt and motor side belt pulley, when the motor high speed rotating, it drives the main shaft high speed rotating by belt pulley, belt, and then with the tup high speed rotating on movable knife rack and the knife rest, cavity bottom is equipped with the discharging screen cloth in addition, and organism bottom one side is provided with discharging opening.
In the technique scheme, the structure of three grades of hammer crushers is: the structure of tertiary crusher and secondary breaker is basic identical, and just the form of tup is different, is hammer leaf, the pore size of screen cloth is different besides, and the screen cloth of tertiary crusher is smaller.
In the technique scheme, the structure of oscillating separator is: top screen cover and bottom sieve nest are joined by four connecting rods, have exhaust outlet, feed opening on the screen cover; The sieve plate with cloth air grid lattice is equipped with on sieve nest top, and two discharging openings of height are arranged on the sieve plate, and the low side discharging opening goes out nonmetal component, and high-end discharging opening goes out metal component; Be installed in the air blast in the sieve nest of bottom, blow on sieve plate by air-distribution device, sieve plate be contained in sieve nest bottom vibrating mechanism and link, air blast and vibrating mechanism all are fixed on the frame bottom the sieve nest.
Advantage and effect that the present invention gives prominence to are:
(1) set up science, rationally, the recovery process of standard, take machinery be main, manually be that auxiliary physics mode recycles, to the old circuit board harmless treatment with components and parts, heterogeneity is reclaimed respectively, production efficiency improves greatly, and does not produce secondary pollution.
(2) this programme all takes physics mode to process, whole process produces without waste gas, waste water, waste residue, environmental protection treatment and the comprehensive utilization of resources requirement of the electric treatment of the discarded family of China have been satisfied, for China provides a kind of new technology, new equipment with the old circuit board harmless treatment of components and parts.
(3) this treating method compares that hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, molten tin take off the technology less investments such as separation such as components and parts, energy consumption is low; Operating cost is low, technological operation is simple.
(4) whole treatment process and equipment are fit to the abundant actual conditions of China's human resources, and technique is simple, processing ease, and the device fabrication cost is low.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is apparatus for production line structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the top view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the hammer mill structural representation;
Fig. 4 is the top view of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is the oscillating separator structural representation;
Fig. 6 is the top view of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is the permanent-magnetic iron expeller structural representation;
Fig. 8 is the top view of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is the eddy current separator structural representation;
Figure 10 is the top view of Fig. 9;
Figure 11 is the composite crusher structural representation.
The accompanying drawing marking explanation:
1-one-level conveyer belt, 2-composite crusher, 3-two-stage conveying band, the 4-permanent-magnetic iron expeller, 5-eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts of 6-, the 7-hammer mill, 8-level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers of 9-, the 10-material handling fan, 11-oscillating separator, 12-cyclone separator, the 13-sack cleaner, 14-air-introduced machine, 15-activated carbon absorption tower, the 16-flywheel, 17-knife rest, 18-body shirt plate, the 19-belt pulley, 20-body, 21-hammer mill frame, the 22-screen cloth, 23-hammer mill motor, 24-screen cover, the 25-link, 26-sieve nest, the nonmetal outlet of 27-oscillating separator, the 28-vibrating arm, 29-feed opening, the outlet of 30-metal, 31-permanent-magnetic iron expeller motor, the 32-permanent magnet, 33-permanent-magnetic iron expeller frame, 34-drive roll, 35-permanent-magnetic iron expeller belt, the driven cylinder of 36-, 37-oscillating feeder, 38-eddy current separator belt, the 39-frame, the outlet of 40-non-ferrous metal, the nonmetal outlet of 41-eddy current separator, 42-belt motor, the 43-Rolling motor, the 44-support, 45-composite crusher frame, 46-driven pulley, the 47-discharging bin, 48-scrapes charging tray, the broken case of 49-, 50-hobboing cutter, the 51-discharge bucket, the 52-feed hopper, 53-motor cover, 54-top chock, 55-composite crusher motor, the 56-motor cabinet, 57-step, 58-drive pulley.
