CN101347086A - Underground hole irrigation method for orchard - Google Patents

Underground hole irrigation method for orchard Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN101347086A
CN101347086A CNA2008101396778A CN200810139677A CN101347086A CN 101347086 A CN101347086 A CN 101347086A CN A2008101396778 A CNA2008101396778 A CN A2008101396778A CN 200810139677 A CN200810139677 A CN 200810139677A CN 101347086 A CN101347086 A CN 101347086A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
water
fertilizer
irrigation
cave
rich water
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CNA2008101396778A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
杨洪强
接玉玲
赵锦彪
范伟国
邵小杰
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Shandong Agricultural University
Original Assignee
Shandong Agricultural University
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Shandong Agricultural University filed Critical Shandong Agricultural University
Priority to CNA2008101396778A priority Critical patent/CN101347086A/en
Publication of CN101347086A publication Critical patent/CN101347086A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Abstract

The invention discloses an orchard underground hole irrigation method which belongs to underground irrigation. The orchard underground hole irrigation method is characterized in that 'fertilizer water holes' are buried in a root system distribution layer of a fruit tree, the 'fertilizer water hole' consists of four parts, namely an underlay plastic film (10), a water absorption and fertilizer storage material (9) mixed with a fertilizer, broken brick bats (8) wrapped by the water absorption and fertilizer storage material, an irrigation tube (3) inserted into the center of the broken brick bats. Each fruit tree is provided with 4-8 'fertilizer water holes', water is injected into the 'fertilizer water holes' by the irrigation tube (3) via a funnel and 10-20 L of water is filled into each hole. During fertilizing, the fertilizer water can be injected into the 'fertilizer water holes', thus the nutrient is directly transported to the root system centralized distribution area and fertilizer efficiency is improved. The method has the advantages of easily available materials, low production cost, water saving and drought resistance, not only can reduce evaporation from land surface and surface runoff, but also can prevent irrigation water from seeping to the deep soil layer; meanwhile the orchard underground hole irrigation method takes advantage of the 'hydrotaxis' and 'fertilizer anemotaxis' of the root system to confine the root system in or around the 'fertilizer water holes', thus improving the utilization rate of nutrient and water.

