CN100437714C - Methods for driving electro-optic displays - Google Patents

Methods for driving electro-optic displays Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100437714C
CN100437714C CN 03813604 CN03813604A CN100437714C CN 100437714 C CN100437714 C CN 100437714C CN 03813604 CN03813604 CN 03813604 CN 03813604 A CN03813604 A CN 03813604A CN 100437714 C CN100437714 C CN 100437714C
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pulse
pixel
display
applied
refresh
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CN 03813604
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CN1659618A (en
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A·C·阿兰戈
G·M·丹纳
J·B·埃温
K·R·阿蒙森
R·W·泽纳
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伊英克公司
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Priority to US60/319,321 priority
Priority to US10/065,795 priority
Priority to US10/065,795 priority patent/US7012600B2/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/3433Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using light modulating elements actuated by an electric field and being other than liquid crystal devices and electrochromic devices
    • G09G3/344Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using light modulating elements actuated by an electric field and being other than liquid crystal devices and electrochromic devices based on particles moving in a fluid or in a gas, e.g. electrophoretic devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2300/00Aspects of the constitution of display devices
    • G09G2300/04Structural and physical details of display devices
    • G09G2300/0439Pixel structures
    • G09G2300/0443Pixel structures with several sub-pixels for the same colour in a pixel, not specifically used to display gradations
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/02Addressing, scanning or driving the display screen or processing steps related thereto
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • G09G2310/061Details of flat display driving waveforms for resetting or blanking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • G09G2310/065Waveforms comprising zero voltage phase or pause
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/02Improving the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/0204Compensation of DC component across the pixels in flat panels
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/02Improving the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/0247Flicker reduction other than flicker reduction circuits used for single beam cathode-ray tubes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/04Maintaining the quality of display appearance
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/38Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using electrochromic devices

Abstract

一种对具有至少一个像素的双稳电光显示器进行寻址的方法,包括:施加寻址脉冲以驱动所述像素到第一光学状态;在一段时间内保持所述像素不被驱动,由此允许所述像素呈现不同于第一光学状态的第二光学状态;向所述像素施加刷新脉冲,该刷新脉冲基本将所述像素恢复到第一光学状态,相对于寻址脉冲来讲该刷新脉冲较短。 A method of having at least one pixel addressing a bistable electro-optic display, comprising: applying address pulses to drive the pixel to the first optical state; holding period of time of the pixels are not driven, thereby allowing presenting a second optical state of the pixel different from the first optical state; refresh pulse is applied to the pixel, substantially restore the refresh pulse to the first optical state of the pixel with respect to the terms of the addressing pulse refresh pulse than short.

Description

用于驱动电光显示器的方法 A method for driving electro-optic displays

本发明涉及用于驱动电光显示器尤其是双穂电光显示器的方法和装置.本发明的方法和装里主要(虽然并不专门)用于驱动双穗电泳显示器. The present invention relates to electro-optic displays, especially for driving a method and apparatus for electro-optic displays bis panicles. The method and apparatus of the present invention was primarily (though not exclusively) for driving the electrophoretic display dual spike.

本申请涉及美国专利No. 6, 504, 524和Ko. 6, 531, 997.本申请还涉及共同悬而未决的闺际申谞PCT/US02/10267 (公开号No. WO 02/079869)和PCT/US02/37241. This application relates to U.S. Patent No. 6, 504, 524 and Ko. 6, 531, 997. The present application further relates to a co-pending international application Gui acquaintance PCT / US02 / 10267 (Publication No. No. WO 02/079869) and PCT / US02 / 37241.

此处所使用的应用于材料或显示器的术语"电光"是其在成像技术中的常规含义,指的是具有第一和笫二显示状态的材料,该第一和笫二显示状态的至少一种光学性质不同,通过向该材料施加电场使该材料从第一显示状态转变到第二显示状态.虽然该光学性质通常是人眼可感觉到的颜色,但是也可以是其它光学性质,诸如光学透射、反射芈、亮度、或由机器读取的显示、在可见范围之外的电磁波的反射芈变化意义上的赝色. The term herein applies to materials used in a display or "electro-optical" is its conventional meaning in the imaging art, it refers to a material having a first and a second display state, Zi, Zi of the first and second display state of at least one of different optical properties, by applying an electric field to a material to make the transition from the first material, a second display state to the display state. Although the optical property is typically color perceptible to the human eye, but may be another optical property, such as optical transmittance , reflection Mi, brightness, display or read by a machine, pseudo color on the reflecting Mi significance changes outside the visible range of the electromagnetic wave.

此处使用的术语"灰度状态"是其在成像技术中的常规意思,是 As used herein, the term "gray state" is meant in its conventional imaging techniques, it is

指介于像素的两个极端光学状态之间的状态,并不一定禽味这两个极端状态之间的黑白转变.例如,下面引用的多个专利和已公开的申请中描述了这样的电泳显示器,其中极端状态是白和深蓝,因而中间的"灰度状态"实际将是淡蓝色.事实上,如前所述,两个极端状态之间的转变也可能根本不是颜色上的变化. Refers to the state between the two extreme optical states between pixels, not black and white transition between these two extreme states certain avian taste. For example, a plurality of the patent applications referenced below have been disclosed and described in this electrophoresis monitor, where extreme states is white and deep blue, so the middle of the "gray state" would actually be pale blue. in fact, as previously described, a transition between the two extreme states may change in color is not.

此处使用的术语"双穗"和"双穗定性"是其在本领域中的常规念思,是指包括具有笫一和笫二显示状态的显示元件的显示器,所迷笫一和笫二显示状态至少有一种光学性质不同,使得任何给定元件通过具有有限持续时间的寻址脉冲被駔动成呈现其第一或第二显示状态,在寻址脉冲终止后,该状态将持续至少是改变该显示元件的状态所需寻址脉冲的最小持续时间的几倍时间,例如至少是四倍时间.在前述的共同悬而未决的序列号为No. 10/063236的申请中示出了: 一些基于粒子的能够显示灰度级的电泳显示器不仅在其极端的黑和白状态下穗定,并且在其中间灰度状态下穗定,另外一些类型的电光显示器同样如此.这种类型的显示器被恰当地称为"多穗"而不是双穗,但是为了方便起见本文中使用的术语"双穗"袭益双穗和多穗显示器.本文中使用的术语"冲击(impulse)" The term "double spike" and "qualitative double spike" which is a conventional concept in the art thinking, is meant to include a display element having Zi Zi and a second display state of the display, the two fans Zi and Zi different display state of at least one optical property, such that any given element is movable to present a powerful horse its first or second display state by the addressing pulse has a limited duration, after the termination of an address pulse, the state will persist for at least times the minimum time required for duration of the address pulse changes the state of the display element, for example at least four times the time of the co-pending application serial No. No. 10/063236 is shown in: Some based particles capable of displaying gray scale electrophoretic display only set spike at its extreme state of black and white and gray state in which the ear between a given number of another type of electro-optical display the same. properly display of this type referred to as "multi-spike" instead of double spike, but for convenience herein, the term "double spike" hit and multiple benefits double ear ear monitors. the term used herein "impact (Impulse)" 其常規意思:电压关于时间的积分.然而, 一些双穗电光媒质充当电荷传感器,对于这种媒质可以使用冲击的另一个定义,即电流关于时间的积分(等于所施加的总电荷).根据媒质充当电压-时间冲击传感器还是电荷冲击传感器,应当使用适当的关于冲击的定义.已知多种类型的双穗电光显示器. 一种类型的电光显示器是例如在美国专利No. 5, 808, 783、 5, 777, 782、 5, 760,761、 6, 054, 071、 6, 055, 091、 6, 097, 531、 6, 128, 124、 6, 137, 467和6,147, 791中所公开的旋转二色元件类型(rotating bichromal member)(虽然这种类型的显示器经常被称为"旋转二色球"显示器,但是由于在上述一些专利中旋转元件不是球状的,所以术语"旋转二色元件"更准确).这种显示器使用大量小体(典型的是球状或圃柱状)以及内部偶极子,这些小体具有光学特性不同的两个或更多部分.这些 Its normal meaning: the voltage integral with respect to time, however, a number of electro-optic media act as charge double spike sensor, another definition for the impact of such media can be used, i.e., current integration with respect to time (equal to the total charge applied) according to the medium. acts as a voltage - time of the impact sensor is an impact sensor charge, should use the appropriate definition of the impact of various types are known dual spike electro-optic display is a type of electro-optic displays, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 5, 808, 783, 5.. , 777, 782, 5, 760, 761, 6, 054, 071, 6, 055, 091, 6, 097, 531, 6, 128, 124, 6, 137, 467 and 6,147, 791 disclosed a rotating dichroic element type (rotating bichromal member) (although this type of display is often referred to as "rotation dichroic ball" display, but since the rotation of the spherical element is not in the above patents, the term "dichroic rotating element" is more accurate). this display uses a large number of bodies (Pu typically spherical or cylindrical) and internal dipoles, these bodies have two or more portions of different optical characteristics. these 体悬浮在基质中的充满液体的液泡中,这些液泡充满液体以便这些小体能自由旋转.向该显示器施加电场,该显示器的外表变化,因此旋转这些小体到各种位里并且改变通过观察表面所看到的小体的那些部分.另一种类型的电光媒质使用电致变色媒质,例如纳米铬(nanochromic)薄腹形式的电致变色媒质,其包括至少部分由半导电金属氣化物形成的电极以及多个附着在该电极上的能够可逆变色的染料分子;参见,例如,O,Regan, B.等Nature 1991, 353, 737;以及Wood, D. , Information Display, 18(3), 24 ( 2002年3月). 以及参见Bach, U.,等Adv. Mater. , 2002, 14 ( 11 ) , 845.在例如美国专利No. 6, 301, 038以及国际申请公布No. WO 01/27690中也描述了这种类型的纳米铬薄膜.数年来被大重研究和开发的另一种类型的电光显示審充基于粒子的电泳显示器,其中多个带电粒子在电场的影响 Bubble filled with liquid suspended in the matrix, these small bubble filled with liquid so that they rotate freely regeneration. Applying an electric field to the display, changes in the appearance of the display, thus rotating the bodies in various bits and changed by the viewing surface We see those portions of the bodies. another type of electro-optic medium using an electrochromic medium, such as nano chromium (nanochromic) thin web in the form of an electrochromic medium comprising at least partially formed of a semiconducting metal vapor and a plurality of electrodes deposited on the electrode capable of reversible color change of the dye molecules; see, e.g., O, Regan, B. et Nature 1991, 353, 737;, and Wood, D., Information Display, 18 (3) 24 (March 2002). see as well as Bach, U., et Adv. Mater., 2002, 14 (11), 845. published in example 6, 301, 038 and international application US Patent No. No. WO 01 in / 27690 also describes this type of nano-chromium thin film. years are another type of electro-optic display large heavy research and development based on trial charged particle electrophoretic display, wherein the plurality of impact of charged particles in an electric field 穿过悬浮液运动. 与液晶显示器相比较,电泳显示器的贡献在于具有良好的亮度和对比度、宽视角、状态双穗定性以及低功耗.然而,这些显示器的长期困像质量问题阻碍了它们的广泛使用.例如,构成电泳显示器的粒子趁向于沉降,导致这些显示器的服务寿命不够.大重转让给或以麻省理工(MIT)和B Ink公司申清的专利最近已经公布,它们描迷了封装的电泳媒质.这种封装的媒质包括大量小囊,其中每一个小囊本身包含内相以及环绕内相的囊壁,其中所述内相含有悬浮在液体悬浮媒质中的可电泳运动的粒子.通常,这些囊本身保存在聚合祐合剂中以形成位于两个电极之间的祐附层.例如,在 Through the suspension for movement compared with a liquid crystal display, electrophoretic display contribution that has good contrast and brightness, wide view angle, and a qualitative condition of the double spike low power consumption. However, as long-term quality of these displays trapped hindered their widely used, for example, particles constituting the electrophoretic displays to take advantage of the settlement, resulting in service life of these displays is not large or heavy to transfer to MIT (MIT) and B Ink Shen Qing company's patent has been published recently, they describe fans the encapsulated electrophoretic media. such encapsulated media comprise numerous small balloon, wherein the sachets each phase itself comprises the surrounding wall and the internal phase, wherein the internal phase suspended in a liquid suspending medium containing the electrophoretic motion can particles. typically, the capsules are themselves held in the polymerization mixture to form woo woo attachment layer positioned between two electrodes. For example, in

美国专利NO. 5, 930, 026; 5, 961, 804; 6, 017, 584; 6, 067,185; 6,118, 426; 6,120, 588; 6,120, 839; 6,124, 851;6,130, 77 3; 6, 130, 774; 6, 172, 798; 6, 177, 921; 6, 232, 950; 6, 249, 721; 6, 252, 564; 6, 262, 706; 6, 262, 833; 6, 300, 932; 6, 312, 304; 6, 312, 97 1; 6, 323, 989; 6, 327, 072; 6, 376, 828; 6, 377, 387; 6, 392, 785; 6, 392, 786; 6, 413, 790; 6, 422, 687; 6, 445, 374; 6, 445, 489; 6, 459, 41 8; 6, 473, 072; 6, 480, 182; 6, 498, 114; 6, 504, 524; 6, 506, 438; 6, 512, 354; 6, 515, 649; 6, 518, 949; 6, 521, 489; 6, 531, 997;6, 535, 197;6, 53 8, 801; 和6, 545, 291 以及美国专利申请公布No. 200210019081; 2002/0021270; 2002/0053900; 2002/0060321; 200 2/0063661; 2002/0063677; 2002/0090980; 2002/0106847; 2002/0113 770; 200210130832; 2002/0131147; 2002/0145792; 2002/0154382,20 02/0171910; 2002/0180687; 2002/0180688; 2002/0185378; 2003/001 1560; 2003/00118 U.S. Pat. NO 5, 930, 026;. 5, 961, 804; 6, 017, 584; 6, 067,185; 6,118, 426; 6,120, 588; 6,120, 839; 6,124, 851; 6,130, 773; 6 130, 774; 6 172, 798; 6 177, 921; 6 232, 950; 6 249, 721; 6 252, 564; 6 262, 706; 6 , 262, 833; 6, 300, 932; 6, 312, 304; 6, 312, 971; 6, 323, 989; 6, 327, 072; 6, 376, 828; 6, 377, 387; 6, 392, 785; 6, 392, 786; 6, 413, 790; 6, 422, 687; 6, 445, 374; 6, 445, 489; 6, 459, 418; 6, 473, 072; 6, 480 , 182; 6, 498, 114; 6, 504, 524; 6, 506, 438; 6, 512, 354; 6, 515, 649; 6, 518, 949; 6, 521, 489; 6, 531, 997 ; 6, 535, 197; 6, 538, 801; and 6, 545, 291, and U.S. Patent application publication No. 200210019081; 2002/0021270; 2002/0053900; 2002/0060321; 200 2/0063661; 2002/0063677; 2002/0090980; 2002/0106847; 2002/0113 770; 200,210,130,832; 2002/0131147; 2002/0145792; 2002 / 0154382,20 02/0171910; 2002/0180687; 2002/0180688; 2002/0185378; 2003/001 1560; 2003 / 00118 67; 2003/0011868; 2003/0020844; 2003/0025855; 2 003/0034949; 2003/0038755;,以及闺际申请7>布No. W0 99/67678; WO 00/05704; WOOO/20922; WO 00/26761; WO 00/38000; W0 00/38001; WO 00/36560; WO00/67110; WO 00/67327; WO 01/07961;和WO 01/08241中描述了这种类型的封装的媒质. 67; 2003/0011868; 2003/0020844; 2003/0025855; 2 003/0034949; Gui 2003/0038755 and international application ;, 7> Cloth No. W0 99/67678; WO 00/05704; WOOO / 20922; WO 00 / 26761; WO 00/38000; W0 00/38001; WO 00/36560; WO00 / 67110; WO 00/67327; WO 01/07961; and WO 01/08241 describes a package media of this type.

