CN101170205A - Lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system - Google Patents

Lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system Download PDF

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CN101170205A
CN101170205A CNA2007101788943A CN200710178894A CN101170205A CN 101170205 A CN101170205 A CN 101170205A CN A2007101788943 A CNA2007101788943 A CN A2007101788943A CN 200710178894 A CN200710178894 A CN 200710178894A CN 101170205 A CN101170205 A CN 101170205A
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ultracapacitor
lithium ion
ion battery
voltage
circuit
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CN100547851C (en
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于红云
李艳秋
尚永红
苏波
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Institute of Electrical Engineering of CAS
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Institute of Electrical Engineering of CAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

A mixed energy storage photovoltaic system for a lithium-ion cell- a super-capacitor is provided, a photovoltaic cell (1) is an energy source of an energy resource system, the lithium-ion cell (3) and the super-capacitor (4) are combined to be used as an accumulation system, and an energy management circuit (2) intelligently controls the energy resource system and the accumulation system to supply power for a load (5). During initial charging, the super-capacitor (4) terminal voltage is relatively low, and the photovoltaic cell (1) firstly charges the super-capacitor (4); when the super-capacitor (4) is fully charged, the lithium-ion cell (3) is charged; when being no sunshine, the photovoltaic cell (1) has no power output, when the load (5) needs the electricity, the super-capacitor (4) supplies power for the load (5); when the electric quantity of the super-capacitor (4) is insufficient, the lithium-ion cell (3) supplies power for the load through the energy management circuit (2), and supplements electric quantity for the super-capacitor (4). The invention has long service life, high capacity, as well as high output power.

Description

Lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system
Technical field
The present invention relates to the hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic system that a kind of lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor are used in combination.
Background technology
Lithium ion battery grew up in early 1990s, had obtained develop rapidly over nearly 10 years.Lithium ion battery is compared with the storage battery of other type, has the monomer voltage height, energy density is big, self-discharge rate is low, do not have outstanding advantages such as memory effect.So far, lithium ion battery is the highest energy storage device type of energy density.But the cycle life of lithium ion battery is limited, and generally at 500~1000 times, and general lithium ion battery charge-discharge magnification only is 0.2C~1C.
Ultracapacitor is to enter commercial scale the eighties in 20th century.Compare with traditional capacitor, big 3~4 orders of magnitude of ultracapacitor energy density, the characteristics that kept the traditional capacitor speed of releasing energy to be exceedingly fast again simultaneously can provide big pulse power.
The ultracapacitor of the 50F that the Sino Power Star Co., Ltd. (SPSCAP) produces, discharging current can 13.5A, and the lithium ion battery maximum discharge current suitable with its capacity only reaches tens milliamperes.Ultracapacitor can be tens of second quick charge in several minutes, and lithium ion battery to be full of electricity in the so short time be almost impossible.Ultracapacitor has the extremely long advantage of cycle life, and its cycle life reaches 500,000 times, and the cycle-index of storage battery has only hundreds of, only is ultracapacitor 1/tens.Though the advantage that ultracapacitor has above-mentioned lithium ion battery not compare, its capacity can not be compared with lithium ion battery.
At present, the technical parameter of two kinds of energy storage device products is as shown in the table:
Energy storage device Energy density (Wh/kg) Power density (W/kg) Cycle life (inferior)
Ultracapacitor 0.2~20 10 3~10 4 >10 5
Lithium ion battery 100~150 100~150 <10 3
It can be seen from the table, each tool advantage of lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor, lithium ion battery has the incomparable energy density of ultracapacitor, but can not surmount its power density and cycle life.At present, lithium ion battery is applied in the small portable apparatus, but the cycle life of lithium ion battery and power density are limited, has limited lithium ion battery and has used more widely.If with lithium ion battery applications in pulse power formula communicator, digital cellular telephone for example, all there is the problem of high power spike discharge in equipment such as two-way radios and question formula beeper.Though the time weak point that the high power pulse electric current is lasting, but pulse current can reach order of amps, lithium ion battery frequently bears this high power pulse discharge can cause the cell body heating, will cause the deterioration of lithium ion battery discharge performance and the serious decay in useful life.The rising of lithium ion battery temperature also can have a strong impact on the operate as normal of electronic equipment.
