CN102962242B - Harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit board with components - Google Patents

Harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit board with components Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102962242B
CN102962242B CN201210508840.XA CN201210508840A CN102962242B CN 102962242 B CN102962242 B CN 102962242B CN 201210508840 A CN201210508840 A CN 201210508840A CN 102962242 B CN102962242 B CN 102962242B
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China
Prior art keywords
belt
separator
conveyer belt
components
band
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CN201210508840.XA
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CN102962242A (en
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明果英
方寅斗
周斌
熊艳艳
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MILUO WANRONG ELECTRONIC WASTE TREATMENT CO Ltd
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MILUO WANRONG ELECTRONIC WASTE TREATMENT CO Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/82Recycling of waste of electrical or electronic equipment [WEEE]

Abstract

The invention relates to harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit boards with components. The equipment comprises a first-level conveyor belt, a compound crusher, a two-level conveyor belt, a permanent magnet deironing separator, an eddy current separator, a three-level conveyor belt, a two-level hammer crusher, a four-level conveyor belt, a three-level hammer flake type crusher, a material conveying fan, a vibrating separator, a cyclone separator, a bag type dust collector, a draught fan and activated carbon adsorption tower. The method comprises the steps that: crushing the waste circuit boards with components into fragments in the compound crusher, separating out irons through the permanent magnet deironing separator, and separating out copper, aluminum and other nonferrous metals on a belt of the eddy-current separator; entering the two-level hammer crusher for further dissociation and crushing, and separating out irons; and driving the balance of materials to enter the three-level hammer flake type crusher, and fully crushing the materials into powder with 60-100 meshes to the vibrating separator. The method and equipment have the advantages that the investment is few, the energy consumption is low, the running cost is low, and the process and the operation are simple, and the production efficiency can be greatly improved and no secondary pollution is caused.

Description

With the method and apparatus of the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource reclaim
Technical field
The present invention relates to environment protection method, equipment and regenerated resources field, be specifically related to a kind of method and apparatus with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource reclaim.
Background technology
As the significant components of electron wastes, on the one hand both containing various heavy and harmful substances such as lead, cadmium, igelite, brominated flame retardants, there is potential environmental pollution in abandoned printed circuit board; On the other hand again containing the multiple common metal such as copper, gold, silver and rare precious metal, there is higher recycling and be worth.
Along with the enforcement of China's strategy of sustainable development, have higher requirement to environmental protection, the Collection and utilization of electronic waste becomes the thorny problem that majority state faces.Current China has become the production and consumption big country of household electrical appliance, only calculate to scrap renewal 2% year, the annual 4 large class household electrical appliance eliminated just reach 2,000 ten thousand, add and popularize the high-tech electronic product such as computer, mobile phone that the update cycle used only has 2-4 in the whole society, and the novel household appliance product of the super quality and competitive price continued to bring out, what make China's household electrical appliance scraps renewal actual year up to more than 2,500 ten thousand.Printed circuit board (PCB) (PCB) is as the critical component in discarded household electrical appliances, and it reclaims and resource problem has become the hot issue being badly in need of solving.In addition, so far, Nei Diyou printed substrate manufacturing enterprise of China about 1000, PCB in China output in 2006 is 12 964 ten thousand m2, annual value of production 12800000000 dollars, has become the first producing country of PCB, and a large amount of leftover pieces in production process, the recovery of scrapping plate also face great difficult problem.
Abandoned printed circuit board is the mixture of glass fiber reinforced plastics and various metals, belong to typical electron wastes, the discarded circuit board grown with each passing day adds a large amount of leftover bits produced wiring board and produce, if do not deal carefully with and dispose, not only can cause a large amount of losses of useful resources, and serious harm can be produced to environment.The method of tradition stacking or landfill, not only take large quantity space, and contained heavy metal such as mercury, chromium, cadmium etc. and macromolecule organic are difficult to degraded under field conditions (factors), harmful components can pass through water, air, soil entered environment, can cause potential, long-term with expendable harm to human health and ecological environment, wherein contained lead is second largest source plumbous in municipal waste.
" discarded circuit board " is not " refuse ", but untapped " Secondary resource ", there is very high recycling and be worth.Metal content in wiring board is equivalent to tens times of metal content in common mineral to hundreds of times, and the content of metal is up to 40%, and maximum is copper, also has gold, aluminium, nickel, lead, silicon metal etc. in addition, is wherein no lack of rare metal; And the rich ore tenor of occurring in nature super only 3% ~ 5%.Have statistics to show, 1t waste printed circuit board can extract the gold of about 300g.The materials such as the scolding tin on printed substrate and plastics are also the valuable sources that can be recovered utilization.Therefore, the useless circuit board technology researching and developing harmless treatment band components and parts has become the key subjects in regenerated resources field.
Effective process and resource recycling are implemented to the wiring board scrapped, greatly can slow down the consumption to Resources, alleviate environmental pollution, to setting up resource-conserving and environment-friendly society, developing a circular economy and there is positive effect and important meaning.
The main treatment technology of current old circuit board: pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, Physical.
