CN102124908B - Technology for industrially culturing graft of Camellia reticulata Lindl anvil with single damage part - Google Patents

Technology for industrially culturing graft of Camellia reticulata Lindl anvil with single damage part Download PDF

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CN102124908B
CN102124908B CN201010594800A CN201010594800A CN102124908B CN 102124908 B CN102124908 B CN 102124908B CN 201010594800 A CN201010594800 A CN 201010594800A CN 201010594800 A CN201010594800 A CN 201010594800A CN 102124908 B CN102124908 B CN 102124908B
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grafting
seedling
stock
seed
sunshade
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CN102124908A (en
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黄佳聪
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BAOSHAN FORESTRY TECHNOLOGY EXTENSION CENTER
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BAOSHAN FORESTRY TECHNOLOGY EXTENSION CENTER
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Abstract

The invention discloses a technology for industrially culturing the graft of Camellia reticulata Lindl anvil with a single damage part. The technology comprises the following steps of: 1, choosing a seedling culturing place; 2, constructing seedling facilities; 3, culturing root stock; 4, industrially grating in a standardized way and transplanting; and 5, managing the graft. Nutrition bag seedlings are used as the root stock. Only one (single damage) part of the root stock, namely the grafted part is damaged in the process of grafting. Therefore, compared with the conventional industrial seedling culture technology in which the root stock is dug for grafting and the root of the root stock and the grafted position (double damage parts) are damaged, the technology has one damage part. Compared with the conventional method, the technology has the advantages that the survival rate of the Camellia reticulata Lindl anvil grafting is improved from below 35 percent to over 90 percent. The ratio of the annual seedling graft meeting the standard rate of Chinese standard first-class and second-class seedlings is over 85 percent. The seedling supply problem of the Camellia reticulata Lindl industrial base construction is efficiently solved, and the technology has a wide application prospect in the production.