The specific embodiment
Method with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource recovery of the present invention is:
1) old circuit board with components and parts is added on the one-level conveyer belt, under the traction of conveyer belt motor, enter in the one-level disintegrating machine, by collision in the disintegrating machine, rubbing motion, components and parts on the wiring board are fully dissociated, and make the broken frustillatum of wiring board;
2) the fritter shape wiring board after the fragmentation and the mixture of components and parts are fallen on the two-stage conveying band from the discharging opening of one-level disintegrating machine; Contain iron, copper aluminium and wiring board in these mixtures;
3) on the two-stage conveying band suspended magnetic separator is installed, when these mixtures passed through magnetic separator, iron was separated from mixture;
4) separated mixture behind the iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, be evenly distributed on the eddy current separator belt by oscillating feeder, and the non-ferrous metals such as copper aluminium are wherein sorted out;
5) mainly be the quite little components and parts of volume that fritter shape wiring board and minority are not dissociated by remaining mixture behind separation of iron, the copper aluminium; It enters in the secondary breaker under the traction of three grades of conveyer belts, and the small size components and parts on the block wiring board and the iron that is embedded on a small quantity wiring board are further dissociated hereinto, fragmentation, then fall on the level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen; When its under the traction of level Four conveyer belt, during near the driven magnetic roller of level Four conveyer belt, the iron that dissociates in the two-stage crushing is sorted out; Rest materials enters in the tertiary crusher, and tertiary crusher is fully broken into about 60-100 purpose powder with it;
6) 60-100 purpose metal and non-metal powder are delivered to vibrating separating sieve by feeding fan, obtain metal and nonmetal component after vibrating sorting, thereby reach the purpose of separation.Metal and nonmetal component are sold as product respectively;
7) vibrating separating sieve has covered suction opeing, it links to each other with cyclone separator, sack cleaner, and link to each other with air-introduced machine by pipeline, wherein fine dust is collected through cloth bag, the technology waste gas that system is produced purifies, fan outlet links to each other with activated carbon absorption tower, makes it pass through to purify again after the active carbon adsorption.
Equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery of the present invention, comprise the one-level conveyer belt that connects is installed successively, composite crusher, the two-stage conveying band, permanent-magnetic iron expeller, eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts, the secondary hammer mill, the level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers, material handling fan, oscillating separator, cyclone separator, sack cleaner, air-introduced machine, activated carbon adsorber, the output of one-level conveyer belt connects the feed hopper of composite crusher, the discharge bucket of composite crusher connects the two-stage conveying band, the overhung of two-stage conveying band permanent-magnetic iron expeller, the outlet of two-stage conveying band is connecting the oscillating feeder of eddy current separator front end, the discharging opening of eddy current separator is connecting three grades of conveyer belt inputs, three grades of conveyer belt outputs connect secondary hammer crushing machine inlet capable, the discharging opening of secondary hammer mill connects level Four conveyer belt input, level Four conveyer belt output connects the charging aperture of three grades of hammer crushers, three grades of hammer crusher discharging openings connect the material handling fan input, the material handling fan output connects oscillating separator, the top of oscillating separator is by pipeline and cyclone separator, sack cleaner links to each other, sack cleaner top opposite side links to each other with air-introduced machine, and air-introduced machine links to each other with activated carbon absorption tower again; Above-mentioned disintegrating machine integral body is in the enclosed workplace, has effectively controlled noise pollution, and the dust that produces during simultaneously fragmentation, gas with foreign flavor all respectively by sack cleaner and the collection of activated carbon tower and absorption, do not cause any pollution to environment.