Pyrometallurgy is extracted noble metal and is had simply, facilitates and rate of recovery high, but in burning process, produces pernicious gas cause the shortcomings such as secondary pollution, other metal recovery rate is low, treatment facility is expensive owing to there is organic matter;
It is that comparatively commonly use, extract noble metal from waste electric products technology that wet method controls technology for gold, the general principle that wet method controls technology for gold mainly utilizes noble metal can be dissolved in the feature of nitric acid and chloroazotic acid etc., it is removed from waste electric products and is reclaimed from liquid phase.Compared with pyrogenic process, wet method control the waste gas of technology for gold discharge relatively less, extract the residue after noble metal and be also easy to process, but the waste liquid produced is more, and the complex treatment process of waste liquid, cost is very high.Certain potential threat is caused to environment.
Physical treatment method mainly includes the multiple technologies such as Mechanical Crushing, elutriation and magnetic absorption.At present, physical treatment method is mainly used in the recovery of metal as aluminium, copper, and as the U.S. utilizes strength rotational flow separator to reclaim aluminium from the PCB of PC, by controlling charging rate, the purity of gained aluminium concentrate is 85%, and the rate of recovery is more than 90%; Sweden utilizes motorized pulleys electrostatic separator to reclaim copper, and by design and operation parameter optimization, the grade of gained copper concentrate is 93% ~ 99%, and the rate of recovery is up to 95% ~ 99%.Current domestic employing physical treatment method is mainly separated metal in waste electric products and nonmetal.But above-mentioned physical method can only process the wiring board not with components and parts.For being with the wiring board of components and parts because having various electronic devices and components above it, the method for the method handling components by melting tin adopted at present, genus manual operations, inefficiency, the molten tin waste gas of generation, complex treatment process, processing cost is higher, produces very large potential threat to environment.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is: for present situation and the Problems existing of the process of above-mentioned prior art band components and parts old circuit board, a kind of method and apparatus with the process harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource reclaim is provided, manufacturing cost and the operating cost of equipment are low, technique simple, processing ease, without dust, without gas leakage, without waste water, without waste sludge discharge, do not produce secondary pollution, safety and environmental protection, resource recycling rate is high.
The technical solution used in the present invention is:
The method of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment of the present invention and resource reclaim is:
1) old circuit board of components and parts is with to be added on first-level transport band, under the traction of conveyer belt motor, enter in one-level disintegrating machine, by colliding in disintegrating machine, crumpling motion, components and parts on wiring board are fully dissociated, and make the broken frustillatum of wiring board;
2) the little block wiring board after fragmentation and the mixture of components and parts, fall two-stage conveying band from the discharging opening of one-level disintegrating machine; Containing iron, copper aluminium and wiring board in these mixtures;
3) two-stage conveying band is provided with suspended magnetic separator, when these mixtures are by magnetic separator, iron is separated from mixture;
4) be separated the mixture after iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, be evenly distributed on eddy current separator belt by oscillating feeder, and the non-ferrous metals such as copper aluminium have wherein been sorted out;
5) by the components and parts that mainly volume that do not dissociate of little block wiring board and minority is quite little of remaining mixture after separation of iron, copper aluminium; It enters in secondary breaker under the traction of three grades of conveyer belts, and the small size components and parts on block wiring board and the iron be embedded on a small quantity on wiring board are dissociated hereinto further, fragmentation, then fall on level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen; When it is under the traction of level Four conveyer belt, during driven magnetic roller close to level Four conveyer belt, the iron dissociated in two-stage crushing is sorted out; Rest materials enters in tertiary crusher, and tertiary crusher is fully broken into about 60-100 object powder by it;
6) 60-100 object metal and non-metal powder are delivered to vibrating separating sieve by feeding fan, by obtaining metal and non-metallic component after vibration sorting, thus reach the object of separation.Metal and non-metallic component are sold respectively as product;
7) vibrating separating sieve has covered suction opeing, it is connected with cyclone separator, sack cleaner, and be connected with air-introduced machine by pipeline, wherein fine dust is collected through cloth bag, the technology waste gas that system produces is purified, fan outlet is connected with activated carbon absorption tower, makes it by purifying again after active carbon adsorption.
With the equipment of the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery, comprise the first-level transport band installing connection successively, composite crusher, two-stage conveying band, permanent-magnetic iron expeller, eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts, secondary hammer mill, level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers, material handling fan, oscillating separator, cyclone separator, sack cleaner, air-introduced machine, activated carbon adsorber, the output of first-level transport band connects the feed hopper of composite crusher, the discharge bucket of composite crusher connects two-stage conveying band, the overhung of two-stage conveying band permanent-magnetic iron expeller, the outlet of two-stage conveying band is connected to the vibratory feed unit of eddy current separator front end, the discharging opening of eddy current separator is connected to three grades of conveyer belt inputs, three grades of conveyer belt outputs connect secondary hammer crushing machine inlet capable, the discharging opening of secondary hammer mill connects level Four conveyer belt input, level Four conveyer belt output connects the charging aperture of three grades of hammer crushers, three grades of hammer crusher discharging openings connect material handling fan input, material handling fan output connects oscillating separator, and the top of oscillating separator is by pipeline and cyclone separator, sack cleaner is connected, and above sack cleaner, opposite side is connected with air-introduced machine, and air-introduced machine is connected with activated carbon absorption tower again, above-mentioned disintegrating machine entirety is in an enclosed workplace, effectively controls noise pollution, and the dust simultaneously produced during fragmentation, gas with foreign flavor are collected by sack cleaner and activated carbon tower all respectively and adsorb, and do not cause any pollution to environment.