Description

The batch production single injury is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea technology
Technical field
The invention belongs to the clone nursery stock fast breeding technique in economic forest cultivating seedlings field, specifically is that a kind of batch production single injury is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea technology.
Background technology
Tengchong safflower oil tea (Camellia reticulata Lindl) has another name called the Yunnan camellia; Be Theaceae Camellia aiphyllium, limitation ecological amplitude species are original species of Yunnan camellia; Being the foremost large-scale Woody flower in the world, is one of most important cultivated species of oil tea.Its height of tree can reach 14~17m, plants benevolence oil content 59.6%, oily index of refraction (20 ℃) 1.4698, proportion (20 ℃) 0.9158; Iodine number 83.7, saponification number 192.2, acid number 0.7, oleic acid 72.3%; Linoleic acid 8.6%, linolenic acid 0.6% is the raw materials for production of good edible oil.Yunnan Province Tengchong safflower oil tea as building one of seeds of giving priority in " forest Yunnan " and national important woody oleiferous plants base; Because Tengchong safflower oil tea vegetative propagation survival rate is low, particularly adopts the technology of this anvil grafting to fail to make a breakthrough always, long-term use direct seeding forestation in the production, inter-strain variation is big, and industry is produced very and is fallen behind.Propose effective and feasible Tengchong safflower oil tea apogamic seedling and cultivate technology, particularly vegetative propagation grafting cultivation technology is flourishing to sound development, Increase Income of Peasant Households, the rural economy of its industry, social stability is significant.Existing in addition grafting method, stock grafting damages stock root and grafting part simultaneously, and promptly two damages influence survival rate.
Summary of the invention
The present invention provides a kind of batch production single injury to cultivate this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea technology, to remedy above-mentioned deficiency.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme to realize:
A kind of batch production single injury is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea technology, it is characterized in that step is following:
(1), to select sand loam ground be Seedlings nursery ground, the garden area be no less than 20 mu;
(2), stock is cultivated: 1. selecting robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, planting the full prime of life bearing-age tree of benevolence is the seed collecting elite stand; When 2. the elite stand seed is fully ripe; In time gather in batches, be placed on the ventilation behind the seed collection and stacked 3~4 days, then shelling; The short bud or air-dry slightly in the shade of the direct casting bed of seed that the big grain of screening is full, using dried slightly river sand of cleaning and seed is in indoor layering to preserve at 1.5: 1 by volume; 3. according to grafting time; In March October to next year then, directly or the seed that sand is hidden sift out, broadcast on the thick cleaning damp sand bed of 15~20cm and carry out presprouting of seeds; The seed uniform broadcasting on casting bed; Cover the thick wet river sand of 10cm again, pass through casting bed, cover film or straw then with the clear water spray; 4. when seed Baconic grows about 6cm; In time take out seed cut off Baconic's length 1/3 after be transplanted on the ready nutritious bag; Transplanting depth just exposes the face of land with the back seed that waters and is advisable; Water sufficient water after the transplanting once, cover the little shed of highly about 50cm plastics, to adopt the sunshade degree be that 70% two-layer sunshade net carries out sunshade at 1.8~1.9m place apart from ground on the little shed; 5. in time regulate the sunshade degree to control temperature in the little shed according to weather weather according to the timely moisturizing of soil moisture content after transplanting, carry out grafting as stock during height of seedling 20~40cm;
(3), batch production standardization grafting and transplanting: 1. stock is transplanted to nutritious bag and is obtained qualified anvil seedling; 2. clip is given birth to then on Tengchong safflower oil tea breeding or the select tree clone plant sturdy, the full disease-free semi-lignified young sprout of axillalry bud obtain the fringe bar; 3. select axillalry bud full on the fringe bar and terminal bud; Cutter is whittled into two inclined-planes and becomes wedge under 0.3~0.5cm place, the bottom of leaf bud both sides; Long 0.8~the 1.0cm of bevel, about 0.2cm place cuts off on bud top again, just becomes a scion; Blade in the scion should ream 1 half, is placed in the basin that clear water is housed for use with cutting with connecing the scion that maybe will cut; At the anvil seedling disconnected anvil in 3~5cm stem place on the ground, to remove and quasi-middle shaft is downcut a cutter after retaining blade, it is suitable that mouthful length is cut in dark and scion, and scion is inserted in the otch, wraps up interface with the plastic film of the medium 0.008cm thickness of elasticity; 4. plant seedling by certain seeding row spacing after grafting is good anvil seedling sequences or tear off nutritious bag in proper order, water sufficient water once after sequencing seedling or having planted seedling, in time regulate the sunshade degree to control temp. and humidity in the little shed according to weather weather;
