CN107173083A - A kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method - Google Patents

A kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107173083A
CN107173083A CN201710579937.2A CN201710579937A CN107173083A CN 107173083 A CN107173083 A CN 107173083A CN 201710579937 A CN201710579937 A CN 201710579937A CN 107173083 A CN107173083 A CN 107173083A
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seedling
grafting
stock
scion
root
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CN201710579937.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
尚晓峰
李其乐
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Yangling Vocational and Technical College
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Yangling Vocational and Technical College
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Priority to CN201710579937.2A priority Critical patent/CN107173083A/en
Publication of CN107173083A publication Critical patent/CN107173083A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method, including:Seedling bed prepares, and clip root segment cuts scion, both graftings, transplants grafting, and seedling management, field-transplanting, Grafted Variety, grafting is cultivated.Root segment and the stock scion with kind that the present invention is discarded using Apples Dwarf Stocks, make root segment and scion be combined with each other using graft technology, due to the two unique variety type in itself, for free stock grafting, compatibility is fabulous, easily heals, therefore survival rate is high, typically all more than 98%.After rootstock seedling graft union, root segment can absorb moisture, nutrition and utilized by overground part.With the growth of stock grafting seedling, after overground part stock scion rudiment, photosynthate can be manufactured again, and for root growth, the wooden quantity of overall nursery stock increases 35 times.The present invention can be under the conditions of heliogreenhouse, and graft seedling growth, realizes that Apples Dwarf Stocks own-rooted tree goes out garden then ahead of time.One-year age is saved than press strip seedling.

Description

A kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of apple cultivation technology, specifically a kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method.
Background technology
Apple (Malus pumila Mill.) is a kind of fruit cultivated extensively in worldwide.China is in the world Topmost apple production big country, be distributed mainly on Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan etc. saves. 222.15 ten thousand hectares of the Chinese apple gross area in 2015,3849.1 ten thousand tons of yield, yield accounts for the 55% of whole world total output, position Occupy the first place of domestic fruits output.Since starting largely to plant apples since China's eighties in last century, to the west of nursery stock is mainly selected Mansion Malus spectabilis (Malus micromalus Makino), Malus baccata (Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.), Malus sieversii (Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem.), Chinese catalpa (Malus prunifolia Willd.Borkh.) etc. are used as stock Qiao Huamiao, tree body is tall and big, and single plant yield is high, lasts a long time.After the nineties, cultivated due to introducing Britain Dong Mao woodss experiment station M systems dwarfing stock, the dwarfing interstock seedling cultivation in production by intermediate stock of M26 gradually increases.In recent years, China has in production Close unit and introduce Dwarf rootstocks seedling large-scale popularization, and start to breed Dwarf rootstocks seedling at home from Holland and Italy again.
Apple nursery stock mainly passes through propagation by grafiting.But when rootstock seedling is bred, Qiaoization seedling stock mainly passes through Seedling propagation.It is short Change intermediate stock seedling by the dwarfing stock of the grafting 20-30cm length on seedling, then remarried on dwarfing stock and connect apple variety.Mesh Preceding apple nursery stock in the world then mainly applies Dwarf rootstocks seedling, and substantially, nutrient growth is small, and tree body is tight for this seedling Dwarf Effect Gather, Yi Chenghua, fruit quality is good.
Because the cuttage of Apples Dwarf Stocks M9, m26, SH systems and G systems can hardly take root.Therefore the training of Dwarf rootstocks seedling Educate generally by M9, m26, SH system and the dwarfing rootstock mound layering of G systems, as from root nutrition stock, then from root nutrition Grafted Variety on stock, cultivates finished product seedling.There are the following problems for this modes of reproduction:
(1) output of seedling is limited, and must have the press strip garden of large area.Current press strip garden output of seedling 6000-8000 plants/ Mu, output of seedling is few, and breeding coefficient is relatively low.
(2) if directly using M9, m26, SH system and the tissue-cultured seedling of G systems dwarfing rootstock, cost is higher.