In technique scheme, composite crusher structure is: frame is arranged on support, and motor, motor shroud, bearing block, disintegrating machine casing are installed in frame.On motor, drive pulley is connected with driven pulley on rotating shaft by belt; Rotating shaft is arranged in frame by bearing, bearing base, rotating shaft extends upwardly in broken case always, broken cabinet wall surrounding is equipped with the stationary knife fixed by bolt-connection, cutter supporter and running roller installation disk rotating shaft in broken case be equipped with, cutter supporter is equipped with cutting knife, and running roller is installed disk and is provided with rotating band discaling roll wheel by bearing pin; Broken case lower position is provided with discharging bin, discharging bin is provided with and scrapes charging tray, scrape charging tray and be fixed on rotating shaft; Be discharge bucket above broken case, both use bolt-connection; Be feed hopper above discharge bucket, both also use bolt-connection; Broken case, discharge bucket, feed hopper three form one; Feed hopper top connects negative pressure dust outlet.
In technique scheme, the structure of permanent-magnetic iron expeller is: in frame, be provided with stainless steel drive roll and follower rollers, frame is provided with motor, by belt, motor pulley is connected with drive roll belt pulley, driven pulley, upper and lower carrying roller is fixed in frame, play a supportive role, permanent magnet is arranged between upper and lower belt, and is fixed in frame.
In technique scheme, conveyer belt structure is: conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form ring-like confining zone; Carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material carried above; Tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, ensures and produce frictional force between driving drum to make conveyer belt non-slip; During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and run by frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening proceed to down one process procedure through certain distance.
In technique scheme, the structure of eddy current separator is: top is oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body, and bottom is the frame that square steel assembly welding becomes, and oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body are fixed by bolts in frame respectively.Vortex flow belt roller, belt, follower rollers, adjustment striker plate, discharging opening etc. form the vortex flow main body be fixed in frame, when vibrating motor works, vibratory feed unit produces vibration, material is evenly distributed on belt, motor-driven belt drive roll also drives belt to travel forward, follower rollers built with magnet, and has motor to drive it rotate and produce alternating magnetic field; Follower rollers is other is equipped with adjustable striker plate, and striker plate bottom is provided with two discharging openings.
In technique scheme, the structure of secondary hammer mill is: top body and lower framework bolt-connection.Body outer wall is equipped with two bearing blocks in left and right, and in order to supporting spindle, knife rest is arranged on main shaft, and tup is arranged on knife rest; Main shaft one end is provided with balance flywheel, the main shaft other end is provided with belt pulley, belt pulley on main shaft is connected by belt and motor side belt pulley, when motor high-speed rotation, it is by belt pulley, belt drive main shaft high-speed rotation, and then band movable knife rack and knife rest on tup high-speed rotation, another cavity bottom is equipped with discharging screen cloth, and organism bottom side is provided with discharging opening.
In technique scheme, the structure of three grades of hammer crushers is: tertiary crusher is substantially identical with the structure of secondary breaker, and just the form of tup is different, is hammer leaf, the pore size of screen cloth is different besides, and the screen cloth of tertiary crusher is smaller.
In technique scheme, the structure of oscillating separator is: top screen cover is connected by four connecting rods with bottom sieve nest, screen cover has exhaust outlet, feed opening; The sieve plate of band cloth air grid lattice is equipped with on sieve nest top, and sieve plate has height two discharging openings, low side discharging opening goes out non-metallic component, and high-end discharging opening goes out metal component; Be arranged on the air blast in the sieve nest of bottom, blown on sieve plate by air-distribution device, sieve plate be contained in sieve nest bottom vibrating mechanism and be connected, air blast and vibrating mechanism are all fixed in the frame bottom sieve nest.
The advantage that the present invention gives prominence to and effect are:
(1) establish science, rationally, the recovery process of specification, take machinery be main, be manually that auxiliary physics mode recycles, to the old circuit board harmless treatment of band components and parts, heterogeneity is reclaimed respectively, production efficiency improves greatly, and does not produce secondary pollution.
(2) this programme all takes physics mode to process, whole process produces without waste gas, waste water, waste residue, meet environmental protection treatment and comprehensive utilization of resources requirement that China discards an electric treatment, for the old circuit board harmless treatment of China's band components and parts provides a kind of new technology, new equipment.
(3) present treatment way, compares hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, molten tin takes off components and parts etc. and be separated that Technical investment is few, energy consumption is low; Operating cost is low, technological operation is simple.
