CN101344036A - 涡轮机 - Google Patents

涡轮机 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101344036A
CN101344036A CNA2008101379363A CN200810137936A CN101344036A CN 101344036 A CN101344036 A CN 101344036A CN A2008101379363 A CNA2008101379363 A CN A2008101379363A CN 200810137936 A CN200810137936 A CN 200810137936A CN 101344036 A CN101344036 A CN 101344036A
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rotor shaft
turbo machine
magnetic bearing
radial
motor
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CN101344036B (zh
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W·博森
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Atlas Copco Energas GmbH
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Atlas Copco Energas GmbH
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D25/00Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, other groups
    • F01D25/16Arrangement of bearings; Supporting or mounting bearings in casings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D15/00Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby
    • F01D15/10Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D17/00Radial-flow pumps, e.g. centrifugal pumps; Helico-centrifugal pumps
    • F04D17/08Centrifugal pumps
    • F04D17/10Centrifugal pumps for compressing or evacuating
    • F04D17/12Multi-stage pumps
    • F04D17/122Multi-stage pumps the individual rotor discs being, one for each stage, on a common shaft and axially spaced, e.g. conventional centrifugal multi- stage compressors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/05Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof, specially adapted for elastic fluid pumps
    • F04D29/051Axial thrust balancing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/05Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof, specially adapted for elastic fluid pumps
    • F04D29/056Bearings
    • F04D29/058Bearings magnetic; electromagnetic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/05Shafts or bearings, or assemblies thereof, specially adapted for elastic fluid pumps
    • F04D29/056Bearings
    • F04D29/059Roller bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C32/00Bearings not otherwise provided for
    • F16C32/04Bearings not otherwise provided for using magnetic or electric supporting means
    • F16C32/0406Magnetic bearings
    • F16C32/044Active magnetic bearings
    • F16C32/0474Active magnetic bearings for rotary movement
    • F16C32/0489Active magnetic bearings for rotary movement with active support of five degrees of freedom, e.g. two radial magnetic bearings combined with an axial bearing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2220/00Application
    • F05D2220/40Application in turbochargers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2220/00Application
    • F05D2220/70Application in combination with
    • F05D2220/76Application in combination with an electrical generator
    • F05D2220/766Application in combination with an electrical generator via a direct connection, i.e. a gearless transmission
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2240/00Components
    • F05D2240/50Bearings
    • F05D2240/51Magnetic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2240/00Components
    • F05D2240/50Bearings
    • F05D2240/52Axial thrust bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2240/00Components
    • F05D2240/50Bearings
    • F05D2240/54Radial bearings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C2360/00Engines or pumps
    • F16C2360/44Centrifugal pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C2380/00Electrical apparatus
    • F16C2380/26Dynamo-electric machines or combinations therewith, e.g. electro-motors and generators

Abstract

本发明涉及一种涡轮机,其包括外壳、电机、支撑在外壳中的转子轴,电机的转子安装在转子轴上,径向叶轮安装在转子轴的至少一端上。根据本发明,作用在径向叶轮的内表面上的磁轴承半部安装在转子轴的端部处,用于相对于外壳的叶轮侧的端壁来轴向支撑转子轴。

