CN101826304B - Methods and apparatus for driving electro-optic displays - Google Patents

Methods and apparatus for driving electro-optic displays Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101826304B
CN101826304B CN2010101574151A CN201010157415A CN101826304B CN 101826304 B CN101826304 B CN 101826304B CN 2010101574151 A CN2010101574151 A CN 2010101574151A CN 201010157415 A CN201010157415 A CN 201010157415A CN 101826304 B CN101826304 B CN 101826304B
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waveform
data buffer
buffer zone
pixel
pulse
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CN2010101574151A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101826304A (en
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K·R·阿蒙森
R·W·泽纳
T·A·舍丁
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伊英克公司
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Priority to US60/522372 priority
Priority to US52239304P priority
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/3433Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using light modulating elements actuated by an electric field and being other than liquid crystal devices and electrochromic devices
    • G09G3/344Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using light modulating elements actuated by an electric field and being other than liquid crystal devices and electrochromic devices based on particles moving in a fluid or in a gas, e.g. electrophoretic devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • G09G2310/061Details of flat display driving waveforms for resetting or blanking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • G09G2310/065Waveforms comprising zero voltage phase or pause
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/06Details of flat display driving waveforms
    • G09G2310/068Application of pulses of alternating polarity prior to the drive pulse in electrophoretic displays
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/02Improving the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/0204Compensation of DC component across the pixels in flat panels
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/02Improving the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/0252Improving the response speed
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/04Maintaining the quality of display appearance
    • G09G2320/041Temperature compensation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2340/00Aspects of display data processing
    • G09G2340/02Handling of images in compressed format, e.g. JPEG, MPEG
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2340/00Aspects of display data processing
    • G09G2340/16Determination of a pixel data signal depending on the signal applied in the previous frame
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2360/00Aspects of the architecture of display systems
    • G09G2360/18Use of a frame buffer in a display terminal, inclusive of the display panel
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/2007Display of intermediate tones
    • G09G3/2077Display of intermediate tones by a combination of two or more gradation control methods
    • G09G3/2081Display of intermediate tones by a combination of two or more gradation control methods with combination of amplitude modulation and time modulation

Abstract

Waveforms for driving electro-optic displays, especially bistable electro-optic displays, are modified by one or more of insertion of at least one balanced pulse pair into a base waveform; excision of at least one balanced pulse pair from the base waveform; and insertion of at least one period of zero voltage into the base waveform. Such modifications permit fine control of gray levels.

Description

Drive the method and apparatus of electro-optic displays

The application one Chinese patent application No.2005800274744 of the same name that to be applicant E Ink Corp. submit on August 15th, 2007 divides an application.

Technical field

The present invention relates to be used to drive the particularly method of bistable electro-optic displays of electro-optic displays, and relate to the device (controller) that uses in this method.More specifically, the present invention relates to be used to make it possible to control more accurately the driving method of the grey states of electro-optic displays pixel.The invention still further relates to and be used to make this display can be to allow the driven driving method of mode to " residence time " compensation; Wherein during said " residence time "; Pixel remained on specific optical states always before changing, the driven strategy works that still allows to be used for driving display simultaneously is by dc balance.The present invention especially is used for and uses together based on the electrophoretic display device (EPD) of particle, but is not limited thereto, and in this display, the charged particle of one or more types is suspended in the liquid and under electric field effects, in liquid, moves to change the demonstration of display.

Background technology

The open No.WO 2005/054933 of the application and international application; WO 2005/006290; WO2004/090857; WO 03/107315; And WO 03/044765 is closely related, and is open for these international applications, and the reader can be with reference to the relevant background information that drives the electro-optic displays prior art.Following description will suppose to be familiar with these applications, can these applications be referred to as later " method " (driving method of electro-optic displays) application for ease.

Use the electro-optic displays of the inventive method to comprise photoelectric material usually, this photoelectric material is a solid, and on this meaning, electrooptical material has solid-state outside surface, though this material can and be inner space full of liquid or gas usually really.The display of this use solid electric luminescent material can be called " solid electric optical display unit " for ease.

The employed here term " electric light " that is used for material or display; Its conventional implication refers to a kind of material with first and second different at least a optical characteristics show states in imaging field; Through applying electric field to this material, this material changes to its second show state from its first show state.Although this optical characteristics is the appreciable color of human eye normally; But it also can be other optical characteristics, for example transmittance, reflectivity, brightness or be used for the pseudo-colours on the reflectance varies meaning at the electromagnetic wavelength outside the visible-range under the situation of machine-readable display.

Employed here term " grey states " its conventional implication in imaging field refers to a kind of state in the middle of two extreme (extreme) optical states of pixel, and not necessarily includes the meaning that Hei between two extreme states-Bai changes.For example, it is white and dark blue electrophoretic display device (EPD) that the several patents that is mentioned to has below been described extremity with open application, thereby middle " grey states " in fact is exactly pale blue.In fact, as already mentioned, the transformation between two extremities can not be color transformed.Term " gray level " is used to the optical states of representing that pixel is possible here, comprises two extreme optical states.

Employed here term " bistable state " and " bistability " their conventional implications in the art refer to such display: it comprises the display element with first and second different at least a optical characteristics show states; Thereby make and accomplish driving to arbitrary point element with after presenting its first or second show state in the addressing pulse that utilizes finite duration; After addressing pulse stops; That state will be continuously several times of times at least of the minimum length in time that changes the required addressing pulse of status display module, for example at least four times of times.Be for disclosed number to have explained in 2002/0180687 the U.S. Patent application; Some electrophoretic display device (EPD)s that gray level is arranged based on particle are stable at their extreme black and white state not only; And also be stable at their middle gray state, this is suitable for the electro-optic displays of some other types equally.Such display is more suitable for being called " multistable " rather than bistable state, although term " bistable state " can be used to contain bistable state and multistable display here for convenience's sake.

Employed here term " impacts (impulse) " and is meant the integration of voltage with respect to the time by its conventional implication.But some bistable state electric light media are as charge-voltage converting device (charge transducer), and for such medium, can use the definition of an optional impact, i.e. in time integration of electric current (its equal applied total electrical charge).The suitable definition of impact should be to impact transducer or electric charge as voltage-time to impact transducer and use according to medium.

Below more discussion will concentrate on the one or more pixels that are used to drive electro-optic displays are converted to final gray level (they can or can be not different with initial grey levels) from initial grey levels method.Term " waveform " will be used to represent whole voltage with respect to the curve of time, be used for influencing from the transformation of a specific initial grey levels to a specific final gray level.Usually, illustrate as following, such waveform will comprise a plurality of waveform elements; Wherein these elements are rectangle (that is, a given element comprise apply constant voltage a period of time) basically, and these elements can be called " potential pulse " or " driving pulse ".Term " drive scheme " expression is enough to cause one group of waveform of all possible transformation between the gray level for specific display.

The electro-optic displays of known several types.One type electro-optic displays is rotation double-colored unit (rotating bichromal member) type, for example in U.S. Patent number 5,808,783; 5,777,782; 5,760,761; 6,054,071; 6,055,091; 6,097,531; 6,128,124; 6,137,467; With 6; 147; (although such display often is called as " Rotating Double chromosphere (rotating bichromal ball) " display, it is more accurate that term " rotates double-colored unit ", because rotation unit is not spherical in more above-mentioned patents) described in 791.This display uses the corpusculum (small body) (being generally spherical or cylindrical) that has two or more parts that the different optical characteristic is arranged (section) and an interior dipole in a large number.These corpusculums are suspended in the vacuole of the full of liquid that is arranged in matrix, and these vacuole fulls of liquid make these corpusculums rotate freely.The presentation of this display is changed, and through applying electric field to it, and then corpusculum is rotated to all places and changes the part of seeing through sightingpiston of these corpusculums.Such electro-optical medium is normally bistable.

The electro-optic displays of another kind of type uses a kind of electrochromic media; For example a kind of electrochromic media, said film with receiving look film (nanochromic film) form comprise at least a portion be the electrode that forms by metal oxide semiconductor and a plurality of be attached on this electrode can reversible color dye molecule; Referring to for example O ' Regan, B. waits people's Nature1991,353,737; And Wood, D., Information Display, 18 (3), 24 (in March, 2002).Also can be referring to Bach, U. waits people's Adv.Mater., 2002,14 (11), 845.Such receiving look film also has introduction, for example, at U.S. Patent number 6,301,038, among the open NO.WO 01/27690 of international application and the U.S. Patent application NO.2003/0214695.Such medium also is bistable usually.