In the technique scheme, the composite crusher structure is: frame is installed on the support, and motor, motor shroud, bearing block, broken case are installed on the frame.Drive pulley is connected with driven pulley on the rotating shaft by belt on the motor; Rotating shaft is installed on the frame by bearing, bearing base, rotating shaft extends upwardly to broken case always, be equipped with around the broken tank wall by the fixing stationary knife of bolt-connection, cutter supporter and running roller installation disk are housed on the rotating shaft in the broken case, cutting knife is housed on the cutter supporter, and running roller is installed disk and by bearing pin rotating band discaling roll wheel is installed; Broken case lower position is provided with discharging bin, is equipped with on the discharging bin and scrapes charging tray, scrapes charging tray and is fixed on the rotating shaft; Broken case top is discharge bucket, and both use bolt-connection; The discharge bucket top is feed hopper, and both also use bolt-connection; Broken case, discharge bucket, feed hopper three form one.The feed hopper top connects the outlet of negative pressure dust.
In the technique scheme, the structure of permanent-magnetic iron expeller is: stainless steel initiatively cylinder and driven cylinder are installed in frame, motor is installed on the frame, by belt motor pulley is connected with drive roll belt pulley, driven pulley, carrying roller is fixed on the frame up and down, play a supportive role, permanent magnet is installed in up and down between the belt, and is fixed on the frame.
In the technique scheme, conveyer belt structure is: conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form ring-like confining zone; Carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material of carrying above; Tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, produces frictional force between assurance and driving drum and makes conveyer belt non-slip; During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and by the operation of frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening through certain distance and changes down process procedure over to one.
In the technique scheme, the structure of eddy current separator is: top is oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body, and the bottom is the frame that the square steel assembly welding becomes, and oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body are fixed by bolts on the frame respectively.The compositions such as vortex flow belt roller, belt, driven cylinder, adjusting striker plate, discharging opening are fixed on the vortex flow main body on the frame, when vibrating motor is worked, vibratory feed unit produces vibration, material is evenly distributed on the belt, motor-driven belt drive roll also drives belt and travels forward, in the driven cylinder magnet is housed, and its rotation of motor-driven is arranged and produces alternating magnetic field; Driven cylinder is other to be equipped with adjustable striker plate, and the striker plate bottom is provided with two discharging openings.
In the technique scheme, the structure of secondary hammer mill is: top body and lower framework bolt-connection.Two bearing blocks about the body outer wall is equipped with, in order to supporting spindle, knife rest is installed on the main shaft, and tup is installed on the knife rest; Main shaft one end is equipped with the balance flywheel, the main shaft other end is equipped with belt pulley, belt pulley on the main shaft links by belt and motor side belt pulley, when the motor high speed rotating, it drives the main shaft high speed rotating by belt pulley, belt, and then with the tup high speed rotating on movable knife rack and the knife rest, cavity bottom is equipped with the discharging screen cloth in addition, and organism bottom one side is provided with discharging opening.
In the technique scheme, the structure of three grades of hammer crushers is: the structure of tertiary crusher and secondary breaker is basic identical, and just the form of tup is different, is hammer leaf, the pore size of screen cloth is different besides, and the screen cloth of tertiary crusher is smaller.
In the technique scheme, the structure of oscillating separator is: top screen cover and bottom sieve nest are joined by four connecting rods, have exhaust outlet, feed opening on the screen cover; The sieve plate with cloth air grid lattice is equipped with on sieve nest top, and two discharging openings of height are arranged on the sieve plate, and the low side discharging opening goes out nonmetal component, and high-end discharging opening goes out metal component; Be installed in the air blast in the sieve nest of bottom, blow on sieve plate by air-distribution device, sieve plate be contained in sieve nest bottom vibrating mechanism and link, air blast and vibrating mechanism all are fixed on the frame bottom the sieve nest.
Referring to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, technology and equipment that the old circuit board harmless treatment of band components and parts of the present invention and resource reclaim, the formations such as one-level conveyer belt 1, composite crusher 2, two-stage conveying band 3, suspended magnetic separator 4, eddy current separator 5, three grades of conveyer belts 6, secondary breaker 7, level Four conveyer belt 8, tertiary crusher 9, feeding fan 10, oscillating separator 11, cyclone separator 12, sack cleaner 13, air-introduced machine 14, activated carbon absorption tower 15; Oscillating separator machine top and cyclone separator 11 link, and the outlet of cyclone separator links to each other with sack cleaner 13, be right after connect successively after the sack cleaner blower fan 14, activated carbon tower 15 arranged; Above-mentioned breaker is installed in the enclosed system, and the dust that produces when broken and gas with foreign flavor can pass through respectively sack cleaner, the activated carbon tower is collected and absorption.