Description

涡轮机
技术领域
本发明涉及涡轮机,其包括外壳、电机和支撑在外壳中的转子轴, 其中,电机的转子安装在转子轴上,并且径向叶轮安装在转子轴的至 少一端上。
背景技术
在实践中,已知具有轴向磁性支撑的转子轴的涡轮机,其中为了
轴向支撑,磁轴承半部(magnetic bearing half)与轴向支承盘或相对 设置的收缩到转子轴上的轴肩相连。组合磁轴承设计也是已知的,其 中,两个轴向磁轴承半部在位于转子轴上的旋转多盘组件的两侧表面 上安装在转子轴的一端上,该多盘组件的侧表面被径向磁轴承封闭, 转子轴的相对端同样地也可以支撑在径向磁轴承上。
(active magnetic bearing)上的涡轮才几,该主动》兹轴承安装在转子轴 的位于径向叶轮前方的端部上。主动磁轴承需要连续的电力供应和在 电力故障情况下保护轴承的所谓辅助轴承(backup bearing )。该辅助
式径向和轴向紧急情况球轴承。
由于对于已知的主动磁轴承,所需的磁场通过电磁体产生,所以 可以通过改变电磁体的线圏中的电流而改变磁场,从而改变所作用的 支承力。因此,为了允许把转子轴支撑在主动磁轴承上,反馈控制对 于调整相应的支承力来说是必须的。当为转子轴使用磁轴承时,这种 涡轮机可以以非常高的旋转速度操作。但是,转子轴在高操作速度时 的弯曲临界固有频率(bending — critical natural frequency )接近或寸氐 于涡轮机的最大连续操作频率。这使得磁轴承的稳定的主动调节变得 非常复杂甚至不可能。
通过两个预防性措施根本排除涡轮机在频率可能出现在转子轴的 弯曲临界固有频率的区域中的状态中操作。首先,在涡轮机的设计中 已经降低了允许的操作速度。对于涡轮机的给定输出和要求,这个措 施导致更大的涡轮机的构造,其设计成低于最佳旋转速度的压缩机级 或膨胀机级与最佳设计相比也具有降低的效率。其次,可以省略额外
的轴向支承盘。这样,由于转子轴可以缩短用于额外的轴向支承盘的 轴段的长度,可以降低转子轴的质量,从而增加转子轴的弯曲临界固 有频率。当省略轴向支承盘时,轴向磁轴承半部接合在小得多的轴肩 上或接合在收缩到转子轴上的旋转多盘组件上,但这会使轴向支承力 不利地降低。
发明内容
考虑到这个技术背景,本发明的目的在于提供一种涡轮机,该涡 轮机具有上述特征、具有短的转子轴和小的转子质量以允许增加转子 的弯曲临界固有频率从而增加涡轮机的操作速度,所述涡轮机还具有 足够大小的轴向磁轴承,用于吸收径向叶轮的通常很高的静态和动态 压力以及轴向脉冲推力。
实现这个目的的本发明的主题是根据权利要求1的涡轮机。根据 本发明的涡轮机的基本设计包括外壳、电机和支撑在外壳中的转子轴。 电机的转子安装在转子轴上。径向叶轮也安装在转子轴的至少一端上。 为了轴向支撑转子轴,作用在径向叶轮的内表面上的轴向磁轴承半部 在所述外壳的叶轮侧的端壁处安装在转子轴的至少一端上。
磁轴承运行不需要油润滑系统,并通常已经被证明是无磨损的。 磁轴承也允许在非常低的损耗和高水平的操作平稳性下实现最大的旋 转速度,从而确保整体在经济上有利和密封的操作。为此,根据本发 明的涡轮机的转子轴也优选径向支撑在磁轴承上。
在本发明的一个优选设计中,径向叶轮安装在转子轴的两端上。 此外,位于外壳的两个叶轮侧的端壁上的磁轴承半部同样地安装在转 子轴的两端上,用于轴向支撑转子轴。每个磁轴承半部作用在与其相 关联的径向叶轮的环形内表面上。从而径向叶轮的内表面作为用于两个轴向磁轴承半部中每一个的足够尺寸的环形盘表面使用,并作为用 于轴向磁轴承半部的支承盘起作用。通过本发明的这个优选设计,径 向叶轮所承受的高静态和动态压力以及脉沖轴向推力被足够的静态和 动态轴向支承力抵消。
用于转子轴的径向和轴向磁轴承优选是具有控制系统的主动磁轴 承,该控制系统能够改变该时刻所作用的相应支承力。由于转子轴的 位置可以通过非接触传感器测量,因此可以在涡轮机的操作期间精确 地控制转子轴。为了保护主动磁轴承,在涡轮机的这个设计中,在转 子轴上的位于用于径向磁轴承和径向叶轮的支承轴颈之间的区域中设 置径向辅助轴承。这些径向辅助轴承通常设计为滑动轴承或优选设计 为滚子轴承,例如球轴承。此外,为了密封转子轴,轴封的旋转部件 安装在辅助轴承和径向叶轮之间。
为了轴向支撑转子轴,在本发明的一个特别优选的设计中,磁轴
承半部安装在用于辅助轴承和轴密封的旋转部件的轴嵌入物(inset) 的这个区域中。与公知的涡轮机相比,这个设计方法降低了轴向空间 的需求,并避免轴突出部分的额外延长。在本发明的这个设计中,悬
在本发明的另 一个优选设计中,涡轮机具有径向设计的二级压缩 机。在这个设计中,电机是电动机。此外,涡轮机也可以设计成向心 设计的二级膨胀涡轮机,相应地,电动机作为发电机操作。本发明还 包括具有压缩级(compression stage )和膨胀级(expansion stage )的 涡轮机。在这个设计中, 一方面,当压缩级的所需驱动输出大于由膨 胀级输送的轴输出时,电机作为电动机操作。另一方面,当由膨胀级 输送的轴输出大于压缩级所需的驱动输出时,电机也可以作为发电机 操作。根据压缩级和膨胀级的特定操作条件,电机可以作为电动机或 发电机操作。
附图说明
下面参考仅示出了一个例示的实施方式的一个视图说明本发明, 该单一附图示意性地示出了根据本发明的涡轮机的横截面视图。 具体实施方式
图中所示的涡轮机1的基本设计包括外壳2、电机3和支撑在外 壳2中的转子轴4,电机3的转子安装在转子轴4上,径向叶轮5安 装在转子轴4的至少一端上。此外,磁轴承半部6设置在转子轴4的 至少一端处,用于相对于外壳2的叶轮侧的端壁轴向支撑转子轴4。 这个磁轴承半部6作用在径向叶轮5的内表面7上。
图中示出的根据本发明的涡轮机1的优选设计还包括在其转子轴 4的相对端上安装的径向叶轮8。转子轴4的第二端也轴向支撑在磁轴 承半部9上,该磁轴承半部9作用在相关联的径向叶轮8的内表面10 上。此外,所示的涡轮机1的转子轴4同样地径向支撑在磁轴承11 和12上。在涡轮机1的这个实施方式中,径向磁轴承11和12以及轴 向磁轴承半部6和9是主动磁轴承,并具有控制系统(图1中未示出), 通过该控制系统可以控制该时刻作用在磁轴承上的支承力。同样也没 有示出连续检测转子轴4的位置从而允许精确地调整转子轴轴承的传 感器。在径向叶轮5和8与径向磁轴承11和12之间设置有辅助轴承 13和14,以保护主动磁轴承。这些辅助轴承13和14有利地设计成滚 子轴承。滚子轴承可以设计为具有由金属材料或陶瓷材料制成的滚珠 的球轴承。轴向磁轴承半部6和9安装在外壳2的叶轮侧的端壁上。 在轴台(shaft setback) 15和16的区域中提供辅助轴承13和14以及 轴封17和18的安装。位于径向磁轴承和径向叶轮之间的轴台15或 16在各种情况下的尺寸设置成使得轴封和辅助轴承具有刚好足够的 空间。
在本发明的所示的优选实施方式中,涡轮机1可以是径向设计的 二级压缩机。在所示的设计中电机3可以是电动机。所示的涡轮机l 也可以i殳计成向心设计的二级膨胀涡轮机,电动才几3相应地作为发电 机操作。
根据本发明的涡轮机1的所示的实施方式也可以具有膨胀涡轮级 和压缩涡轮级。在这个设计中, 一方面,当压缩级所需的驱动输出大 于膨胀级输送的轴输出时,电机3可以作为电动机操作。另一方面, 当膨胀级输送的轴输出大于压缩级所需的驱动输出时,电机3也可以 作为发电机操作。根据该单个附图中所示的本发明的优选实施方式的 压缩级和膨胀级的特定操作条件,电机3可以作为电动机或作为发电 机操作。