许多上迷专利和申请认识到在封装的电泳媒质中的围绕分离徵囊的壁可以用连续的相代替,因而产生所谓的聚合物分散的(polymer -dispersed)电泳显示器,其中电泳媒质包括多个电泳流体的分离的小滴以及聚合物材料的连续相,并且即使没有分离的囊膜与每个单独的小滴相关,但在这样聚合物分散的电泳显示器内的电泳流体的分离小滴也可以被认为是囊或徵囊;参见,例如前述的2002/0131147.因此,为了本申请的目的,这种聚合物分散的电泳媒质被认为是封装的电泳媒质的子类. Many patents and applications recognize that the fan in the wall of an encapsulated electrophoretic medium surrounding the bladder symptoms may be separated by a continuous phase in place, thereby producing a so-called polymer-dispersed (polymer -dispersed) electrophoretic display in which the electrophoretic medium comprises a plurality of the isolated droplets of an electrophoretic fluid and a continuous phase polymer material, and even without separate capsule associated with each individual droplets of electrophoretic fluid but small isolated within such a polymer-dispersed electrophoretic display may be dropwise is considered to be intrinsic bladder or bladder; see, for example, the aforementioned 2002/0131147 Thus, for purposes of this application, such polymer-dispersed electrophoretic media are regarded as sub-category of encapsulated electrophoretic media.

封装的电泳显示器通常不遭受传统电泳显示器件的聚集和沉淀失效模式,并且提供另外的优点,诸如能够将显示器涂布或印制在各种柔性和刚性基底上.(使用词语"印制"意在无限制地包括所有形式 Encapsulated electrophoretic display typically does not suffer aggregation and precipitation of a conventional electrophoretic display device failure modes, and provides additional advantages, such as a monitor can be coated or printed on a variety of flexible and rigid substrates. (The word "printing" is intended to in all forms, including, without limitation,

的印刷和涂布:诸如补块涂布(patch die coating ) 的预測量(pre -metered)涂布、缝昧或突起涂布、滑动或瀑布(cascade)涂布、 帘式淋涂;诸如刀在辊上(knife over roll)涂布、向前和逆转辊涂布的粘辊;照相凹板式涂布;浸渍涂布;喷涂;新月(迈eniscus)涂布;旋涂;刷涂;空气刀涂;丝网印刷工艺;静电印刷工艺;热印刷工艺、喷墨印刷工艺;以及其它类似技术.)罔此,所制造的显示器 Printing and coating: a coating patches (patch die coating) predicted amount (pre -metered) coating, slot coating ignorant or projections, a slide or waterfall (Cascade) coating, curtain coating such as a; as knife (knife over roll) coating, forward roll coating, and reverse roll coating on the roll; gravure coating; dip coating; spray coating; crescent (step eniscus) coating; spin coating; brush coating; air knife coating; silk screen printing processes; electrostatic printing processes; hot printing process, printing ink jet processes;., and other similar technology) indiscriminately this, the manufactured display

可以是柔性的.此外,由于显示媒质可以印刷(使用各种方法),显示器本身可以廉价地制造. May be flexible. Further, since the display media can be printed (using a variety of methods), the display itself can be inexpensively manufactured.

一种相关类型的电泳显示器是所谓的"徵单元电泳显示器".在微羊元电泳显示器中,带电粒子和悬浮流体不是密封在槺囊中而是保持在形成于栽体媒质(通常是聚合物膜)内的多个腔内.参见,例如, 国际申请公布No. WO 02/01281以及公开的美闺申请No. 2002-0075556 (都转让給Sipix Imaging, Inc.) Of A related type of electrophoretic display is a so-called "intrinsic electrophoretic display." Yang micro electrophoretic display element, and a suspension of charged particles in the fluid are not sealed capsule Kang but remain in the polymer formed in the planting body medium (usually a plurality of cavities within the films). see for example, international application publication No. WO 02/01281 discloses the beauty and boudoir application No. 2002-0075556 (both assigned to Sipix Imaging, Inc.)

虽然电泳显示器通常是不透明的(由于这些粒子基本阻挡可见光透过显示器)并且在反射模式下工作,但是电泳显示器可以在所谓的"快门模式(shutter mode)"下工作,该模式中粒子被安排在显示 Although electrophoretic display typically opaque (since the particles substantially block visible light through the display) and operate in a reflective mode, the electrophoretic display may be a so-called "shutter mode (shutter mode)" at work, the particles are arranged in a pattern display

器内横向运动使得显示器具有一个基本是不透明的显示状态和一个透光的显示状态.参见,例如,前迷的美国专利No.6,130,774和6, 172, 798,以及美闺专利No. 5, 872, 552、 6, 144, 361、 6, 271, 823、 6, 225, 971和6, 184,856.类似于电泳显示器,但是依赖于电场强度变化的介电泳显示器也可以在类似的棋式下工作;麥见美国专利No. 4, 418, 346.其它类型的电光显示器也能够在快门模式下工作. Such that the lateral movement of the display device having a substantially transparent state and a display state of a display of a light-transmissive. See, e.g., U.S. Patent No.6,130,774 and front fans 6, 172, 798, and US Patent No Gui . 5, 872, 552, 6, 144, 361, 6, 271, 823, 6, 225, 971 and 6, 184,856. similar to electrophoretic displays but rely on the change in electric field intensity of the dielectrophoretic display may be similar to chess formula working; see U.S. Pat wheat No. 4, 418, 346. other types of electro-optic displays are also capable of operating in shutter mode.

基于粒子的电泳显示器的双穗或多穗性能、以及其它电光显示審的类似性能,与传统液晶(LC)显示器的性能形成鲜明对照.扭曲向列液晶的性能不是双穗或多穗,而是充当电压传感器,使得向这种显 Based on two ear or ear particle electrophoretic display performance, and other electro-optical display similar behavior trial, and properties of conventional liquid crystal (LC) display is in sharp contrast to the performance of a twisted nematic liquid crystal is not double spike or ear, but acts as a voltage sensor, so that the significant

示器的一个像素施加給定电压会在该像素产生一个特定的灰度级,而与先前出现在该像素上的灰度级无关.此外,只在一个方向(从非透射或"暗"到透射或"亮")上驱动LC显示器,从比较亮的状态到比较暗的状态的反向转变是通过减小或消除电场实现.袭后,LC显示器的像素的灰度級对电场的极性不敏感,只对其大小敏感,且实际上出于技术原因,商业上的LC显示器通常以频繁的间隔将驱动电场的极性反转.与笫一近似相对照的是,双穗电光显示器充当冲击传感器,从而像素的最终状态不仅依賴于所施加的电场和施加该电场的时间,也依赖于在施加电场前该像素的状态.虽然前面已指出,电泳和其它类型的电光显示器表现双稳定性, 但是这种双稳定性并不是没有限制的,这类显示器上的田像随时间慢慢减弱,因而如果田像要保持长的周期,该困像必须周期 One pixel is shown applied to a given voltage generated in a specific gray level of the pixel, regardless of the previously appeared on the pixel gray level. Further, only in one direction (from non-transmissive or "dark" to transmitting reverse transition or "bright") driving the LC display, the relatively bright state to a dark state in comparison to reduce or eliminate electric field is achieved after the passage, LC display pixel gray level of the electric field polarity insensitive, sensitive only to their size, and in fact, for technical reasons, the LC display on at frequent intervals usually commercially driving field polarity inversion. Zi with a similar contrast, electro-optic displays act as a dual spike an impact sensor, so that the final state of a pixel depends not only on the applied electric field and the time of the applied electric field also depends on a state before an electric field is applied to the pixel. While the foregoing has been pointed out, electrophoresis, and other types of electro-optic displays exhibit bistability , but not without such bistability limit, such displays on the image field gradually decreases with time, so if the image field to maintain a long period, the image must be periodically trapped 剧新,以便将困像恢复到第一次写入时其具有的光学状态.然而,这种田像的刷新可能引起其自身的问題.正如前迷的美国专利No. 6, 531, 997和6, 504, 524所讨论的,如果駆动该显示器的方法不在整个电光媒质上产生为零(或接近零)的净时间平均施加电场, 可能会遇到问趙且该显示器的工作寿命减少.在整个电光媒质上产生为零的净时间平均施加电场的駔动方法通常是指"直流平衡"或"DC 平衡".如果通过施加刷新脉冲来长时间保持困像,則这些脉冲的极性需要与用于将该显示器的相关像素駔动到正在保持的光学状态的寻址脉冲的极性相同,这导致DC不平衡驵动方案.根据本发明的另一方面,已经发现如果使用短脉冲实现刷新,則可以刷新显示器上的困像,同时减少与DC不平衡駔动方案相关的有害效果.本发明的另一方面涉及处理这样的问趙:前迷的双穗电 The new drama, in order to recover the trapped like to write first optical state when it has, however, refresh fields like this can cause problems of its own. As fans of the former US Patent No. 6, 531, 997 and 6 , 504, 524 discussed above, if the method of the display Qu movable across the electro-optic medium does not produce a zero (or near zero) net time-averaged applied electric field may encounter Q Zhao and decrease the operating life of the display. in the method of generating powerful horse moving zero net optic medium over the entire time average electric field is applied generally refers to "DC-balanced" or "DC balance." trapped as if to long periods by application of the refresh pulse, the polarity of the pulses need for the same polarity associated pixel powerful horse to the movable optical state display being held address pulse, which results in powerful horse DC imbalanced action programs. according to another aspect, it has been found that if the refresh to achieve a short pulse , the image can be refreshed on the display trapped, while reducing the deleterious effects associated with DC imbalanced powerful horse moving another aspect the present invention relates to a process such as Q. Zhao: double spike electric fans before 先显示器的驱动要求致使用于驱动LCD的传统駔动方法不适于这种双穗电光显示器.此外,如前述美闺专利No. 6,531, 997和6, 504, 524所讨论的, 如果驱动该显示器的方法不在整个电光媒质上产生为零(或接近零) 的净时间平均施加电场,可能会遢到问趙且该显示器的工作寿命减少,在整个电光媒质上产生为零的净时间平均施加电场的驱动方法通常是指"直流平衡"或"DC平衡".LCD也会遇到类似的问趙,但是由于这类显示器对所施加的电场的极性不敏感,且随之具有能够随悉反转极性的能力,使得在LCD中DC平衡问趙不是很重要.然而,DC平衡的需要在设计双穗电光显示器(其中电光媒质对所施加的电场的极性敏感)的駔动方案中是重要考虑因素.因此,本发明的另一方面涉及駔动电光显示器的方法和装置,该方法和装置达到了前面讨论的双穗显示器的特殊要求. Driving the first display request causes the LCD driving method of the conventional movable powerful horse is not suitable for electro-optic displays such a double spike. Further, as described US Patent Gui No. 6,531, 997 and 6, 504, 524 discussed above, if the drive the method of generating the display is not zero (or close to zero) across the electro-optic medium net time-average electric field is applied, it may be messy to ask Zhao and reduce the operating life of the display, the time to produce a net zero over the entire electro-optic medium average the driving method of applying an electric field generally refers to a "DC-balanced" or "DC balance". LCD will encounter similar Zhao Q, but since such displays are not sensitive to the polarity of the applied electric field, and be able to follow along with He noted the ability of inverted polarity, so that the balance is not very important, Zhao Q in an LCD DC. However, the DC-balanced design needs a double spike electro-optic display (electro-optic medium which is sensitive to the polarity of the applied electric field) is movable powerful horse program It is an important consideration. Thus, another aspect of the present invention relates to a method and apparatus powerful horse movable electro-optic displays, the method and apparatus to achieve the dual requirements of special ear monitors previously discussed. 发明的某些方法和装置主要用于在双稳显示器中产生精确的灰度级再现.因此,在一方面,本发明提供了用于寻址具有至少一个傢素的双 Some methods and apparatus of the invention is mainly used to produce accurate gradation reproduction bistable display. Accordingly, in one aspect, the present invention provides a method for addressing family pigment having at least one bis

穗电光显示器的方法,该方法包括:施加寻址脉冲以驱动所述像素到第一光学状态; Ear electro-optic display method, the method comprising: applying address pulses to drive the pixel to the first optical state;

在一段时间内保持所述像素不被驱动,由此允许所述像素呈现不同于第一光学状态的笫二光学状态; The pixel within a holding period of time is not driven, thereby allowing the second optical state of the pixel Zi presentation different from the first optical state;

向所迷像素施加刷新脉冲,该刷新脉冲基本将所述像素恢复到第一光学状态,相对于寻址脉冲来讲该刷新脉冲较短. Refresh pulse is applied to the pixel of the fans, the refresh pulse substantially restoring the first optical state to a pixel, with respect to the terms of the addressing pulses shorter refresh pulse.

在下文中为了方便起见本发明的这一方面被称为本发明的"刷新 Hereinafter for convenience, this aspect of the present invention, the present invention is referred to as "Refresh

脉冲"方法《 Pulse "method"

在该刷新脉冲方法中,剧新脉冲的冲击通常不大于寻址脉冲的冲击的约20%,理想的是不大于该冲击的约10%,且优选不大于该冲击的5%.由于如下所解幹的原闳,通常笫一和第二光学状态之间的差別不超过大约一个单位的L'(其中L'具有通常的CIE定义);理想的是该差別不超过大约0. 5个羊位的L',且优选不超过大约0. 2个单位的I/.可以以规則间隔向该像素施加多个刷新脉冲. In the refresh pulse method, the impact of a new pulse drama generally no greater than the impact of the address pulse to about 20%, preferably not more than about 10% of the impact, and preferably no more than 5% of the impact Since follows Solutions of the dry original Hong, generally the difference between Zi and a second optical state no more than about one unit of L '(wherein L' has the usual CIE definition); the difference is preferably no more than about 0.5 sheep at position L ', and preferably no greater than about 0.2 units I /. can be refreshed at regular intervals a plurality of pulses applied to the pixel.