(4) whole treatment process and equipment are applicable to the abundant actual conditions of China's human resources, and technique is simple, and processing ease, device fabrication cost is low.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is apparatus for production line structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the top view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is hammer mill structural representation;
Fig. 4 is the top view of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is oscillating separator structural representation;
Fig. 6 is the top view of Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is permanent-magnetic iron expeller structural representation;
Fig. 8 is the top view of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is eddy current separator structural representation;
Figure 10 is the top view of Fig. 9;
Figure 11 is composite crusher structural representation.
Accompanying drawing mark illustrates:
1-first-level transport band, 2-composite crusher, 3-two-stage conveying band, 4-permanent-magnetic iron expeller, 5-eddy current separator, 6-tri-grades of conveyer belts, 7-hammer mill, 8-level Four conveyer belt, 9-tri-grades of hammer crushers, 10-material handling fan, 11-oscillating separator, 12-cyclone separator, 13-sack cleaner, 14-air-introduced machine, 15-activated carbon absorption tower, 16-flywheel, 17-knife rest, 18-body shirt plate, 19-belt pulley, 20-body, 21-hammer mill frame, 22-screen cloth, 23-hammer mill motor, 24-screen cover, 25-link, 26-sieve nest, the nonmetal outlet of 27-oscillating separator, 28-vibrating arm, 29-feed opening, 30-metal outlet, 31-permanent-magnetic iron expeller motor, 32-permanent magnet, 33-permanent-magnetic iron expeller frame, 34-drive roll, 35-permanent-magnetic iron expeller belt, 36-follower rollers, 37-oscillating feeder, 38-eddy current separator belt, 39-frame, 40-non-ferrous metal exports, the nonmetal outlet of 41-eddy current separator, 42-belt motor, 43-Rolling motor, 44-support, 45-composite crusher frame, 46-driven pulley, 47-discharging bin, 48-scrapes charging tray, the broken case of 49-, 50-hobboing cutter, 51-discharge bucket, 52-feed hopper, 53-motor cover, 54-top chock, 55-composite crusher motor, 56-motor cabinet, 57-step, 58-drive pulley.
Detailed description of the invention
The method of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment of the present invention and resource reclaim is:
1) old circuit board of components and parts is with to be added on first-level transport band, under the traction of conveyer belt motor, enter in one-level disintegrating machine, by colliding in disintegrating machine, crumpling motion, components and parts on wiring board are fully dissociated, and make the broken frustillatum of wiring board;
2) the little block wiring board after fragmentation and the mixture of components and parts, fall two-stage conveying band from the discharging opening of one-level disintegrating machine; Containing iron, copper aluminium and wiring board in these mixtures;
3) two-stage conveying band is provided with suspended magnetic separator, when these mixtures are by magnetic separator, iron is separated from mixture;
4) be separated the mixture after iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, be evenly distributed on eddy current separator belt by oscillating feeder, and the non-ferrous metals such as copper aluminium have wherein been sorted out;
5) by the components and parts that mainly volume that do not dissociate of little block wiring board and minority is quite little of remaining mixture after separation of iron, copper aluminium; It enters in secondary breaker under the traction of three grades of conveyer belts, and the small size components and parts on block wiring board and the iron being embedded in wiring board are on a small quantity dissociated hereinto further, broken, then falls on level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen; When it is under the traction of level Four conveyer belt, during driven magnetic roller close to level Four conveyer belt, the iron dissociated in two-stage crushing is sorted out; Rest materials enters in tertiary crusher, and tertiary crusher is fully broken into about 60-100 object powder by it;
6) 60-100 object metal and non-metal powder are delivered to vibrating separating sieve by feeding fan, by obtaining metal and non-metallic component after vibration sorting, thus reach the object of separation.Metal and non-metallic component are sold respectively as product;
7) vibrating separating sieve has covered suction opeing, it is connected with cyclone separator, sack cleaner, and be connected with air-introduced machine by pipeline, wherein fine dust is collected through cloth bag, the technology waste gas that system produces is purified, fan outlet is connected with activated carbon absorption tower, makes it by purifying again after active carbon adsorption.
The equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment of the present invention and recovery, comprises the first-level transport band installing connection successively, composite crusher, two-stage conveying band, permanent-magnetic iron expeller, eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts, secondary hammer mill, level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers, material handling fan, oscillating separator, cyclone separator, sack cleaner, air-introduced machine, activated carbon adsorber, the output of first-level transport band connects the feed hopper of composite crusher, the discharge bucket of composite crusher connects two-stage conveying band, the overhung of two-stage conveying band permanent-magnetic iron expeller, the outlet of two-stage conveying band is connected to the oscillating feeder of eddy current separator front end, the discharging opening of eddy current separator is connected to three grades of conveyer belt inputs, three grades of conveyer belt outputs connect secondary hammer crushing machine inlet capable, the discharging opening of secondary hammer mill connects level Four conveyer belt input, level Four conveyer belt output connects the charging aperture of three grades of hammer crushers, three grades of hammer crusher discharging openings connect material handling fan input, material handling fan output connects oscillating separator, and the top of oscillating separator is by pipeline and cyclone separator, sack cleaner is connected, and above sack cleaner, opposite side is connected with air-introduced machine, and air-introduced machine is connected with activated carbon absorption tower again, above-mentioned disintegrating machine entirety is in an enclosed workplace, effectively controls noise pollution, and the dust simultaneously produced during fragmentation, gas with foreign flavor are collected by sack cleaner and activated carbon tower all respectively and adsorb, and do not cause any pollution to environment.