By test of many times, using the root segment of Apples Dwarf Stocks, early spring temperature grafting dwarfing stock wooden branch section of the same race, grafting After surviving, can grafting apple variety immediately, shorten seedling raise period;Effectively it can go out garden from root anvil finished product seedling using apple dwarf simultaneously The undesirable root stayed in afterwards in soil, cost is extremely low, and breeding coefficient is 3-5 times of current press strip garden.At present in all kinds of documents and related money The report of such engrafting method is yet there are no in material.The nursery stock that the method is cultivated can be further cultivated as Dwarf rootstocks multi-branched Seedlings.
The content of the invention
Educated it is an object of the invention to provide a kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting for making full use of root segment and scion to carry out grafting Seedling-growing method, cultivation period is short, high graft survival rate, the low propagation by grafiting method of seedling cost, to solve in above-mentioned background technology The current apple dwarf proposed is low from root anvil seedling propagation coefficient, the problem of seedling is slow.
To achieve the above object, the present invention provides following technical scheme:
A kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method, including:Seedling bed prepares, and clip root segment cuts scion, both transfer Connect, transplant grafting, seedling management, field-transplanting, Grafted Variety, grafting is cultivated;Concretely comprise the following steps:
(1) seedling bed prepares:In annual 2 months-March, in heliogreenhouse, by 8-10 meters of length, wide 1 meter is done seedbed, bed Soil 60 mesh sieves of selection and the Nutrition Soil of seedling medium mixing, after being sterilized with 0.1% potassium permanganate, load nutritive cube;
(2) clip root segment:The Apples Dwarf Stocks root system of clip 10-20cm length, rugosity 0.4-0.6cm, clear water is cleaned;
(3) scion is cut:Clip rugosity 0.5-1cm same kind dwarfing stock branch, length 20-30cm, clear water is cleaned;
(4) root fringe grafting:Root segment relatively thin, thicker the taking of scion is abutted against or cleft grafting, and the similar use of both rugosity is double Whip graft;Guarantee root segment and the forming layer of scion are at least while alignment, after connecting, wraps up tight with plastic strip;
(5) it is colonized the rootstock seedling grafted:The rootstock seedling grafted is first soaked in concentration 50mg/kg rooting powder solution Dip in 5-10 seconds, then be colonized in diameter 8-10cm nutritive cube, pour permeable after field planting;
(6) seedling management:Water management is carried out, nutritive cube pours permeable for the first time, later per a water is poured within 5-7 days, kept Soil moisture 60-80%;Seedling stage diseases and pests are noted simultaneously, carry out damping-off and samping off preventing and controlling;When bud sprouting in scion, Young leaves is grown, that is, means that grafting survives;
(7) field-transplanting and management:20-30 days after Survival rate of nursery stock, the seedling in crop field rootstock seedling can be transplanted at the beginning of 4 months In garden;Nursery is wide 1 meter by furrow, the long 10-15 meters of site preparation of furrow, during transplanting, is transplanted according to line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 12cm, per ridge cultivation 3 OK;Every mu of ground plants 8000-12000 plants of seedling;When planting seedling, suitably earth up buried, scion half will be embedded in soil, make the stock of grafting Scion Rapid Rooting, meanwhile, the branch that top is sprouted only is retained in rootstock seedling growth course, its lower bud sprouted all is smeared Remove;In young plant growth course, strengthen rich water quality management, with 0.3% urea and foliage-spray 1 time weekly of 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, dimension Soil moisture content is held in 60-80%;Notice that leaf portion pest and disease damage occurs simultaneously;
(8) Grafted Variety:Mid or late May, you can away from grafting apple variety is started at the 10-15cm of ground, scion is chosen The young sprout of semi-lignified apple variety is given birth to then;Engrafting method uses plate budding, and stock is wiped out within 10~15 days after surviving, and constantly Bottom of erasing sends stock sprout tillers;
(9) management of Grafted Variety seedling:To before fall foliage, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out, insecticidal/acaricidal agent is periodically sprayed, really Protecting blade does not have disease;Strengthen rich water quality management, it is every with 0.3% urea and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.5% urea water pouring root All foliage-spray 1 time.