If, maximize favourable factors and minimize unfavourable ones ultracapacitor and lithium ion battery combination, have complementary advantages, form high power capacity, high power, long-life mixed energy storage system, with the application space of expansion lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor.
Some pertinent literatures have been reported the research that storage battery is used in combination with ultracapacitor, as the application in city bus, electric motor car and automobile, as " application of ultracapacitor in automobile starting " (" external electronic devices and components ", 2006 the 5th phases, pp57~59), " the super capacitor improvement of using hybrid-power bus in parallel " (" passenger vehicle technology and research " with storage battery, 2005 the 5th phases, pp11~14) etc., but these researchs all are that lead acid accumulator is an energy-storage battery, are application background with large power-consuming equipments such as automobiles.At home and abroad in the pertinent literature, as " system research of mixed energy accumulation of super capacitor accumulator independent photovoltaic " (solar energy journal, the 28th the 2nd phase of volume, pp178-183), " Power and LifeExtension of Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrids " (IEEE Transactions on Components and PackagingTechnologies, Vol.25, No.1,2002) etc., the method of having introduced lead acid accumulator and super capacitor mixed energy storage is used for photovoltaic system, but lead-acid battery energy density wherein, low volume is big, the energy conservation CONTROL VOLUME is big, power consumption is big, is not suitable for mixed energy storage system and portable set that lithium ion battery is a storage battery.The scheme that the photovoltaic system of lithium ion battery and super capacitor mixed energy storage is used for portable equipment is properly solved as yet.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to overcome big, the low shortcoming that is not suitable for portable set of energy density of lead acid accumulator volume in existing lead-acid battery and the super capacitor mixed energy storage technology, lithium ion battery and super capacitor mixed energy storage scheme have been designed, and use it for photovoltaic system, for portable set provides electric energy.
The present invention is with the energy source of photovoltaic cell as load, and lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor are used in combination as energy-storage system.The energy conservation circuit makes lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor reach mutual supplement with each other's advantages at the intelligent management that the lithium ion battery characteristic different with ultracapacitor is optimized.
Because ultracapacitor has very long cycle life, and the power output that is far longer than lithium ion battery can be provided, therefore preferentially to ultracapacitor charging, discharge.Not only can reduce the lithium ion battery access times like this, prolong the life-span of lithium ion battery, can also make mixed energy storage system that bigger power can be provided, prevent the influence of high-power output the lithium ion battery life-span.Therefore, the Charge Management conceptual design of energy conservation circuit is as follows: during initial charge, the ultracapacitor terminal voltage is lower, and photovoltaic cell is full of ultracapacitor afterwards again to lithium ion cell charging at first to the ultracapacitor charging; The discharge management conceptual design of energy management system is as follows: adopting ultracapacitor as the preferential discharge power supply, have only when the electric weight of ultracapacitor hangs down, is electric with lithium ion battery.
The photovoltaic system of lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage of the present invention comprises photovoltaic cell, lithium ion battery, ultracapacitor, energy conservation circuit and load.The energy conservation circuit comprises charge management circuit, discharge management circuit, voltage stabilizing circuit and each device interface.Photovoltaic cell, lithium ion battery, ultracapacitor and load are connected with the energy conservation circuit by device interface corresponding on the energy conservation circuit respectively.During initial charge, the ultracapacitor terminal voltage is lower, and photovoltaic cell at first charges to ultracapacitor; When ultracapacitor is full of, be lithium ion cell charging again; All the time according to the time, photovoltaic cell does not have power output, is electric with ultracapacitor at first; When the super capacitor electrode quantity not sufficient, lithium ion battery is an electric, replenishes electric weight for ultracapacitor simultaneously.