The electro-optic displays of conscientiously having studied and developed another kind of type for many years is based on the electrophoretic display device (EPD) of particle, and wherein a plurality of charged particles move through liquid under electric field effects.Compare with LCD, electrophoretic display device (EPD) can have the attribute of good brightness and contrast, wide visual angle, bistable state state and low-power consumption.But, these displays have hindered being widely used of they in the problem aspect the long-term image quality.For example, the particle that forms electrophoretic display device (EPD) is easy to deposition, causes the serviceable life of these displays not enough.

As noted above, electrophoretic medium requires to exist fluid.In nearest prior art, this fluid is a kind of liquid, but electrophoretic medium can generate with gaseous fluid; Referring to for example, Kitamura, T. waits people " Electrical toner movement for electronic paper-like display "; IDW Japan, 2001, Paper HCS1-I; And Yamaguchi, Y. waits people " Toner display using insulative particles charged triboelectrically "; IDW Japan, 2001, Paper AMD4-4.Also can be referring to european patent application 1,429,178; 1,462,847; 1,482,354; And 1,484,625; And International Application No. WO 2004/090626; WO 2004/079442; WO2004/077140; WO 2004/059379; WO 2004/055586; WO 2004/008239; WO 2004/006006; WO 2004/001498; WO 03/091799; And WO 03/088495.When said medium is used to allow the direction of such deposition; For example therein dielectric deposition in the sign of vertical plane; As if this electrophoretic medium based on gas is the same with electrophoretic medium based on liquid, the influence of the problem of the same type that is subject to produce because of particle deposition.In fact, particle deposition as if in based on the electrophoretic medium of gas than in based on the electrophoretic medium of liquid problem more serious because gaseous fluid is lower than viscosity with liquid phase, make electrophoretic particles deposit quickly.

Under Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (MIT) and E Ink exabyte or by the patent of the electrophoretic medium of a plurality of description encapsulation that transfer them, disclosing in the recent period with application.Such encapsulation medium comprises a plurality of little capsules (capsule), and each capsule itself comprises that includes the interior phase (internal phase) that the electrophoresis that is suspended in the fluid moves particle, and capsule wall is round interior phase.Usually, capsule itself is maintained in the polymer adhesive to form a binding layer (coherent layer) between two electrodes.The existing explanation of such encapsulation medium is for example in U.S. Patent number 5,930,026; 5,961,804; 6,017,584; 6,067,185; 6,118,426; 6,120,588; 6,120,839; 6,124,851; 6,130,773; 6,130,774; 6,172,798; 6,177,921; 6,232,950; 6,249,271; 6,252,564; 6,262,706; 6,262,833; 6,300,932; 6,312,304; 6,312,971; 6,323,989; 6,327,072; 6,376,828; 6,377,387; 6,392,785; 6,392,786; 6,413,790; 6,422,687; 6,445,374; 6,445,489; 6,459,418; 6,473,072; 6,480,182; 6,498,114; 6,504,524; 6,506,438; 6,512,354; 6,515,649; 6,518,949; 6,521,489; 6,531,997; 6,535,197; 6,538,801; 6,545,291; 6,580,545; 6,639,578; 6,652,075; 6,657,772; 6,664,944; 6,680,725; 6,683,333; 6,704,133; 6,710,540; 6,721,083; 6,724,519; 6,727,881; 6,738,050; 6,750,473; 6,753,999; 6,816,147; 6,819,471; 6,822,782; 6,825,068; 6,825,829; 6,825,970; 6,831,769; 6,839,158; 6,842,167; 6,842,279; 6,842,657; 6,864,875; 6,865,010; 6,866,760; 6,870,661; 6,900,851; And 6,922,276; And U.S. Patent Application Publication 2002/0060321; 2002/0063661; 2002/0090980; 2002/0113770; 2002/0130832; 2002/0180687; 2003/0011560; 2003/0020844; 2003/0025855; 2003/0102858; 2003/0132908; 2003/0137521; 2003/0214695; 2003/0222315; 2004/0012839; 2004/0014265; 2004/0027327; 2004/0075634; 2004/0094422; 2004/0105036; 2004/0112750; 2004/0119681; 2004/0136048; 2004/0155857; 2004/0180476; 2004/0190114; 2004/0196215; 2004/0226820; 2004/0239614; 2004/0252360; 2004/0257635; 2004/0263947; 2005/0000813; 2005/0001812; 2005/0007336; 2005/0007653; 2005/0012980; 2005/0017944; 2005/0018273; 2005/0024353; 2005/0035941; 2005/0041004; 2005/0062714; 2005/0067656; 2005/0078099; 2005/0105159; 2005/0122284; 2005/0122306; 2005/0122563; 2005/0122564; 2005/0122565; 2005/0151709; With 2005/0152022; With International Publication No. WO 99/67678; WO 00/05704; WO 00/38000; WO 00/36560; WO 00/67110; WO 00/67327; WO 01/07961; In WO 03/107,315.

Patent of mentioning in a plurality of preceding text and application are recognized in the electrophoretic medium that can use a kind of external phase (phase) to be substituted in encapsulation round the wall of discrete capsule (microcapsule); Make a kind of so-called " dispersin polymerization body (polymer-dispersed) electrophoretic display device (EPD) " thus; Electrophoretic medium comprises the discrete droplet of many electrophoretic fluid and the external phase of polymeric material in this display; And even without discrete capsule film and each independent droplet combination, the discrete droplet of the electrophoretic fluid in such dispersin polymerization volumetric display also can be regarded capsule or microbody as; Referring to for example above-mentioned 2002/0131147.Therefore, for the application's purpose, such dispersin polymerization body electrophoretic medium is counted as the subspecies class of the electrophoretic medium of encapsulation.

The electrophoretic display device (EPD) of encapsulation can not suffer the grumeleuse and deposition defective pattern of conventional electrophoretic equipment usually, and further advantage is provided, for example the ability of printing or coating display on various flexibilities and rigid substrates.(use of speech " printing " is intended to comprise the printing and the coating of whole forms; Comprise (but being not limited to this): be coated with such as obedient sheet mouth mould (patch die); Slit or extrude (slot or extrusion) coating; Slide or the classification coating metering in advance (pre-metered) coating of curtain (curtain) coating and so on; Roller coat on cutter (knife overroll coating), forward or the roller coat the reverse roller coat; The notch board coating; Dip coated; Spraying; Meniscus (meniscus) coating; Rotary coating; Brush; The scraper coating; Silk-screen printing technique; Electrostatic printing process; The temperature-sensitive typography; Ink-jet printing process; With other similar techniques.) resulting thus display can be flexible.In addition, because display medium can (make and in all sorts of ways) printing, so display itself can expensively not made.

A kind of electrophoretic display device (EPD) of correlation type is so-called " microcell electrophoretic display ".In microcell electrophoretic display, charged particle and fluid are not to be encapsulated in the capsule but to remain in a plurality of cavitys in the mounting medium that is formed on polymer film normally.Referring to for example, all transfer the open No.WO 02/01281 of international application and the open No.2002/0075556 of U.S. Patent application of Sipix Imaging company.

The electro-optical medium of other type also can be used for display of the present invention.

Though electrophoretic medium is normally opaque (because for example in many electrophoretic mediums; Particle hinders visible transmission basically and passes display) and with reflective-mode work; Many electrophoretic display device (EPD)s can make it work with so-called " shutter mode ", one of them display state be opaque basically and one be light transmissive.Referring to for example aforesaid United States Patent(USP) No. 6,130,774 and 6,172,798, and United States Patent(USP) No. 5,872,552; 6,144,361; 6,271,823; 6,225,971; And 6,184,856.Dielectrophoretic displays, it is similar to electrophoretic display device (EPD) but depends on the variation of electric field intensity, and it can be by similar pattern work; See United States Patent(USP) No. 4,418,346.

The similar characteristics that shows based on the bistable state of the electrophoretic display device (EPD) of particle or multistable characteristic and other electro-optic displays (this display for convenience's sake after be referred to as " impact driving display ") and the characteristic of traditional liquid crystal (" LC ") display have formed striking contrast.The twisted nematic liquid crystal behavior is not a bistable state or multistable but as voltage changer, thereby applies the pixel of the electric field of setting to this display, on this pixel, produces the gray level of appointment, and no matter be present in the gray level on the pixel originally.In addition, LCD only drive in a direction (from non-transmission or " secretly " to transmission or " bright "), from brighter state to than the reverse transformation of state secretly through reducing or removing this electric field and realize.At last, the gray level of the pixel of LCD is insensitive to the polarity of electric field, and only responsive to its amplitude, and in fact because technical reason, and the commercial liquid crystal display is often with the polarity of frequent interval inversion driving electric field.Contrast, it is as impacting transducer, making the end-state of pixel not only depend on the time that electric field and this electric field applied that is applied, and depend on the state of pixel before applying electric field that bistable electro-optic displays first is similar to.