Processing procedure: be transported in the composite crusher 2 with belt after being added to one-level conveyer belt 1 with the old circuit board of components and parts, in the machine chamber through repeatedly the collision, rubbing, components and parts on the wiring board are constantly dissociated, the substrate of the bulk frustillatum that is broken, until it is less than the radial clearance of disintegrating machine bottom, enter disintegrating machine bottom discharge chamber by the gap, material in the discharge chamber is along with discharging scraper is rotated, be thrown on the two-stage conveying band 3, under the traction of two-stage conveying band 3, by the components and parts that dissociate, the fritter wiring board, iron, the mixture of the compositions such as copper aluminium is transported to the permanent magnet below of suspended magnetic separator 4, under the effect of magnetic field force, ferromagnetic material is drawn on the belt for magnetic separator and with belt and travels forward, until leave the magnetic field of permanent magnet sphere of action, lose magnetic force, fall into the ferromagnetic material receiving hopper, realize the separation of iron; The mixture of choosing behind the iron is under the traction of two-stage conveying band, move forward by suspended magnetic separator, until be transported in the oscillating feeder, quilt is evenly distributed on the belt conveyor of vortex flow 5 after being shaken and faling apart, and under the traction of belt, material constantly approaches the sorting magnetic roller of the high-intensity magnetic field that produces high-frequency alternating, can go out vortex flow at the non-ferrous metal internal induction of electric conductivity, this vortex flow itself can produce the magnetic field opposite with magnetic field, non-ferrous metal is (such as copper, aluminium etc.) then can leap forward along its throughput direction because of the repulsive force effect in magnetic field, from discharging opening 40 dischargings of material baffle the right, all the other materials, then from the discharging opening 41 on the material baffle left side out, enter on three grades of conveyer belts 6, until enter in the secondary breaker 7, realization is to the small size components and parts on the block wiring board and be embedded on a small quantity further the dissociating of iron (mainly being the tuner wiring board) of wiring board, broken, then enter into the level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen, when its under the traction of level Four conveyer belt 8, during near the driven magnetic roller of level Four conveyer belt, the iron that dissociates in the two-stage crushing is out selected; Rest materials enters in the tertiary crusher 9, and is fully broken through it, makes it fully broken into about 60-100 purpose powder; Mixed-powder is sent into vibrating separating sieve 11 by feeding fan 10, after in vibrating separating sieve, fully separating, metal component from the high-end discharging opening of separating sieve out, nonmetal component is then separated from the low side discharging opening.Thereby realized the physical separation with all components of components and parts wiring board.In the above-mentioned processing procedure, the dust of generation and gas with foreign flavor are collected and are adsorbed through cyclone separator 12, sack cleaner 13, activated carbon tower 15 respectively.Wholely disassemble, in fragmentation and the separation process scheme, dust, pernicious gas have been implemented effective control, guarantee production safety, environmental protection.
With reference to Figure 11, composite crusher mainly by support 44, frame 45, motor 55, motor cover 53, rotating shaft, bearing, top chock 54, step 57, broken case 49, hobboing cutter 50, discharging bin 47, scrape the parts such as charging tray 48, discharge bucket 51, feed hopper 52, driven pulley 46, drive pulley 58 and consist of.Frame 45 is installed on the support 44, and motor cabinet 56, motor cover 53, top chock 54, broken case 49 are installed on the frame, and motor 55 is installed on the motor cabinet 56.Drive pulley 58 is connected with driven pulley 46 on the rotating shaft by belt on the motor; Rotating shaft is installed on the frame by bearing, metal (upper seat (54,55), and broken tank wall is equipped with hobboing cutter 50, and broken case lower position is provided with a discharging bin 47, and material scraping plate 48 is installed, and broken case top is discharge bucket 51; The discharge bucket top is feed hopper 52.
