A kind of integrated ecological method for breeding fry of reeves shad
The present invention relates to the seedling-cultivating method of hilsa herring, particularly a kind of according to cultured fishes biology and the environmental advanced method of cultivating the hilsa herring seedling of ecological principle formulation intensification.
Hilsa herring is one of most precious economic fish in China the Changjiang river.Since 70 years last century, influenced by many human factors, the hilsa herring population quantity sharply descends, and is on the verge of disappearance.Because U.S. hilsa herring (Americanshad, Alosa sapidissima) morphological feature, flesh quality and taste etc. are all quite similar with the Changjiang river hilsa herring, under the endangered situation of the Changjiang river hilsa herring, introduce U.S. hilsa herring and enter China market, selling price is very considerable, hundreds of per jin unit, even thousands of unit.Since two thousand three, China introduces nearly ten million fertilized egg from the U.S. every year, has formed the upsurge of culturing U.S. hilsa herring.Although cultured area and quantity enlarge year by year, accident takes place again and again, and the culturing reeves shads success rate is very low, and less than 10% has been brought irremediable economic loss to the raiser.The main cause of U.S.'s culturing reeves shads failure is that the early stage cultivation of hilsa herring is backward in technique, mainly shows not science of early stage open-mouthed bait series and nutrition, and tame and docile food method is improper, and condition of water quality is not suitable for, and causes excessive and the deadly or poor growth of hilsa herring seedling stress reaction.Although extensive pond ecologic breeding and seedling growing process had been invented in the past in bimillennium by China, but lack the intensive culture technology, the intensive seedling production technology is very few especially, and most of nurseries adopt traditional seedling growing process to cultivate the hilsa herring seedling, and the rate of growing seedlings is lower than 20%.Intensive seedling production technology according to cultured fishes biology and ecological principle development scientific system, the U.S. hilsa herring that research and development the are fit to China's actual conditions full ecological breeding technology that intensifies, not only help U.S.'s culturing reeves shads industry exploitation, and the ecological breeding technology among the present invention can be applied to the production of growing seedlings of other high-grade breed varieties, especially save endangered the Changjiang river hilsa herring, very wide application prospect is arranged.Cultivating 5,000,000 hilsa herring fry rearing scales with China in 2005 is example, if improve 20% survival rate of seedling, can increase about 1,000 ten thousand yuan profit.
Summary of the invention:
The purpose of the invention provides a kind of intensification degree height of growing seedlings, and cost is low, practicality easy and simple to handle, the survival rate of fish fry height, the hilsa herring that grows the rapidly full ecological breeding technology that intensifies to satisfy domestic culturing reeves shads technology requirement, improves Chinese intensive seedling production level.Mainly solve present hilsa herring and other breed varieties in the practice of interior intensive seedling production, ubiquitous survival rate is low, poor growth and the low technical bottleneck of production efficiency.Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of growth demand according to ecological principle and hilsa herring early development, the seedling-cultivating method of the ecosystem that the hilsa herring prelarva grows is satisfied in foundation, may further comprise the steps: in the indoor culture pond, add wheel animalcule culture pond water and EM probio, be light green or filbert in the nursery pond, transparency is 1.2～1.8 meters, wheel animalcule density maintains 10～20/milliliter, probio 40 * 10
8Individual/the cubic meter water body, fry density is 500～3000 tails/cube water body, and water temperature should be controlled at 18-28 ℃.Prelarva was at the 2nd～3 day initial feeding, and the most agreeable to the taste bait is 100～300 microns wheel animalcule and little cladocera, and food density should maintain 10～20/milliliter.At hilsa herring seedling opening in the time of the 4th～5 day, but addition portion split length is 300～500 microns cladocera or the artemia nauplii cultivated through clear water.When the fry body reaches 1.2～1.6cm, utilize fry phototaxis, 20～40cm place is provided with 60～100 watts of incandescent lamps above cultivating the pond, at night, lure fry to concentrate under the lamp, when knocking the can empty bottle, lightly 250～450 microns microcapsule feedstuffs are sprinkling upon on the water surface under the light, the hilsa herring seedling can be ingested on the top layer of water energetically.Tame and docile food through 4～5 days, fry can be set up the conditioned reflex of ingesting to tap-tap, throws something and feeds and can carry out the transition to daytime from night, at this moment, throws something and feeds every day 12～18 times.When body reaches the 2cm left and right sides, the hilsa herring seedling is in period of metamorphosis, be that decision is grown seedlings key of success period, need with being rich in DHA (DHA), the miniature worm of little nutrient components such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and carotenoid carries out fortification, and feeding volume is 10～20% of total feeding volume.Fry was through 30～40 days cultivation, and body length can reach 3.0cm, and at this moment, the hilsa herring seedling has been finished metamorphosis, becomes the summer flower fingerling, all relies on artificial feed, can sell transportation or change pond, net cage or cement pit over to and culture.Between nursery stage, jede Woche adds probiotics preparation, and probio content is 2 * 10
8～40 * 10
8Individual/the cubic meter water body, thus guarantee good water quality and suppressed pathogen growth.