Description

Underground hole irrigation method for orchard
(1) technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of water-saving irrigation method, belong to the orchard irrigation field, specifically a kind of underground hole irrigation method for orchard.
(2) background technology
Irrigation method can be divided into surface irrigation and subsurface irrigation.Surface irrigation comprises border irrigation, furrow irrigation, flood irrigation and low pressure pipe irrigation etc.Surface irrigation is easy and simple to handle, small investment, but irrigating water quota is bigger, and the irrigation water availability is lower, and the land readjustment workload is big, and it is fertile to be unfavorable for protecting the soil guarantor.Subsurface irrigation is the irrigation water borrow earth earth capillarity irrigation method of moistening soil from bottom to top.Infiltrating irrigation belongs to a kind of subsurface irrigation, and its advantage is directly to supply water the water use efficiency height to the root district, evaporation loss is little, accounting for plough few etc., but underground piping cost height, infiltrating irrigation system stops up easily, management maintenance difficulty, and seepage loss is big etc. in the strong soil of water penetration.
The Shu Huairui of Shandong Agricultural University etc. had once invented orchard " plastic mulching cave storage rich water " method, belonged to a kind of semi-underground irrigation, and was remarkable for orchard saving water, resisting drought effect.This method has covered mulch film on " rich water cave ", reduced evaporation, and water-saving result is between subsurface irrigation and surface irrigation.Do not irrigate moisture to the deep subsoil leakage problems but this method solves, also exist simultaneously frequent, the mulch film of pouring water aging fast, " rich water cave " shortcoming such as trampled on easily.
(3) summary of the invention
For overcoming above-mentioned shortcoming, the invention a kind of " rich water cave " imbedded underground root system distribution layer, by the mode of pouring water to " rich water cave " to solve the method for orchard saving water, resisting drought problem.The method is characterized in that and bury " rich water cave " at the Root Distribution layer underground, " rich water cave " by rebasing plastic film, the suction of mixing fertilizer hold fertile material, held the queen closer that fertile material wraps up by absorb water, irrigation pipe four parts that are inserted in queen closer central authorities are formed.
One or more mixture such as all kinds of plant straws that fertile material can be length 2~10cm and the fruit tree branch of weeds, wood chip, sawdust, bagasse, wheat husk, waste material of edible mushroom, cavings and pulverizing is held in suction.Suction is held and is spread fertilizer over the fields urea and each 100-150 gram of superphosphate on the fertile material.Irrigation pipe can be plastic flexible pipe, the stereoplasm tube of aperture 1.5-5.0cm, long 20-30cm, perhaps removes end mineral water bottle etc.
When " rich water cave " is set, below the fruit tree major branch, from the inside 40-60cm of tree crown outer rim projection, dig the soil pit of diameter 30-50cm, degree of depth 40-60cm.Successively diameter is laid on the soil pit bottom than the circular plastic film of the big 10-20cm of soil pit diameter, perk also is close to the cave wall around the film; Fertile material is held in suction be laid on the plastic film and constitute suction and hold fertile material layer, make the material layer compacted depth reach 25-35cm; The queen closer of the long 2.0-3.0cm of rib is embedded in the material layer middle and upper part, the diameter of fragment of brick heap and height 10-15cm; The irrigation pipe of aperture 1.5-5.0cm, long 20-30cm is inserted in fragment of brick heap central authorities; Hold to suction and to spread fertilizer over the fields each 100-150 gram of urea and superphosphate on the fertile material layer; To concordant with ground, the reality that tramps with one's feet, and be the center with the irrigation pipe is made a spill ground, guarantees that the irrigation pipe mouth of pipe exceeds concave surface 5-10cm with the earthen backfill of digging out.
According to the plant size, every tree is established 4-8 " rich water cave ".By funnel water is poured into " rich water cave " by irrigation pipe.Rudiment front and back and the rapid expanding stage of fruit were poured water once in every 10-15 days, and except that rainy season, pour water once every 30-40 days other periods, every hole irrigation water 10-20 liter, and do not irritate rainy season.When not pouring water, block with the grass mouth of pipe of will pouring water.According to the needs that topdress, can in " rich water cave ", irritate the fertilizer solution of executing 0.3-0.5% when pouring water.