It is used as further scheme of the invention:The Apples Dwarf Stocks root system of clip 14-16cm length, rugosity in step (2) 0.5cm。
It is used as further scheme of the invention:Clip rugosity 0.6-0.8cm same kind dwarfing stock branch in step (3) Bar, length 24-26cm.
It is used as further scheme of the invention:This phase Temperature in Greenhouse is maintained at 10-15 DEG C of night in step (6), 20-25 DEG C of daytime.
It is used as further scheme of the invention:Young sprout described in step (8) includes Fuji, loud, high-pitched sound.
It is used as further scheme of the invention:Insecticidal/acaricidal agent described in step (8) includes AVM, the chrysanthemum of cyanogen penta The white MnZn of ester, hexythiazox, first, olefin conversion, Tebuconazole, Bravo.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
(1) the discarded root segment of ingenious utilization Apples Dwarf Stocks and the stock scion with kind.Make root segment using graft technology It is be combined with each other with scion, is free stock grafting, compatibility is fabulous, easily heals, therefore due to the two unique variety type in itself Survival rate is high, typically all more than 98%.After rootstock seedling graft union, root segment can absorb moisture, nutrition by overground part profit With.With the growth of stock grafting seedling, after overground part stock scion rudiment, photosynthate can be manufactured again, for root growth.
(2) rootstock seedling is transplanted to behind crop field, the characteristics of easily being taken root using Apples Dwarf Stocks, by ridging, makes original stock The bottom of scion produces new root system again, the root system of rootstock seedling is gone from strength to strength.
(3) root segment discarded and the branch easily obtained in after seedling soil have been made full use of, the profit of root segment and branch is improved With rate, breeding coefficient is expanded.Compared with traditional mound layering, the wooden quantity of overall nursery stock increases 3-5 times.
(4) present invention can be under the conditions of heliogreenhouse, and graft seedling growth, realizes that Apples Dwarf Stocks own-rooted tree goes out then ahead of time Garden.One-year age is saved than press strip seedling.Grafted Variety then, the nursery stock managed can grow to more than 1 meter.The nursery stock of cultivation can enter One step culture is multi-branched seedlings.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is clearly and completely described, Obviously, described embodiment is only a part of embodiment of the invention, rather than whole embodiments.Based in the present invention Embodiment, the every other embodiment that those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained under the premise of creative work is not made, all Belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
Embodiment 1
On 2 20th, 2016, Yang Ling Rui Kun agriculture and forestry science and technologies Co., Ltds will gather the M9T337 Apples Dwarf Stocks root segments of coming Clean up, be cut into mono- section of 5cm;M9T337 scion is gathered simultaneously, is cut into mono- section of 25cm.
Both are using being abutted against, and root segment differentiates polarity, tilts 30 degree of knives of splaying from bottom to top in morphology upper end, and bevel is long 2-3cm;A knife, the long 2-3cm of bevel are equally cut in scion in lower end obliquely;Both are abutted against together, at least ensures side shape Stratification alignment, then wraps up tight with special grafting membrane;The stock grafting seedling being abutted against is first in 12-15 DEG C of sunlight of minimum temperature Room sand storage, sand humidity is advisable with holding agglomerating do not drip, water content 50% or so;At most preserve 3-5 days.
Nutrition Soil uses common garden mould, after 500 times of carbendazim processing sterilizations, loads size 5x8cm nutritive cubes;Stock is transferred Seedlings picking is planted in nutritive cube with after 50mg/kg root-inducing powder root dippings 3-5 seconds, is then neatly placed on 1 meter of wide seedbed;After cultivation Pour permeable;March 15, daily inspection stock grafting shoot survival percent, found survival rate more than 95%;A small amount of white is produced on root segment new Bud majority on root, rootstock seedling starts to sprout;April 1, majority rootstock seedling grew 5 or so blades.
April 20 was transplanted to stock grafting seedling, and in crop field by wide 1 meter, long 15 meters of site preparation beddings, line-spacing is pressed when planting seedling 50cm, spacing in the rows 12cm are transplanted, and 21000 plants of seedling is planted altogether;Appropriate deep cultivation, depth 10cm in graft union;Poured after cultivation permeable;April 25 Daily 0.5% urea solution and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate spray rootstock seedling blade face and limb;May 15, nursery stock ground is spread fertilizer over the fields A small amount of urea, then broad irrigation is once;Ground weeding is once after one week.