Beneficial effect of the present invention mainly shows: 1, according to the growth demand and the ecological principle of hilsa herring early development, set up and satisfy the ecosystem that the hilsa herring newly hatched larvae grows.Mainly take following measure may further comprise the steps: in the indoor culture pond, to add wheel animalcule culture pond water and effective microorganism preparation, make to be light green or filbert in the nursery pond.The hilsa herring fry growth that is introduced as of wheel animalcule culture pond water provides warm ecotope.Because be rich in wheel animalcule, unit cell algae and EM probio in the water of wheel animalcule culture pond through fortification.Like this, the sufficient wheel animalcule through the nutrition reinforcement has been satisfied the nutritional need of hilsa herring seedling early growth; The unit cell algae is kept warm water colour and water quality for the hilsa herring seedling, reduces the stress reaction of hilsa herring seedling, and provides nutrition for wheel animalcule; The EM probiotics preparation include 5 sections 10 such as photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, actinomycetes, Bifidobacterium belong to 80 surplus the useful living flora of kind form, not only keep and be suitable for the good water quality that the hilsa herring seedling grows, suppress bacterial disease and take place, also provide nutritional supplementation for wheel animalcule.2, the process of growing according to the hilsa herring seedling is in time adjusted throw something and feed strategy and nutritional supplementation, makes the hilsa herring seedling when obtaining agreeable to the taste bait, and nutrition obtains suitable reinforcement.Especially grow period of metamorphosis at the hilsa herring seedling, need to add and be rich in DHA, the miniature worm of little nutrient components such as EPA and carotenoid is to guarantee its special dietary demand.3, according to the strong phototaxis of fry, when the fry body reaches 1.2～1.6cm, 20～40cm place is provided with 60-100 watt of incandescent lamp above cultivating the pond, carry out photo-induction and tame and docile food, knock the can empty bottle simultaneously, make hilsa herring in 4～5 day time, set up the conditioned reflex of ingesting, thereby solved hilsa herring effectively and tamed and dociled a difficult problem of eating, improved and tame and docile food efficient.4, the main advantage of the full ecological breeding of hilsa herring of the present invention system shows the survival rate of seedling height, and cost is low, practicality easy and simple to handle, and the fry growth is rapidly.In 200 cubes of indoor raising of seedling water bodys, cultivated 240,000 hilsa herring fingerlings in 2004, average every cube of water body 1200 tails of growing seedlings, survival rate reaches more than 60%; Cultivated 11.8 ten thousand hilsa herring fingerlings in 2005 in 60 cubes of indoor raising of seedling water bodys, average every cube of water body is cultivated 1966 tail fingerlings, and the rate of growing seedlings is 92%.
Technical scheme provided by the invention is that the demand by ecological principle and hilsa herring early growth and development combines, the ecosystem that the hilsa herring newly hatched larvae grows is satisfied in foundation, for the growth of hilsa herring seedling provides warm clear water ecotope, the fortification of science and throw something and feed strategy and skill.The interpolation of EM probio constantly improves water quality, suppresses bacterial disease and takes place, and also provides nutrition for food organisms.More than the reasonable combination of each factor, constitute the full ecological breeding of the hilsa herring system of science, the present invention not only is suitable for the hilsa herring intensive seedling production, also can be applicable to the production of growing seedlings of other high-grade breed varieties, comprises the fresh-water fishes of seawater flounder flounder class and various top grades.