(4), after the grafting; Do not take off the requirement that film promptly reaches humidity control in the little shed in time for the grafting moisturizing according to nutritious bag soil water-containing situation, regulate the sunshade degree to control temperature of shed: be controlled at 20~25 ℃ daytime, be not less than 15 ℃ night; Should remove sunshade net and little shed plastic film gradually in 120~150 days after the grafting; Every interval was watered once clear liquid dung in 15 days and is increased rich water concentration gradually after taking off film, to stopping fertilising by the end of May, in time went out the qualified nursery stock in garden according to the production needs.
Described stock is cultivated, and seed avoids overlapping as far as possible during presprouting of seeds, and it is moistening that casting bed will keep, and humidity is not enough, should in time spray water; Regularly water thin rich water or spray thin foliage fertilizer according to growing state behind the nursery stock transplanting.
The little shed of described sunshade is built clear height 1.8-2.0m with timber or steel, and the sunshade net on the little shed is two layers and can regulates the sunshade degree.
Should increase the intensity of illumination of sunlight behind the described grafting epiphragma gradually, except that fine day from 4 double-deck sunshades of needs in 11~afternoon of the morning on daytime, all the other times are rolled one deck sunshade net and only adopt the sunshade of individual layer sunshade net.
The little shed film of described removal, earlier fine day sooner or later or the cloudy day open little shed film two ends, can all remove film after adapting to a week gradually.
Described grafting flow process, 2~October of grafting period, best with 5~September.
Described grafting flow process adopts the nutritious bag seedling as stock, only damages the stock grafting position during grafting.
The present invention adopts the nutritious bag seedling as stock, its stock damage (single injury) position grafting part only during grafting, thus damage stock root and the few damage location of grafting part (two damage) simultaneously with the stock grafting that digs that conventional plantization is grown seedlings.The present invention makes the less than 35% of this anvil of Tengchong safflower oil tea graft survival rate by traditional grafting method; Bring up to more than 90%; Annual grafting reaches GB I and II seedling standard rate and surpasses 85%; Efficiently solve the industry development of Tengchong safflower oil tea to the breeding needs of problems in strong sprout, have broad application prospects aborning.
Embodiment
This batch production single injury that the present invention proposes is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea technology, and step is following:
The selection on step 1, Seedlings nursery ground: select to have a good transport service, physical features is mild, and loosing soil, deep fertile, the ventilative good sand loam ground of water conservation are Seedlings nursery ground, and area is more than 20 mu with generally requiring the garden.
Step 2, culture facility construction: the 1. construction in grafting workshop.Build area according to scale design grafting workshop, nursery, grafting workshop 50-80m need be built in the nursery of growing seedlings of general 30-50 mu scale 2The workbench of wide 60cm, high 60cm and highly suitable work bench are set in the workshop as required; 2. seedbed sunshade net builds.Build the little shed of sunshade of clear height 1.8-2.0m with timber or steel, the sunshade net on the little shed is two layers and makes it can be movable flexibly to regulate the sunshade degree; 3. seedbed, garden district road, water pipe Facilities Construction.Do not limit by wide 100cm, length and to build the seedbed, stay the operation pavement of 30cm between seedbed and seedbed.Build garden district road and irrigation pipe is watered in laying according to garden district terrain.
Step 3, stock are cultivated: the elite stand of 1. collecting seed is selected.Selecting robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, planting the full prime of life bearing-age tree of benevolence is the seed collecting elite stand; 2. the collection of seed and processing.When Tengchong safflower oil tea seed collecting elite stand seed is fully ripe, in time gather in batches.Being placed on the ventilation behind the seed collection stacked 3~4 days; Make its after-ripening; Shelling then, the short bud or air-dry slightly in the shade of the direct casting bed of seed that the big grain of screening is full is preserved (sand and seed volume ratio are 1.5: 1) with dried slightly river sand and the seed of cleaning in indoor layering; 3. presprouting of seeds.March October to next year (deciding) according to grafting time, directly or the seed that sand is hidden sift out, broadcast on casting bed.The wet river of the cleaning sand that promptly the about 15~20cm of pad one deck is thick earlier on the ground, the seed uniform broadcasting in the above, it is overlapping that seed is avoided as far as possible; Cover the thick wet river sand of 10cm again, pass through casting bed, cover film or straw then with the clear water spray; It is moistening that casting bed will keep, and as finding that humidity is not enough, should in time spray water; 4. nursery stock transplanting.When seed Baconic grows about 6cm, in time take out seed cut off Baconic's length 1/3 after be transplanted on the ready nutritious bag, note not bumping the seed on the anvil seedling and transplant together with seed, transplanting depth just exposes the face of land with the back seed that waters and is advisable.Water after the transplanting sufficient water once, lid plastics little shed.The about 50cm of the little shed height of plastics; 5. manage and protect.To in time regulate the sunshade degree with the control temperature of shed according to weather weather according to the timely moisturizing of soil moisture content after the transplanting.Nursery stock will in time weed a garden after being unearthed, prevention and elimination of disease and pests, also can regularly water thin rich water or spray thin foliage fertilizer according to the seedling growth situation.Can be used as stock during height of seedling 20~40cm and carry out grafting.