In technique scheme, composite crusher structure is: frame is arranged on support, and motor, motor shroud, bearing block, broken case are installed in frame.On motor, drive pulley is connected with driven pulley on rotating shaft by belt; Rotating shaft is arranged in frame by bearing, bearing base, rotating shaft extends upwardly in broken case always, broken tank wall surrounding is equipped with the stationary knife fixed by bolt-connection, cutter supporter and running roller installation disk rotating shaft in broken case be equipped with, cutter supporter is equipped with cutting knife, and running roller is installed disk and is provided with rotating band discaling roll wheel by bearing pin; Broken case lower position is provided with discharging bin, discharging bin is provided with and scrapes charging tray, scrape charging tray and be fixed on rotating shaft; Be discharge bucket above broken case, both use bolt-connection; Be feed hopper above discharge bucket, both also use bolt-connection; Broken case, discharge bucket, feed hopper three form one.Feed hopper top connects negative pressure dust outlet.
In technique scheme, the structure of permanent-magnetic iron expeller is: in frame, be provided with stainless steel drive roll and follower rollers, frame is provided with motor, by belt, motor pulley is connected with drive roll belt pulley, driven pulley, upper and lower carrying roller is fixed in frame, play a supportive role, permanent magnet is arranged between upper and lower belt, and is fixed in frame.
In technique scheme, conveyer belt structure is: conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form ring-like confining zone; Carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material carried above; Tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, ensures and produce frictional force between driving drum to make conveyer belt non-slip; During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and run by frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening proceed to down one process procedure through certain distance.
In technique scheme, the structure of eddy current separator is: top is oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body, and bottom is the frame that square steel assembly welding becomes, and oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body are fixed by bolts in frame respectively.Vortex flow belt roller, belt, follower rollers, adjustment striker plate, discharging opening etc. form the vortex flow main body be fixed in frame, when vibrating motor works, vibratory feed unit produces vibration, material is evenly distributed on belt, motor-driven belt drive roll also drives belt to travel forward, follower rollers built with magnet, and has motor to drive it rotate and produce alternating magnetic field; Follower rollers is other is equipped with adjustable striker plate, and striker plate bottom is provided with two discharging openings.
In technique scheme, the structure of secondary hammer mill is: top body and lower framework bolt-connection.Body outer wall is equipped with two bearing blocks in left and right, and in order to supporting spindle, knife rest is arranged on main shaft, and tup is arranged on knife rest; Main shaft one end is provided with balance flywheel, the main shaft other end is provided with belt pulley, belt pulley on main shaft is connected by belt and motor side belt pulley, when motor high-speed rotation, it is by belt pulley, belt drive main shaft high-speed rotation, and then band movable knife rack and knife rest on tup high-speed rotation, another cavity bottom is equipped with discharging screen cloth, and organism bottom side is provided with discharging opening.
In technique scheme, the structure of three grades of hammer crushers is: tertiary crusher is substantially identical with the structure of secondary breaker, and just the form of tup is different, is hammer leaf, the pore size of screen cloth is different besides, and the screen cloth of tertiary crusher is smaller.
In technique scheme, the structure of oscillating separator is: top screen cover is connected by four connecting rods with bottom sieve nest, screen cover has exhaust outlet, feed opening; The sieve plate of band cloth air grid lattice is equipped with on sieve nest top, and sieve plate has height two discharging openings, low side discharging opening goes out non-metallic component, and high-end discharging opening goes out metal component; Be arranged on the air blast in the sieve nest of bottom, blown on sieve plate by air-distribution device, sieve plate be contained in sieve nest bottom vibrating mechanism and be connected, air blast and vibrating mechanism are all fixed in the frame bottom sieve nest.
See Fig. 1, Fig. 2, the old circuit board harmless treatment of band components and parts of the present invention and the technology of resource reclaim and equipment, the formation such as first-level transport band 1, composite crusher 2, two-stage conveying band 3, suspended magnetic separator 4, eddy current separator 5, three grades of conveyer belts 6, secondary breaker 7, level Four conveyer belt 8, tertiary crusher 9, feeding fan 10, oscillating separator 11, cyclone separator 12, sack cleaner 13, air-introduced machine 14, activated carbon absorption towers 15; Oscillating separator machine top and cyclone separator 11 are connected, and the outlet of cyclone separator is connected with sack cleaner 13, and what immediately connect successively after sack cleaner has blower fan 14, activated carbon tower 15; Above-mentioned breaker is arranged in an enclosed system, and the dust produced time broken and gas with foreign flavor can be collected and absorption respectively by sack cleaner, activated carbon tower.