The Perfected process that at first is used for the electro-optic displays of this impact driving of addressing will be so-called " general grayscale image stream (general grayscale image flow) "; Its middle controller is arranged each write operation of image, makes each pixel directly be converted to its final gray level from its initial grey levels.But, have some errors when inevitably on impacting driving display, writing image.Some such errors that faced in the reality comprise:

(a) states of previous states correlativity; For at least some electro-optical mediums, electric current and the optical states of wanting are not only depended in the required impact that pixel is converted to a new optical states, and depend on the former optical states of pixel.

(b) residence time correlativity; For at least some electro-optical mediums, the required impact that pixel is converted to a new optical states depends on that pixel is in its various optical states institute's time spents.This dependent accurate person's character is understood not too easily, but usually, required impact is many more, and it is longer that pixel is in its current optical states.

(c) temperature dependency; Temperature is depended in the required impact that pixel is converted to a new optical states to a great extent.

(d) humidity correlativity; The required impact that pixel is converted to a new optical states, for the electro-optical medium of at least some types, the humidity around depending on.

(e) mechanical homogeneity; The required impact that pixel is converted to a new optical states may receive the mechanical variable effect in the display, for example, and the variation of the thickness of electro-optical medium or the multiple film glue (lamination adhesive) that is associated.Inevitably difference, manufacturing tolerance and materials variances between the medium that the difference that the mechanical unevenness of other type may be due to medium is made batch.

(f) voltage error; Be applied to real impact and the impact that applies in theory on the pixel inevitably can be slightly some is different because the voltage that driver transmitted exists trickle error inevitably.

General grayscale image stream suffers damage because of " accumulation of error " phenomenon.For example, imagination temperature dependency produces 0.2L on positive dirction on each changes *(L wherein *Have common CIE definition:

L *=116(R/R 0) 1/3-16,

Wherein R is a reflectivity, R 0Be fundamental reflection rate value) error.After 50 transformations, this error will be accumulated to 10L *More reality is, supposes the average error on each changes, represent with the theoretical reflectivity of display and the difference between the actual reflectance, for ± 0.2L *Behind 100 continuous transformations, these pixels will show its expectation state of average departure 2L *This departing from the image of some type for general observer is conspicuous.

This error accumulation phenomenon not only involve Yin Wendu and the error that produces and involve above all types of errors of listing.It is 2003/0137521 said that United States Patent (USP) as mentioned above discloses, and is possible to such compensation of error, but only reaches limited degree of accuracy.For example, temperature error can compensate through serviceability temperature sensor and question blank, but temperature sensor has finite resolution and possibly read and the slightly different temperature of the temperature of electro-optical medium.Similarly; The states of previous states correlativity can and use the multidimensional transition matrix to compensate through the storage states of previous states; But controller storage limits the number of recordable state and the size of storable transition matrix, thereby has limited the accuracy of such compensation.

Therefore, the result of impact to provide that general grayscale image stream requires very accurately control to be applied has been found that with regard to the current state of electro-optic displays technology by experience, and general grayscale image stream is infeasible in display apparatus for commercial use.

Nearly all electro-optical medium all has built-in restarting (error qualification) mechanism, i.e. their extreme (normally black and white) optical states, and it is as " optics guide rail ".After specific pulse has been applied on the pixel of electro-optic displays, that pixel can not become whiter (or more black).For example, in the electrophoretic display device (EPD) of encapsulation, after applying a specific pulse, all electrophoretic particles interact or with the capsule wall effect, and can not be moved further, thereby produce limited optical states or optics guide rail.Because in this medium, exist the distribution of electrophoretic particles size and electric charge; Some particles were got on the said guide rail before other particle; Form " soft guide rail (soft rail) " phenomenon; Desired pulse precision is lowered when the last optical states that changes approaches extreme black and white state thus, and desired optical accuracy change the end near the optical range of pixel in the middle of the time increase significantly.

It is known utilizing all kinds drive scheme for electro-optic displays of optics guide rail.For example; Fig. 9 of foregoing 2003/0137521 and Figure 10 and described " slideshow " drive scheme in paragraph [0177] to the related description of [0180], wherein whole display is driven at least one optics guide rail before writing any new image.Significantly; Pure general grayscale image stream drive scheme can not rely on the error of using the optics guide rail to prevent the gray level aspect; Because in this drive scheme, any given pixel may stand the variation of the infinitely great quantity of gray level aspect, and has not touched any optics guide rail.

Before being advanced further, it is desirable limiting the slideshow drive scheme more accurately.Basic slideshow drive scheme is to realize being converted to from initial optical state (gray level) through the intermediateness that is converted to limited quantity finally (wanting) optical states (gray level), and wherein the minimum number of intermediateness is 1.Preferably, intermediateness be or near the extremity of used electro-optical medium.Difference along with pixel can be different in display in said transformation, because they depend on the final optical states of initial sum.Waveform for the special transition of the given pixel of display can be represented as:

R 2→ goali → goal 2→ ... → goal n→ R 1(scheme 1)

Wherein at original state R 2With end-state R iBetween have in the middle of at least one or dbjective state.Dbjective state is the function of original state and end-state normally.The current preferred amount of intermediateness is 2, but can use more or less intermediateness.Each independent transformation in the whole transformation is used and is enough to drive the waveform elements (be generally potential pulse) of pixel from a state of sequence to NextState and realizes.For example, in the waveform of above-mentioned symbolically, from R 2Transformation to target i realizes with waveform elements or potential pulse usually.This waveform elements can be single voltage in the finite time (that is, single potential pulse), thereby can comprise that maybe different voltages with different reaches accurate goali state.This waveform elements followed second waveform elements is to realize from goali to goal 2Transformation.If only use two dbjective states, the second waveform elements followed the 3rd waveform elements then, the 3rd waveform elements drive pixel from goal 2State is to final optical states R 1Dbjective state can with R 2And R 1Irrelevant, perhaps can depend on one or both.

Summary of the invention

The present invention wants to provide a kind of slideshow drive scheme that is used for electro-optic displays of improvement, and it realizes the control to the improvement of gray level.The present invention especially but be not exclusively intended for use in the width modulation drive scheme, the voltage that wherein is applied to any given pixel of display at any given time can only be-V, 0, or+V, wherein V is a free voltage.More specifically, the present invention relates to two kinds of dissimilar improvement of slideshow drive scheme, promptly (a) inserts some and revises element to being directed against in the basic waveform of this drive scheme; And (b) drive scheme is set and makes that some gray level further approaches the optics guide rail from the gray level of wanting at least.

On the other hand, the present invention relates to residence time compensation for the drive scheme of electro-optic displays.Like what in " method " application, discussed; Have been found that at least under the situation of many electro-optic displays based on particle; Equalization through gray level change (as by human eye or judged by the normalized optical instrument) change the necessary impact of given pixel and be not necessarily constantly, they also are not necessarily tradable.For example, imagine a kind of display, wherein each pixel can display gray scale 0 (in vain), and 1,2, or 3 (deceiving), spaced apart valuably.(can in reflectivity percentages, be linear at the interval between the gray level,, but also can use other at interval as measured by eyes or instrument.For example, can in L*, be linear at interval, perhaps can select to provide a specific gamma value; 2.2 gamma value through being usually used in monitor, when electro-optic displays is used as the alternative of monitor, can use similar gamma value.) have been found that with pixel from 0 grade change to 1 grade of (hereinafter being called " 0-1 transformation " for simplicity) necessary pulse often with required different of 1-2 or 2-3 transformation.And 1-0 changes required pulse, and not necessarily to change the upset of required pulse identical with 0-1.In addition, the performance of some systems shows a kind of " storer " effects, make (such as) 0-1 changes required pulse and whether experience 0-0-1 according to particular pixels, 1-0-1 or 3-0-1 change and some variation a little.(wherein, symbol " x-y-z " expression is the sequence of the optical states of visit in chronological order, x here, and y, z are optical states 0,1,2 or 3.Although) can through with required pixel driving before another state in a basic period with all pixel driving of display to one of extremity with minimizing or overcome these problems, the pure color that is produced " flicker " is normally unacceptable; For example, the reader of e-book possibly want the text of this book to roll screen downwards, if display need be with frequent interval flicker black or pure white, the reader may be made or lose dizzy his position so.In addition, this flicker of display has increased its energy consumption and can reduce serviceable life of display.At last, have been found that at least in some cases that the required impact of a certain special transition is influenced by the total run time of temperature and display, and find to compensate these factors in order to ensure accurate gray-scale rendition.

Simply mention as top; Have been found that at least in some cases; In bistable electro-optic displays for the necessary impact of given transformation along with in residence time of the pixel of its optical states and change; This phenomenon is called " residence time correlativity " or " DTD " later on, though term " residence time sensitivity " once used in some prior art documents.Therefore, even just can expect must change under some situation in practice be used for given transformation impact as the function of pixel at the residence time of its initial optical state.