Step 4, batch production standardization grafting and transplanting: 1. stock is selected: stock should be selected sturdy, perfectly straight, the no damage by disease and insect of form, the qualified bag seedling that has no mechanical damage.2. the fringe bar is gathered.Clip is given birth to then on Tengchong safflower oil tea breeding or the select tree clone plant sturdy, the full disease-free semi-lignified young sprout of axillalry bud; With adopting with connecing to best; If long-distance transport should fitly be tied up the fringe bar under adopting, wrap the absorbent cotton that soaks full water in the lower end; Pack in the carton, in order to avoid extruding.Fringe bar to cannot not connecing intactly for the moment can insert on the casting bed in the shade, often note water spray, generally can preserve about 5 days, but storage fringe bar graft survival rate is not as high with adopting with the survival rate that connects; 3. batch production, standardization grafting.Grafting flow process: qualified stock bag seedling → be carried to grafting workshop → disconnected anvil → cut anvil → cut fringe → insert fringe → film colligation → transplanting.Its characteristics are: transportation carrying, disconnected anvil, cut anvil, cut fringe, insert main grafting link such as fringe, film colligation, nursery stock transplanting and realized the continuous productive process of sharing out the work and helping one another by operation.Generally speaking, people or several people only are responsible for accomplishing a link of above-mentioned operation; Disconnected anvil, cut anvil, cut fringe, insert links such as fringe, film colligation and realized office operation.2~October of grafting period, but best with 5~September.Select full axillalry bud and terminal bud on the cladus; Cutter is whittled into two inclined-planes (one-tenth wedge) under 0.3~0.5cm place, the bottom of leaf bud both sides; Long 0.8~the 1.0cm of bevel, about 0.2cm place cuts off on bud top again, just becomes a scion; Blade in the scion should ream 1 half, is placed in the basin that clear water is housed for use with cutting with connecing the scion that maybe will cut.The disconnected anvil at 3~5cm stem place, anvil seedling ground; Removal is downcut a cutter to quasi-middle shaft after retaining blade; It is suitable that mouthful length is cut in dark and scion, scion inserted in the otch of stock, wraps up interface with ready special plastic film (mulch film of the 0.008cm thickness that elasticity is medium); 4. grafting transplanting and little shed sets up and sunshade.After accomplishing, grafting is transported to by the seedbed, ground, garden; The bag seedling that grafting is good sequences in proper order or carefully tears off plants seedling by certain seeding row spacing behind the nutritious bag and (notes nutrition soil is scattered; In order to avoid influence survival rate); Water sufficient water once after sequencing bag seedling or having planted seedling, in time do the little shed temperature adjustment of plastics of the about 50cm of sagitta and preserve moisture, to adopt the sunshade degree be that 70% two-layer sunshade net carries out sunshade at 1.8~1.9m place apart from ground on the little shed.Can observe whether become to live (leaf abscission is then dead) in 7~9 days after the grafting.Require to take off less film behind the epiphragma, so except that sprouting and weeding should combine moisturizing or disease control to carry out usually as far as possible.
Managing and protecting of step 5, grafting: after the grafting humidity in the little shed is not done special adjusting or control, only need timely moisturizing not take off the requirement that film can reach humidity control according to nutritious bag soil water-containing situation.Temperature requirement is controlled at 20~25 ℃ daytime, is not less than 15 ℃ night, in time regulates the sunshade degree with the control temperature of shed according to weather weather in view of the above.Usually after 70 days callus basically form behind the grafting epiphragma, should increase intensity of illumination gradually, except that the double-deck sunshade of daytime 11~4 needs of fine day, all the other times can be rolled one deck sunshade net and only adopt the sunshade of individual layer sunshade net; Should also finally gradually all remove sunshade net and the little shed of plastics in 120~150 days after the grafting.Before little shed film was not removed, the discovery breakage of thin film applied should in time be repaired; When removing little shed film, because of earlier fine day sooner or later or the cloudy day open little shed film two ends, can all remove film after adapting to a week gradually.Every interval was watered once clear liquid dung in about 15 days and is increased rich water concentration gradually after taking off film, to stopping fertilising by the end of May.In time go out the qualified nursery stock in garden according to the production needs.