Charge management circuit is mainly realized by the comparison circuit that comparator LM339 and peripheral resistance, transistor constitute.Each LM339 chip internal is integrated four voltage comparators.Charge management circuit adopts a voltage comparator in the LM339 chip to get final product, and is designated as " 1/4LM339 " comparator.Comparator has two inputs and an output, and one is called in-phase input end, and with "+" expression, another is called inverting input, with "-" expression.End of oppisite phase links to each other by peripheral resistance R 1 and ultracapacitor are anodal, and in-phase output end is connected with the 5V reference voltage by peripheral resistance R 2, and R3 connects output and in-phase input end, forms regenerative circuit.1/4LM339 and peripheral resistance R 1, R2, R3 form hysteresis comparator.By the resistance of Theoretical Calculation R1, R2, R3, regulate two threshold size, reach the purpose of reasonable switching charging circuit.At this, selecting R1 is 15K Ω, and R2 is 10K Ω, and R3 is 15K Ω.The formed threshold value of hysteresis comparator is respectively 5V and 1V.During charging, when the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor was lower than 5V, photovoltaic cell preferentially charged to ultracapacitor.When the voltage of ultracapacitor during more than or equal to 5V, promptly ultracapacitor is full of, and no longer charge for ultracapacitor this moment, is lithium ion cell charging.Not only can play the effect that the protection ultracapacitor is not overcharged this moment, can also effectively utilize the excess energy of photovoltaic cell, it is charged in the lithium ion battery, as the reserve energy of ultracapacitor.When the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor dropped to 1V, conducting was the circuit of ultracapacitor charging again, was that ultracapacitor replenishes electric weight by photovoltaic cell.
In like manner, the discharge management circuit is realized by the comparison circuit that comparator 1/4LM339 and peripheral resistance, transistor constitute.1/4LM339 comparator in the discharge management resistance and the 1/4LM339 comparator in the Charge Management are finished by the LM339 chip.End of oppisite phase links to each other by peripheral resistance R 4 and ultracapacitor are anodal, and in-phase output end is by peripheral resistance R 5 ground connection, and R6 connects output and in-phase input end, forms positive feedback.1/4LM339 and peripheral resistance R 4, R5, R6 form hysteresis comparator.R4 is 15K Ω, and R5 is 10K Ω, and R6 is 15K Ω, and the formed threshold value of hysteresis comparator is respectively 5V and 1V.During discharge, when ultracapacitor voltage is equal to or greater than 5V, being electric with ultracapacitor, when the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor is lower than 1V, is electric by lithium ion battery, is the ultracapacitor charging simultaneously.
Voltage stabilizing circuit is mainly realized by MAX866 and peripheral electric capacity thereof and inductance.MAX866 pin of chip 1 is by 47uF electrochemical capacitor C1 ground connection, and C1 electric capacity plays the effect of filtering; Be connected with inductance L between pin 1 and the pin 8, its value is 330uH; Pin 3 is by 0.1uF capacitor C 2 back ground connection; Connect diode D3 between pin 8 and the pin 6; Pin 2 ground connection, the realization system can export the 5V burning voltage, can provide burning voltage for load, can provide stable voltage source for the LM339 comparator again; The stable 5V voltage of pin 6 outputs is connected with load is anodal.
Lithium ion battery provided by the invention-super capacitor mixed energy storage system has following obvious advantage:
(1) ultracapacitor has the advantage that has extended cycle life, and adds the ultracapacitor power supply, with system's contrast of only adopting the lithium ion battery energy storage, has reduced the cycle-index of lithium ion battery, can delay the aging of lithium ion battery.
(2) ultracapacitor has the big advantage of power density, adopts ultracapacitor as main power supply, can improve the power density of mixed energy storage system.