Specific implementation process is as follows:
The preparation of nursery pond: in the indoor culture pond, add wheel animalcule culture pond water and EM probio, the latter is a kind of compound microecological active bacteria formulation of the eighties by day the present invention, water quality be can improve rapidly, defective material and animal wastes decomposed, suppress harmful germ growth and breeding, as " concentrating EM bacterium king " of the green treasured place bio tech ltd in Shenzhen.Make and be light green or filbert in the nursery pond.The hilsa herring fry growth that is introduced as of wheel animalcule culture pond water provides warm ecotope, because be rich in the wheel animalcule through fortification in the water of wheel animalcule culture pond, the unit cell algae is added probio and helps water correction, suppresses the invasion and attack of pathogenic bacteria.Wheel animalcule density maintains 10～20/milliliter, EM probio 40 * 10
8Individual/the cubic meter water body.
The raising of newly hatched larvae: it is 0.62～0.78cm that the hilsa herring prelarva hatches Shi Tichang, is 500～3000 tails/cube water body at the breeding density of nursery pond.The hilsa herring newly hatched larvae is weak, mobility is poor, needs to swim in water by miniflow water, at this moment, should evenly arrange gas stone in nursery pond, and microbubble makes nursery pond not have the dead angle, and like this, newly hatched larvae can be evenly distributed in the water.Under 20～24 ℃ temperature condition, prelarva was at the 2nd～3 day initial feeding, and the most agreeable to the taste bait is 100～300 microns wheel animalcule and little cladocera, and food density should maintain 10～20/milliliter.Rose in the 4th～5 day at hilsa herring seedling opening, but addition portion split length is 300～500 microns cladocera or artemia nauplii through the clear water cultivation.
The tame and docile food of starter diet: when the 2nd week that the hilsa herring seedling begins to ingest, the fry body reaches 1.2～1.6cm, and fry has strong phototaxis.If be in and open 60～100 watts of incandescent lamps night cultivating above the pond 20cm, fry is lured cluster under lamp, encloses light and is and rotatablely moves.At this moment, on the occasion of taming and dociling the good machine of food, 250～450 microns microcapsule feedstuffs of can under lamp, throwing something and feeding (Larval AP100 is produced by U.S. Zeigler company).Throw something and feed and should adhere to a small amount of tame and docile food strategy repeatedly, when knocking the can empty bottle, be sprinkling upon lightly on the water surface under the light, the hilsa herring seedling can be ingested on the top layer of water energetically.Through the training in a week, when hilsa herring can ingest conditioned reflex to the generation of metal tap-tap, can throw something and feed to carry out the transition to from night and throw something and feed daytime.Throw something and feed every day 12～18 times.
The fortification of period of metamorphosis: because 2cm hilsa herring seedling is in the abnormal critical period, quite high to nutrition and water quality requirement, domestic raiser is short in understanding to this, and lethality is very high, even entire PLA's destruction.During this period, jede Woche adds the EM probiotics preparation, strengthens water quality management, and probio content is 2 * 10
8～40 * 10
8Individual/the cubic meter water body.Meanwhile, need to add and to be rich in DHA, little nutrient components such as EPA and carotenoid raise bait, for example miniature worm (Cyclop-eeze is sold by U.S. Argent Chemical Laboratories).Miniature worm is a kind of copepoda that lives in the Arctic Ocean, the dried bait of making through the ultralow temperature drying, be rich in multiple DHA and EPA, especially carotenoid content reaches 7000ppm, and metamorphosis provides vital essential little trophic factors and antioxygenic property to the latter to the hilsa herring seedling.Feeding volume is 10～20% of total feeding volume.When the fry body reached 3.0cm, the hilsa herring seedling was finished metamorphosis.The hilsa herring seedling of this moment all relies on artificial feed, on the occasion of selling transportation or changing the best opportunity that pond, net cage or cement pit are cultured over to.
Water quality management between nursery stage and biological disease-preventing measure: between nursery stage, in the indoor culture pond, constantly add bait culture pond water and EM probio, make to be light green or filbert in the nursery pond.The hilsa herring fry growth that is introduced as of bait culture pond water provides warm ecotope, and suitable water colour lowers the stress reaction of hilsa herring seedling effectively.Be rich in bait in the water of bait culture pond, unit cell algae and probio are for keeping good water quality, the bait of fortification and good microbiologic population.