在该刷新脉冲方法的一种形式中,在施加剧新脉冲之后,向该显示器施加第二寻址脉冲,该笫二寻址脉冲驱动该像素到不同于笫一和第二光学状态的第三光学状态,且其中由第二寻址脉冲所施加的冲击是以下两項之和:(a )将该像素从笫一光学状态驱动到第三光学状态所需的冲击,和(b)与在第一和第二寻址脉冲之间施加到该像素上的刷新脉冲的代数和大小相等且极性相反的一个冲击.第二寻址脉冲可能是电压恒定但是持续时间变化.在包括多个像素的显示器中,第二寻址脉冲可以是消1*脉冲,其将该显示器的所有像素驱动到一个极端 In one form of the third refresh pulse method, after applying a new pulse increased, a display is applied to the second address pulse, the address pulse driving two Zi to the pixel is different from a sleeping mat and a second optical state optical states, and wherein the impact by the second address pulse is applied to the sum of the following two: (a) from the pixel driving Zi optical state to a third impact desired optical state, and (b) and in first and second address pulses applied between equal to the algebraic sum of the magnitude the refresh pulse and the pixel polarity opposite to a shock. the second address pulse voltage may be constant but the duration variations in a plurality of pixels in the display, the second addressing pulse may be 1 * cancellation pulse, which drives all of the pixels of the display to a terminal

的光学状态.在这种"消隐脉冲/刷新脉冲"处理的一个优选形式中, 该显示器包括多个像素,笫一寻址脉冲施加到每个像素以便驱动第一组像素成白且第二组像素成黑,至少一个刷新脉冲施加到每个像素, The optical state in this' blanking pulse / pulse refresh "process in a preferred form of the display comprising a plurality of pixels, an address pulse to the undertaking of each pixel for driving a first set of pixels into white and the second set of pixels into a black refresh pulse is applied to the at least one for each pixel

且之后向该显示器施加使得所有像素变束的第一消隐脉冲、以及駔动 And thereafter applied to the display such that all of the first pixel becomes blanking pulse beam and moving powerful horse

所有像素成白的第二消隱脉冲,这两个消隐脉冲以任何顺序施加均可.在第一消隐脉冲期间施加到每个第一組的像素的冲击是以下两項之和:(a)驱动该像素从白到黑所需的冲击,和(b)与在第一寻址脉 All the pixels into white second blanking pulses, two blanking pulses may be applied in any sequence. Impact applied to each first group of pixels is the sum of two pulses during the first blanking :( a) driving the pixel impact required from white to black, and (b) a first addressing pulse with

冲和笫一消脉脉冲之间施加到该像素的刷新脉冲的代数和大小相等但极性相反的一个冲击.类似,在第二消咪脉冲期间施加到每个第二组的像素的冲击是以下两项之和:(a)驱动该像素从凰到白所需的冲击, 和(b)与在笫一寻址脉冲和笫一消BI脉冲之间施加到该像素的刷新脉冲的代数和大小相等但极性相反的一个冲击.本发明的刷新脉冲方法可以用于前述的任何类型的电光媒质.因此,在该方法中,显示器可以是旋转二色元件或电致变色显示器,或者电泳显示器,理想的是封装的电泳显示器.另一方面,本发明提供一种用于寻址双稳电光媒质的方法,该方法包括向该媒质施加具有直流偏移(offset)的交流脉冲.另一方面,本发明提供了一种寻址双穗电光媒质的方法,该方法包括向该媒质施加交流脉冲,以及改变该脉冲的頻率和占空度中的至少一个,从而随该 Zi is applied between a punch and consumption clock pulse equal to the algebraic refresh pulse and the pixel size of a shock but opposite polarity. Similarly, during a second pulse is applied to eliminate the impact imidazol each second pixel group are and two of the following: (a) driving an impact from the pixel to white Huang required, and (b) the algebraic refresh pulse applied to the pixel and the address pulse between Zi and Zi cancellation pulse BI equal but opposite to the polarity of a shock. refresh pulse method of the present invention may be used in any type of the electro-optic medium. Thus, in this method, a display element may be a rotating dichroic or electrochromic display, or electrophoretic display , is preferably encapsulated electrophoretic display. another aspect, the present invention provides a method for addressing a bistable electro-optic medium, the method comprising applying an AC pulse having a DC offset (offset) to the medium. hand the present invention provides a double spike addressing electro-optic medium, the method comprising applying an AC pulse to the medium, and varying the frequency of the pulse duty cycle and at least one, so that with 交流脉冲改变该电光媒质的光学状态.另一方面,本发明提供駔动双穗电光显示器的方法,该显示器包括排列成多个行和多个列的多个像素;多个行电极,每一个行电极与该多个行之一相关;多个列电极,每一个列电极与该多个列之一相关;以及駔动装置,被安排用于依次选择行电极中的每一个并且在任何给定行电极的选择期间向列电极施加所选择的电压,以便寻址与所选择的行电极相关的行中的像素以及在该显示器上写入所需要的困像的一行,该方法包括:将笫一闺像写入显示器;接收代表将要写到该显示器上的笫二困像的数据; 比较该第一和第二困像并且将该显示器的行分为第一組和第二组,在第一组的行中笫一和第二困像之间的至少一个像素不同,在第二組的行中笫一和第二困像之间像素相同;以及通过只顺序选择与笫一组行相关的行电极来 AC pulse changes the optical state of the electro-optic medium to another aspect, the present invention provides a method of moving the powerful horse double ear electro-optic display, the display comprising a plurality of pixels arranged in a plurality of rows and columns; a plurality of row electrodes, each of row electrodes associated with one of said plurality of rows; a plurality of column electrodes, the column electrodes associated with each one of said plurality of column; powerful horse, and actuating means, arranged for sequentially selecting each of the row electrodes and at any given a given row selection period is applied to the column electrode voltage electrode is selected, a row address to the row electrodes associated with the selected row of pixels is written on the display and the required trapped image, the method comprising: Gui Zi written to the display image; receiving data to be written on behalf of Zi two trapped on the image of the display; difficulties comparing the first and second display image and the row into a first group and a second group in row of the first group of at least one pixel of a difference between Zi and second trapped image, the pixel rows of the second group and the same or a second sleeping mat trapped image; and Zi by simply sequentially selecting a group of rows with related to the row electrodes 入第二困像,并且施加电压到列电极以只写笫一组行,从而在该显示器上形成第二田像另一方面,本发明提供具有多个像素的电光显示器,这些像素中的至少一个包括面积相互不同的多个子像素,该显示器包括駆动装置, 被安排用于相互独立地改变所述子像素的光学状态.在这种显示器中, 理想的是这些子像素中的至少两个子像素其面积基本相差2倍.现在将参瓶附闺描迷本发明的优选实施例,但是优选实施例仅仅是示例性的,附困中:闺1的曲线困示出了使用具有脉冲长度调制的直流脉冲寻址的显 Trapped into the second image, and applying a voltage to the column electrode Zi, a set of write-only row, another aspect, the present invention provides an electro-optic display having a plurality of pixels to form a second image on the display field, these pixels at least comprising a plurality of mutually different areas of sub-pixels, the display including Qu actuating means, independently of each other are arranged for changing the optical state of the sub-pixels in such a display, it is desirable that at least two of these sub-subpixels pixel area thereof substantially differ twice now reference bottle attaching the Inner described fan preferred embodiment of the invention, but the preferred embodiments are merely exemplary, with difficulties in: curve Gui 1 trapped illustrates the use of a pulse length modulation DC were pulsed addressing

示器中灰度级随时间的变化; It is shown in a gray level change with time;

田2的曲线困类似于困1,是使用具有脉冲离度调制的直流脉冲寻址的显示器的灰度级随时间的变化; 2 trapped field profile similar to a storm, a DC pulse having a pulse monitor address from modulation of the gray level versus time;

困3的曲线困类似于困1,是根据本发明使用具有直流偏移的交流脉冲寻址的显示器的灰度级随时间的变化; 3 is similar to trapped trapped trapped curve 1, using the gray level addressing of the AC pulse having a DC offset change with time of a display in accordance with the present invention;

困4的曲线困类似于困1,是根据本发明使用具有占空度调制的交流脉冲寻址的显示器的灰度鈒随时间的变化; 4 a graph similar to trapped trapped trapped 1, a germanium change over time according to the present invention using a gray scale addressing pulses alternating the duty cycle of the modulation of the display;

困5的曲线围示出了使用双预脉冲幻灯(slideshow)波形寻址的显示器中灰度級随时间的变化; 5 is a graph illustrating trapped around the slide using double-prepulse (Slideshow) addressed display waveform change in gray level over time;

困6的曲线困示出了在使用羊预脉冲幻灯波形寻址的显示器中灰度級随时间的变化; Curve trapped trapped 6 shows a change in the display using sheep prepulse slide show waveform addressable gray level over time;

困7A和7B示出了本发明的显示器的单个像素内的子像素的可能排列. 7A and 7B trapped illustrate possible arrangements of sub-pixels within a single pixel of the display of the present invention.

如前已经指出,本发明提供了寻址电光媒质和显示器的方法、以及这些显示器的结构的许多改进.现在将顺序描迷本发明的各个方面, 但是应当认识到单个电光媒质或显示器可以利用本发明的不止一个方面.例如,单个电光显示器可以使用具有DC偏移的AC脉冲駆动,并且也使用刷新脉冲. As already indicated, the present invention provides addressing electro-optic medium and a display method, and many of these displays improved structure will now be sequentially described various aspects of the present invention, the fan, it should be appreciated that a single display may use electro-optic medium or present more than one aspect of the invention. For example, a single electro-optic display may have a DC offset using an AC pulse Qu movable, and also uses refresh pulse.

本发明的刷新脉冲方法 Refresh pulse method of the present invention

如前所述,本发明提供一种方法,该方法通过向电光显示器施加短刷新脉冲来刷新该显示器上的困像.因此,在本发明的方法中,首先向双穗显示器的傢素施加寻址脉冲,该寻址脉冲足以改变该像素的光学状态.在保持该显示器不被驱动一段时间后,向该像素施加刷新脉冲,该刷新脉冲相对于该寻址脉冲较短.通常,刷新脉冲所施加的冲击不大于寻址脉冲所施加的冲击的20% (理想的是不大于10%,且优选不大于5% ).例如,如果像素需要持续500毫秒(msec)的15V 的寻址脉冲,刷新脉冲可以是15V、持续10毫秒(msec),其冲击是寻址脉冲的冲击的2%. As described above, the present invention provides a method by applying a short pulse to the electro-optical display refresh to refresh the image on the display trapped. Thus, in the present process, first, the double spike applied to the display element searching home addressing pulse, an address pulse sufficient to change the optical state of the pixel. after the holding period the display is not driven, is applied to the pixel refresh pulse, the pulse with respect to the refresh address short pulses generally, refresh pulses an impact shock is applied is not greater than the address pulses applied to 20% (preferably not more than 10%, and preferably less than 5%). For example, if a pixel needed for 500 milliseconds (msec) address pulse of 15V, refresh pulse may be 15V, for 10 milliseconds (msec), the impact shock of the 2% address pulse.

应当考虑人眼对突然的光学状态的橄小变化的灵敏度来调整该方法中刷新脉冲的时间.人眼对于困像的逐渐袭减有相对的忍耐性,使得,例如,通常测量作为亮度L'(由通常的CIE定义来定义;参见,例如Hunt,RW-G. Measuring Color,3rd edition, Fountain Press,Kingston-upon-Thames, England (1998). (ISBN 0 86343 387 1) )的所需时间的电光媒质的双穗定性,从寻址脉冲结束之后观察到的白色光学状态的最大值(或,豕色状态的最小值)变化两个单位.然而, 当向显示器施加刷新脉冲时,相关像素的亮度发生突然变化,并且基本小于1单位L'的突变是易于被人眼察觉的.根椐剧新脉冲之间的间隔,由这些脉冲引起的困像的变化可能在困像中表现为"闪烁",这种闪烁对于大部分观察者来说是讨厌的.为了遊免这种闪烁或者由刷新脉冲引起的困像中的其它可察觉变化,期望的是选择寻址脉冲和第一 Sensitivity of the human eye olive small changes to sudden optical state should be considered to adjust the time which refresh pulses human eye for progressive passage trapped image reduction relative to patience, such that, for example, generally measured as the luminance L ' (defined usually defined by the CIE; see, for example, Hunt, RW-G Measuring Color, 3rd edition, Fountain Press, Kingston-upon-Thames, England (1998) (ISBN 0 86343 387 1)..) the time required for double spike qualitative electro-optic medium, (or a minimum value, hog colored state) is the maximum value of the white optical state viewed from the end of the address pulses to the two units change. However, when the refresh pulse is applied to the display, the pixels associated sudden change in luminance, and is substantially less than 1 unit mutant L 'is easily perceived by human eye. as noted in the interval between pulses new drama, trapped image changes caused by these pulses may appear in the image as the storm " flashing ", which for most flicker is annoying the viewer. to avoid this travel perceptible flicker or other like variations caused by trapped in the refresh pulse, it is desirable to select the first pulse and the address 新脉冲之间的间隔或连续的剧新脉冲之间的间隔,使得每个刷新脉冲在困像中引起最小的变化.因此,由单个刷新脉冲引起的L'的变化应当小于大约1羊位L',理想的是小于大约0. 5单位,并且更优选的是小于大约0. 2单位.虽然本方法中使用的刷新脉冲会在施加该刷新脉冲期间在驱动方案中引入一些DC不平衡,但是不排除在该駔动方案中获得长期的DC 平衡,且已经发现长期而非短期的DC平衡是决定电光显示器的工作寿命的主要因素,为了获得这种长期的DC平衡,在施加一个或多个刷新脉冲后,已经接收到这些刷新脉冲的像素通过"转換"或第二寻址脉冲可被驱动到其相反的光学状态,且可以调整在该转换寻址脉冲中施加的冲击以在自从第一寻址脉冲开始的整个周期上提供DC平衡(或者至少最小DC不平衡),该调整是通过调整该第二寻址脉冲的冲击,其中调整 Intervals or spacing between successive pulses new play between the new pulse, so that each refresh pulse causing a minimal change in the trapped image. Thus, variation caused by the single refresh pulse L 'should be less than about 1 L bits sheep ', preferably less than about 0.5 units and more preferably less than about 0.2 units. introduce some DC imbalanced drive scheme in a period during which the refresh pulses will be used in the present process in the refresh pulse is applied, but does not exclude a long-term DC balance powerful horse moving the embodiment, it has been found long and short term DC balance is not the major factor in determining the working life of electro-optic displays, in order to obtain such a long term DC balancing, in applying one or more pulse refresh, the refresh pulse has been received, the pixels may be driven to its opposite optical state by "converting" address or a second pulse, it can be adjusted and the impact applied to the converted address since the first pulse DC balance to provide (or at least minimize DC imbalanced) over the entire period of the pulse of a start address, which is adjusted by adjusting the second addressing pulse impact, wherein adjusting 大小等于且极性相反于在这两个寻址脉冲之间施加到该像素的刷新脉沖的代数和.例如,考虑一个显示器,其能够通过施加士15V、 500毫秒(msec)的冲击而在白和,豕光学状态之间转变.假设该显示器的像素首先通过施加500毫秒(msec)的+ 15V冲击而从X变白, 且该像素的白状态随后通过每隔一段时间施加10毫秒(msec )的+ 15V 的10个刷新脉冲而被保持.如果在这10个刷新脉冲后,期望使该像素回到其黑色光学状态,这可以通过施加600(而不是500)毫秒(msec )的-15V寻址脉冲来实现,因而在该像素的整个黑-白-,聚转变期间全部实现了DC平衡.转变寻址脉冲的这种类型的调整可以在新闺像写在该显示器上并且因此必须改变某些像素的光学状态时实现.或者,可以在向该显示器施加"消樣脉冲"期间进行该调整.如前述的PCT/US02/37241中所讨论的,通常必须或期望以规到时间间隔向 Equal in size and opposite in polarity between the two addressing pulses applied to the algebraic refresh pulse and the pixel. For example, consider a display, which is able Shi Jiashi 15V, 500 millisecond (msec) to the impact of the white and a transition between optical states hog. assuming that the first pixel of the display 500 milliseconds (msec) by applying a + 15V impact whitened from X, and the white state of the pixel is then applied to 10 milliseconds (msec) intervals by the + 15V refresh pulse 10 is maintained. If after this refresh pulse 10, it is desirable that the pixel back to its black optical state, which by applying 600 (instead of 500) milliseconds (msec) to find the -15V address pulse is achieved, so that the entire pixel is black - white - during the transition all achieved a polyethylene of this type of DC balanced transition of the address pulse may be adjusted to write the image on the display in the new and therefore must be changed in a Gui these optical state achieved when the pixel. Alternatively, can be applied during the "sampling pulse cancellation" this adjustment to the monitor as the aforementioned PCT / US02 / 37241 discussed, generally be desirable to regulate or to the time interval 光显示器施加所谓的"消隐脉冲";这种消睢脉冲包括首先将该显示器的所有像素駆动到一个极端光学状态(例如,白状态),然后駔动所有的像素到相反的光学状态(例如,累),然后写所需要的困像.在消隐脉冲期间实现该调整的优点在于,所有像素可以基本在同一时间被DC平衡的;使用前面已经详述的技术,在先前的困像(消隐脉冲之前刚刚出现的田傢)中是風色的像素在将所有像素驱动成白的消隐脉冲期间可以是DC平衡的,而在先前的困像中是白色的像素在将所有像素驱动成,色的消隗脉冲期间可以是DC平衡的.同样,在消隐脉冲期间实现该调整的优点在于,不需要明确知道自从其先前的寻址脉冲开始,每个单独的像素接收了多少剧新脉冲;假设每隔相同的时间间隔刷新烹色和白色像素(事实情况通常如此),并且在每次困像转变时插入消隐脉冲, Light emitting display applying the so-called "blanking pulses"; Sui this negative pulse involves first of all the pixels of the display to a movable Qu extreme optical state (e.g., white state), then the powerful horse moving all the pixels to the opposite optical state ( For example, tired), and then writing the desired image trapped advantages achieved during this adjustment blanking pulse that substantially all the pixels may be at the same time DC balanced; using techniques previously described in detail, as in the previous storm (Tian occurs just before the erasing pulse) of the wind during the pixel color white blanking pulse driving all the pixels to be DC balanced, whereas in the previous image is trapped in the all pixel white pixel drive into, during the color erasing pulses may Kui DC balanced advantage Likewise, the adjusted realized during the blanking pulses that clearly does not need to know its previous addressing pulse since the start of the reception of each individual pixel number drama the new pulse; the same every time the refresh interval is assumed cooking and white pixels (the fact that usually the case), and inserted into blanking pulse at each image into the storm, 每个像素在该消隐脉冲期间将需要相同的调整(除了极性之外),该调整 Each pixel in the blanking pulses during the same adjustment will be required (except polar), the adjustment