The operation principle of composite crusher: material is entered in the disintegrating machine casing by charging aperture 52, fall on the batch mixing pan that high-speed rotating shaft connects, material is thrown at a high speed counterpunch board on the cylinder inboard wall through batch mixing pan, and the hammering district that rebounds back behind the bump mutually is subject to the tup hammering again.Because counterpunch board has the counterattack of inclination, make the material of mutual bump produce downward cohesive force, therefore material presents " Z " font circuit in the hammering district or at peritrochanteric, being subject to hobboing cutter and counterpunch board rolls the material stranding, metal and nonmetal separating block, sheet, metal is rubbed with the hands and is rolled into granule, and top-down material flow drops down onto in the discharging bin less material, and the discharging bin batch mixing pan throws away less group's material outside the chamber.
The operation principle of permanent-magnetic iron expeller: when material flow during through permanent-magnetic iron expeller, iron class material is adsorbed to belt surface and travels forward with belt under the effect of permanent magnet 32 magnetic field forces, when moving to disengaging magnetic fields district, gravitate never comes off on the belt and falls to packaging bag from the discharge bucket exit.All the other namagnetic substances are with 3 motions of two-stage conveying band, until enter eddy current separator 5.
The conveyer belt operation principle: this equipment mainly is comprised of drive unit, driving drum, conveyer belt, upper supporting roller, snub pulley, frame, clearing apparatus, tensioning apparatus, bend pulley, deflector chute etc.Conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form the wreath line closes band, carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material of carrying above, and tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, produces frictional force between assurance and driving drum and makes conveyer belt non-slip.During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and by the operation of frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening through certain distance and changes down process procedure over to one.
The operation principle of eddy current separator: material is evenly distributed on the belt 38 by oscillating feeder 37, and under the traction of belt, constantly approach the sorting magnetic roller of the high-intensity magnetic field that produces high-frequency alternating, can go out vortex flow this moment at the non-ferrous metal internal induction of electric conductivity, this vortex flow itself can produce the magnetic field opposite with magnetic field, non-ferrous metal is (such as copper, aluminium etc.) then can leap forward along its throughput direction because of the repulsive force effect in magnetic field, namely from discharging opening 40 dischargings of material baffle the right, and nonmetallic substance, then from the discharging opening 41 on the material baffle left side out, thus realize sorting;
The operation principle of secondary hammer mill: be installed in about being equipped with on body 20 outer walls main shaft in two bearing blocks, knife rest 17 is housed on it, at knife rest tup is installed; Main shaft one end is equipped with balance flywheel 16, the main shaft other end is equipped with belt pulley 19, belt pulley on the main shaft links by belt and motor side belt pulley, when the motor high speed rotating, it drives the main shaft high speed rotating by belt pulley, belt, and then with the tup high speed rotating on movable knife rack and the knife rest, then beat at a high speed the material that enters in the machine chamber, the abrasion-proof backing block of material on tup and body inwall constantly clashed into, finally reach the purpose of comminuting matter, the material after the pulverizing arrives the machine discharging opening by cavity bottom discharging screen cloth 22.In order to entering next process procedure.
The operation principle of three grades of hammer crushers and secondary breaker is basically identical, and just the aperture of the form of tup and screen cloth is different.
The operation principle of sack cleaner: the negative-pressure air-flow that the dust air-flow produces by blower fan enters the dust-laden chamber of sack cleaner through pipeline, arrive the toilet by the filter cylinder isolated by filtration, dust is then stopped in its surface by filter core, when by the dust that stopped when cartridge surface constantly deposits, filter core pressure reduction inside and outside also continues to increase simultaneously, when pressure reduction reaches preset value, controlling compressed-air actuated magnetic valve is opened, compressed air flows into the blowback purging system through pipeline, cleaning pipe moment by cleaning agency sprays to the filter core inner surface, under the effect of high pressure draught, break away from cartridge surface and drop so that be deposited on dust granules on the filter core, so that whole cartridge surface all is cleaned.Air after the purification is by the air channel, discharge through blower fan.