Claims (6)

1.一种涡轮机(1),所述涡轮机包括外壳(2)、电机(3)和支撑在所述外壳(2)中的转子轴(4),所述电机(3)的转子安装在所述转子轴(4)上,径向叶轮(5)安装在所述转子轴(4)的至少一端上,其特征在于,为了轴向支撑所述转子轴(4),在所述外壳(2)的叶轮侧的端壁上安装有作用在所述径向叶轮(5)的内表面(7)上的磁轴承半部(6)。
2. 根据权利要求1所述的涡轮机(1 ),其特征在于,所述转子轴 (4)由磁轴承(11, 12)径向支撑。
3. 根据权利要求1或2所述的涡轮机(1),其特征在于,相应的 径向叶轮(5, 8)安装在所述转子轴(4)的端部上,并且为了轴向支 撑所述转子轴(4),在所述外壳(2)的两个叶轮侧的端壁上安装有作 用在相关联的径向叶轮(5, 8)的内表面(7, IO)上的相应的磁轴承 半部(6, 9)。
4. 根据权利要求3所述的涡轮机(1),其特征在于,轴向磁轴承 半部(6, 9)和径向磁轴承(11, 12)是主动磁轴承,并且涡轮机(l) 具有用于保护所述磁轴承(6, 9, 11, 12)的辅助轴承(13, 14)并 具有轴封(17, 18),所述辅助轴承(13, 14)和轴封(17, 18)在所 述径向磁轴承(ll, 12)和所述径向叶轮(5, 8)之间的相应轴段中 安装在所述转子轴(4)的端部处。
5. 根据权利要求1至4中之一所述的涡轮机(1 ),其特征在于, 所述涡轮机(1)是二级压缩机或二级膨胀机,并且所述电机(3)是 电动才几或发电才几。
6. 根据权利要求1至4中之一所述的涡轮机(1 ),其特征在于, 所述涡轮机(1)具有压缩机级和膨胀机级,并且根据所述压缩机级和 所述膨胀机级的操作条件,所述电机(3)可以作为电动机或作为发电 机操作。
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