processing procedure: be transported in composite crusher 2 with belt after being with the old circuit board of components and parts to be added to first-level transport band 1, through impact several times in machine chamber, rubbing, components and parts on wiring board are constantly dissociated, the substrate of bulk is broken frustillatum, until it is less than the radial clearance of crusher lower, crusher lower discharge chamber is entered by gap, material in discharge chamber rotates along with discharging scraper, be thrown on two-stage conveying band 3, under the traction of two-stage conveying band 3, by the components and parts dissociated, fritter wiring board, iron, the mixture of the composition such as copper aluminium is transported to below the permanent magnet of suspended magnetic separator 4, under the action of a magnetic force, ferromagnetic material to be drawn on belt for magnetic separator and to travel forward with belt, until leave magnetic field of permanent magnet sphere of action, lose magnetic force, fall into ferromagnetic material receiving hopper, realize the separation of iron, select from the mixture after iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, moved forward by suspended magnetic separator, until be transported in oscillating feeder, shaken and be evenly distributed on the belt conveyor of vortex flow 5 after faling apart, and under the traction of belt, material is constantly close to the sorting magnetic roller of the high-intensity magnetic field of generation high-frequency alternating, vortex flow can be gone out at the non-ferrous metal internal induction of electric conductivity, this vortex flow itself can produce the magnetic field contrary with magnetic field, non-ferrous metal is (as copper, aluminium etc.) then can leap forward along its throughput direction because of the repulsive force effect in magnetic field, discharging opening 40 discharging on the right of material baffle, all the other materials, then from the discharging opening 41 on the material baffle left side out, enter on three grades of conveyer belts 6, until enter in secondary breaker 7, realize the small size components and parts on block wiring board and the dissociating further of iron (mainly tuner wiring board) being embedded in wiring board on a small quantity, broken, then level Four conveyer belt is entered into by crusher screen, when it is under the traction of level Four conveyer belt 8, during driven magnetic roller close to level Four conveyer belt, the iron dissociated in two-stage crushing is out selected, rest materials enters in tertiary crusher 9, fully broken through it, makes it fully broken into about 60-100 object powder, mixed-powder is sent into vibrating separating sieve 11 by feeding fan 10, and after being fully separated in vibrating separating sieve, metal component from the high-end discharging opening of separating sieve out, then separate from low side discharging opening by non-metallic component.Thus achieve the physical separation of all components of band components and parts wiring board.In above-mentioned processing procedure, the dust of generation and gas with foreign flavor carry out collecting through cyclone separator 12, sack cleaner 13, activated carbon tower 15 and adsorb respectively.Wholely to disassemble, in broken and separation process scheme, effective control is implemented to dust, pernicious gas, guarantees production safety, environmental protection.
With reference to Figure 11, composite crusher primarily of support 44, frame 45, motor 55, motor cover 53, rotating shaft, bearing, top chock 54, step 57, broken case 49, hobboing cutter 50, discharging bin 47, scrape the parts such as charging tray 48, discharge bucket 51, feed hopper 52, driven pulley 46, drive pulley 58 and form.Frame 45 is arranged on support 44, and motor cabinet 56, motor cover 53, top chock 54, broken case 49 are installed in frame, and motor 55 is arranged on motor cabinet 56.On motor, drive pulley 58 is connected with driven pulley on rotating shaft 46 by belt; Rotating shaft is arranged in frame by bearing, metal (upper seat (54,55), and broken tank wall is provided with hobboing cutter 50, and broken case lower position is provided with a discharging bin 47, is provided with material scraping plate 48, is discharge bucket 51 above broken case; It is feed hopper 52 above discharge bucket.
The operation principle of composite crusher: material enters in disintegrating machine casing by charging aperture 52, fall on batch mixing pan that high-speed rotating shaft connects, material is through batch mixing pan by the counterpunch board thrown at a high speed on cylinder inboard wall, and rebound back after clashing into mutually hammering district, is again subject to tup hammering.Because counterpunch board has the counterattack of inclination, the material clashed into mutually is made to produce downward cohesive force, therefore material presents " Z " font circuit in hammering district or at peritrochanteric, be subject to hobboing cutter and counterpunch board material to be rubbed with the hands roll, the metal of block, sheet and nonmetal separately, metal is rubbed with the hands and is rolled into granule, and top-down material flow makes less material drop down onto in discharging bin, and discharging bin batch mixing pan throws away less group's material outside chamber.
The operation principle of permanent-magnetic iron expeller: when material flow is through permanent-magnetic iron expeller, iron class material is adsorbed to belt surface and travels forward with belt under the effect of permanent magnet 32 magnetic field force, when moving to disengaging magnetic fields district, gravitate, never belt comes off and falls to packaging bag from discharge bucket exit.All the other namagnetic substances move with two-stage conveying band 3, until enter eddy current separator 5.
Conveyer belt operation principle: this equipment is primarily of compositions such as drive unit, driving drum, conveyer belt, upper supporting roller, snub pulley, frame, clearing apparatus, tensioning apparatus, bend pulley, deflector chutes.Conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form wreath line closes band, carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material carried above, and tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, ensures and produce frictional force between driving drum to make conveyer belt non-slip.During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and run by frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening proceed to down one process procedure through certain distance.