Claims (9)

1. the method with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource recovery is:
1) old circuit board with components and parts is added on the one-level conveyer belt, under the traction of conveyer belt motor, enter in the one-level disintegrating machine, by collision in the disintegrating machine, rubbing motion, components and parts on the wiring board are fully dissociated, and make the broken frustillatum of wiring board;
2) the fritter shape wiring board after the fragmentation and the mixture of components and parts are fallen on the two-stage conveying band from the discharging opening of one-level disintegrating machine; Contain iron, copper aluminium and wiring board in these mixtures;
3) on the two-stage conveying band suspended magnetic separator is installed, when these mixtures passed through magnetic separator, iron was separated from mixture;
4) separated mixture behind the iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, be evenly distributed on the eddy current separator belt by oscillating feeder, and the non-ferrous metals such as copper aluminium are wherein sorted out;
5) mainly be the quite little components and parts of volume that fritter shape wiring board and minority are not dissociated by remaining mixture behind separation of iron, the copper aluminium; It enters in the secondary breaker under the traction of three grades of conveyer belts, and the small size components and parts on the block wiring board and the iron that is embedded on a small quantity wiring board are further dissociated hereinto, fragmentation, then fall on the level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen; When its under the traction of level Four conveyer belt, during near the driven magnetic roller of level Four conveyer belt, the iron that dissociates in the two-stage crushing is sorted out; Rest materials enters in the tertiary crusher, and tertiary crusher is fully broken into about 60-100 purpose powder with it;
6) 60-100 purpose metal and non-metal powder are delivered to vibrating separating sieve by feeding fan, obtain metal and nonmetal component after vibrating sorting, thereby reach the purpose of separation; Metal and nonmetal component are sold as product respectively;
7) vibrating separating sieve has covered suction opeing, it links to each other with cyclone separator, sack cleaner, and link to each other with air-introduced machine by pipeline, wherein fine dust is collected through cloth bag, the technology waste gas that system is produced purifies, fan outlet links to each other with activated carbon absorption tower, makes it pass through to purify again after the active carbon adsorption.
2. equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery, it is characterized in that: comprise the one-level conveyer belt that connects is installed successively, composite crusher, the two-stage conveying band, permanent-magnetic iron expeller, eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts, the secondary hammer mill, the level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers, material handling fan, oscillating separator, cyclone separator, sack cleaner, air-introduced machine, activated carbon adsorber, the output of one-level conveyer belt connects the feed hopper of composite crusher, the discharge bucket of composite crusher connects the two-stage conveying band, the overhung of two-stage conveying band permanent-magnetic iron expeller, the outlet of two-stage conveying band is connecting the oscillating feeder of eddy current separator front end, the discharging opening of eddy current separator is connecting three grades of conveyer belt inputs, three grades of conveyer belt outputs connect secondary hammer crushing machine inlet capable, the discharging opening of secondary hammer mill connects level Four conveyer belt input, level Four conveyer belt output connects the charging aperture of three grades of hammer crushers, three grades of hammer crusher discharging openings connect the material handling fan input, the material handling fan output connects oscillating separator, the top of oscillating separator is by pipeline and cyclone separator, sack cleaner links to each other, sack cleaner top opposite side links to each other with air-introduced machine, and air-introduced machine links to each other with activated carbon absorption tower again; Above-mentioned disintegrating machine integral body is in the enclosed workplace.
3. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the composite crusher structure is: frame is installed on the support, and motor, motor shroud, bearing block, disintegrating machine casing are installed on the frame; Drive pulley is connected with driven pulley on the rotating shaft by belt on the motor; Rotating shaft is installed on the frame by bearing, bearing base, rotating shaft extends upwardly to broken case always, be equipped with around the broken tank wall by the fixing stationary knife of bolt-connection, cutter supporter and running roller installation disk are housed on the rotating shaft in the broken case, cutting knife is housed on the cutter supporter, and running roller is installed disk and by bearing pin rotating band discaling roll wheel is installed; Broken case lower position is provided with discharging bin, is equipped with on the discharging bin and scrapes charging tray, scrapes charging tray and is fixed on the rotating shaft; Broken case top is discharge bucket, and both use bolt-connection; The discharge bucket top is feed hopper, and both also use bolt-connection; Broken case, discharge bucket, feed hopper three form one; The feed hopper top connects the outlet of negative pressure dust.
4. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the structure of permanent-magnetic iron expeller is: stainless steel initiatively cylinder and driven cylinder are installed in frame, motor is installed on the frame, by belt motor pulley is connected with drive roll belt pulley, driven pulley, carrying roller is fixed on the frame up and down, play a supportive role, permanent magnet is installed in up and down between the belt, and is fixed on the frame.
5. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: conveyer belt structure is: conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form ring-like confining zone; Carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material of carrying above; Tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, produces frictional force between assurance and driving drum and makes conveyer belt non-slip; During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and by the operation of frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening through certain distance and changes down process procedure over to one.
6. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the structure of eddy current separator is: top is oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body, the bottom is the frame that the square steel assembly welding becomes, and oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body are fixed by bolts to respectively on the frame; The compositions such as vortex flow belt roller, belt, driven cylinder, adjusting striker plate, discharging opening are fixed on the vortex flow main body on the frame, when vibrating motor is worked, vibratory feed unit produces vibration, material is evenly distributed on the belt, motor-driven belt drive roll also drives belt and travels forward, in the driven cylinder magnet is housed, and its rotation of motor-driven is arranged and produces alternating magnetic field; Driven cylinder is other to be equipped with adjustable striker plate, and the striker plate bottom is provided with two discharging openings.
7. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the structure of secondary hammer mill is: top body and lower framework bolt-connection; Two bearing blocks about the body outer wall is equipped with, in order to supporting spindle, knife rest is installed on the main shaft, and tup is installed on the knife rest; Main shaft one end is equipped with the balance flywheel, the main shaft other end is equipped with belt pulley, belt pulley on the main shaft links by belt and motor side belt pulley, when the motor high speed rotating, it drives the main shaft high speed rotating by belt pulley, belt, and then with the tup high speed rotating on movable knife rack and the knife rest, cavity bottom is equipped with the discharging screen cloth in addition, and organism bottom one side is provided with discharging opening.
8. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the structure of three grades of hammer crushers is: the structure of tertiary crusher and secondary breaker is basic identical, just the form of tup is different, be hammer leaf, the pore size of screen cloth is different, and the screen cloth of tertiary crusher is smaller.
9. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: the structure of oscillating separator is: top screen cover and bottom sieve nest are joined by four connecting rods, have exhaust outlet, feed opening on the screen cover; Sieve plate with cloth air grid lattice is arranged at sieve nest top, and two discharging openings of height are arranged on the sieve plate, and the low side discharging opening goes out nonmetal, and high-end discharging opening goes out metal component; Be installed in the air blast in the sieve nest of bottom, blow on sieve plate by air-distribution device, sieve plate be contained in sieve nest bottom vibrating mechanism and link, air blast and vibrating mechanism all are fixed on the frame bottom the sieve nest.
CN201210508840.XA 2012-12-04 2012-12-04 Harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit board with components Expired - Fee Related CN102962242B (en)

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CN111111898A (en) * 2020-01-23 2020-05-08 廉博 Digestion and utilization technology process for directly feeding electrolytic shell surface block into purification system
CN111924529B (en) * 2020-06-02 2021-07-30 成都仁新科技股份有限公司 Infrared heating and conveying device for waste circuit boards
CN111924529A (en) * 2020-06-02 2020-11-13 成都仁新科技股份有限公司 Infrared heating and conveying device for waste circuit boards
CN113083480A (en) * 2021-03-30 2021-07-09 北京金隅北水环保科技有限公司 Device and method for pretreating urban waste furniture
CN114289122A (en) * 2021-12-28 2022-04-08 江苏龙净科杰环保技术有限公司 Automatic production line for catalyst crushing and screening
CN115430683A (en) * 2022-09-18 2022-12-06 临沂市政集团有限公司 Municipal concrete solid waste recycling device

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