Fig. 1 below with reference to accompanying drawings illustrates in greater detail the phenomenon of residence time correlativity, and Fig. 1 shows for being expressed as R 3→ R 2→ R 1A series of transformations, the reflectivity of pixel is the function of time, wherein (according to top used nomenclature) each R kA gray level in the item expression gray scale sequence, having more, target R in big angle is positioned at before the R with littler footmark.R 3And R 2Between and R 2And R 1Between transformation also be expressed out.DTD is by at optical states R 2The caused last optical states R of the variation of the time that is spent (being called as residence time) aspect 1Variation.Can through select to different residence times or compensate DTD to the different wave of the different range of the residence time in the optical states in front.The method of this compensation is called as " residence time compensation ", i.e. and " DTC ", or abbreviate " time bias " as.

Yet such DTC possibly conflict with other characteristic of wanting of drive scheme.Especially; Because the reason that in " method " application, goes through, for many electro-optic displays, what want very much is to guarantee that used drive scheme is direct current (DC) balance; On this meaning; Any series at random for beginning and end at equal optical state changes, and the impact that is applied (that is the voltage that, is applied is with respect to the integration of time) is zero.This guarantees limited by known value by the clean impact that any pixel experienced of display (being also referred to as " DC is uneven "), and the definite series that whichever pixel stood changes.For example, 15V, 300 milliseconds of pulses be used to drive pixel from white state to black state.After this changes, the uneven pulse of the DC that pixel has experienced 4.5V second.If-15V, 300 milliseconds of pulses be used to drive pixel from black in vain, pixel is for to turn back to white whole stroke then be the DC balance to black in vain so.This DC balance for from an original optical states to the identical or different a series of optical states of this original optical states turn back to then this original optical states the institute might should all keep by stroke.

Drive scheme can carry out the residence time compensation through increasing voltage characteristic in the basic driver scheme or from basic driver scheme removal voltage characteristic.For example, can utilize the drive scheme to two optical states (black and white) display to begin, this drive scheme comprises following four waveforms:

Table 1

Change Waveform Black in black 0V, 420 milliseconds Black in white -15V, 400 milliseconds, 0V then, 20 milliseconds White to black + 15V, 400 milliseconds, 0V then, 20 milliseconds White to white 0V, 420 milliseconds

This drive scheme is the DC balance, because the transformation that makes pixel turn back to any series of its initial optical state all is the DC balance, that is, is zero for the net area of transformation under voltage profile (profile) of whole series.

Optical parallax may be due to the DTD of display.For example, pixel possibly start from white state, is driven into black state, resident a period of time, drives this white state that turns back to then.Final white attitudinal reflexes rate is the function of time of in said black state, being spent.

What want is to have very little DTD.If this is impossible for a specific electro-optic displays, then according to an aspect of the present invention, hope through selecting to compensate DTD to the different wave of the different range of the residence time in the optical states formerly.For example can find that the formerly black state of white state final in the example that has just provided is of short duration resident afterwards than formerly black state is long-time resident afterwards brighter.A kind of residence time compensation scheme will be to revise to make the duration of pixel from black to white pulse, to offset this DTD of last optical states.For example, when the residence time of previous state in short-term, can shorten in black pulse length in the white transformation, and keep pulse to be longer than residing permanently the time of staying in the formerly black state.This trends towards generating darker white state to shorter states of previous states residence time, and this offsets the effect of DTD.For example, can select to deceive to white wave shape according to following table 2 along with what the residence time at black state changed.

Table 2

Residence time Waveform 0 to 0.3 second -15V, 280 milliseconds, 0V, 140 milliseconds 0.3 second was by 1 second -15V, 340 milliseconds, 0V, 80 milliseconds 1 second to 3 seconds -15V, 380 milliseconds, 0V, 40 milliseconds 3 seconds or longer -15V, 400 milliseconds, 0V, 20 milliseconds

The problem of this method that is directed against DTC of drive scheme is that this drive scheme no longer is the DC balance as a whole.Because to black impact to white transformation is the function of institute's time spent in black state, and similarly, to white can be function to the black impact that changes at the residence time of white state, black to white be not the DC balance usually to the clean pulse of deceiving sequence.For example; Suppose that this sequence realizes through following mode: usefulness-15V continue 280 milliseconds, promptly-potential pulse of the impact of 4.2V second in black state after resident blink from deceive be converted to white; And then; After white state is long-time resident, continue 400 milliseconds with 15V, promptly the potential pulse of the impact of 6V second is black from being converted in vain.Clean impact in this sequence (black and white black circulation) is-second 4.2V second+6V second=1.8V.Repeat this circulation and cause the uneven increase of DC, this performance for display possibly be harmful to.

Therefore, this aspect of the present invention provides a kind of residence time compensation method of waveform or drive scheme of the DC of being used for balance, and it keeps the DC balance of waveform or drive scheme.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to the method and apparatus that is used to drive the electro-optic displays that allows quick response user input.Several kinds of method and the controllers that are used to drive electro-optic displays have been described in foregoing " method " application.The major part of these methods has all been used the storer with two image buffers; First image buffer storage first or initial pictures (when the re-writing of beginning that changes or display, being presented on the display); And second image buffer storage final image, it wants after re-writing, to be placed on the display.Controller is initial pictures and final image relatively; If their differences; Then the various pixels to display apply driving voltage, thereby this variation final image when re-writing (alternately, being called as renewal) end that makes pixel stand optical states is formed on the display.

Yet in the method for mentioning in the above and the major part of controller, upgrading operation is " (atomic) of primitive ", on this meaning, Once you begin upgrades, and storer will could be accepted any new view data after upgrading completion.This causes some difficulties when wanting that display is used to accept the application of user's input (for example through keyboard or similar data input equipment), because controller does not respond user's input when implementing to upgrade.For electrophoretic medium, wherein the transformation between two extreme optical state possibly spend scope that hundreds of millisecond, this section do not respond the period to change to about 1800 milliseconds from about 800, and the major part of this period is attributable to the desired update cycle of electrooptical material.Though not responding the duration of period can make some performance artefacts (artefact) of increasing update time and reduce through the response speed that improves electrooptical material through removal.Only such technology will not respond the period, and to reduce to about be impossible below 500 milliseconds.The length that this still wants than interactive application, the example as the electronic dictionary, wherein user expectation responds user's input fast.The image updating method that does not respond the period and the controller that therefore, need have minimizing.

This aspect of the present invention uses the principle of asynchronous image update (referring to people's such as Zhou " Driving an Active Matrix Electrophoretic Display "; Proceedings of the SID 2004), to reduce the duration that does not respond the period considerably.Compare with controller with the method for prior art; Method described in this piece paper uses the structure of having developed as the grayscale image display to reduce up to 65% with the period that will not respond, and only appropriate complicacy and the memory requirement that has increased controller.

At last, the present invention relates to be used to drive a kind of method and apparatus of electro-optic displays, the data that wherein are used to define drive scheme are compressed with a kind of mode of appointment.The method and apparatus that is used to drive electro-optic displays has been described in " method " recited above application, and the data that wherein define used drive scheme (or a plurality of drive scheme) are stored in one or more question blanks (" LUT ").Such LUT must comprise the data that each waveform to said drive scheme or each drive scheme defines certainly, and single waveform can require a plurality of bytes usually.As described in " method " application, LUT possibly consider plural optical states, together with to the adjusting such as the factors such as working time of temperature, humidity, medium.Therefore, it possibly be sizable keeping the capacity of the necessary storer of shape information.What want is to reduce the capacity of the storer of distributing to shape information, to reduce the cost of display controller.In fact the simple compression scheme that can in display controller or main frame, admit is being helpful aspect the reduction display controller cost.The present invention relates to a kind of simple compression scheme useful especially that show as to electro-optic displays.

Therefore, in one aspect, the present invention provides a kind of method that is used to drive the electro-optic displays with at least one pixel that can realize at least three different grey-scales, and said gray level comprises two extreme optical state.Said method comprises to said pixel and applies basic waveform; This basic waveform comprises at least one reset pulse; This reset pulse be enough to drive said pixel to or near an extreme optical state; Following at least one set pulse after this reset pulse, this set pulse is enough to drive said pixel to the gray level that is different from said extreme optical state.Yet said basic waveform is revised through following at least a mode:

(a) with at least one equalizing pulse to inserting basic waveform;

(b) it is right to remove at least one equalizing pulse from basic waveform; And

(c) at least one of no-voltage is inserted basic waveform period, the sequence of " equalizing pulse to " opposite polarity two pulses of expression wherein, right total impact is zero basically to make equalizing pulse.