The operation principle of eddy current separator: material is evenly distributed on belt 38 by oscillating feeder 37, and under the traction of belt, constantly close to the sorting magnetic roller of the high-intensity magnetic field of generation high-frequency alternating, now can go out vortex flow at the non-ferrous metal internal induction of electric conductivity, this vortex flow itself can produce the magnetic field contrary with magnetic field, non-ferrous metal is (as copper, aluminium etc.) then can leap forward along its throughput direction because of the repulsive force effect in magnetic field, namely from discharging opening 40 discharging on the right of material baffle, and nonmetallic substance, then from the discharging opening 41 on the material baffle left side out, thus realize sorting,
The operation principle of secondary hammer mill: be arranged on the main shaft in two bearing blocks about body 20 outer wall is equipped with, it be equipped with knife rest 17, knife rest is provided with tup; Main shaft one end is provided with balance flywheel 16, the main shaft other end is provided with belt pulley 19, belt pulley on main shaft is connected by belt and motor side belt pulley, when motor high-speed rotation, it is by belt pulley, belt drive main shaft high-speed rotation, and then band movable knife rack and knife rest on tup high-speed rotation, then the material in ingress engine chamber is beaten at a high speed, the abrasion-proof backing block of material on tup and body inwall is constantly clashed into, finally reach the object of comminuting matter, the material after pulverizing arrives machine discharging opening by cavity bottom discharging screen cloth 22.In order to entering next process procedure.
The operation principle of three grades of hammer crushers and secondary breaker is basically identical, just the form of tup and the aperture of screen cloth different.
The operation principle of sack cleaner: the negative-pressure air-flow that dust air-flow is produced by blower fan enters the dust-laden room of sack cleaner through pipeline, by filter cylinder isolated by filtration to toilet, dust is then stopped in its surface by filter core, when constantly being deposited in cartridge surface by the dust stopped, filter core pressure reduction inside and outside also continues to increase simultaneously, when pressure reduction reaches preset value, control compressed-air actuated magnetic valve to be opened, compressed air flows into blowback purging system through pipeline, filter core inner surface is sprayed to instantaneously by the cleaning pipe of cleaning agency, make to be deposited on the dust granules on filter core under the effect of high pressure draught, to depart from cartridge surface drop, whole cartridge surface is all cleaned.Air after purification is by air channel, discharge through blower fan.

Claims (9)

1. the method with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and resource reclaim is:
1) old circuit board of components and parts is with to be added on first-level transport band, under the traction of conveyer belt motor, enter in one-level disintegrating machine, by colliding in disintegrating machine, crumpling motion, components and parts on wiring board are fully dissociated, and make the broken frustillatum of wiring board;
2) the little block wiring board after fragmentation and the mixture of components and parts, fall two-stage conveying band from the discharging opening of one-level disintegrating machine; Containing iron, copper aluminium and wiring board in these mixtures;
3) two-stage conveying band is provided with suspended magnetic separator, when these mixtures are by magnetic separator, iron is separated from mixture;
4) be separated the mixture after iron under the traction of two-stage conveying band, be evenly distributed on eddy current separator belt by oscillating feeder, and copper aluminium non-ferrous metal has wherein been sorted out;
5) by the components and parts that mainly volume that do not dissociate of little block wiring board and minority is quite little of remaining mixture after separation of iron, copper aluminium; It enters in secondary breaker under the traction of three grades of conveyer belts, and the small size components and parts on block wiring board and the iron being embedded in wiring board are on a small quantity dissociated hereinto further, broken, then falls on level Four conveyer belt by crusher screen; When it is under the traction of level Four conveyer belt, during driven magnetic roller close to level Four conveyer belt, the iron dissociated in two-stage crushing is sorted out; Rest materials enters in tertiary crusher, and it is fully broken into 60-100 object powder by tertiary crusher;
6) 60-100 object metal and non-metal powder are delivered to vibrating separating sieve by feeding fan, by obtaining metal and non-metallic component after vibration sorting, thus reach the object of separation; Metal and non-metallic component are sold respectively as product;
7) vibrating separating sieve has covered suction opeing, it is connected with cyclone separator, sack cleaner, and be connected with air-introduced machine by pipeline, wherein fine dust is collected through cloth bag, the technology waste gas that system produces is purified, fan outlet is connected with activated carbon absorption tower, makes technology waste gas by purifying again after active carbon adsorption.