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is: both reduced evaporation from land surface and runoff, avoided irrigation moisture to the deep subsoil seepage again.Compare with common subsurface irrigation, material of the present invention is easy to get, at the bottom of the cost cost.This method has the saving water, resisting drought effect of " plastic mulching cave storage rich water ", but compares with " plastic mulching cave storage rich water ", has prolonged the interval of pouring water, and has reduced the workload of pouring water; Mulch film is embedded in down, and service time is long; " rich water cave " is not easy to be trampled on etc.Irrigation pipe is inserted in the queen closer heap, has avoided irrigation pipe to be stopped up by earth; Queen closer has certain water imbibition and inhales fertilizer, and irrigation pipe is communicated with " rich water cave " by queen closer with ground air simultaneously, good permeability, and these help root growth." rich water cave " and nutrient and moisture condition are superior on every side because root system of plant has " hydrotaxis " and " fertilizer becomes ", can help the efficient absorption of nutrient and moisture with root system " stable breeding " in " rich water cave " and on every side.Rich water can be filled into " rich water cave " during fertilising, directly rest and be distributed to the root system areal concentration, improved fertilizer efficiency.
(4) description of drawings
Fig. 1 is that " rich water cave " buried and put the position
Fig. 2 is " the rich water cave " that is inserted with irrigation pipe
Fig. 3 is " rich water cave " structure
1 is the top fruit sprayer outer rim among the figure, the 2nd, and the fruit tree major branch, the 3rd, irrigation pipe, the 4th, spill ground, the 5th, " rich water cave " buried depth 40-60cm, the 6th, funnel, the 7th, the soil of backfill, the 8th, queen closer, the 9th, fertile material, the 10th, plastic film are held in suction
(5) embodiment
Accompanying drawings, bury " rich water cave " underground according to following program:
1, from the inside 40-60cm of tree crown outer rim 1 projection, below fruit tree major branch 2, dig " the rich water cave " 5 of diameter 30-50cm, degree of depth 40-60cm;
2, diameter is laid on " rich water cave " bottom than the circular plastic film 10 of " rich water cave " big 10-20cm of diameter, perk also is close to the cave wall around the film;
3, suction is held fertile material 9 and be laid on the plastic film and constitute suction and hold fertile material layer, make the material layer compacted depth reach 25-35cm;
4, the queen closer 8 with the long 2.0-3.0cm of rib is embedded in the material layer middle and upper part, the diameter of fragment of brick heap and height 10-15cm;
5, the irrigation pipe 3 with aperture 1.5-5.0cm, long 20-30cm is inserted in fragment of brick heap central authorities;
6, on holding 9 layers of fertile materials, suction spreads fertilizer over the fields each 100-150 gram of urea and superphosphate;
7, with the earthen backfill 7 of digging out to concordant with ground, the reality that tramps with one's feet, and be the center with irrigation pipe 3 is made a spill ground 4, guarantees that the irrigation pipe mouth of pipe exceeds concave surface 5-10cm.The mouth of pipe of will pouring water when not pouring water is blocked with grass, when pouring water grass is taken out, and with funnel 6 rich water is poured into.
Rudiment front and back and the rapid expanding stage of fruit were poured water once every 10-15 days, and except that rainy season, poured water once every 25-35 days other periods, every hole irrigation water 10-20 liter, and do not irritate rainy season.According to the needs that topdress, can in " rich water cave ", irritate the fertilizer solution of executing 0.3-0.5% when pouring water.
Embodiment:
From the inside 50cm of tree crown outer rim 1 projection, below fruit tree major branch 2, dig the rich water cave 5 of diameter 40cm, degree of depth 60cm; Diameter is laid on " rich water cave " bottom than the circular plastic film 10 of " rich water cave " big 15cm of diameter, and perk also is close to the cave wall around the film; Corn stalk is cut into length 8cm holds fertile material 9 as suction and be laid on the plastic film, the real thickness 30cm of corn stalk lamination; The queen closer 8 of the long 2.0cm of rib is embedded in the material layer middle and upper part, the diameter of fragment of brick heap and height 10cm; The plastic tube of aperture 3.0cm, long 30cm is inserted in fragment of brick heap central authorities as irrigation pipe 3; Promptly absorb water to hold to corn stalk and spread fertilizer over the fields urea and each 100 gram of superphosphate on 9 layers of the fertile materials; To concordant with ground, the reality that tramps with one's feet, and be the center with irrigation pipe 3 is made a spill ground 4 with the earthen backfill 7 of digging out, and irrigation pipe 3 mouths of pipe exceed concave surface 8cm.When not pouring water the mouth of pipe of irrigation pipe 3 is blocked with grass, when pouring water grass is taken out, rich water is poured into funnel 6.Rudiment front and back and the rapid expanding stage of fruit were poured water once every 10-15 days, and except that rainy season, poured water once every 25-35 days other periods, every hole irrigation water 10-20 liter.