由自从该先前的消隐脉冲起施加到该显示器上的刷新脉冲的数量决定.同样,在消隐脉冲期间实现DC平衡提供了一种将该刷新脉冲方法应用于具有多于两个灰度鈒的电光显示器的方式,因为在这种显示器中调整灰-灰转变期间施加的冲击明显可能导致灰度級的不想要的误差 Since this is determined by the previous blanking pulse is applied to the refresh pulse number on the display. Similarly, to achieve DC balance is provided more than one kind of the two gray germanium method applied to a refresh pulse during a blanking pulse electro-optic display manner, since the adjustment in such displays gray - impact applied during the transition gray gradation significant errors may cause unwanted

本发明的刷新脉冲方法可以用作增加电光媒质的双穗定性的添加刑的替代物或与其结合.例如,本发明可以与前迷的2002/0180687中描述的电泳媒质一起使用,该媒质具有其中有溶解的或分散的聚合物 Refresh pulse method of the present invention can be used to increase the added penalty double ear qualitative optic medium or in conjunction alternative. For example, the present invention may be used with electrophoretic medium described before fans 2002/0180687, wherein the medium has there are dissolved or dispersed polymers

的悬浮液,其中该聚合物增加媒质的双穗定性. Suspension, wherein the polymer is increased qualitative double spike medium.

现在给出下面的例子,仅仅通过说明的方式,示出本发明的刷新 The following examples are now given, by way of illustration only, the present invention is shown refreshing

脉冲方法的一个实施例. 例1 Embodiment of a pulse method. Example 1

该例子使用含有封装的双粒子反电荷型媒质的显示器,该媒质包括聚合物涂教的氣化钛白色粒子和聚合物涂敷的黑色粒子,且悬浮液未着色.该显示器基本根据前迷的2002/01,7的第[0061〗-[0068] 段中描述的"方法B"制备. The use of a display example of two particles of opposite charge type package containing medium, the medium comprises polymer coated titanium white teaching gasification polymer coated particles and black particles, and the suspension was not colored. The display base according to the preceding fans 2002 / 01,7 paragraphs [0061〗 - [0068] preparation "method B" described in paragraph.

如前所述制备的显示器,包括多个像素,能够使用持续500毫秒(msec)的士15V寻址脉冲使这些像素在黑色和白色光学状态之间转变.该显示器的双穗定性有限,在周围环境中白色光学状态改变2I/单位所需要的时间仅约15sec.然而,经验上确定通过施加4sec/min的il5V 的短刷新脉冲(占空度近似为6. 7% )可以无限期地保持该白色和,色光学状态.为了提供现实的測试以及在这些实验中使用的标准困像(含有黑色和白色区域)中避免闪烁,在开始的500毫秒(msec)寻址脉冲之后,每隔大约100毫秒(msec)向该显示器的,豕色和白色像素施加7毫秒(迈sec)持续时间的士15V的刷新脉冲. Prepared as previously described display including a plurality of pixels, it can be used for 500 msec (msec) so that these address pulses taxi 15V pixel transitions between the black and white optical states. Qualitative double spike of the display is limited around white optical state of the environment change time 2I / units require only about 15sec. However, the determination may be maintained by a short refresh pulse is applied 4sec min il5V / (the duty cycle is approximately 6.7%) indefinitely empirically and white, the color optical state. to provide a realistic test and standard trapped as used in these experiments (black and white containing areas) to avoid flicker after 500 milliseconds (msec) the address of the start pulse, about every 100 milliseconds (msec) to the display, applying a hog and white pixels 7 ms refresh pulse (step sec) the duration of the taxi 15V.

为了确定显示器上DC不平衡駔动方案的各个周期的效果,測试了4种駔动方案: To determine the effect on the display of each cycle DC imbalanced powerful horse action programs, test four powerful horse action programs:

方案480: Program 480:

使用所迷标准田像对该显示器寻址,且使用前述的刷新脉冲将该困像保持480分钟.然后施加一系列消眯脉冲,且重复寻址和刷新脉冲的循环.任何时候都不施加DC平衡脉冲.83小时妁工作之后,施加一系列的消隐脉冲,并且然后测试该显示器的分别已经是白色和黑色的分离的区域.在测试期间已经被保持为白色的该显示器的区域在下面的表中用"480W"表示,而已经是里色的区城用"480D"表示.通过标准的500毫秒(msec)的寻址脉冲将每个被测试的区域駔动到其白色光学状态,并且測量其百分比反射率值;该值在表中用"w%"表示.然后允许每个被测试的区域在不施加任何刷新脉冲的愔况下保持15sec,在该15秒的间隔之后测量L'的变化;所得到的L'的变化称作"亮保持差別(bright holding difference)",在所述表中用"bhdl "表示.在施加另外的消眯脉冲之后,通过标准的500毫秒(msec) The fans used as the standard display addressing field, and the use of the refresh pulse remains trapped as 480 minutes and then applies a series of pulses squint elimination, and addressing and refresh pulse repetition cycle. No time applying DC after equilibration pulse .83 hours Shuo work, a series of blanking pulse is applied, and then a test of the display white and black, respectively, has been isolated region. has been held during the test as a white area of ​​the display in the following table with "480W" denotes, in the city area and the already-colored with "480D" represented by a standard 500 milliseconds (msec) of each of the address pulse zone to be tested powerful horse moving its white optical state, and measuring the percentage reflectance value; the value in the table with "w%" represents the region and allowing each tested without applying any yin case holding 15sec refresh pulse measured after the L at intervals of 15 seconds'. change; a change of the obtained L 'is referred to as "light to maintain the differential (bright holding difference)", in the table with "bHDL" indicates after applying further erasing pulses squint by standard 500 milliseconds (msec. ) 寻址脉冲将每个被測试的区域驱动到其黑色光学状态,并且测量其百分比反射率值;该值在所述表中用"d%"表示.然后允许每个被測试的区域在不施加任何刷新脉冲的情况下保持15秒,在该15秒的间隔之后测量L'的变化,所得到的L'的变化称作"暗保持差别",在所迷表中用"dhdl"表示. Each address pulse test region driven into its black optical state, and measuring the percentage reflectance value; the value in the table with "d%" represents the region and allow each tested. without applying any changes refresh holding pulse 15 seconds, measured after the L intervals of 15 seconds 'changes, the resulting L' is referred to as "dark holding differences" in the table with the fan "dhdl" represents .

方案60: Program 60:

该方案与方案480相同,只是在施加消隐脉冲之前困像只保持60 分钟.在该測试周期期间保持为白色的该显示器的区域在下表中用"60W"表示,而保持为黑色的区城用"60D"表示. 方案10:在该方案中,以与方案480相同的方式写入困像,并且使用与方案480相同的刷新脉冲保持10分钟.然后施加极性相反的40sec脉冲以DC平衡该显示器,然后该困像被重写,且重复该循环.在该測试周期期间保持为白色的该显示器的区域在下表中用"10W"表示,而保持为黑色的区域用"10D"表示. The program 480 with the same program, but only the image holding sleepy before applying blanking pulse 60 minutes during the test period to maintain the white area of ​​the display shown in the following table with "60W", a black region is maintained City represented by "60D" scheme 10: in this embodiment, the program is written to the same manner as the storm 480 and 480 use the same scheme refresh pulse is then applied for 10 min 40sec pulses of opposite polarity to the DC. the balance of the display, and the image is overwritten trapped, and the cycle is repeated. during the test period to maintain a white display region of the lower table with "10W" said black region is maintained by "10D" representation.

方案1: plan 1:

该方案与方案10相同,只是困像只被保持1分钟,然后施加4 秒的第二DC平衡脉冲,且重复该循环.在该测试周期期间保持为白色的该显示器的区域在下表中用"1W"表示,而保持为烹色的区域用"1D "表示. The program and the same program 10, just like a storm is held for 1 minute, and then applying a second DC balanced pulse of 4 seconds, and the cycle is repeated. Retaining a white display during the period of the test area with the table below " 1W "denotes, for the cooking and holding area for color" 1D "FIG.

在这些实验中获得的结果如下表1所示. 表l The results obtained in these experiments in the following table. Table l 1

柳W 480D <0W 柳 Liu W 480D <0W Liu

37.90 30,63 38.21 汰47 Tide 47 38.21 37.90 30, 63

dW 2.的 2.69 3.03 :us dW 2. The 2.69 3.03: us

dbdl 2.05 0.64 4J9 1.05 dbdl 2.05 0.64 4J9 1.05

bfedl -134 •4.06 «047 -2.72 bfedl -134 • 4.06 «047 -2.72

咖 1W 10 Coffee 1W 10

w% 37J9 37J0 37J0 w% 37J9 37J0 37J0

d% 2.75 2.75 3.14 3.13 d% 2.75 2.75 3.14 3.13

dbdl 0激 OM <m 099 dbdl 0 shock OM <m 099

bhdl -2.24 -2.30 -102 -l邻 bhdl -2.24 -2.30 -102 -l o

从表l的数据看出,在高度不平衡方案480中,在測试周期期间保持为白色和黑色的该显示器的区城之间的白色状态反射芈明显不同,且亮和暗保持差別也显著不同.闳此,该高度不平衡駔动方案产生该显示器的光学状态的基本变化,而远非伴随这种非平衡駆动方隶可能的其它效果,诸如对电极的损坏.同样,如亮和暗保持差別中的差別所示出的,该不平衡駆动方案引入"偏置"到该显示器,即长期保持白色的区城趁向于之后也保持白色,而长期保持風色的区域趋向于之后保持黑色.从不平衡方案60中获得的结果是类似的,但是并非那么显著(正如所期望的).相对照的是,DC平衡方案10和1在保持焦和白的区域之间基本没表现出区别. It is seen from the data in Table l, in highly unbalanced programs 480, maintaining a white state between the reflective area Mi city for the white and black display is significantly different, and the difference between light and dark held during the testing period was significantly different from Hong this, the movable highly unbalanced powerful horse scheme produces substantially change the optical state of the display, along the far side of this unbalanced movable scribe Qu possible other effects, such as damage to the electrodes. Similarly, such as leucine and dark maintain the differential difference shown in the scheme introduces dynamic unbalance Qu "offset" to the display, i.e., after long-term while the white area in the city remains white, and long-term color region tends to wind after remains black. the results obtained from the unbalance scheme is similar to 60, but not so significantly (as expected). in contrast to that, the DC balancing scheme between 1 and 10 and the holding power of the white areas is not substantially He shows the difference.

因此,逸些实验显示,只要长期的DC平衡是由隔开的消隐脉冲产生的,那么由使用短刷新脉冲引起的暂时的DC不平衡不会对该显示器的属性有负面影响. Therefore, Yat these experiments show that as long as long-term temporary DC DC balance is separated by blanking pulse generator, then refresh caused by the use of short pulses imbalance will not adversely affect the properties of the display.

在本发明的刷新脉冲方法中使用的电泳媒质可以采用前迷的EInk和MIT专利和申请中的相同部件和制造技术,读者可以参考这些专利和申请以获得进一步的信息. Electrophoretic media used in the refresh pulse method of the present invention may be employed before the fans EInk and MIT patents and applications of the same components and manufacturing techniques, the reader may refer to these patents and applications for further information.

灰度级駆动波形的基本元素(包括使用AC脉冲) 正如前迷的美闺专利No. 6, 531, 997和6, 504, 524中所述的,当前许多显示器通过施加持续时间足够长的电压脉冲来使电光媒质饱和,从而从一个极端光学状态转变到另一个极端光学状态(例如,从累到白,反之亦然);例如在基于粒子的电光媒质中,使带电粒子自始至终向前或后电极运动.直到该光学状态变得饱和才寻址该电光媒质的传统需要不允许中间灰度状态存在.获得灰度級的电光显示器在困像容量和困像质重上提供了显著的优点. Qu basic elements gradation motion waveform (including the use AC pulses) as before the United States Patent No. boudoir fans 6, 531, 997 and 6, 504 in the 524, a number of the current display by application of sufficient duration voltage pulse electro-optic medium saturation, so that the transition from one extreme optical state to another extreme optical state (e.g., from tired to white and vice versa); for example, the particle-based electro-optic medium, the charged particles throughout the forward or after the electrode movement until it becomes saturated optical state of the electro-optic medium conventional addressing need not allow the presence of an intermediate gray states were obtained gray level electro-optic display provides a significant advantage in capacity and difficulties as a heavy storm image .

为了方便,能够在双穗电光显示器中获得灰度級的电压波形或驱动方案在下文中分别称为"灰度级波形"或"灰度級駔动方案".可以在这种灰度级波形或驱动方案中使用的基本灰度級波形元素有5个;术语"灰度級波形元素"是指能够在电光显示器的光学状态中产生变化的电压脉冲或电压脉冲序列.灰度級波形元素本身能够产生灰度级,排列成特定序列的一个或更多灰度級波形元素一起形成灰度鈒驱动波形.灰度级驱动波形能够将显示器的像素从一个灰度状态转变到另一个. 一个或多个驵动波形的序列构成驱动方案,该方案能够在显示器上显示任何灰度級困像序列. For convenience, it is possible to obtain a voltage waveform grayscale drive scheme in a dual spike or electro-optic displays hereinafter referred to as "gray level waveform" or "dynamic gradation powerful horse program." In such a gray scale waveform may or the basic element used in the waveform grayscale drive scheme has 5; the term "gray level waveform element" means a voltage pulse or a sequence of voltage pulses can be generated in the optical state change in electro-optic displays capable of gray scale waveform element itself. generating a gray level, are arranged in a particular sequence is formed of one or more elements with gray level waveform germanium gradation drive waveform. grayscale driving waveform of the pixel is able to display a gray scale transition from a state to another a or sequence of a powerful horse motion waveform drive scheme, which is capable of displaying any program trapped grayscale image sequence on a display.