(3) lithium ion battery has the big advantage of energy density, is used in combination the mixed energy storage system of formation with ultracapacitor as the candidate energy of energy-storage system, and with system's contrast of only adopting ultracapacitor energy storage, volume will reduce greatly.
Compare with single energy storage device, hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic system of the present invention has big capacity, high power, long-life advantage, can be used for relevant industries such as science and technology, industry.Such as, can be used for also can in various electric motor cars, electric tool, being applicable on the electric pulse equipment such as laser, X-ray machine, magnet charger and wireless telecommunications.On miniature high-power device, also have wide practical use.The environmental energy switch technology, as photovoltaic generation, wind power generation, thermo-electric generation, need energy-storage system to keep the continuous service of load, various environmental energy switching devices combine with the double-energy storage system, can be applied to such as power supplys such as navigation mark lighthouse, high mountain meteorological observatory, desert area investigation supply occasion.
Description of drawings
Further specify the present invention below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
Fig. 1 is the photovoltaic system structured flowchart that adopts lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage, and among the figure: 1 is photovoltaic cell, and 2 are the energy conservation circuit, and 3 is lithium ion battery, and 4 is ultracapacitor, and 5 are load;
Fig. 2 is the photovoltaic system energy conservation circuit theory diagrams that adopt lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage.
Embodiment
Fig. 1 is the photovoltaic system schematic diagram that adopts lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage.As shown in Figure 1, the present invention includes photovoltaic cell 1, energy conservation circuit 2, lithium ion battery 3, ultracapacitor 4 and with electric loading 5.Photovoltaic cell 1 is as the energy source of energy resource system.Lithium ion battery 3 and ultracapacitor 4 are used in combination as energy-storage system.Energy conservation circuit 2 makes lithium ion battery 3 and ultracapacitor 4 have complementary advantages at lithium ion battery 3 and the intelligent management that ultracapacitor 4 different characteristics are optimized.Energy conservation circuit 2 comprises charge management circuit, discharge management circuit, voltage stabilizing circuit and each device interface, as shown in Figure 2.Photovoltaic cell 1, lithium ion battery 3, ultracapacitor 4 and load 5 are connected with energy conservation circuit 2 by the respective devices interface on the energy conservation circuit 2.
Energy management system Managed Solution design of the present invention is as follows: during initial charge, ultracapacitor 4 terminal voltages are lower, and photovoltaic cell 1 at first gives ultracapacitor 4 chargings; When ultracapacitor 4 is full of, be lithium ion battery 3 chargings again; All the time according to the time, photovoltaic cell 1 does not have power output, at first is load 5 power supplies with ultracapacitor 4; When ultracapacitor 4 electric weight were not enough, lithium ion battery 3 was load 5 power supplies, was that ultracapacitor 4 replenishes electric weight simultaneously.
Charge management circuit mainly fills the comparison circuit that diode D1MBR1020 and D2MBR1020 constitute by 1/4LM339 comparator, peripheral resistance R 1~R3, PNP transistor K1 2N5401 and NPN transistor K2 2N5551, counnter attack to be realized.The comparator in-phase output end is connected with the 5V reference voltage source by peripheral resistance R 2, and end of oppisite phase links to each other with the positive pole of ultracapacitor 4 by peripheral resistance R 1, and peripheral resistance R 3 connects comparator output terminal and in-phase input end, forms positive feedback.Comparator 1/4LM339 and peripheral resistance R 1, R2, R3 form hysteresis comparator.Peripheral resistance R 1 is 15K Ω, and R2 is 10K Ω, and R3 is 15K Ω.The formed threshold value of hysteresis comparator is respectively 5V and 1V.The input voltage of comparator is the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor 4, is designated as Vc, and the output voltage of comparator is designated as Vo, and the transmission characteristic of comparator as shown in Figure 3.During charging, when the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor is lower than 5V, transistor K1 conducting, transistor K2 turn-offs, and the photovoltaic cell 1 preferential ultracapacitor 4 of giving charges.When the voltage of ultracapacitor 4 during more than or equal to 5V, ultracapacitor 4 is full of, and transistor K1 turn-offs, transistor K2 conducting, and no longer be ultracapacitor 4 chargings this moment, and be that lithium ion battery 3 charges.When the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor 4 drops to 1V, transistor K1 conducting, conducting is that the circuit of ultracapacitor 4 chargings is that ultracapacitor 4 replenishes electric weight again, transistor K2 turn-offs, and no longer is lithium ion battery 3 chargings.