In 30-June 5 May, rootstock seedling grafting cigarette preferable to growing way is rich No. three;Using plate budding, in scion Bud, cuts from top to bottom;First slightly band xylem is to oblique 30 degree of partial applications at 1.5~2cm of top of bud, then under bud Oblique 45 degree of partial applications, remove bud tablets at square 1cm;At stock is away from ground 20cm, slightly band xylem cuts one with buddering from the top down Piece length and width equal tangent plane;The bark top slightly with xylem of this incision is cut, 0.5cm or so is stayed in bottom;By bud tablets Insertion otch makes both forming layers align, then will be left behind partly being attached in bud tablets, good with plastic strip colligation;Insertion is buddered Afterwards, to be allowed to align with the forming layer of stock;Rugosity is inconsistent, to make side forming layer alignment;Finally use grafting membrane colligation It is tight, petiole and bud are exposed during wrapping.
June 15, inspection is survived, and the young plant of grafting survival is erased bottom sprout tillers, timely tillage and weeding;Simultaneously to grafting Timely supplementary fertilizer, the urea solution of foliage-spray 0.5% and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate once, spread fertilizer over the fields compound per lunar regolith every two weeks It is fertile 20kg/ mus, an insecticide and bactericide are monthly sprayed, until late September;On November 5, measure grafting growth feelings then Condition, 1.10 meters of young plant average height.
2 months 2017 No. 15, company goes out garden M9T337 and downgraded from 20000 plants of root graft seedling, and graft union 10cm places are averaged thick Degree reaches 1.15cm, the average 1.10m of height of seedling, and 90% seedling height is all in more than 100cm.
It is obvious to a person skilled in the art that the invention is not restricted to the details of above-mentioned one exemplary embodiment, Er Qie In the case of without departing substantially from spirit or essential attributes of the invention, the present invention can be realized in other specific forms.Therefore, no matter From the point of view of which point, embodiment all should be regarded as exemplary, and be nonrestrictive, the scope of the present invention is by appended power Profit is required rather than described above is limited, it is intended that all in the implication and scope of the equivalency of claim by falling Change is included in the present invention.
Moreover, it will be appreciated that although the present specification is described in terms of embodiments, not each embodiment is only wrapped Containing an independent technical scheme, this narrating mode of specification is only that for clarity, those skilled in the art should Using specification as an entirety, the technical solutions in the various embodiments may also be suitably combined, forms those skilled in the art It may be appreciated other embodiment.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method, it is characterised in that including:Seedling bed prepares, and clip root segment is cut and connect Grafting is transplanted in fringe, both graftings, and seedling management, field-transplanting, Grafted Variety, grafting is cultivated;Concretely comprise the following steps:
(1)Seedling bed prepares:In annual 2 months-March, in heliogreenhouse, by 8-10 meters of length, wide 1 meter is done seedbed, bed soil choosing The Nutrition Soil of 60 mesh sieves and seedling medium mixing is selected, after being sterilized with 0.1% potassium permanganate, loads nutritive cube;
(2)Clip root segment:The Apples Dwarf Stocks root system of clip 10-20cm length, rugosity 0.4-0.6cm, clear water is cleaned;
(3)Cut scion:Clip rugosity 0.5-1cm same kind dwarfing stock branch, length 20-30cm, clear water is cleaned;
(4)Root fringe grafting:Root segment relatively thin, thicker the taking of scion is abutted against or cleft grafting, the double whip grafts of the similar use of both rugosity; Guarantee root segment and the forming layer of scion are at least while alignment, after connecting, wraps up tight with plastic strip;
(5)It is colonized the rootstock seedling grafted:The rootstock seedling grafted is first dipped into 5- in concentration 50mg/kg rooting powder solution 10 seconds, then be colonized in diameter 8-10cm nutritive cube, pour permeable after field planting;