2. the equipment with the harmless treatment of components and parts old circuit board and recovery, is characterized in that: comprise the first-level transport band installing connection successively, composite crusher, two-stage conveying band, permanent-magnetic iron expeller, eddy current separator, three grades of conveyer belts, secondary hammer mill, level Four conveyer belt, three grades of hammer crushers, material handling fan, oscillating separator, cyclone separator, sack cleaner, air-introduced machine, activated carbon adsorber, the output of first-level transport band connects the feed hopper of composite crusher, the discharge bucket of composite crusher connects two-stage conveying band, the overhung of two-stage conveying band permanent-magnetic iron expeller, the outlet of two-stage conveying band is connected to the oscillating feeder of eddy current separator front end, the discharging opening of eddy current separator is connected to three grades of conveyer belt inputs, three grades of conveyer belt outputs connect secondary hammer crushing machine inlet capable, the discharging opening of secondary hammer mill connects level Four conveyer belt input, level Four conveyer belt output connects the charging aperture of three grades of hammer crushers, three grades of hammer crusher discharging openings connect material handling fan input, material handling fan output connects oscillating separator, and the top of oscillating separator is by pipeline and cyclone separator, sack cleaner is connected, and above sack cleaner, opposite side is connected with air-introduced machine, and air-introduced machine is connected with activated carbon absorption tower again, above-mentioned disintegrating machine entirety is in an enclosed workplace.
3. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, is characterized in that: composite crusher structure is: frame is arranged on support, and motor, motor shroud, bearing block, disintegrating machine casing are installed in frame; On motor, drive pulley is connected with driven pulley on rotating shaft by belt; Rotating shaft is arranged in frame by bearing, bearing base, rotating shaft extends upwardly in broken case always, broken tank wall surrounding is equipped with the stationary knife fixed by bolt-connection, cutter supporter and running roller installation disk rotating shaft in broken case be equipped with, cutter supporter is equipped with cutting knife, and running roller is installed disk and is provided with rotating band discaling roll wheel by bearing pin; Broken case lower position is provided with discharging bin, discharging bin is provided with and scrapes charging tray, scrape charging tray and be fixed on rotating shaft; Be discharge bucket above broken case, both use bolt-connection; Be feed hopper above discharge bucket, both also use bolt-connection; Broken case, discharge bucket, feed hopper three form one; Feed hopper top connects negative pressure dust outlet.
4. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, it is characterized in that: the structure of permanent-magnetic iron expeller is: in frame, be provided with stainless steel drive roll and follower rollers, frame is provided with motor, by belt, motor pulley is connected with drive roll belt pulley, driven pulley, upper and lower carrying roller is fixed in frame, play a supportive role, permanent magnet is arranged between upper and lower belt, and is fixed in frame.
5. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, is characterized in that: conveyer belt structure is: conveyer belt pile warp driving drum and afterbody bend pulley form ring-like confining zone; Carrying roller carrying conveyer belt and the material carried above; Tensioning apparatus makes conveyer belt have enough tension force, ensures and produce frictional force between driving drum to make conveyer belt non-slip; During work, reducing motor drives driving drum, and run by frictional force drives conveyer belt, material is entered by feed arrangement and moves with conveyer belt, arrives discharging opening proceed to down one process procedure through certain distance.
6. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, it is characterized in that: the structure of eddy current separator is: top is oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body, bottom is the frame that square steel assembly welding becomes, and oscillating feeder and vortex flow main body are fixed by bolts in frame respectively; Vortex flow belt roller, belt, follower rollers, adjustment striker plate, discharging opening form the vortex flow main body be fixed in frame, when vibrating motor works, vibratory feed unit produces vibration, material is evenly distributed on belt, motor-driven belt drive roll also drives belt to travel forward, follower rollers built with magnet, and has motor to drive it rotate and produce alternating magnetic field; Follower rollers is other is equipped with adjustable striker plate, and striker plate bottom is provided with two discharging openings.
7. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, is characterized in that: the structure of secondary hammer mill is: top body and lower framework bolt-connection; Body outer wall is equipped with two bearing blocks in left and right, and in order to supporting spindle, knife rest is arranged on main shaft, and tup is arranged on knife rest; Main shaft one end is provided with balance flywheel, the main shaft other end is provided with belt pulley, belt pulley on main shaft is connected by belt and motor side belt pulley, when motor high-speed rotation, it is by belt pulley, belt drive main shaft high-speed rotation, and then band movable knife rack and knife rest on tup high-speed rotation, another cavity bottom is equipped with discharging screen cloth, and organism bottom side is provided with discharging opening.
8. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, it is characterized in that: the structure of three grades of hammer crushers is: three grades of hammer crushers are substantially identical with the structure of secondary hammer mill, just the form of tup is different, for hammer leaf, the pore size of screen cloth is different, and the screen cloth of three grades of hammer crushers is smaller.
9. the equipment of band components and parts old circuit board harmless treatment according to claim 2 and recovery, is characterized in that: the structure of oscillating separator is: top screen cover is connected by four connecting rods with bottom sieve nest, screen cover has exhaust outlet, feed opening; The sieve plate of band cloth air grid lattice is arranged at sieve nest top, and sieve plate has height two discharging openings, low side discharging opening goes out nonmetal, and high-end discharging opening goes out metal component; Be arranged on the air blast in the sieve nest of bottom, blown on sieve plate by air-distribution device, sieve plate be contained in sieve nest bottom vibrating mechanism and be connected, air blast and vibrating mechanism are all fixed in the frame bottom sieve nest.
CN201210508840.XA 2012-12-04 2012-12-04 Harmless treatment and resource recovery method and harmless treatment and resource recovery equipment for waste circuit board with components Expired - Fee Related CN102962242B (en)

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