Claims (4)

1, a kind of underground hole irrigation method for orchard, it is characterized in that burying " rich water cave " underground at fruit tree Root Distribution layer, " rich water cave " by rebasing plastic film (10), the suction of mixing fertilizer hold fertile material (9), held the queen closer (8) that fertile material wraps up by absorb water, irrigation pipe (3) four parts that are inserted in queen closer central authorities are formed.
2, a kind of underground hole irrigation method for orchard according to claim 1, when it is characterized in that " rich water cave " is set, below fruit tree major branch (2), from the inside 40-60cm of tree crown outer rim (1) projection, dig the rich water cave (5) of diameter 30-50cm, degree of depth 40-60cm earlier; Then diameter is laid on " rich water cave " bottom than the circular plastic film (10) of the big 10-20cm of rich water cave diameter, perk also is close to the cave wall around the film; Again suction is held fertile material (9) and be laid on the plastic film (10), make suction hold fertile material (9) compacted depth and reach 25-35cm; Then the queen closer (8) with the long 2.0-3.0cm of rib is embedded in the material layer middle and upper part, the diameter of fragment of brick heap and height 10-15cm; Thereafter the irrigation pipe (3) with aperture 1.5-5.0cm, long 20-30cm is inserted in fragment of brick heap central authorities; Hold to suction afterwards and spread fertilizer over the fields urea and each 100-150 gram of superphosphate on the fertile material (9); At last with the earthen backfill of digging out to concordant with ground, the reality that tramps with one's feet, and be the center with irrigation pipe (3) is made a spill ground (4), assurance irrigation pipe (3) mouth of pipe exceeds concave surface 5-10cm.
3, a kind of underground hole irrigation method for orchard according to claim 1 is characterized in that suction holds one or more the mixture in the fruit tree branch of all kinds of plant straws that fertile material (9) can be length 2-10cm and weeds, wood chip, sawdust, bagasse, rice husk, wheat husk, waste material of edible mushroom, cavings and pulverizing.
4, a kind of underground hole irrigation method for orchard according to claim 1, it is characterized in that every strain fruit tree establishes 4-8 " rich water cave ", by funnel water is poured into " rich water cave " by irrigation pipe (3), rudiment front and back and the rapid expanding stage of fruit were poured water once in every 10-15 days, except that rainy season, pour water once every 30-40 days other periods, every hole irrigation water 10-20 liter.
CNA2008101396778A 2008-09-04 2008-09-04 Underground hole irrigation method for orchard Pending CN101347086A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CNA2008101396778A CN101347086A (en) 2008-09-04 2008-09-04 Underground hole irrigation method for orchard

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CNA2008101396778A CN101347086A (en) 2008-09-04 2008-09-04 Underground hole irrigation method for orchard

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN101347086A true CN101347086A (en) 2009-01-21

Family

ID=40266201

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CNA2008101396778A Pending CN101347086A (en) 2008-09-04 2008-09-04 Underground hole irrigation method for orchard

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN101347086A (en)