For convenience's sake, later this method of the present invention can be called as " equalizing pulse is to slideshow " of the present invention or " BPPSS " method.When this method comprises through inserting or remove at least one equalizing pulse to (" BPP ") when revising basic waveform, right those two pulses of equalizing pulse can each all be voltage constants but polarity is opposite and equal in length.When the correction of basic waveform comprises when removing at least one BPP, can replace by the period of no-voltage by the period in said or the basic waveform that each removed BPP is occupied; Alternately; Other element of basic waveform can be moved occupying by the cycle said or that each removed BPP occupied in the past in time, and the period of no-voltage can be inserted in and time point different time point said or that each removed BPP occupies.

In the preferred form of BPPSS method of the present invention, basic waveform comprise continuous being enough to drive pixel to or near first reset pulse of one of its extreme optical state, be enough to drive pixel to or near second reset pulse and at least one set pulse of its another extreme optical state.

The BPPSS method can with can voltage modulated, width modulation or the driving circuit of the two realize.But, found to be used for three grades of other drive schemes and be particularly useful, in three grades of other drive schemes, put at any time and apply 0 to pixel ,+V or-voltage of V, wherein V is the driving voltage of being scheduled to.

Because following detailed description, in the BPPSS method, hope to limit total number to the correction of basic waveform (that is, insert or remove equalizing pulse to and the total number that inserts the period of no-voltage).Usually, the total number of this correction can not surpass 6, hopes that ground can and preferably can not surpass 2 above 4.

As discussed in described in front " method " application, and as following the discussion, hope that BPPSS method of the present invention is the DC balance, and as much as possible, each single waveform of hoping used drive scheme is the DC balance.

BPPSS method of the present invention can be used for the electro-optic displays of any kind discussed above.Therefore, for example, said display can comprise double-colored unit of rotation or electrochromic media.Alternately, said display can comprise the electrophoresis electro-optical medium, and this electrophoresis electro-optical medium comprises a plurality of in fluid and when convection cell applies electric field, can move and pass the charged particle of fluid.In such display, fluid can be gas or liquid.Charged particle and fluid can be limited in many capsules or the micro unit.

The present invention extends to display controller, special IC or the software code that is used for realizing BPPSS method of the present invention.

On the other hand; The present invention provides a kind of electro-optic displays with a plurality of pixels that is used to drive; Each pixel can realize comprising at least four different grey-scales of two extreme optical state; Said method comprises to each pixel and applies waveform; This waveform comprise be enough to drive pixel to or near the reset pulse of one of its extreme optical state, thereafter for being enough to drive the set pulse of pixel to the final gray level that is different from said extreme optical state, wherein reset pulse is selected such that the image on the display before the said set pulse is the monochromatic projection of following the counter-rotating of the final image after said set pulse basically just.

For convenience's sake, later this method of the present invention can be called as " monochromatic projection of counter-rotating " of the present invention or " IMP " method.More specify as following; The monochromatic projection of grayscale image is such projection; Being in an extreme optical state or more (for example being in the grayscale image wherein near all pixels of the grey states of that extreme optical state than predetermined threshold; White and light grey pixel) be changed to that extreme optical state (for example, white) or to its near state, and be in antipole end optical states or more (for example be near the pixel of the state of this antipole end optical states than threshold value; Black and dark-grey) be changed to said antipole end optical states (for example, black) or to its near state.The monochromatic projection of counter-rotating is the converse of monochromatic projection.

In the preferred form of IMP method of the present invention; Each pixel is applied waveform; This waveform comprise be enough to drive each pixel to or near first reset pulse of one of its extreme optical state, be enough to drive each pixel to or near second reset pulse and the set pulse of its another extreme optical state, and said first reset pulse is selected such that the image on the display before said second reset pulse is the monochromatic projection of following the final image after said set pulse basically just.

In the IMP method, said waveform can pass through the following manner correction:

(a) with at least one equalizing pulse to inserting said waveform;

(b) right from said at least one equalizing pulse of waveform removal; And

(c) at least one period of no-voltage is inserted said waveform,

Wherein " equalizing pulse to " is like top definition.In the waveform of this correction, right two pulses of equalizing pulse can each all be voltage constants but polarity is opposite and equal in length.When the correction of basic waveform comprises when removing at least one BPP, can replace by the period of no-voltage by the period in said or the basic waveform that each removed BPP is occupied; Alternately; Other element of basic waveform can be moved occupying by the cycle said or that each removed BPP occupied in the past in time, and the period of no-voltage can be inserted in and time point different time point said or that each removed BPP is occupied.

With the same with the BPPSS method, IMP method of the present invention can with can voltage modulated, width modulation or the driving circuit of the two realize.But, find that the IMP method is used for three grades of other drive schemes and is particularly useful, in three grades of other drive schemes, put at any time and apply 0 to pixel ,+V or-voltage of V, wherein V is the driving voltage of being scheduled to.Also have, with the same with the BPPSS method, IMP method of the present invention can be used for the electro-optic displays of any kind discussed above.Therefore, for example, said display can comprise double-colored unit of rotation or electrochromic media.Alternately, said display can comprise the electrophoresis electro-optical medium, this electrophoresis electro-optical medium be included in the fluid and when convection cell applies electric field, can move and pass a plurality of charged particles of fluid.In such display, fluid can be gas or liquid.Charged particle and fluid can be limited in many capsules or the micro unit.

The present invention extends to display controller, special IC or the software code that is used for realizing IMP method of the present invention.

On the other hand; The present invention provides a kind of electro-optic displays with at least one pixel that is used to drive; Each pixel can be realized at least two different grey-scales; Wherein depend on the duration of the residence time of the state that pixel begins in said transformation, at least two different waveforms are used to the same transition between the particular gray level, and this two waveforms at least one aspect in the following areas differs from one another:

(a) it is right to insert at least one equalizing pulse;

(b) it is right to remove at least one equalizing pulse; And

(c) at least one period of insertion no-voltage,

Wherein " equalizing pulse to " is like top definition.

For convenience's sake, later this method of the present invention can be called as " residence time compensation balance pulse to " of the present invention or " DTCBPP " method.In this method, whole drive scheme hopes it is the DC balance very much, and preferably, all waveforms itself are the DC balances.When this method comprises when inserting or removing at least one BPP and revise basic waveform, right those two pulses of equalizing pulse can each all be voltage constants but polarity is opposite and equal in length.When the correction of basic waveform comprises when removing at least one BPP, can replace by the period of no-voltage by the period in said or the basic waveform that each removed BPP is occupied; Alternately; Other element of basic waveform can be moved occupying by the cycle said or that each removed BPP occupied in the past in time, and the period of no-voltage can be inserted in and time point different time point said or that each removed BPP occupies.

With the same with the IMP method with BPPSS, DTCBPP method of the present invention can with can voltage modulated, width modulation or the driving circuit of the two realize.But, found that the DTCBPP method is used for three grades of other drive schemes and is particularly useful, in three grades of other drive schemes, put at any time and apply 0 to pixel ,+V or-voltage of V, wherein V is the driving voltage of being scheduled to.Because following detailed description, in the DTCBPP method, hope to limit total number to the correction of basic waveform (that is, insert or remove equalizing pulse to and the total number that inserts the period of no-voltage).Usually, the total number of this correction can not surpass 6, desirably can not surpass 4, and preferably can not surpass 2.

Also have, with the same with the IMP method with BPPSS, the DTCBPP method can be used for the electro-optic displays of any kind discussed above.Therefore, for example, said display can comprise double-colored unit of rotation or electrochromic media.Alternately, said display can comprise the electrophoresis electro-optical medium, this electrophoresis electro-optical medium be included in the fluid and when convection cell applies electric field, can move and pass a plurality of charged particles of fluid.In such display, fluid can be gas or liquid.Charged particle and fluid can be limited in many capsules or the micro unit.

The present invention extends to display controller, special IC or the software code that is used for realizing DTCBPP method of the present invention.

On the other hand, the present invention is provided for reducing the two kinds of relevant methods that do not respond the period when electro-optic displays just is updated.First method in these methods is used to drive the electro-optic displays with a plurality of pixels, and each pixel can be realized at least two different gray levels, and said method comprises:

(a) the final data buffer zone is provided, this final data buffer zone is used to receive the data of the end-state of wanting of each pixel that limits display;

(b) the primary data buffer zone is provided, this primary data buffer zone is used to the data of original state of each pixel of area definition display;

(c) the target data buffer zone is provided, this target data buffer zone is used to the data of dbjective state of each pixel of area definition display;

(d) determine when that the data in initial and final data buffer zone are different; And when find this not simultaneously; Upgrade the numerical value in the target data buffer zone through following manner: (i) when initial and final data buffer zone comprised identical numerical value for particular pixels, the target setting data buffer was this numerical value; (ii) compare with the final data buffer zone when comprising bigger numerical value for particular pixels when initial data buffer, the target setting data buffer is that the numerical value of primary data buffer zone deducts an increment; And (iii) compare with the final data buffer zone when comprising littler numerical value for particular pixels when initial data buffer, the target setting data buffer is that the numerical value of primary data buffer zone increases said increment;

(e) use respectively as data in the primary data buffer zone that initially reaches end-state of each pixel and the image on the Data Update display in the target data buffer zone;

(f) afterwards, said data are copied to the primary data buffer zone from the target data buffer zone in step (e); And

(g) repeating step (d) comprises identical data to (f) until initial and final data buffer zone.