(6)Seedling management:Water management is carried out, nutritive cube pours permeable for the first time, later per a water is poured within 5-7 days, keep soil Humidity 60-80%;Seedling stage diseases and pests are noted simultaneously, carry out damping-off and samping off preventing and controlling;When bud is sprouted in scion, grow Young leaves, that is, mean that grafting survives;
(7)Field-transplanting and management:20-30 days after Survival rate of nursery stock, the nursery in crop field rootstock seedling can be transplanted at the beginning of 4 months In;Nursery is wide 1 meter by furrow, the long 10-15 meters of site preparation of furrow, during transplanting, is transplanted according to line-spacing 50cm, spacing in the rows 12cm, per the row of ridge cultivation 3; Every mu of ground plants 8000-12000 plants of seedling;When planting seedling, suitably earth up buried, scion half will be embedded in soil, connect the stock of grafting Fringe Rapid Rooting, meanwhile, the branch that top is sprouted only is retained in rootstock seedling growth course, its lower bud sprouted all is smeared Remove;In young plant growth course, strengthen rich water quality management, with 0.3% urea and foliage-spray 1 time weekly of 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, maintain Soil moisture content is in 60-80%;Notice that leaf portion pest and disease damage occurs simultaneously;
(8)Grafted Variety:Mid or late May, you can away from grafting apple variety is started at the 10-15cm of ground, scion is chosen then The young sprout of raw semi-lignified apple variety;Engrafting method uses plate budding, wipes out within 10~15 days stock after surviving, and constantly erase Bottom sends stock sprout tillers;
(9)The management of Grafted Variety seedling:To before fall foliage, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out, insecticidal/acaricidal agent is periodically sprayed, it is ensured that leaf Piece does not have disease;Strengthen rich water quality management, with 0.5% urea water pouring root, with 0.3% urea and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate blade face weekly Spray 1 time.
2. Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step(2)Middle clip 14- The Apples Dwarf Stocks root system of 16cm length, rugosity 0.5cm.
3. Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step(3)Middle clip rugosity 0.6-0.8cm same kind dwarfing stock branch, length 24-26cm.
4. Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step(6)In this phase daylight Greenhouse temperature is maintained at 10-15 DEG C of night, 20-25 DEG C of daytime.
5. Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step(8)Described in it is new The tip includes Fuji, loud, high-pitched sound.
6. Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that step(8)Described in kill Worm acaricide includes the white MnZn of AVM, fenvalerate, hexythiazox, first, olefin conversion, Tebuconazole, Bravo.
CN201710579937.2A 2017-07-17 2017-07-17 A kind of Apples Dwarf Stocks grafting seedlings-growing method Pending CN107173083A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108157040A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-06-15 桂阳金盾南方苹果有限公司 Method is poisoned in southern apple diseases prevention
CN108541469A (en) * 2018-03-19 2018-09-18 山东省果树研究所 A kind of apple dwarf intermediate stock winter grafting fast seedling-cultivating method
CN110122146A (en) * 2019-05-22 2019-08-16 赵孝国 A kind of Chinese catalpa short interlocking, hole plate seedling growth method

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CN106804368A (en) * 2017-03-03 2017-06-09 昭通谢氏农业科技有限公司 A kind of red fuji apple implantation methods

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CN102907289A (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-06 王裕忠 Method for fast breeding dwarfing rootstock self-root-system non-toxic apple seedlings
CN105309261A (en) * 2014-08-01 2016-02-10 欧广良 Production method of high dwarfing rootstock apple seedlings
CN104255362A (en) * 2014-08-27 2015-01-07 西北农林科技大学 Method for growing annual multi-branch dwarf self-rooted rootstock apple seedlings
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108157040A (en) * 2017-11-24 2018-06-15 桂阳金盾南方苹果有限公司 Method is poisoned in southern apple diseases prevention
CN108541469A (en) * 2018-03-19 2018-09-18 山东省果树研究所 A kind of apple dwarf intermediate stock winter grafting fast seedling-cultivating method
CN108541469B (en) * 2018-03-19 2020-06-16 山东省果树研究所 Winter grafting rapid seedling method for dwarf apple interstock
CN110122146A (en) * 2019-05-22 2019-08-16 赵孝国 A kind of Chinese catalpa short interlocking, hole plate seedling growth method

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