驱动波形元素分成两类,即直流(DC)电压脉冲和交流(AC)电压脉冲.在这两种情况中,脉冲的可以变化的麥数是脉冲高度和脉冲长度. Drive waveform element divided into two categories, namely current (DC) voltage pulses and alternating (AC) voltage pulses. In both cases, the number of pulses may vary wheat pulse height and pulse length.

虽然在电光媒质中产生灰度級先学状态的关键依赖于电压施加到该媒质上的方式,但是在灰度級寻址方案中一旦不施加电压后该媒质保持所述灰度级光学状态的能力也同样重要,且该能力将依赖于该媒质的特性,事实上将依赖于所有灰度級转变属性.在本申请中,将主 While the first key generating gray level electro-optic medium in the learning state dependent on the voltage on the embodiment is applied to the medium, but the gray level addressing scheme Once the voltage is not applied to the medium to maintain the gray scale optical state capacity is also important, and the capacity will depend on the characteristics of the medium, will depend on the fact that all the gray level transition properties. in the present application, main

要参考封装的基于粒子的电泳媒质来讨论灰度级寻址方案,但是认为对于所述媒质技术领域内的技术人员而言,考虑到双穗电光媒质的其它类型的属性对这种方案进行必要修改是显而易见的. To be discussed particle-based electrophoretic media reference gray level addressing scheme of the package, it is believed that those skilled in the technical field of the medium, taking into account the properties of other types of electro-optic medium dual spike necessary for this embodiment modifications will be apparent.

灰度级駔动波形的基础元素如下: Base element grayscale powerful horse motion waveform as follows:

脉冲长度调制的DC脉冲 Pulse length modulated DC pulse

实现理想的灰度状态的最简单的方法之一是停止寻址处于从一种极端光学状态转变到另一种极端光学状态之中的像素.在附困的闺1 中,内插困示出了用于在封装的电泳媒质(如该困的主要部分所示)中产生灰度級转变的DC脉冲长度调制的波形元素.(此处以及下述的后续实验中使用的显示器基本根据前迷2002/0180687的第[0061]-[0068]段所述的"方法B"制造.)使用的三个脉冲分別是15V 持续20t)、 400和600毫秒(msec ),且产生的三条曲线被相应地标记;注意内插困中的时间尺度与主困中的不同.因此,对于反射芈的不同变化,脉冲高度面定而脉冲的持续时间变化.在困1中,画出了像素的反射率(根据所施加的这些电压脉冲,其反射状态从,豕变到不同級別的灰度)随时间变化曲线;可以看出较长的脉冲长度产生较大的反射率变化.被测试的显示器对所施加的电压脉冲的 One of the easiest way to achieve the desired gradation in a state to stop the addressing of a pixel in the transition from one extreme optical state to an extreme optical state to another. In the Inner attachment trapped 1, the interpolation is shown trapped for the encapsulated electrophoretic medium (e.g., a main portion of the trapped shown) generating a DC pulse waveform element length modulation of the grayscale transition. (here, and a display used in subsequent experiments described below is substantially a front fan 2002/0180687 in paragraphs [0061] -. [0068] paragraph "method B", Ltd.) were used three 15V pulse duration 20t), 400, and 600 milliseconds (msec), and the resulting three curves are the corresponding labeled; Note that the time scale is different from interpolation in the main difficulties is thus trapped, different variations of the reflection Mi, the change in the pulse duration of the pulse height of a given surface in a storm, the reflectance of the pixel shown. (the applied voltage pulses which, from its reflective state, hog changed to different levels of gray) versus time; longer pulse length can be seen that a greater change in reflectance of the display is tested. applying a voltage pulse 端响应迅速,且其光学状态停止演变.在显橄级上,可以假设电泳粒子立即停止从一个电极向另一个电极的迁移,并且保持悬浮在囊内的中间位置.脉冲长度调制的DC灰度級驱动脉冲优点是达到理想灰度状态的速度.脉冲高度调制的DC脉冲获得理想灰度状态的另一个方法是使用一个比所需要的电压低的电压来寻址像素使该像素的一个极端光学状态完全转变到另一个极端光学状态.在附困的困2中,内插困示出了用于在封装的电泳媒质(如该困的主要部分所示)中产生灰度鈒转变的DC脉冲高度调制的波形元素.电压脉冲长度固定在以最大电压电平完全转变该媒质所需要的时间长度.使用的三个脉冲分别是5、 10和15V,持续500毫秒(msec ),产生的三条曲线也被相应地标记;注意内插困中的时间尺度与主困中的不同.因此,对于反射率的不同变化,脉冲长度闺定而脉冲 End of the fast response, and which optical state evolution stopped. Olive level on the display, the electrophoretic particles can be assumed to immediately stop migrating from one electrode to the other electrode, and remains suspended in an intermediate position within the capsule. DC pulse length modulated gradation stage drive pulses to achieve the desired gray state advantage is speed pulse height modulation of the DC pulse is obtained over another method is to use gray state to a voltage lower than the required pixel addressable pixels so that one extreme optical state of complete transformation to another extreme optical states. trapped trapped in attachment 2, the interpolation trapped shows a DC pulse for producing a gray scale encapsulated electrophoretic medium (e.g., a main portion of the storm shown) transition in germanium height modulated waveform element voltage pulse length is fixed length of time to complete conversion of the maximum voltage level required for the media. three pulses used are 5, 10, and 15V, for 500 milliseconds (msec), the three curves generated It is also correspondingly labeled; trapped interposed in different time scales in the interior of the main difficulties noted Thus, variations of different reflectivity, the pulse length and the pulse given Gui. 的高度变化.在附困的田2中,画出了像素的反射率(根据所施加的这些电压脉冲,其反射状态从,藏变到不同級別的灰度)随时间变化曲线;可以看出较大的脉冲高度产生较大的反射率变化.可以假设电泳粒子在较低的电压下以较低的速度通过悬浮液,并且当停止施加驱动电压时保持悬浮.脉冲高度调制的DC灰度级駔动脉冲的优点是对取得的灰度状态的精确控制.具有DC偏移调制的AC脉冲 . Height variations in the field trapped attachment 2, depicts the reflectance of a pixel (which according to the applied voltage pulse, which is reflected from the state, changed to different levels of possession gray) versus time; it can be seen large pulse height variation greater reflectivity may be assumed that the electrophoretic particles at low voltage through the suspension lower speed, and remains suspended when the application of a drive voltage pulse height-modulated grayscale DC advantage of powerful horse actuation pulse is precise control of gray states is obtained. AC pulsed DC offset modulation having

前述的封装的电泳媒质的灰度級驱动已经受到振荡(AC)电场的影响;使用这种AC场的转变机制假定为完全不同于在上迷的相同媒质的DC駔动中实现的机制.在附困的困3中,内插田示出DC偏移调制 The gray level drive encapsulated electrophoretic media has been affected oscillating (AC) electric field; transition mechanism using such AC field is assumed to be implemented in a completely different mechanism of DC powerful horse moving on the same medium in fans. 3 attached trapped in the storm, the interpolated field shows the DC offset modulation

波形元素的AC脉冲,用于在该闺的主要部分中示出的封装的电泳^MT AC pulse waveform elements, for illustrating a main part of the package in the Inner electrophoretic ^ MT

中产生灰度級转变.在任何情况下,AC成分的頻率(大约10Hz)设定在一个值,该值允许粒子响应于该振荡场,而DC偏移的大小和方向(对于困3中的三条曲线,显示的是0、 -1或-2.5V)决定该像素最终获得的灰度状态.如前面的困中一样,内插困中的时间尺度不同于主困中的时间尺度.在困3中,画出了像素的反射率(根据所施加的这些电压脉冲,其反射状态从震变到不同級別的灰度)随时间变化曲线;可以看出较大DC偏移产生较大的反射芈变化. Generating gray scale transition. In any case, the frequency of the AC component (approximately 10Hz) is set at a value which allows the particles to respond to the oscillating field, and the magnitude and direction of the DC offset (for the trapped 3 three curves shown is 0, 1 or -2.5 V) of the pixel gray states decided finally obtained as previously trapped in the same, the interpolation trapped in the time scale is different from the time scale of the main difficulties in. difficulties in 3, the reflectance plotted (in accordance with these voltage pulses applied, which reflects state variation from shock to different levels of gray) versus time of the pixels; large DC offset can be seen a greater reflection Mi changes.

一旦施加AC场,电泳粒子在悬浮液中振荡,并且这种振荡是作为叠加在反射率的整个变化上的反射率的周期性变化而覌察到的运动, 这在图3的左側很容易看出.然而,直到施加DC偏移,才会对反射率有净影响.在DC偏移的影响下,反射率在波形施加一段时间后接近恒定值.似乎有一种恢复力与由于DC偏移电压施加在粒子上的力相对抗, Once AC field, the electrophoretic particles in the suspension shaken and this oscillation is to be observed Guan as a periodic change in reflectance is superimposed on the entire change in reflectance of movement, it is easy to see left side of FIG. 3 is applied out. However, until the DC offset is applied, will have a net effect on the reflectivity under the influence of a DC offset, approximately constant reflectivity after applying a time waveform appears to have a restoration force due to the DC offset voltage the force applied on the particles to confront,

否則,粒子将继续流向单元壁.这种恢复力可能是由于囊壁与粒子之间的流体的运动和/或由于粒子直接与单元壁之间的作用.与其它波形元素一致,擻去电压后光学状态的穗定性保持为不变. Otherwise, the particles will continue to flow to the cell wall. This may be due to the restoring force of the fluid movement between the wall and the particles and / or due to the particles. Agreement directly with the interaction between the cell walls and the other waveform element, to shake voltage characterized ear optical state remains unchanged.

AC波形元素的优点在于能够通过规定波形元素的参数来达到特定的反射率状态,而DC波形元素只能使反射率变化.具有DC偏移的AC波形元素相对于其它AC波形元素的优点在于不需要对寻址脉冲精确定时. AC waveform element advantage is the ability to achieve a specific reflectance state parameter by a predetermined waveform element, and the elements can only DC waveform change in the reflectance. AC waveform element having a DC offset relative to the other advantages is that no elements of the AC waveform addressing pulse require precise timing.

占空度调制的AC脉冲 Accounting for AC pulse cycle modulation

另一种使用振荡场引入DC偏置的方式是调制占空度.在困4中, 内插困示出了占空度调制的AC脉冲,该脉冲用于产生该困的主要部分中的灰度级转变.在这些脉冲的每一个中,电压设置为最大值,且占空度(电压在正方向或负方向的时间的百分比)决定反射率.使用的三个占空度是50%、 47%和40%,如困4所示.如前面的困中一样, 在内插困中使用的时间尺度不同于主困中的时间尺度.在该困中,画出了像素(依据所施加的这些电压脉冲,其反射状态从黑变到不同的灰度級別)的反射率随时间的变化曲线. Another use of the oscillating field is introduced into the DC bias modulation duty cycle mode. 4 trapped in the interpolation trapped shows AC pulse duty cycle modulation of the pulse for generating a main portion of the ash trapped in level may change. in each, the set voltage pulses is the maximum value, and the duty cycle (the percentage of time the voltage of the positive or negative direction) determines reflectivity. used three duty cycle is 50%, 47% and 40%, trapped as shown in Fig. trapped as in the preceding, the interpolated time scales trapped in the time scale is different from that used in the main difficulties in the sleepy, draw a pixel (according to the applied these voltage pulses, which reflects the state change from black to different shades of gray levels) of the reflectivity curve with time.

从困4中可以看出,与用于产生田3中所示曲线的AC/DC偏移脉冲相同,图4所示的曲线在脉冲已经施加一段时间后达到恒定值.因此,与AC/DC偏移一致,使用占空度调制,似乎存在一种恢复力,其迫使粒子离开单元壁,保持灰度状态不变.该恢复力的物理机制与前面讨论的类似.同样,在停止施加脉冲后灰度状态立即停止变化. 4 can be seen from the storm, as shown in curve is generated for the field 3 and the AC / DC offset same pulse graph shown in FIG. 4 reaches a constant value after the pulse has been applied for some time. Thus, with the AC / DC consistent offset, using the duty cycle modulation, it seems there is a restoring force, which forces the particles to leave the cell walls, gray state remains unchanged. the physical mechanism of the restoring force similar to that discussed previously. Also, after stopping the application of the pulse gray state stops changing immediately.

占空度调制的AC波形的优点在于不需要电压调制. Advantage of the AC waveform duty cycle modulation is that no voltage modulation.

頻率调制的AC脉冲 A pulse frequency modulation AC

实现AC灰度級转变的另一种方法是向电光媒质施加这样的AC场: 该AC场引起该媒质的光学状态振荡,然后在循环中在获得理想反射率的点上终止该AC场.电压可以设置为最大值,变化AC頻率以获得更大或更小反射芈范闺.頻率决定反射率振荡的幅度. Another method to achieve gray level transition AC is applied to the electro-optic medium is an AC field such: The optical state of an AC field causes the oscillation of the medium, and then terminates the AC field at a point to obtain the desired reflectance in the voltage cycle. be set to maximum, a change frequency AC to obtain more or less reflective Gui Mi range. reflectivity oscillation frequency is determined magnitude.

当这种方法应用于封装的基于粒子的电泳媒质时,电泳粒子通过在它们的初始位置附近振荡响应于AC场.由于通常反射率不达到极端風或白光学状态,与单元壁之间的相互作用最小化并且反射率对所施加电压的响应是相对线性的. When the reflectance is generally due not so extreme white optical state or wind each other, the method is applied to the cell wall encapsulated electrophoretic medium based particles, the electrophoretic particles by shaking AC field in response to their initial positions in the vicinity. effect of minimizing the reflectivity and applied voltage response is relatively linear.

頻率调制的AC脉冲的优点是不需要电压调制. Advantage of the AC pulse frequency modulation voltage modulation is not required.

通过结合上述类型的脉冲,可以开发出多种波形元素,每一个包括独特的转換机制,因此提供了駔动具有不同转换特性的不同电先媒质各种方法. By combining the above-described type of pulse waveform can develop a variety of elements, each comprising a unique conversion system thus provides a powerful horse different electrical actuator having different conversion characteristics of the first medium in various ways.

在上迷驅动方案原理的一个具体应用中,使用脉冲宽度调制和AC 脉冲以获得电光显示器中的中间灰度状态,否则该显示器只能获得烹和白状态. In a particular application of the principles of the fan drive scheme, using pulse width modulation and pulse AC to obtain an intermediate gray states of the electro-optic display, the display can only be obtained or white state and cooking.