The second method of these two kinds of methods is used to drive the electro-optic displays with a plurality of pixels, and each pixel can be realized at least three different gray levels, and said method comprises:

(a) the final data buffer zone is provided, this final data buffer zone is used to receive the data of the end-state of wanting of each pixel that limits display;

(b) the primary data buffer zone is provided, this primary data buffer zone is used to the data of original state of each pixel of area definition display;

(c) the target data buffer zone is provided, this target data buffer zone is used to the data of dbjective state of each pixel of area definition display;

(d) the polarity bit array is provided, this polarity bit array is used to store the polarity bit for each pixel of display;

(e) determine when that the data in initial and final data buffer zone are different; And it is this not simultaneously in discovery; Upgrade the numerical value in polarity bit array and the target data buffer zone through following manner: (i) when the extreme optical state of different for the numerical value of particular pixels in initial and the final data buffer zone and the said pixel of numeric representation in the primary data buffer zone, the polarity bit of setting for said pixel is the numerical value to antipole end optical state transition; (ii) when in initial and final data buffer zone for the numerical value of particular pixels not simultaneously, coming the target setting data buffer according to the correlation values in the polarity bit array is the numerical value of the primary data buffer zone increment that adds deduct;

(f) use respectively as data in the primary data buffer zone that initially reaches end-state of each pixel and the image on the Data Update display in the target data buffer zone;

(g) afterwards, said data are copied to the primary data buffer zone from the target data buffer zone in step (f); And

(h) repeating step (e) comprises identical data to (g) until initial and final data buffer zone.

For convenience's sake, later these two kinds of relevant methods of the present invention can be called as " destination buffer " of the present invention or " TB " method.When wanting to distinguish these two kinds of methods, the former can be called as " nonpolar destination buffer " or " NPTB " method, and the latter can be called as " polarity destination buffer " or " PTB " method.The present invention extends to display controller, special IC or the software code that is used for realizing TB method of the present invention.

At last, the present invention provides a kind of method that drives electro-optic displays and need data quantity stored that is used to be reduced to.Therefore, the present invention provides a kind of method that is used to drive the electro-optic displays with a plurality of pixels, and each pixel can be realized at least two different gray levels, and said method comprises:

Storage basic waveform, this basic waveform limits the contact potential series that pixel will apply during the special transition between two gray levels;

Storage multiplication factor (multiplication factor); And

Through said pixel being applied said contact potential series depending on a plurality of periods of said multiplication factor, realize described special transition.

For convenience's sake, this method can be called as " waveform compression " of the present invention or " WC " method later on.

Description of drawings

As has already been mentioned above, Fig. 1 of accompanying drawing illustrates the reflectivity as the function of time of the pixel of electro-optic displays, and has illustrated the phenomenon of residence time correlativity.

Fig. 2 A and 2B illustrate described in " method " application of mentioning in front in the prior art three reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme of type the waveform to two different transformations.

Fig. 2 C and 2D illustrated the waveform that has applied Fig. 2 A and 2B respectively electro-optic displays two pixels reflectivity over time.

Fig. 3 A and 3B have illustrated the waveform that is used for two different transformations in the prior art two reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme of type described in " method " application of mentioning in front.

It is right that Fig. 4 A, 4B and 4C have illustrated equalizing pulse, and its BPPSS method according to the present invention can be used to revise the lantern slide display waveform (those waveforms shown in Fig. 2 A, 2B, 3A and 3B) of prior art.

Fig. 5 A has illustrated the waveform of prior art two reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme.

Fig. 5 B-5D has illustrated the BPPSS waveform of the present invention that generates through the waveform of revising Fig. 5 A.

Fig. 6 A has illustrated the prior art basic waveform identical with Fig. 5 A.

Fig. 6 B-6D has illustrated through from the basic waveform of Fig. 6 A, removing the of the present invention BPPSS waveform of equalizing pulse to generating.

Fig. 7 A has illustrated through between two basic waveform elements of basic waveform, inserting the of the present invention BPPSS waveform of equalizing pulse to generating.

Fig. 7 B illustrated through will with identical equalizing pulse among Fig. 7 A to be inserted in Fig. 7 A in the BPPSS waveform of the present invention that generates in the single basic waveform element of identical basic waveform.

Fig. 8 A has illustrated the prior art basic waveform identical with 6A with Fig. 5 A.

Fig. 8 B-8D has illustrated through the diverse location place in the basic waveform of Fig. 8 A and has inserted the BPPSS waveform of the present invention that period of no-voltage generates.

Fig. 9 A and 9B have illustrated and can be modified to generate the prior art basic waveform of BPPSS waveform of the present invention.

Fig. 9 C has illustrated through inserting the of the present invention BPPSS waveform of two equalizing pulses in the basic waveform of Fig. 9 B, generating.

Fig. 9 D has illustrated through in the basic waveform of Fig. 9 B, inserting the BPPSS waveform of the present invention that equalizing pulse generated the period that reaches no-voltage.

Figure 10 A-10C and 11A-11C have illustrated the of the present invention other BPPSS waveform that generates through the basic waveform of revising Fig. 9 A and 9B.

Figure 12 is the symbolic representation of counter-rotating monochromatic projection method of the present invention.

The gray level of Figure 13 display gray scale image is mapped to the mode of the monochromatic projection of image, and it can be realized with preferred counter-rotating monochromatic projection method of the present invention.

Figure 14 and 15 has shown used selected waveform during the first counter-rotating monochromatic projection method of the present invention.

Figure 16 is the symbolic representation that is similar to another counter-rotating monochromatic projection method of the present invention of Figure 12.

Figure 17 has illustrated through inserting equalizing pulse in said waveform, revising in the IMP waveform shown in Figure 14.

Figure 18 has illustrated through from said waveform, removing equalizing pulse to revising in the IMP waveform shown in Figure 14.

Figure 19 has illustrated through changing the right insertion position of equalizing pulse to one other correction in the IMP waveform shown in Figure 17.

Figure 20 has illustrated through changing and has removed the right position of equalizing pulse to one other correction in the IMP waveform shown in Figure 18.

Figure 21 has illustrated the waveform of other IMP drive scheme of the present invention with the height shows in schematic form.

Figure 22 is the chart of expression by the gray level that drive scheme generated shown in Figure 21.

Figure 23 is to have illustrated the correction form at the IMP drive scheme shown in Figure 21 with the same mode of Figure 21.

Figure 24 is the chart that shows by the gray level that drive scheme generated of the correction shown in Figure 23.

Figure 25 A-25E has illustrated at the first residence time compensation balance pulse of the present invention used one group of residence time compensation waveform in to drive scheme.

Figure 26 A-26C has illustrated at the second residence time compensation balance pulse of the present invention used one group of residence time compensation waveform in to drive scheme.

Embodiment

Understand that from above-mentioned general introduction the present invention provides several kinds of different driving the electro-optic displays especially method of bistable electro-optic displays and device and the software code that is suitable for realizing this method.The whole bag of tricks of the present invention is mainly described respectively below, but it should be understood that single electro-optic displays or its parts can use the aspect more than of the present invention.For example, single electro-optic displays can use BPPSS of the present invention, IMP and DTCBPP aspect.Also it should be noted that; The right preferred form of equalizing pulse all is general to all right aspects of this pulse of use of the present invention, said aspect be to the preferred qualification of the right size of this pulse and the length that is used to regulate waveform with hold insert or remove this pulse to and/or the method for period of no-voltage.At last, it should be noted that DC balance drive scheme of wanting and DC balanced waveform as in " method " mentioned application and following the discussion, also are general to all aspects of the present invention in the above.

The A part: equalizing pulse is to lantern slide display packing and device

As mentioned, BPPSS method of the present invention is the method that is used to drive the electro-optic displays with at least one pixel that can realize at least three different grey-scales, said gray level comprises two extreme optical state.Said method comprises to said pixel and applies basic waveform; This basic waveform comprises at least one reset pulse; This reset pulse be enough to drive said pixel to or near an extreme optical state; Following at least one set pulse after this reset pulse, this set pulse is enough to drive said pixel to the gray level that is different from said extreme optical state.Said basic waveform is revised through following at least a mode:

(a) with at least one equalizing pulse to inserting basic waveform;

(b) right from least one equalizing pulse of basic waveform removal; And

(c) at least one period of no-voltage is inserted basic waveform.