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101828504A (en) * 2010-05-11 2010-09-15 云南省农业科学院质量标准与检测技术研究所 Drought-resisting and water-saving irrigation method for dry-hot valley slope garden
CN102027874A (en) * 2010-09-21 2011-04-27 新疆农业大学 Drip irrigation under film of fruit tree and root field microenvironment regulation and controlling integrated method
CN102656987A (en) * 2012-05-08 2012-09-12 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 Method for supplementing water and fertilizer by using biogas slurry
CN102792873A (en) * 2012-08-30 2012-11-28 新疆林业科学院 Forest well type water-saving irrigation method
CN102860245A (en) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-09 成立 Construction method of water-storage drip irrigation system for plants
CN103340055A (en) * 2013-07-22 2013-10-09 刘叶高 Fertilizer application method executed by replacing fruit tree fertilizer with waste edible fungus material
CN104041379A (en) * 2014-06-06 2014-09-17 新疆林业科学院 Drought and extreme drought region sand land 7.5cm-10.5cm ground diameter red date tree well type irrigation method
CN104041385A (en) * 2014-06-06 2014-09-17 新疆林业科学院 Drought and extreme drought region sand land 1cm-4.5cm ground diameter red date tree well type irrigation method
CN104335880A (en) * 2013-08-02 2015-02-11 张福工 Integrated infiltrating irrigation cultivating method
CN104396376A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-03-11 姚杰 Fruit tree integral soil-fertilizer-water pit application method
CN104719074A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-06-24 山东农业大学 Fruit tree branch soil utilization method
CN104718866A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-06-24 山东农业大学 Orchard soil ventilating and fertilizing method
CN105028093A (en) * 2015-07-08 2015-11-11 夏治刚 Method for planting walnut trees
CN105993842A (en) * 2016-05-31 2016-10-12 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Underground hole storage irrigation method capable of effectively saving water and fertilizer and application of method in Zhongtian rose planting
CN106034620A (en) * 2016-05-31 2016-10-26 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Method for performing raw soil greening on saline land according to underground hole storage irrigation technology of microbial pesticide
CN106134742A (en) * 2016-07-13 2016-11-23 凉山彝族自治州亚热带作物研究所 One determines the no-tillage efficient water-fertilizer integral irrigation system of cave formula and implantation methods
CN106304925A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-01-11 钟山佳欣果蔬有限责任公司 Efficient fertilizer application method for planting oranges
CN106471983A (en) * 2016-10-11 2017-03-08 山东农业大学 A kind of fertilizing method persistently supplementing nutrient to apple tree
CN107347336A (en) * 2017-07-10 2017-11-17 新疆林业科学院 A kind of creation method of arid irrigated area fruit tree fertilizer feeding window
CN107960299A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-04-27 山西省林业科学研究院 Semiarid region willow method for drought-resistant afforestation
CN110881296A (en) * 2019-12-11 2020-03-17 山西省农业科学院园艺研究所 Utilization method of waste mushroom sticks
CN112889654A (en) * 2021-01-15 2021-06-04 孙明文 Water-replenishing and water-saving method for trees

Cited By (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101828504A (en) * 2010-05-11 2010-09-15 云南省农业科学院质量标准与检测技术研究所 Drought-resisting and water-saving irrigation method for dry-hot valley slope garden
CN102027874A (en) * 2010-09-21 2011-04-27 新疆农业大学 Drip irrigation under film of fruit tree and root field microenvironment regulation and controlling integrated method
CN102656987A (en) * 2012-05-08 2012-09-12 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 Method for supplementing water and fertilizer by using biogas slurry
CN102656987B (en) * 2012-05-08 2013-07-31 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 Method for supplementing water and fertilizer by using biogas slurry
CN102792873B (en) * 2012-08-30 2015-04-29 新疆林业科学院 Forest well type water-saving irrigation method
CN102792873A (en) * 2012-08-30 2012-11-28 新疆林业科学院 Forest well type water-saving irrigation method
CN102860245A (en) * 2012-09-29 2013-01-09 成立 Construction method of water-storage drip irrigation system for plants
CN102860245B (en) * 2012-09-29 2014-07-09 潍坊高新区力蒙水产研究所 Construction method of water-storage drip irrigation system for plants
CN103340055A (en) * 2013-07-22 2013-10-09 刘叶高 Fertilizer application method executed by replacing fruit tree fertilizer with waste edible fungus material
CN104335880A (en) * 2013-08-02 2015-02-11 张福工 Integrated infiltrating irrigation cultivating method
CN104041385A (en) * 2014-06-06 2014-09-17 新疆林业科学院 Drought and extreme drought region sand land 1cm-4.5cm ground diameter red date tree well type irrigation method
CN104041379A (en) * 2014-06-06 2014-09-17 新疆林业科学院 Drought and extreme drought region sand land 7.5cm-10.5cm ground diameter red date tree well type irrigation method
CN104396376A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-03-11 姚杰 Fruit tree integral soil-fertilizer-water pit application method
CN104718866A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-06-24 山东农业大学 Orchard soil ventilating and fertilizing method
CN104719074A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-06-24 山东农业大学 Fruit tree branch soil utilization method
CN104719074B (en) * 2015-03-17 2017-04-05 山东农业大学 Fruit tree Soil Utilization method
CN105028093A (en) * 2015-07-08 2015-11-11 夏治刚 Method for planting walnut trees
CN106034620B (en) * 2016-05-31 2019-01-11 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A method of original soil greening is carried out to salt-soda soil using the underground cave storage irrigation technique of microbial bactericide
CN105993842A (en) * 2016-05-31 2016-10-12 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Underground hole storage irrigation method capable of effectively saving water and fertilizer and application of method in Zhongtian rose planting
CN106034620A (en) * 2016-05-31 2016-10-26 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Method for performing raw soil greening on saline land according to underground hole storage irrigation technology of microbial pesticide
CN106134742A (en) * 2016-07-13 2016-11-23 凉山彝族自治州亚热带作物研究所 One determines the no-tillage efficient water-fertilizer integral irrigation system of cave formula and implantation methods
CN106304925A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-01-11 钟山佳欣果蔬有限责任公司 Efficient fertilizer application method for planting oranges
CN106471983A (en) * 2016-10-11 2017-03-08 山东农业大学 A kind of fertilizing method persistently supplementing nutrient to apple tree
CN106471983B (en) * 2016-10-11 2019-04-12 山东农业大学 A kind of fertilizing method persistently supplementing nutrient to apple tree
CN107347336A (en) * 2017-07-10 2017-11-17 新疆林业科学院 A kind of creation method of arid irrigated area fruit tree fertilizer feeding window
CN107960299A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-04-27 山西省林业科学研究院 Semiarid region willow method for drought-resistant afforestation
CN110881296A (en) * 2019-12-11 2020-03-17 山西省农业科学院园艺研究所 Utilization method of waste mushroom sticks
CN110881296B (en) * 2019-12-11 2021-09-10 山西省农业科学院园艺研究所 Utilization method of waste mushroom sticks
CN112889654A (en) * 2021-01-15 2021-06-04 孙明文 Water-replenishing and water-saving method for trees