由于上面已经讨论了的原罔,非常期望能够在电光显示器中获得灰度级.然而,假设大量的灰度级需要任意具有高械頻駔动器或能够电压调制的駔动器的脉冲宽度调制(需要高桢頻将脉冲宽度"切"成多个间隔,因此能够精确控制脉冲宽度,进而精确控制灰度級).这两种驱动器中的任一种基本都比简单的三級(tri-level)驱动器成本更高,所述三級駔动器只能使显示器的单个像素的电势被设置成相对于公共前面电极电势的+V、 -V和O(V是任意工作电势),且其通常用于駔动只能显示風和白状态的显示器. Since the original has been discussed above ignored, a very desirable gradation can be obtained in the electro-optic displays. However, assuming that a large number of gray level having a pulse width modulation require any high-frequency mechanical actuator powerful horse or the voltage can be modulated powerful horse actuator (requires a high-frequency pulse width Lo "cut" into a plurality of intervals, the pulse width can be accurately controlled, and thus precise control of gray scale). drives either of these two basic than a simple three (TRI- level) higher cost driver, the actuator can only three powerful horse potential of a single pixel of the display is disposed in front relative to the common electrode potential + V, -V, and O (V operating potential is arbitrary), and which It is typically used only powerful horse moving display for displaying the wind and white state.

本发明提供一种驱动方案,该方案能够使三级驱动器产生双穗电光显示器的黑和白鈒之间的中间灰度級.该驱动方案从下面的表2中最容易理解,该表示出了在本发明的这种显示器中的各种类型转变的连续械期间所施加的电压: The present invention provides a drive scheme that enables the driver to produce three intermediate gray level between the dual spike black and white electro-optic display germanium. The driving scheme most readily understood from the following Table 2, which shows the in this display of the present invention applied during the continuous mechanical transformation of various types of voltages:

表2 Table 2

<table>table see original document page 20</column></row> <table> <Table> table see original document page 20 </ column> </ row> <table>

从上面的表2可以看出,从黑到白(反之亦然)的转变与二进制(只有黑/白)显示器中的一样.另一方面,向灰度的转变有两个部分.第一部分是方波形脉冲(即,相同电势的多个帧),其具有适当的极性和长度以使电光媒质的反射率变得尽可能接近需要的中间灰度亮度.具有这一步樣的精确度可能将受到显示器的帧頻限制.寻址脉冲的第二部分包括数量相等的正和负的电压脉冲,每个脉冲的宽度等于一帧.如前参照困3和4所迷的,前面已经证明:将AC方波施加到封装的基于粒子的电涌媒质引起该媒质"弛豫"到某些"中间灰度"状态.因此,不管先前的脉冲历史,脉冲的第二部分将使所有像素变成相同均匀的中间灰度状态.使用具有适当极性的短脉冲实现从灰度状态寻址到黑或白.更一般的,该脉冲的AC部分不在每帧转变极性,而是可以以更低的频率转变,伴随着每 As can be seen from the above Table 2, as a binary transition from black to white (or vice versa) (only black / white) display. On the other hand, to the gradation conversion has two parts. The first part is square wave pulse (i.e., a plurality of frames of the same potential), which have the appropriate polarity and length of the reflectance electro-optic medium halftone luminance becomes as close as possible required having this kind of accuracy may further be . restricted by the display frame rate of the second portion of the address pulse comprises an equal number of positive and negative voltage pulses, equal to the width of each pulse as a reference before difficulties fans 3 and 4, as already demonstrated: the AC surge on to a square wave causes the media particles medium "relaxation" to some "intermediate gray" state. Therefore, regardless of the previous pulse history of the second portion, the pulse will cause all pixels uniformly into the same package short pulses intermediate gray state having appropriate polarity to achieve gray state addressed from black or white. more generally, the AC portion of the pulse does not change polarity every frame, but may be less frequently change, with every 一帧(頻率-械頻/4)或者通常每ii帧(頻率-帧頻/2n)电压进行交变.因此,本发明提供一种方法,该方法仅使用简单的三級驱动器而不使用复杂且昂责的电压调制驱动器,在另外二进制的电光显示器中产生单灰度级.在上述驱动方案原理的笫二个具体应用中,本发明提供了二维转变矩阵的集合,其中矩阵中的每个元素規定如何从初始光学状态(此处用"行指数"表示,虽然明显的是分配给行的初始光学状态是任意的)到达最终光学状态(此处用"列指数表示").该矩阵的每个元 A (frequency - frequency mechanical / 4) or ii typically each frame. (Frequency - frame rate / 2N) voltage alternating Accordingly, the present invention provides a method of using only a simple drive without using a complex three Select and expensive drive voltage modulation, to produce a single additional binary gray level electro-optic displays. in particular the application of the driving Zi two principle embodiment, the present invention provides a collection of two-dimensional transformation matrix, wherein each of the matrix specifies how elements (represented here by "row index", although evident that the initial optical state assigned to a row is arbitrary) from an initial optical state to the final optical state (here used "column represents the index"). the matrix each dollar

素由一系列波形元素(如前所定义的)构建,且通常对于n位灰度級显示器,该矩阵将包舍2(")个元素.本发明的矩阵计入了这样的考虑, 诸如对驅动方案的DC平衡的需要(如前所讨论的),在某些电光媒质中将"记忆"效应最小化(即,向像素施加特定脉冲的结果的效果不仅依賴于该像素的当前状态,也依賴于某些先前状态),因而产生均勻的光学状态并将显示器的转变速度最大化,同时在有源矩阵驱动方案的限制下工作.本发明也提供了一种方法,用于对于任何特定电光 Element (as previously defined) constructed of a series of waveform element, and generally to n-bit grayscale display, the matrix rounded package 2 ( ") elements. Matrices included in the present invention, such a consideration, such as for DC balanced drive scheme requires (as previously discussed), in some electro-optic medium in the "memory" effect is minimized (i.e., a certain pulse is applied to the pixel effect results not only depend on the current state of the pixel, and some rely on the previous state), thereby producing a uniform optical state transition speed and maximizing the display, while working within the constraints of an active matrix driving scheme. the present invention also provides a method, for any particular electrooptic

媒质确定这种矩阵中的元素的每一项的最优值.对于这种矩阵以及它们在驱动电光显示器中的应用,读者可麥考前述的PCTUS02/37241. A medium determining optimum value of each element in this matrix. For such a matrix and their use in electro-optic displays driving the reader McCaw aforementioned PCTUS02 / 37241.

就前述的脉冲宽度调制(PWM)而言,本发明的当前优选波形如下所述.然而,使用脉冲高度调制或者上迷的各种混合类型的AC调制也可以获得相同或相似的结果,且可以在羊个波形内使用各种不同类型的调制,例如,对于除了脉冲的最后部分之外的所有部分的脉冲宽度调制,后面跟着的是对该脉冲的最后部分的电压调制. On the pulse width modulation (PWM), the current waveform is preferably present invention is as follows. However, a variety of mixed types of modulation or pulse height modulation on an AC fan may be the same or similar results, and may be various different types of modulation waveforms in sheep, for example, a pulse width modulation for all portions except for the last portion of the pulse, followed afterwards by modulating the voltage of the last portion of the pulse.

下面描述的本发明的前两个波形是"幻灯"波形,其在寻址到下一灰度状态之前从一个灰度状态回到黑状态.这种波形与其中整个屏一次消隐(如在幻灯机中)的显示更新方案袭兼容. The first two waveforms following description of the invention is the "slide" waveform, from a dark gray state back to the state before it is addressed in the next gray state in which the whole screen with such a waveform blanking time (as in compatible with the passage of a slide projector) display update program.

双预脉冲幻灯波形 Double-prepulse slide show waveform

在该波形中,附困的困5中示出了其优选形式,使用部分脉冲最初将电光媒质的像素从風驱动到(如100处所示)初始(笫一)灰度状态.为了将像素从此初始灰度状态变化到不同的期望(笫二)灰度状态,首先将像素从第一灰度状态驱动到白(在102),然后从白到熏(在104).最后,在106施加适当的脉冲以达到笫二灰度状态.为了确保这种类型的波形保持整体DC平衡,106处的寻址脉冲与102处的白脉冲的长度之和必须等于104处的白-,豕脉冲的长度.该波形需要三倍的媒质转变时间(即,单个像素从累光学状态转变到白光学状态所需的时间,或者反之亦然)的最大值来实现在任何两个任意灰度之间的转变,因此被称为3X波形. In this waveform, the attachment trapped trapped 5 shows a preferred form, the initial portion of the pulse using the pixel driving electro-optic medium from the wind to the initial (as shown at 100) (Zi) gray states. For the pixel from this initial gray state changes to a different desired (Zi ii) the gradation state, the first pixel drive state from the first gray to white (102), and then finally, applied from white to smoke (at 104). 106 to achieve the proper pulse Zi two gray state to ensure that this type of waveform to maintain the overall DC balance, address pulses and white pulses at the 102 and 106 must be equal to the length of the white 104 -., hog pulse the length of the maximum value of the waveform requires three times the media transition time (i.e., a single pixel to transition from the accumulated time required for the optical state of white optical state, or vice versa) is achieved between any two arbitrary gradation transformation, known as the 3X waveform.

单预脉冲幻灯波形 Single pre-pulse waveform slideshow

在该波形中,附困的困6中示出了其优选形式,使用部分脉冲最初将电光媒质的像素从黑驱动到(如110处所示)初始(第一)灰度状态,采用的方式与上面笫6部分中讨论的双预脉冲波形相同.为了将该像素从初始灰度状态变化到不同期望的(第二)灰度状态,首先将该像素从第一灰度状态駔动到黑(在ll2 ),然后在114施加适当的脉冲以到达第二灰度状态.显然,在第二转变之前,该像素将在116 再次回到黑.这种类型的波形保持整个波形的DC平衡,这是因为在112 和116施加的冲击分别等于(除了极性之外)在110和114施加的冲击.该波形需要两倍的媒质转变时间的最大值以实现在任何两个任意的灰度状态之间的转变,闳此被称为2X波形. 灰度-灰度波形代替使用上述的幻灯波形,可以通过直接从一个灰度状态到另一个灰度状态而不经过烹或白状态来对其寻址而更 In this waveform, the attachment trapped trapped 6 shown in its preferred form, the initial portion of the pulse used to drive electro-optic medium from the pixel to the initial black (as shown at 110) (a first) state gray, methods used pre same double pulse waveform portion 6 Zi discussed above. for this (second) from the initial gray state of the pixel changes to a different desired gray states, the first state of the pixel from the first gray to black powerful horse moving (in LL2), and then applying a suitable pulse 114 to reach the second gray state. obviously, before the second transition, the pixel 116 will return to black again. this form of maintaining DC balance of the entire waveform, this is because the impact 112 and 116 are equal to the applied (except polarity) impact applied in 110 and 114. the maximum value of the waveform takes twice the time to achieve a medium gradation transition state at any arbitrary two transition between, referred to herein as Hong waveform grayscale 2X -. instead of using the gray waveform slide waveform can be directly without passing through them by cooking a gray or white state from another state to gray state addressing and more 显示器.由于逸种转变不伴随明显的假象(即,蓖和/或白"闪烁"),所以其被称为"灰度-灰度"寻址.存在有两种主要形式的灰度-灰度波形,即DC平衡和DC不平衡.在DC平衡的灰度-灰度波形中,通过施加在两个灰度状态之间转换所必须的具有精确长度的调制脉冲来实現在这两个状态之间的转变.电光媒质不经过任何中间風或白状态.由于最大脉冲长度等于墨水的寻址时间,这种波形也被称为IX波形.为了保持DC平衡,对于具有n个灰度状态的显示器,在与任何特定波形相关的变換矩阵的优化中可用的自由参数有nl个.这导致过度受限的系统.例如,对于相反的转变来讲所有转变需要相等且相对的脉冲(即,除了极性之外, 2-3必须与3-2相同).DC不平衡灰度-灰度波形基本与DC平衡的情况相同,只是脉冲长度不再受到DC平衡限制的约束.罔此变換矩阵中的2""項中的每一項可 The display does not change since Yi species with marked artifacts (i.e., castor and / or white "flicker"), which is referred to it. "Gray - greyscale" Addressing There are two main forms of existence of gray - Gray of waveform, i.e., DC balanced and DC imbalanced DC balanced gray - grayscale waveform, in these two states is achieved by applying a gradation between the two state transitions necessary for a precise length of the pulse modulation transition between the electro-optical medium without any intermediate air or white state. Since the maximum pulse length is equal to ink addressing times, such a waveform is also called a waveform IX. to maintain DC balance, for states having n gradations display, available free parameters in the optimization associated with any particular waveform transform matrix has a nl. this results in an excessive-limited system. for example, the opposite transition in terms of all transitions need to be equal and opposite pulses (i.e., in addition to the polarity must be the same 2-3 3-2) .DC gradation unbalance - substantially the same gray-scale waveform DC balanced situation, only the pulse length is no longer bound by this DC equilibrium limited conversion indiscriminately. matrix 2 "" each item can be a 独立于所有其它項变化.上面讨论的各种波形能够在有源矩阵显示器中寻址灰度鈒,这对于电光媒质在个人数字助理(PDA )和电子书应用中的使用是至关紧要的.这些波形使电光媒质中的记忆效应最小化,这种记忆会导致困像重影.通过选择最佳脉冲长度和顺序,能够在最少数量脉冲中获得理想灰度光学状态.选择性行驱动本发明的另一方面涉及通过选摔駔动该显示器的行,来改善有源矩阵双稳电光显示器的性能. Independence of the various waveforms discussed above can be addressed gradation germanium in active matrix display all items other variations, which used in a personal digital assistant (PDA), and for the e-book application in electro-optic medium is crucial. these waveforms electro-optic medium so that the memory effect is minimized, this memory can cause difficulties as ghosting. by selecting an optimal pulse length and sequence can be obtained over a minimum number of gray-scale optical state pulse. the present invention is selectively driven row Another aspect fall through row select powerful horse moving the display, the active matrix to improve the performance of bistable electro-optic displays.

如前所述,且如前述的专利和申请中更详细地讨论,为了在传统 As described above, and as discussed in more detail in the aforementioned patents and applications, in order to conventional

LCD上保持所需要的困像,必须连续刷新整个困像区域,这是因为通常液晶不是双穗的,且如果不刷新LCD上的困像在很短的时间内LCD上的困像就会减弱.如有源矩阵领域的技术人员所公知的,在这种显示器中,连续刷新的实现是通过:使用行驱动器以打开与该显示器的一行像素相关的晶体管的栅极,在列驱动器(连接到该显示器的每列中的晶体管的源电极)上施加将该显示器上的所需困像的相关部分写入所选行中的像素的电势,并因此写该显示器的所选行.行駔动器然后选择该显示器的下一行并重复该过程,这样行就被循环刷新.(将行駔动器指定给栅电极和将列駔动器指定给源电极是常规的,但也基本是任意的,如果需要当然可以颠倒.) LCD holding trapped as required, must be continuously refresh the entire image region trapped, because the liquid crystal is usually not double ear, and if not refreshed image on the LCD trapped trapped image on the LCD will be reduced in a very short period of time . if active matrix field of the art well known, in such displays, continuous refresh is achieved by: using the row driver to open the gate associated with a row of pixels of the display of the transistors in the column driver (connected to applying to the source electrode of the transistor of each column of the display in) the relevant part of the required trapped on the display image writing potential pixel in the selected row, and thus write the selected row of the display. powerful horse action line then selects the next row of the display and the process is repeated, so that the row was updated cyclically. (row powerful horse actuator assigned to the gate electrode and the source electrode of the column powerful horse actuator assigned to be conventional, but basically arbitrary , of course, can be reversed if needed.)