Also have, like what mentioned, the sequence of term " equalizing pulse to " opposite polarity two pulses of expression, right total impact is zero basically to make equalizing pulse.In the preferred form of BPPSS method, each all is opposite, the equal in length of voltage constant, polarity for right two pulses of equalizing pulse.Can be used to refer to resetting or set pulse of basic waveform after term " basic waveform element " or " BWE ".Equalizing pulse to and/or the insertion of no-voltage period (can be called " gap " later on) can in single basic waveform element or between two continuous waveform elements, implement.All these are revised all has the characteristic of the clean impact that does not influence waveform; The said clean impact meaning is the integration of trying to achieve on the duration at waveform at the waveform voltage curve.Equalizing pulse ends to have certainly zero clean the impact to reaching no-voltage.Though the pulse of BPP will be inserted adjacent to each other usually, this is dispensable, and two pulses can be inserted in the position of separation.

Wherein comprise and remove at least one BPP, can become the period of no-voltage by the occupied period before said or each removed BPP according to the correction of the basic waveform of BPPSS method of the present invention.Alternately; This period can be through moving some or all of back waveform elements to more the time of morning is " closed "; Usually the period that must insert no-voltage in certain of the back in this waveform usually at the end of waveform in stage but in this case; Guaranteeing to keep the total length of waveform, because all pixels that must guarantee display usually drive with the waveform of equal length.Certainly, alternately, the said period can be through moving the time " closure " of some or all of waveform elements early after more, and in period of stage early of the said waveform beginning of said waveform (normally) insertion no-voltage.

As shown, BPPSS waveform of the present invention is the correction of the basic lantern slide display waveform described in aforementioned " method " application.Discuss as top, the lantern slide display waveform comprises moves to pixel or at least near one or more reset pulses of an extreme optical state (optics guide rail); If said waveform comprises two or more reset pulses, then each reset pulse after first reset pulse will make said pixel move to antipole end optical states, thereby traverse its whole optical range basically.(for example, if display uses the electro-optical medium of the scope with (for example) 4% to 40% reflectivity, then each reset pulse after first reset pulse possibly make said pixel traverse 8% to 35% reflectivity.) if to use more than one reset pulse, then continuous reset pulse must be alternating polarity certainly.

The lantern slide display waveform also comprises set pulse, and this set pulse is driven into the final gray level of wanting of pixel with pixel from made its residing extreme optical state by last reset pulse.It should be noted that when this final gray level of wanting be one of extreme optical state and last reset pulse when making said pixel be in this extreme optical state of wanting, the duration of this set pulse can be zero.Similarly, the bedroom state of pixel is in said extreme optical state before the lantern slide display waveform if apply, and then the duration of first reset pulse can be zero.

With reference to accompanying drawing, will only preferred BPPSS waveform of the present invention be described now through illustrating.

Fig. 2 A and Fig. 2 B have illustrated two used waveforms of different transformations in prior art (basically) the lantern slide display drive scheme of type described in " method " application of mentioning in front.This lantern slide display drive scheme changes each uses three reset pulses.Fig. 2 C and 2D show that the optical states (reflectance) of pixel of the waveform that has been applied in Fig. 2 A and 2B respectively is with respect to the respective change of time.According to used custom in " method " application of mentioning in front, Fig. 2 C and 2D are drawn to such an extent that make the bottom water horizontal line represent the extreme optical state of deceiving, and the upper water horizontal line is represented white extreme optical state, and intervenient rank is represented grey states.Waveform reset and starting and end among Fig. 2 A and the 2B of set pulse represented with vertical dotted line; Different BWE (promptly; Reset and set pulse) be shown as usually or the still less pulse of equal length; Though usually BWE can have length more arbitrarily, and if comprise the pulse of series of equivalent length, then the BWE for maximum length uses pulse such more than ten usually.

The basic waveform that in Fig. 2 A and 2C, is shown (being denoted as 100 usually) realizes white to white transformation (that is, the initial sum end-state of pixel all is " transformation " of white extreme optical state).Waveform 100 comprises first negative (promptly gradually black) reset pulse 102; Its with pixel driving to its black extreme optical state, second (gradually white) reset pulse 104 just, it drives pixel to its white extreme optical state; The 3rd negative (gradually black) reset pulse 106; It drives pixel to its black extreme optical state, and set pulse 108, and it drives pixel to its white extreme optical state.These four pulses 102,104,106 and 108 each all have the duration of ten maximum units.(for fear of mentioning " unit of duration " continuously, these units can be called as " chronomere " or " TU " later.)

Fig. 2 B and 2D have illustrated to use like the three same reset pulse drive schemes among Fig. 2 A and the 2C and have carried out the waveform (being generally denoted as 150) from dark-grey to the light gray transformation.Waveform 150 comprises first reset pulse 152, and its first reset pulse 102 with waveform 100 is the same, is that bear and gradually black.Yet; Use the transformation of waveform 150 to begin from dark-grey rank; So the duration of first reset pulse 152 (being illustrated as four TU) is shorter than reset pulse 102, because need the first shorter reset pulse to make pixel when the end of first reset pulse, change to its black extreme optical state.For 6 TU of remaining first reset pulse 152, pixels applies no-voltage.(Fig. 2 B has illustrated first reset pulse 152 that when the relevant period finishes, has the negative voltage of four TU with 2D, but this is arbitrarily and the negative period that reaches no-voltage can be set as required.)

Waveform 150 second identical with 106 with the corresponding pulses of waveform 100 with the 3rd reset pulse 104.The set pulse 158 of waveform 150, the same with the set pulse of waveform 100, be positive and gradually white.Yet because use the transformation of waveform 150 to finish with the light gray rank, the duration of set pulse 158 (being illustrated as 7 TU) is shorter than the duration of set pulse 108, because need short set pulse to make pixel change to its final light gray rank.For the set pulse 158 of remaining three TU, pixels applies no-voltage.(moreover period distribution positive and no-voltage is arbitrarily in the set pulse 158, and the said period can be set as required.)

Will be appreciated that from noted earlier; In the prior art lantern slide display drive scheme shown in Fig. 2 A-2D; The duration of first reset pulse and the duration of set pulse will be respectively change according to the initial sum end-state of pixel; And in some cases, one or two in these pulses can be zero duration.For example; In the drive scheme of Fig. 2 A-2D; Black possibly have first reset pulse (because black extreme optical state that pixel arrives when being in the end of first reset pulse 102 and 152) of zero duration to black transformation, the set pulse of zero duration (being in the extreme black light state of wanting because of pixel when 106 end of the 3rd reset pulse).

Usually, hope to keep total duration of waveform short as much as possible, make display to be rewritten apace; Because tangible reason, the user likes showing fast the display of new images.Because each reset pulse occupies sizable period, thus hope the number of reset pulse is reduced to the minimum value consistent with the acceptable gray scale performance of display, and usually preferred one or two reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme.Fig. 3 A and 3B illustrate the waveform that is used for two different transformations in the prior art two reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme of type described in " method " application of mentioning in front.

Fig. 3 A illustrates white to the single reset pulse waveform of light gray (being generally denoted as 200); This waveform comprises a reset pulse 202 and a set pulse 208 (identical with the pulse 158 among Fig. 2 B); Wherein to black, set pulse 208 drives said pixel from deceiving to light gray to reset pulse 202 driving pixels from the initial white state.Though waveform 200 has used only single reset pulse; But be to be understood that; In fact it is the part of two reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme, and first reset pulse has the zero duration, and is represented by the period of no-voltage like the left-hand side at Fig. 3 A.

Fig. 3 B illustrates black in light gray two reset pulse waveforms (being generally denoted as 250); This waveform comprises first reset pulse 252, second reset pulse 254 and set pulse 208; Wherein first reset pulse 252 drive pixels from its initially black state in vain; Second reset pulse 254 drive said pixel from vain to black, set pulse 208 is identical with reset pulse among Fig. 3 A, drives pixel from deceiving to light gray.

As already mentioned, BPPSS waveform of the present invention from basic lantern slide display waveform (waveform shown in Fig. 2 A, 2B, 3A and 3B) through insert at least one equalizing pulse to basic waveform, from basic waveform remove at least one equalizing pulse to or at least one period of inserting no-voltage obtain to the basic waveform.Under the situation of removing BPP, the gap of generation can be " closed " or be the no-voltage period.Also can use the combination of these corrections.