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN101347086A (en) Underground hole irrigation method for orchard
CN102067753B (en) Long-term governance method for converting saline-alkali soil into fertile farmland
CN102656987B (en) Method for supplementing water and fertilizer by using biogas slurry
CN103988758A (en) Method for improving afforestation survival rate by water collecting, water retention and water replenishing
CN105815066A (en) Plant planting soil moisture preservation water-saving fast growing method
CN104186137B (en) The cultivating green method of beach salt-soda soil, a kind of coastal waters tall grass
CN205756132U (en) A kind of irrigation rig of desert sandy vegetation
CN101843204A (en) Shiny-leaved yellowhorn non-irrigation culture method
CN206517914U (en) Sports ground nature lawn maintenance and monitoring system
CN109168391A (en) A kind of method of iron tailings soil
WO2023193490A1 (en) Orchard precipitation harvesting, permeation promotion, soil moisture conservation and carbon increase method and system, and orchard intelligent irrigation complementing system using system
CN105594564A (en) Rainwater collecting and deep infiltrating method for economic forest in mountainous region
CN107155790A (en) A kind of method that saline-alkali soil is improved by microbial fermented stalk
CN104025886B (en) A kind of mulch film covers the method for cave artificial cistanche inoculation
CN103749064A (en) Method for storing water and retaining fertilizer of orchard by use of biomass charcoal
CN201479692U (en) Arbor Day water irrigating device
CN202918806U (en) Buried automatic water supply device for plant
CN206963527U (en) A kind of multifunctional ecological tree pond module
CN212865797U (en) River course water conservancy bank protection
CN103651091B (en) Full-automatic irrigation profit hole cultivating and growing system
CN205922192U (en) Quick supplementary device of liquid manure that big tree was transplanted
CN107047130A (en) Photovoltaic green greenhouse system and greenhouse gardening method
CN208657442U (en) A kind of planting unit of alkaline land soil improvement
CN103380714B (en) Nearly root returns infiltrating irrigation water-saving irrigation method
CN208175477U (en) A kind of greening system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
C06 Publication
PB01 Publication
C10 Entry into substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
C02 Deemed withdrawal of patent application after publication (patent law 2001)
WD01 Invention patent application deemed withdrawn after publication

Open date: 20090121