The discharge management circuit is realized by the comparison circuit that 1/4LM339 comparator and peripheral resistance R 4~R6, PNP transistor K3 2N5401 constitute.1/4LM339 comparator in the discharge management circuit and the 1/4LM339 comparator in the charge management circuit are finished by the LM339 chip.The end of oppisite phase of comparator is by peripheral resistance R 4 and 4 anodal linking to each other of ultracapacitor, and the in-phase output end of comparator is connected with the 5V power supply by peripheral resistance R 5, and peripheral resistance R 6 connects output and in-phase input end, forms positive feedback.1/4LM339 and peripheral resistance R 4~R6 form hysteresis comparator.Peripheral resistance R 4 is 15K Ω, and R5 is 10K Ω, and R6 is 15K Ω.The formed threshold value of hysteresis comparator is respectively 1V and 5V, and transmission curve still as shown in Figure 3.During discharge, when ultracapacitor voltage during more than or equal to 5V, transistor K3 turn-offs, and is load 5 power supplies with ultracapacitor 4.When the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor 4 was lower than 1V, transistor K3 conducting was load 5 power supplies by lithium ion battery 3, can replenish electric weight for ultracapacitor 4 simultaneously.
Voltage stabilizing circuit is mainly realized by MAX866 chip and peripheral electric capacity thereof and inductance.MAX866 pin of chip 1 is by 47uF electrochemical capacitor C1 ground connection, and capacitor C 1 plays the effect of filtering; Be connected with inductance L between pin 1 and the pin 8, its value is 330uH; Pin 3 is by the peripheral capacitor C 2 back ground connection of 0.1uF; Connect diode D3 between pin 8 and the pin 6; Pin 2 ground connection, the realization system can export the 5V burning voltage, can provide burning voltage for load 5, can provide stable voltage source for the LM339 comparator again; The stable 5V voltage of pin 6 outputs is connected with the positive pole of load 5.
It is charge power supply that the embodiment of the invention adopts the monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, and area is 150mm * 80mm, and optimum operating voltage is 5.56V, and recommended current is 247.6mA.Mixed energy storage system adopts a joint lithium ion battery as energy storage device, and operating voltage is 3.7V, and the charging upper voltage limit is 4.2V, and the discharge lower voltage limit is 3V, and capacity is 1400mAh.Lithium ion battery be with lithium-ion electric core and protective circuit be packaged together have the self-protection function time energy storage device.Protective circuit comprises additives for overcharge protection, over and excess current protective function.It is energy storage device that mixed energy storage system adopts the bank of super capacitors of 2 joint ultracapacitor series connection, and series connection back ceiling voltage is 5.4V, and capacity is 70F.Adopt wireless sensor network node as operating load, the maximum power of pulse moment is 99mW, and the power of park mode is 16.5mW, and average power is 22.9mW.
Under the Based Intelligent Control of energy conservation circuit, ultracapacitor 4 is a main source of energy, and lithium ion battery 3 is a supplementary energy.Hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic system of the present invention has reduced the power consumption of lithium ion battery 3, therefore reduces the cycle-index of lithium ion battery 3, has prolonged its useful life; Ultracapacitor 4 is had the big advantage of the big advantage of power density and lithium ion battery 3 energy densities combine, make hybrid energy-storing photovoltaic system of the present invention have the advantages that power density is big, energy density is high, have extended cycle life.