由于LCD需要田像的连续刷新,所显示田像的仅仅部分变化被作 Since the LCD requires continuous refresh field image, shown only partially change the image fields are as

为整个刷新过程的部分来处理.在连续刷新的显示器中,不需要提供困像的更新部分;因为实际上每秒都有几次新困像写到显示器(在LCD 的情况下),嫂给显示器的部分田像的任何变化在短间隔内自动在该显示器上显现效果.因此,已开发出的用于LCD的常规电路不提供仅仅部分困像的更新. Partially complete refresh cycle to refresh the display in a continuous process, the trapped necessary to provide the updated portion of the image; because there are actually several times per second a new image is written to the display trapped (in case of an LCD), to Sao any change in the field as part of a display effect automatically appear on the display in a short interval. Accordingly, the conventional circuit has been developed for an LCD does not provide updated image only partially trapped.

相对照而言,双穗电光显示器不需要连续刷新,且实际上这种连续刷新是有害的,这是罔为不必要地增加了显示器的能重消耗,此外, 在这种刷新期间,栅(行)线路可能将容性电压尖脉冲传递给像素电极,且任何驱动器电压谈差或未补襟的槺极绩通偏置误差可能累积; 所有这些因素导致显示器像素的光学状态的不希望的转变.因此,在双穗电光显示器中,理想的是提供一些装置用于更新部分困像而不需要在显示器上重写整个困像,本发明的一方面涉及配有这种"部分更新"装置的双穗电光显示器.根据本发明,这通过比较将要写到该显示器的连续困像、识別在这两个困像中不同的行并且只寻址被识別出的行来实现. In contrast, bis electrooptical displays do not require continuous refresh spike, and indeed this continuous refresh is detrimental, it is ignored as unnecessary weight increases the energy consumption of the display, moreover, in such a refresh period, the gate ( without wishing to change all of these factors lead to the optical state of the display pixel; row) lines may be capacitive voltage spike transmitted to the pixel electrode, and any drive voltage difference or complement breasted on Kang electrode performance through offset error may accumulate Thus, in the two ear electro-optic displays, it is desirable to provide some means for updating the portion of the image without rewriting the entire trapped trapped image on a display, an aspect of the present invention relates to a feature of this "partial update" means double ear electro-optic displays. according to the invention, this is achieved by comparing the image to be written to the display continuously trapped, identified in the two different images are trapped and only addressed row by row identified achieved.

在本方法中,为了实现显示器的部分更新,只识別包舍其光学状态将要改变的像素的显示器的行.在本方法的一个优选形式中,对于显示器的每行,显示器控制器(参见前述的PCT/US02/37241 )检查所有的理想像素电极输出电压.如果对于该行,所有输出电压等于该显示器的公共前电极的电势V。 In the present method, in order to achieve partial update of the display, which recognizes only the packet round optical state to be changed rows of the display pixels. In a preferred form of the method, for each row of the display, a display controller (see preceding the PCT / US02 / 37241) check all output voltage over the pixel electrode. If the potential for that row, the output voltage is equal to the common front electrode of the display of the V. w (即,如果那行中没有像素需要重写), 則控制器输出同步(V,,M)脉冲而不将数据值栽入列驅动器,且不发布对应的输出使能(0B)命令.这样做的净效应是行驱动器的令牌位传递到显示器的下一行而不激活当前行.数据只栽入列駔动器,且输出使能只对于其中有至少一个像素需要被重写的行声明.本发明提供了两种不同的优点.首先,对于不被重写的像素,可以消除很多杂散电压源.对于这些像素没有容性柵尖峰(gate spike ),且在像素不被寻址的械中,列駔动器电压的误差不会传递到该像素.由于与液晶相比较,很多电光媒质电阻率相对低,尤其是电泳媒质,像素电极将趋向于弛豫到实际前面(front plane)电压,因此保持了电光媒质的保持状态.其次,显示器的功耗袭小化.对于不被重写的每一行,对应的栅线不需要被充电.此外,当输出不栽入显示器的列电 w (ie, if that line no pixels need to rewrite), the synchronous controller outputs (V ,, M) Zairu pulse data values ​​without column drivers, without a corresponding release output enable (0B) commands in doing so the net effect token bit line is transferred to the next drive line display without activating the current row. Zairu column data is only powerful horse actuator, and wherein the output enable only for at least one pixel to be rewritten statement line. the present invention provides two distinct advantages. first, the pixel is not rewritten, it is possible to eliminate many spurious voltage source. no spike capacitive gate (gate spike) for these pixels, and the pixel is not seek mechanical access, the column voltage errors powerful horse actuator is not transmitted to the pixel. Since compared with the liquid crystal, electro-optic medium many relatively low resistivity, particularly electrophoretic medium, the pixel electrodes will tend to relax to the actual front (front plane) voltage, thus holding the electro-optic medium holding state. Then, the power consumption of the display of a small passage for each row is not rewritten, the corresponding gate lines need not be charged. in addition, when the output does not display Zairu column electricity 极时,还消除了跨越显示器接口来移动数据的額外功耗.空间区城抖动(dither)前面所迷的本发明的方面涉及用于驱动电光显示器的波形.这种显示器的性能也可以通过改变底板的结构变化而改变,本发明的这一方面涉及将显示器的一个或多个像素(优选每个像素)分成具有不同面积的多个子像素.如前已经提及,很希望在电光显示器中提供灰度級.也可以通过将该显示器的像素驱动到介于其两个极端状态之间的灰度状态来获得该灰度级.然而,如果该媒质不能获得理想数量的中间状态,或者如果该显示器由不能提供理想数重的中间状态的駔动器来駔动,則必须用其它方法来获得理想数量的状态,本发明的这一方面涉及为此目的而使用的空间抖动.一个显示器可以被分成多个"逻辑"像素,其中每一个能够显示理想数量的灰度或其它光学状态.然而,显然在每个 When the pole, across the display interface also eliminates additional power to move the data. Dither City spatial region (DITHER) above aspect of the invention relates to fans for driving electro-optic displays of the waveform. The performance of such a display can also change structural changes and changes in the base plate, this aspect of the invention relates into a plurality of sub-pixels having different areas or a plurality of pixels (preferably per pixel) of the display. as already mentioned before, it is desirable to provide an electro-optical display gradation can be driven to the gradation state is interposed between its two extreme states of the gray level is obtained by the pixels of the display. However, if the amount of the medium can not be obtained over the intermediate state, or if the display to powerful horse actuated by weight do not provide ideal number of intermediate states powerful horse actuator, other methods must be used to obtain the ideal number of states, this aspect of the invention relates to the use of space jitter for this purpose. the display may be a divided into a plurality of "logic" of pixels, each of which can be displayed over a number of gray or other optical state. However, apparently each 逻辑像素可以出现不止一个物理上分离的区域,事实上对于彩色显示器利用"全色" 逻辑像素这是常见的,所迷"全色"逻辑像素的每一个包括具有基色(例如红、缘、蓝)的三个子像素;参见例如前述的2002/0180688. 类似地,可以使用子像素的组合作为逻辑像素来获得灰度級,子像素中的每一个能够二元转变.例如,包括4个独立可控的具有相同面积的子像素的逻辑像素可用于提供2位灰度級,然而,对于多于1或2位灰度級的任何情况,子像素的数重不方便地变大,因为灰度級每增加l位,所需的子像素的数量加倍. More than one logical pixel region physically separate may occur, in fact, for the color display using the "full-color" which is a common logical pixel, the fans, "full color" logical pixels each comprising a primary colors (e.g. red, edges, blue ) of the three sub-pixels; see, eg, the aforementioned 2002/0180688 similarly be obtained as a logical pixel gray level, the sub-pixels in each of two yuan can be converted, for example using a combination of sub-pixels, it comprises four individually. control logic pel sub-pixel having the same area may be used to provide two gray level, however, more than one or two for any gradation level, the number of heavy inconveniently large sub-pixels, because gradation l bits each additional class, the number of sub-pixels required to be doubled.

本发明提供一种电光显示器,其具有至少一个像素,该像素包括多个子像素,这些子像素具有不同的面积.在本发明的一个优选实施 The present invention provides an electro-optic display having at least one pixel which comprises a plurality of subpixels, the subpixels having different areas. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

例中,至少两个子像素的面积基本相差2倍.因此,例如,遲辑像素可能具有面积为IX、 2X和4X的子像素,其中X是任意面积.这种类型的逻辑像素在附困的困7A中示意性示出.该逻辑像素只使用三个电极获得3-位灰度級,而使用在面积上相等的子像素获得相同的3-位灰度級将需要8个子像素. Embodiment, the at least two sub-pixel area twice differ substantially. Thus, for example, may have delayed the pixel area, Series IX, 2X and 4X sub-pixels, wherein X is any area of ​​this type of logical pixel trapped in the attachment trapped 7A schematically shown. the only three logical pixel electrodes to obtain 3-bit gray level, use an equal area subpixels in the 3-position to obtain the same gray level will require 8 sub-pixels.

当每个子像素被驱动时,其反射或透射入射光的一部分,且部分量由该子像素的面积决定.如果在该逻辑像素的区域上反射/透射是平均的,則获得駆动面积的二进制权重,因此获得空间抖动的灰度級. When each sub-pixel is driven, a portion of the reflected or transmission of incident light, and partially determined by the amount of the sub-pixel area. If the reflective / transmissive area in the logical pixel is an average, is obtained moving area binary Qu weight, thus obtaining spatial dither gray levels.

子像素的面积是任悉的.困7A中所示的子像素用反射率加权.如果要使用非线性加权(这对于等步进的L'或者ga西咖校正灰度间隔是适合的),该面积要相应地变化. Is any area of ​​the sub-pixel of the noted weighting sub-pixel reflectivity. 7A shown in sleepy. If you want to use a nonlinear weighting (which for the stepping L 'of western coffee or ga gradation correction interval is suitable), the area to be changed accordingly.

除了考虑它们的相对面积外,还应当仔细考虑子像素的形状.如困7A中所示的简单的大块允许子像素阵列简单成形,但是在某些条件下,这些子像素可能被观察者分辦.同样,如果中间鈒灰度(因而(比如说)在每个逻辑像素中只有田7A的区域4被驱动)显示在大的区域(復盖很多逻辑像素)上,观察者将看见从子像素闺形中出现的线或栅格闺形. In addition to considering their relative area, should also be carefully consider the shape of the sub-pixels as shown in the simple bulk trapped 7A allows easy forming sub-pixel, but under certain conditions, these pixels may be sub-divided observer do. Similarly, if the intermediate gray scale germanium (and thus (for example) only. 7A field region 4 is driven at each logical pixel) is displayed in a large area (covering many logical pixel), the viewer will see from the child Gui line or grid-shaped pixel appearing Gui-shaped.

增加逻辑像素的分辦率将减少这些问題,但是需要大量額外的像素,因为像素数重是以分辦率的平方的而增加.相反,可以通过相亙交叉子像素(例如如困7B中所示)来减少子像素的可见性和/或可见田形的问趙;注意该困只是意困示出相互交叉,并不准确代表子像素的相对面积,很多类似于困7B的相互交叉的困形可以用来改善困像质量. Increased partial logical pixel run rate will reduce these problems, but require significant additional pixels because pixels are square weight fraction run rate increases. Conversely, by crossing with interactive sub-pixel (e.g., such as storm 7B shown) to reduce the visibility of sub-pixels and / or visible field shaped Zhao Q; note that this is only intended trapped trapped shown intersect, does not accurately represent the relative area of ​​the sub-pixels, similar to many difficulties interdigitated trapped shaped 7B the storm can be used to improve image quality.

处理子像素可见性和/或可见困形的问趙的另一种方法是随机定向子像素.例如,在像素阵列中,每个像素由如困7A所示的子像素排列,单个像素可能随机具有田7A所示排列的4个可能方向中的每一个.这种子像素的"随机化"有助于分割困形并且使它们对于观察者更不易见。 Sub-pixel visibility and / or visible Another method trapped shaped Zhao Q processing is randomly oriented sub-pixel. For example, in the pixel array, each pixel sub-pixel arrangement as shown in the storm. 7A, a single pixel may randomly Tin has shown four possible directions are arranged in each such sub-pixel "randomized" shape. 7A helps split trapped and make them more difficult to see for a viewer. 虽然困7A和7B中所示的本发明的实施例产生3-位灰度級,可以理解,本发明可以通过简单地增加額外的子像素来产生任何位数的灰度級. Although the embodiments of this invention shown trapped 7A and 7B produce the 3-position gray scale, to be understood that the present invention may be produced by any number of bits gray level simply adding additional sub-pixels.

本发明这个方面的优点如下: An advantage of this aspect of the invention is as follows:

(a) 电光媒质本身不需要具有灰度鈒;基本上显示器可以是,聚/ 白显示器,且开、关子像素以产生灰度級.在扫描阵列中,可以通过提供額外的列驱动器(对于相同数量的行)来获得对于子像素的必要控制.这降低了对电光媒质的要求;例如,不需要担心超出其工作寿命后电光媒质的灰度级的可能漂移. (A) itself does not require electro-optic medium having a gray germanium; substantially display may be, polyethylene / white display, and opening and closing the sub-pixels to generate gray scale scanning of the array may be provided by an additional column driver (for the same. the number of lines) for obtaining the necessary control sub-pixel which reduces the requirement of electro-optic medium; for example, beyond the need to worry about operating life may drift gradation of electro-optic medium.

(b) 不需要复杂化的列驱动器;本发明与简单使用很多传统显示器中使用的二进制级駆动器兼容.因此,有利于使用容易获得的各种电光媒质、便宜的"成品"部件. 一些产生灰度級的方法需要对列电极使用电压调制駔动器,这种驱动器并不是广泛可用的且比二进制鈒驱动器的制造更昂贵/更难. (B) does not require a complicated column driver; the present invention is a simple binary level Qu actuator used in many conventional display compatible Thus, a variety of electro-optic medium conducive to the use of readily available, cheap "finished" Some member. the method of generating gray level requires the use of column electrode voltage modulation powerful horse actuator drive which is not widely available and more expensive than producing a binary germanium drive / even harder.

(c) 用于使用本发明的有源矩阵阵列的薄膜晶体管(TFT)的设计不比全色所需要的更难,在全色中每个像素有三个子像素(例如, RGB),且需要提供给各种部件的数据量也不会更大.因此在实施本发明的有源矩阵底板中不需要开发新技术. (C) more difficult for the thin film transistor active matrix array of the present invention (TFT) design than required full color, full-color each pixel has three sub-pixels (e.g., the RGB), and the need to provide data amount of the various components is not greater. Thus the need to develop new technologies in an active matrix backplane embodiment of the present invention.

杂项技术 Miscellaneous Technical

在电光显示器的最传统的有源矩阵駔动方案中,显示器底板上像素电极的电压变化以便在像素上施加所需电压.顶面通常保持特定的电压,该特定电压被认为对于寻址像素是有利的.例如,如果提供给像素电极的数据线电压在零伏特和电压V。 In the most conventional active matrix electro-optic display powerful horse action programs, the voltage change of the pixel electrode on the display plate so as to apply a desired voltage to the pixel top surface generally maintain a particular voltage, the voltage is considered for a particular pixel is addressed advantageously, for example, if the voltage supplied to the data line in the pixel electrode voltage of zero volts and V. 之间变化,则顶面将保持在V,/2,以便允许像素上的电压降在两个方向上都有V。 Variation between the top surface will be kept at V, / 2, in order to allow both the voltage drop of the pixel in the two directions V. /2那么大. / 2 so great.