Claims (5)

1. batch production single injury is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea method, it is characterized in that step is following:
(1), to select sand loam ground be Seedlings nursery ground, the garden area be no less than 20 mu;
(2), stock cultivation: selects robust growth, no damage by disease and insect, plants the full prime of life bearing-age tree of benevolence is the seed collecting elite stand; When elite stand seed is fully ripe; In time gather in batches; Being placed on the ventilation behind the seed collection stacked 3~4 days; Shelling then; The short bud or air-dry slightly in the shade of the direct casting bed of seed that the big grain of screening is full uses dried slightly river sand and the seed of cleaning to preserve in indoor layering as 1.5:1 by volume; is according to grafting time; In March October to next year then; Directly or the seed that sand is hidden sift out; Broadcast on the thick cleaning damp sand bed of 15~20cm and carry out presprouting of seeds, on casting bed, cover the thick wet river sand of 10cm again to the seed uniform broadcasting; Pass through casting bed with the clear water spray, cover film or straw then; is when seed base-root grows about 6cm; In time take out seed cut off radicle length 1/3 after be transplanted on the ready nutritious bag; Transplanting depth just exposes the face of land with the back seed that waters and is advisable; Water sufficient water after the transplanting once; Cover the little shed of highly about 50cm plastics, to adopt the sunshade degree be that 70% two-layer sunshade net carries out sunshade at 1.8~1.9m place apart from ground on the little shed; will be according to the timely moisturizing of soil moisture content after transplanting; In time regulate the sunshade degree to control temperature in the little shed according to weather weather, carry out grafting as stock during height of seedling 20~40 cm;
(3), batch production standardization grafting and transplanting: stock is transplanted to nutritious bag and is obtained qualified anvil seedling; clip is given birth to then on Tengchong safflower oil tea breeding or the select tree clone plant sturdy, full disease-free semi-lignified young sprout of axillalry bud obtains the fringe bar; selects full axillalry bud on the fringe bar; Cutter is whittled into two inclined-plane wedgewises under 0.3~0.5cm place, the bottom of axillalry bud both sides; Long 0.8~the 1.0cm of bevel; About 0.2cm place cuts off on axillalry bud top again; Just become a scion, the blade in the scion should ream 1 half, is placed in the basin that clear water is housed for use with cutting with connecing the scion that maybe will cut; At the anvil seedling disconnected anvil in 3~5cm stem place on the ground, to remove and quasi-middle shaft is downcut a cutter after retaining blade, it is suitable that mouthful length is cut in dark and scion, and scion is inserted in the otch, wraps up interface with the plastic film of the medium 0.008cm thickness of elasticity; After sequencing or tear off nutritious bag in proper order, the anvil seedling that is good with grafting plants seedling by certain seeding row spacing; Water sufficient water once after sequencing seedling or having planted seedling, in time regulate the sunshade degree to control temp. and humidity in the little shed according to weather weather;
(4), after the grafting; Do not take off the requirement that film promptly reaches humidity control in the little shed in time for the grafting moisturizing according to nutritious bag soil water-containing situation, regulate the sunshade degree to control temperature of shed: be controlled at 20~25 ℃ daytime, be not less than 15 ℃ night; Should remove sunshade net and little shed plastic film gradually in 120~150 days after the grafting; Every interval was watered once clear liquid dung in 15 days and is increased rich water concentration gradually after taking off film, to stopping fertilising by the end of May, in time went out the qualified nursery stock in garden according to the production needs.
2. batch production single injury according to claim 1 is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea method, it is characterized in that said stock cultivation, and seed avoids overlapping as far as possible during presprouting of seeds, and it is moistening that casting bed will keep, and humidity is not enough, should in time spray water; Regularly water thin rich water or spray thin foliage fertilizer according to growing state behind the nursery stock transplanting.
3. batch production single injury according to claim 1 is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea method, it is characterized in that building with timber or steel the little shed of sunshade of clear height 1.8-2.0m, and the sunshade net on the little shed is two layers and can regulates the sunshade degree.
4. batch production single injury according to claim 1 is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea method; When it is characterized in that removing little shed plastic film; Earlier fine day sooner or later or the cloudy day open little shed plastic film two ends, can all remove film after adapting to a week gradually.
5. batch production single injury according to claim 1 is cultivated this stock grafting seedling of Tengchong safflower oil tea method, it is characterized in that described grafting employing nutritious bag seedling as stock, only damages the stock grafting position during grafting.
CN201010594800A 2010-12-20 2010-12-20 Technology for industrially culturing graft of Camellia reticulata Lindl anvil with single damage part Expired - Fee Related CN102124908B (en)

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CN102870574A (en) * 2012-10-18 2013-01-16 安徽科技学院 Camellia oleifera seedling black film coverage planting technology
CN103081699B (en) * 2013-02-06 2015-02-11 广西壮族自治区林业科学研究院 Oil camellia bud seedling stock-grafting propagation method in winter and spring
CN103329714B (en) * 2013-07-09 2015-07-08 句容市林场 Gold bud tea quick gardening method
CN103975679A (en) * 2014-06-01 2014-08-13 瑞金市绿野轩林业有限责任公司 Method for promoting flower bud differentiation of tea-oil camellia by spraying foliar fertilizer
CN106538250A (en) * 2016-10-28 2017-03-29 蚌埠市金牛湾农业科技发展有限公司 A kind of grafting seedlings-growing method of Flos Camelliae Japonicae
CN106922402A (en) * 2017-03-23 2017-07-07 四川省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of Lee, apricot nursery stock Seed-breeding techniques

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