Claims (4)

1. a lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system is characterized in that comprising photovoltaic cell (1), energy conservation circuit (2), lithium ion battery (3), ultracapacitor (4) and load (5); Photovoltaic cell (1) is the energy source of energy resource system, and lithium ion battery (3) and ultracapacitor (4) are used in combination as energy-storage system; Energy conservation circuit (2) comprises charge management circuit, discharge management circuit, voltage stabilizing circuit and each device interface; Photovoltaic cell (1), lithium ion battery (3), ultracapacitor (4) and load (5) are gone up corresponding device interface by energy conservation circuit (2) and are linked to each other with energy conservation circuit (2); During initial charge, ultracapacitor (4) terminal voltage is lower, and photovoltaic cell (1) is at first given ultracapacitor (4) charging; When ultracapacitor (4) when being full of, be lithium ion battery (3) charging again; All the time according to the time, photovoltaic cell (1) does not have power output, at first uses ultracapacitor (4) to be load (5) power supply; When ultracapacitor (4) electric weight was not enough, lithium ion battery (3) was load (5) power supply, was that ultracapacitor (4) replenishes electric weight simultaneously.
2. lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system according to claim 1 is characterized in that described charge management circuit mainly fills the comparison circuit that diode D1, D2 constitute by comparator LM339 and peripheral resistance R 1~R3, transistor K1, K2, counnter attack and realizes; The comparator end of oppisite phase links to each other by the positive pole of peripheral resistance R 1 with ultracapacitor (4), and in-phase output end is connected with the 5V reference voltage by the peripheral resistance R 2 of 10K Ω, and peripheral resistance R 3 connects comparator output terminal and in-phase input end, forms regenerative circuit; During charging, when the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor (4) is lower than 5V, transistor K1 conducting, transistor K2 turn-offs, and photovoltaic cell (1) is preferentially given ultracapacitor (4) charging; When the voltage of ultracapacitor (4) during more than or equal to 5V, ultracapacitor (4) is full of, and transistor K1 turn-offs, transistor K2 conducting, and no longer be ultracapacitor (4) charging this moment, and be that lithium ion battery (3) charges; When the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor (4) drops to 1V, transistor K1 conducting, transistor K2 turn-offs, and conducting is the circuit of ultracapacitor (4) charging again, by photovoltaic cell (1) is that ultracapacitor (4) replenishes electric weight, no longer is lithium ion battery (3) charging.
3. lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system according to claim 1 is characterized in that described discharge management circuit realized by the comparison circuit that 1/4LM339 comparator and peripheral resistance R 4~R6, transistor K3 constitute; The end of oppisite phase of comparator links to each other by peripheral resistance R 4 and ultracapacitor (4) are anodal, and the in-phase output end of comparator is connected with the 5V power supply by peripheral resistance R 5, and peripheral resistance R 6 connects the output and the in-phase input end of comparator, forms positive feedback; During discharge, when ultracapacitor voltage is equal to or greater than 5V, transistor K3 turn-offs, be load (5) power supply with ultracapacitor (4), when the terminal voltage of ultracapacitor (4) is lower than 1V, transistor K3 conducting is load (5) power supply by lithium ion battery (3), is ultracapacitor (4) charging simultaneously.
4. lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system according to claim 1, it is characterized in that voltage stabilizing circuit mainly realized by MAX866 chip and capacitor C 1, C2 and inductance L: MAX866 pin of chip 1 is by capacitor C 1 ground connection, and capacitor C 1 plays the effect of filtering; Be connected with inductance L between pin 1 and the pin 8; Pin 3 is by capacitor C 2 back ground connection; Connect diode D3 between pin 8 and the pin 6; Pin 2 ground connection; The stable 5V voltage of pin 6 outputs is connected with the positive pole of load (5).
CNB2007101788943A 2007-12-06 2007-12-06 Lithium ion battery-super capacitor mixed energy storage optical voltage system Expired - Fee Related CN100547851C (en)

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