根据本发明的一个方面,顶面的电压可以变化以加强电光媒质的寻址.例如,顶面电压可以保持为零伏特以便允许总的像素电压降(顶面负像素电压)低到-V。 According to one aspect of the present invention, the top surface of the voltage may be varied to enhance the addressable electro-optic medium. For example, the top surface of the holding voltage may be zero volts in order to allow the total voltage drop of the pixel (the top surface of the negative pixel voltage) as low as -V. .升高顶面电压至V。 The elevated top surface to the voltage V. ,允许像素电压降有V。 Allow the pixel voltage drop has V. that

么大.这些更大的电压降允许电光媒质更快地寻址. Why large. These larger electro-optic medium voltage drop allows faster addressing.

更一般的,有利的是不仅能够将顶面电压设定为电压零和V。 More generally, it is advantageous that not only the top surface of the voltage is set to zero and the voltage V. ,也能够设定到其它电压.例如,有利的是与由底板施加的像素-像素电压相一致,在电光媒质上施加全局的时间变化电压. , Other voltages can be set to, for example, is advantageously applied to a pixel by the floor - consistent with the pixel voltage, the overall application time varying voltage on the electro-optic medium.

已知在电光显示器中在像素电极和由选择线路的延伸形成的电极之间提供电容器,以便与选棒线路充同样的电压;如前迷的WO 01/07961中所述,这种电容的提供减少了在撤去驱动电压后像素上的电场的袭减速度.在另一方便,本发明具有存储电容器的电光显示器, 该存储电容器形成于像素电极和(第二)电极之间,所迷(笫二)电极的电压可以独立于该显示器的选择线路变化.在一个优选实施例中, 第二电极跟随顶面电压,即,其电压与顶面的不同之处仅仅在于一个不依賴于时间的常数.与由像素电极和控制该显示器的相邻(先前) 行的选择线路之间的重叠形成的存储电客器相比较,提供这种类型的电容器大大减少了像素经历的容性电压尖峰. In known electro-optic displays provided between the pixel electrode and the electrode formed by the extension line of the selected capacitor, charged to the same voltage lines selected from rods; WO 01/07961 as fans in the front, providing such capacitance reducing the electric field in the passage of the deceleration after the drive voltage of the pixel removed. in a further convenience, the present invention has an electro-optic display of the storage capacitor, the storage capacitor is formed between the pixel electrode and the (second) electrode, the fans (Zi b) the voltage electrode may be selected independently of the change in the line of the display. in a preferred embodiment, the top surface of the second electrode to follow a voltage, i.e., a voltage which differs only in that the top surface is not dependent on a time constant in comparison with the storage capacitor formed by overlapping the customer between the select line and a control electrode adjacent to the pixel of the display (or previous) line, to provide this type of capacitor greatly reduces the pixel sees a capacitive voltage spikes.

本发明的另一方面涉及通过选择和数据线来减少或消除电光媒质的有害转变. Another aspect of the invention relates to reducing or eliminating harmful transition by selecting the electro-optic medium and the data lines.

如上所讨论的,选择和数振线是有源矩阵面板的基本元件,它们提供将像素电极充电到期望值所需的电压.然而,选择和数据线可能具有转变与该数据线相邻的电光媒质的有害影响.通过使用風色掩蔽将由数据线和/或选择线转变的区城对观察者隐藏,可以消除由这种转变引起的有害光学赝像.然而,提供这种黑色掩蔽需要将显示器的前面与其后面对齐,且减少了暴雾给观察者的电光媒质部分.结果是与不使用黑色掩蔽所获得的情况相比,显示器更暗且对比度更低. Selecting several line vibration, as discussed above the basic elements of an active matrix panels, which provide the voltage needed to charge the pixel electrode to a desired value. However, the selection lines and the data transition may have a data line adjacent the electro-optic medium adverse effects. from the data line and / or the transition region select line city hidden observer color masking by using wind, can eliminate unwanted optical artifacts caused by such shift, however, necessary to provide this masking black display aligned with the front of its rear, and reduces electro-optic medium to a violent fog portion of the observer. the result is compared with the case where the black mask is not used obtained, and the contrast of the display darker less.

在本发明的另一个方面,通过使数据线在一个方向上的側向延长小,从而使得它们在正常显示搮作期间不会对相邻电光媒质进行相当大的寻址,从而遊免了,色掩蔽的使用.这避免了对黑色掩蔽的需要 In another aspect of the present invention, by making the lateral direction of a data line in the extended small so that they do not conduct a substantial electro-optic medium adjacent addressing during normal display for Li to travel free, color use masking. this avoids the need for a black mask

本发明的一个相关方面涉及钝化电极的使用以及用于駔动电光媒质的駆动方案的修改.当其在两个电极之间的薄膜内的时候,冲击驱动的电光媒质可被电寻址.通常,电极与电光媒质接触.然而,即使一个或两个电极与该媒质之间存在具有长电子^豫时间的介电材料, 也能够寻址该电极.为了遊免在显示器件的底板或前面的逆化学或电化学相互作用, 一个或两个电极的钝化可能是需要的;参见前述的W0 00/38001.虽然介电层的出现使得保持电光媒质上的电压的能力大大减小,但是如果该介电层被适当地设计,电压冲击仍能应用于该媒质且该媒质能够通过这些电压冲击寻址. A related aspect of the invention relates to the use of modified electrode passivation and electro-optic medium Qu movable powerful horse scheme for moving when it is in the film between the two electrodes when the impact driver may be electrically addressable electro-optic medium typically, electrodes in contact with the electro-optic medium. However, even the presence of one or both electrodes dielectric material having a long electronic relaxation time between ^ and the medium, the electrodes can be addressed in order to travel in the free base or the front of the display device inverse chemical or electrochemical interaction, a passivation or both electrodes may be required; see W0 00/38001 despite the foregoing dielectric layer such that the voltage holding ability of the electro-optic medium is greatly reduced, but If the dielectric layer is suitably designed, applied voltage can still impact the medium and the medium capable of addressing these voltages impact.

电光媒质的光学状态的改变当然是通过改变像素电极上的电压实现的.该电压改变导致电光媒质上的电压,且通过媒廣由于电荷泄漏使得电光媒质上的电压袭减.如果外部介电层(即,该媒质和一个电极之间的介电层)足够薄且电光媒质的电阻率足够大,则该媒质上的电压冲击将足以引起该媒质的光学状态按需要变化.罔此通过介电层的电光媒质的电子寻址是可能的.然而,该寻址方案不同于寻址其电极与该媒质直接接触的电光媒质,因为在后一种情况下,通过在像素上施加电压寻址媒质,而在前一种情况下,是通过在像素电压中引起变化实现寻址.在每个变化,电光媒质经历电压冲击.最后,本发明提供用于减少有源矩阵电光显示器中的串扰的駆动方案.像素间串扰(寻址一个像素影响其它像素的光学状态)是有害的, 这是有多种原闳造成的. 一个原因是 Changing the optical state of the electro-optical medium, of course, is achieved by the voltage on the pixel electrode changes. The change in voltage causes the voltage on the electro-optic medium, and purified by medium widely due to charge leakage so that the voltage attack Save the electro-optic medium. If the external dielectric layer (i.e., the dielectric layer between the medium and the one electrode) and a resistivity sufficiently thin electro-optic medium is sufficiently large, then the impact on the medium voltage sufficient to cause the optical state of the medium by changing needs. indiscriminately herein by dielectric electronic addressing electro-optic medium layer is possible. However, this addressing scheme addressing electro-optical medium is different from the electrode into direct contact with the medium, because in the latter case, by applying a voltage to the pixel addressable media , while in the former case, is achieved by causing a change in the voltage of the pixel addressing. in each variation, the electro-optic medium subjected to voltage surges. Finally, the present invention provides an active matrix electro-optic display for reducing crosstalk in Qu action programs. crosstalk between pixels (a pixel addressing influence the optical state of other pixels) is detrimental, which is caused by a variety of original Hong. One reason is that 在关断状态下有有限的电流流过晶体管.由于关断状态的电流泄漏,对数据线提供电压(意在充电一个像素)可能会对非选择行中的晶体管充电.解决办法是使用具有低截止状态电流的晶体管.另一个串扰源是相邻像素间的电流泄漏.电流可以通过底板的元件漏出,或通过与底板接触的电光媒质漏出.这种串扰的解决办法是设计一种像素电极之间的绝缘间隙大的底板.间I*越大产生的漏电流越小.如前面已经指出的,用于本发明中的电光媒质的优选类型是封装的基于粒子的电泳媒质.在本发明的方法和装置中使用的这种电泳媒质可以使用如前面E Ink和MIT的专利和申请中所述的相同的部件和制造技术,读者可以参考这些专利和申请以获得进一步的倌息. There are a limited current flowing through the transistor in the OFF state. Since the leakage current of the off state of the data line voltage is low (the charge is intended a pixel) might be a non-selected row charge transistor. Solution is to use a off-state current of the transistor. another source is the current leakage of crosstalk between the adjacent pixels. current leakage through the floor element, escape through the electro-optic medium or in contact with the bottom plate. this solution is to design a crosstalk pixel electrodes large insulating gap between the bottom plate. the larger the drain current I * is generated between the smaller. as has been previously noted, preferably the type of electro-optic medium used in the present invention is encapsulated particle-based electrophoretic media. in the present invention, such a method and apparatus for use in an electrophoretic medium may be used the same components and manufacturing techniques as previously described E Ink and MIT patents and applications, the reader may refer to these patents and applications for further information groom.

Claims (15)

1、一种用于寻址具有至少一个像素的双稳电光显示器的方法,该方法包括: 施加寻址脉冲以驱动该像素到第一光学状态;和在一段时间内保持该像素不被驱动,由此允许所述像素呈现不同于第一光学状态的第二光学状态; 该方法特征在于,向该像素施加刷新脉冲,该刷新脉冲基本将该像素恢复到其第一光学状态,该刷新脉冲相对于寻址脉冲来讲较短。 1. A method for addressing at least one pixel having a bistable electro-optic display method, the method comprising: applying address pulses to drive the pixel to the first optical state; and the holding period of time the pixel is not driven, thereby allowing said second optical state different from the pixel exhibits a first optical state; the method being characterized in that the refresh pulse is applied to the pixel, the pixel of the refresh pulse substantially restored to its first optical state, the refresh pulse is relatively shorter in terms of addressing pulses.
2、 根据权利要求l所迷的方法,其特征在于,刷新脉冲具有不大于该寻址脉冲的沖击的20%的冲击. 2. The method as claimed in claim l as fans, characterized in that the impact of refresh pulses having a 20% larger than the impact is not the address pulse.
3、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,刷新脉冲具有不大于该寻址脉冲的冲击的10%的冲击。 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the impact of refresh pulses having a 10% larger than the impact is not the address pulse.
4、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,刷新脉冲具有不大于该寻址脉冲的冲击的5%的沖击. 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the refresh of 5% with the impact impulse is not greater than that of the address pulse.
5、 根据前述权利要求中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,第一和第二光学状态之间的差别不超过l个单位的L'. 5. The method according to any one of the claims, characterized in that the difference between the first and second optical state does not exceed units L l '.
6、 根据权利要求1-4中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,笫一和第二光学状态之间的差别不超过0. 5个单位的L', 6. The method according to any one of claims 1-4 claims, characterized in that the difference between Zi and a second optical state does not exceed L 0. 5 units'
7、 根据权利要求1-4中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,第一和第二光学状态之间的差别不超过0. 2个单位的L'。 7. The method according to any one of claims 1-4, characterized in that the difference between the first and second optical state does not exceed L 0. 2 units'.
8、 根据权利要求1-4中任一项所迷的方法,其特征在于,多个刷新脉冲以规則间隔施加到该像素. 8. A method according to any one of the fans 1-4 claims, characterized in that a plurality of refresh pulses at regular intervals is applied to the pixel.
9、 根据权利要求1-4中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,在施加刷新脉冲之后,向该显示器施加第二寻址脉沖,该第二寻址脉冲驱动该像素到不同于第一和第二光学状态的第三光学状态,且其中由第二寻址脉沖施加的冲击是下面两项之和:(a)驱动该像素从第一光学状态到第三光学状态所需的沖击;以及(b)与在第一和第二寻址脉冲之间施加到像素的刷新脉冲的代数和幅度相等但极性相反的冲击, 9. A method according to any one of claims 1-4, characterized in that, after the application of the refresh pulse, the second address pulse is applied to the display, the address of the second driving pulse to the pixel differs from the first a second optical state and a third state, optical, and wherein the impact exerted by a second address pulses and two of the following: (a) required for driving the pixel from the punch a first optical state to a third state optical attack; and (b) equal to the algebraic sum of the amplitude of the refresh pulse is applied to the pixel between the first and second address but opposite polarity pulse impact,
10、 根振权利要求9所迷的方法,其特征在于,第二寻址脉冲的电压恒定但持续时间变化. 10, 9 fans roots vibration method claim, wherein the address pulse voltage of the second constant, but varying durations.
11、 根据权利要求9所述的方法,其特征在于,该显示器包括多个像素,且第二寻址脉冲包括将该显示器的所有像素驱动到一个极端光学状态的消隐脉冲. 11. The method of claim 9, wherein the display comprises a plurality of pixels, and the second address pulse comprises all the pixels of the display driver to one extreme optical state blanking pulse.
12、 根据权利要求1 - 4中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,该显示器包括多个像素,第一寻址脉冲施加到每个像素以便将第一组像素驱动成白、且将笫二组像素驱动成黑,向每个像素施加至少一个刷新脉冲,且之后向该显示器施加将所有像素变成黑的笫一消隐脉冲以及将所有像素驱动成白的第二消隐脉冲,这两个消隐脉冲可以以任何顺序施加,且其中在第一消隐脉沖期间施加到每个第一组像素的冲击是下面两项的和:(a)将该像素从白驱动到黑所需要的冲击,以及(b )与在笫一寻址脉冲和第一消隐脉冲之间施加到该像素的刷新脉沖的代数和幅度相等但极性相反的冲击,且在笫二消隐脉沖期间施加到每个第二组像素的冲击是下面两项的和:(c)将该像素从黑驱动到白所需要的沖击,以及(d)与在第一寻址脉沖和第一消隐脉冲之间施加到该像素的刷新脉 12, according to claim 1 - Method as claimed in claims 4, characterized in that the display comprises a plurality of pixels, a first address pulse is applied to each pixel in order to drive the first set of pixels into white, and the Zi driven into black and the second group of pixels, at least a refresh pulse is applied to each pixel, and then applied to all the pixels display black Zi into a blanking pulse and driving all the pixels into white second blanking pulse, the two blanking pulses applied may be any sequence and wherein during the first blanking pulse applied to the impact of each first group of pixels is two and the following: (a) driving the pixels from the white to black impact required, and (b) and between Zi and a first address pulse is applied to the blanking pulse is equal to the algebraic sum of the pixel refresh pulse amplitude but opposite polarity shock, and two blanking pulse during the undertaking of each impact applied to the second set of pixels is two and the following: (c) driving the pixel from black to white impact required, and (d) the first address and a first blanking pulse It is applied to the pixel between refresh clock pulses 的代数和幅度相等但极性相反的冲击, Algebraic and equal in amplitude and opposite polarity shock,
13、 根据权利要求1 - 4中任一项所迷的方法,其特征在于,该显示器是旋转二色性部件或电致变色显示器. 13, according to claims 1 - Method as in any one of the fans 4, characterized in that the display member is a rotating dichroic or electrochromic display.
14、 根据权利要求1-4中任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,该显示器是电泳显示器. 14. The method according to any one of claims 1-4, characterized in that the display is an electrophoretic display.
15、 根振权利要求14所述的方法,其特征在于,该显示器是封装的电泳显示器。 15. The method according to claim 14 vibrator, wherein the display is an encapsulated electrophoretic display.
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