It is right that Fig. 4 A-4C illustrates the preferred equalizing pulse that is used for BPPSS waveform of the present invention.Comprise the negative pulse 302 of voltage constant at the BPP shown in Fig. 4 A (being generally denoted as 300), what tightly follow thereafter is identical with voltage with 302 duration of pulse but opposite polarity positive pulse 304.Be apparent that BPP 300 pixels have applied zero clean the impact.BPP shown in Fig. 4 B (being generally denoted as 310) is identical except the reversed in order of pulse with BPP 300.BPP shown in Fig. 4 C (being generally denoted as 320) was obtained by BPP 310 introduces no-voltage between positive and negative pulse 304 and 302 period 322.

Fig. 5 A-5D illustrates according to of the present invention by the correction of BPP to basic two reset pulse lantern slide display waveforms.Fig. 5 A illustrates and is used for the white basic waveform (being generally denoted as 400) that changes to light gray.Waveform 400 except the reversed in order of two reset pulses with Fig. 3 B in illustrated waveform 250 similar substantially.Therefore; Waveform 400 comprises the negative first gradually black reset pulse 402 of 16-TU (its drive pixel from its original white state to its black extreme optical state), the negative gradually black set pulse 408 of positive second gradually white reset pulse 404 of 16-TU (its drive pixel from its black extreme optical state to its white extreme optical state) and 3-TU (its drive pixel from its white extreme optical state to the final light grey state of wanting).

Fig. 5 B illustrates the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 420) that generates through the BPP that between second reset pulse 404 of the waveform 400 of Fig. 5 A and set pulse 408, inserts Fig. 4 B.Like what from Fig. 5 B, seen, the influence of this insertion is, the positive pulse 304 of BPP makes second reset pulse 404 be lengthened to 17TU, and the negative pulse 302 of BPP makes set pulse 404 be lengthened to 4TU.

Fig. 5 C illustrates the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 440) that generates through the BPP that after the set pulse 408 of the waveform 400 of Fig. 5 A, inserts Fig. 4 C.

Fig. 5 D illustrates the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 460) by waveform 420 generations of the further correction shown in Fig. 5 B.Waveform 460 has the 2nd BPP 304 ', 302 ', and it is inserted between first and second reset pulse 402 and 404 of said waveform 420; The 2nd BPP is except duration of two pulses doubles, and is similar with BPP 304,302.

As pointed out and such as among Fig. 5 D diagram, BPPSS waveform of the present invention can comprise a plurality of BPP, removal, termination and combination (being referred to as " additional waveform elements " or " AWE " later on) thereof.Yet, usually preferably, use and the minimal amount of control by the consistent AWE of the degree of accuracy of wanting of the final gray level that waveform produced.BPP and termination all make the waveform lengthening, and combine to require with several such BPP and/or termination lengthening rewrites the required period of display with wanting.For example; Though the waveform 460 of Fig. 5 D only uses the 3-TU set pulse 408 of a weak point; But waveform 460 occupies the whole period (period in Fig. 5 D between the vertical dotted line) of refresh display, and introduce any other BPP or end all will require to prolong should the period.The whole length of therefore, hoping the waveform of correction of the present invention be no more than corresponding basic waveform (wherein the duration of set pulse be enough to drive pixel from an extreme optical state to another extreme optical state) total length.(depend on definite light medium used in the display and other characteristic that drives electronic circuit certainly) in many cases, have been found that the excellent control of gray level can realize with the waveform that comprises no more than two AWE; In other cases, can require no more than 4 or no more than more singularly 6 AWE, but not hope any further increase AWE usually.

Fig. 6 A-6D diagram is according to the correction to basic two reset pulse waveforms through removing BPP of the present invention.In order to compare, Fig. 6 A illustrates the waveform 400 the same with Fig. 5 A.Be noted that; Waveform 400 is counted as after set pulse 408 finishes and has stopped 7 TU; Because Fig. 6 A hypothesis,, require that 10TU's apply voltage between the extreme optical state of pixel, fully to drive pixel as in Fig. 2 A, 2B, 3A and 3B; Thereby in another waveform of identical drive scheme, set pulse 408 will be added grow to maximal value 10TU.Fig. 6 B illustrates the BPPSS waveform (being generally denoted as 520) of the correction of the present invention that generates through removal BPP from waveform 400; Wherein BPP comprises latter two TU of first reset pulse 402 and two TU of second reset pulse 404; Thereby second reset pulse 404 of first reset pulse 402 of the 14-TU that obtains revising and the 14-TU that revises; They are separated by the termination 522 of 4-TU, and pixels applies no-voltage during this termination 522.

Fig. 6 C illustrates the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 540) that the waveform of alternately revising 400 by Fig. 6 A is generated.Waveform 540 generates through removing a BPP from waveform 400; This BPP comprises the last TU of second reset pulse 404 and a TU of set pulse 408, and comes " closure " by the original period that occupies of BPP of removing through first and second reset pulses are moved 2TU in time backward.Therefore, waveform 540 comprise that 2TU ends 544, first reset pulse 402 of 16-TU, second reset pulse 404 of 15-TU " with the set pulse 408 of 2-TU '; Be noted that the set pulse 408 ' 7TU place before said waveform finishes and the set pulse 408 of basic waveform 400 stop just simultaneously.

Fig. 6 D illustrates the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 560) that the waveform 400 by the further correction of Fig. 6 A is generated.Waveform 560 generates through removing a BPP from waveform 400; Said BPP comprises latter two TU of first reset pulse 402 and two TU of second reset pulse 404, and comes " closure " by the original period that occupies of BPP of removing through 4TU that second reset pulse and set pulse are moved forward in time.Therefore, waveform 540 comprise first reset pulse 402 ' (identical) of 14-TU, second reset pulse 404 of 14-TU with first reset pulse among Fig. 5 B ' (except timing with Fig. 5 B in second reset pulse identical) and the set pulse 408 of 3-TU; Be noted that because second reset pulse 404 ' with the moving of set pulse 408, the quilt of final periods 562 of the no-voltage set pulse 408 after is extended to 11TU from 7TU.

So far the preferred BPPSS waveform modification of being discussed has related between continuous basic waveform element or has inserted or removal BPP at the basic waveform end.Yet BPPSS of the present invention aspect is not limited to such correction, but extends to the correction of in single BWE, inserting BPP, like what will be illustrated with reference to Fig. 7 A and 7B now.Fig. 7 A illustrates through between first reset pulse 402 and second reset pulse 404, inserting BPP 302 ', 304 ' and revises the BPPSS waveform 620 of the present invention that basic waveform 400 (Fig. 5 A or 6A) generates, and said BPP 302 ', 304 ' is similar with the BPP shown in Fig. 5 D except the positive negative pulse stuffing order is opposite.Fig. 7 B shows through inserting BPP 302 ', 304 ' and revises another BPPSS waveform 640 of the present invention that basic waveform 400 generates; But in waveform 640; BPP 302 ', 304 ' is inserted in the mid point of second reset pulse 404, thereby this pulse is split into two separated portions 404A and 404B.Therefore, waveform 640 comprises first reset pulse 402 (identical with first reset pulse of waveform 400), 8-TU pulse 404A (i.e. the first of second reset pulse), BPP 302 ', 304 ', 8-TU pulse 404B (i.e. the second portion of second reset pulse), the 3-TU reset pulse 408 (identical with the reset pulse of waveform 400) of continuous 16-TU.

As already mentioned, BPPSS of the present invention aspect not only comprises from basic waveform to be inserted or removes BPP but also be included in to insert the basic waveform and end (no-voltage period), and this insertion termination now will be with reference to Fig. 8 A-8D explanation.In order to compare, Fig. 8 A illustrates the basic waveform 400 identical with 6A with Fig. 5 A.Fig. 8 B illustrates the BPPSS waveform (being generally denoted as 720) of the correction of the present invention of between second reset pulse 404 of basic waveform 400 and set pulse 408, introducing 2-TU termination 722 and generating.It should be noted, insert to end 722 and will follow inevitably that the no-voltage period is reduced to 5TU from 7TU after set pulse 408.Fig. 8 C illustrates another BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 740); It is similar to waveform 720 except the preceding 12TU that the termination with 2-TU is inserted in second reset pulse 404 afterwards substantially, thereby this second reset pulse is split into 404C of first and second portion 404D.Therefore, waveform 740 comprise first reset pulse 402 (identical), the 12-TU pulse 404C (i.e. the first of second reset pulse) of continuous 16-TU, the termination 722 of 2-TU with first reset pulse of waveform 400 ', 4-TU pulse 404D (i.e. the second portion of second reset pulse) and 3-TU reset pulse 408 (identical) with the reset pulse of waveform 400.

Fig. 8 D illustrates through in basic waveform 400, inserting the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 760) that 2-TU ends and generates.Yet, in waveform 760, end 722 and " be inserted in before first reset pulse 402.Therefore, waveform 760 adjoining lands comprise ends 722 ", first reset pulse 402, second reset pulse 404, set pulse 408, all the respective element with basic waveform 400 is identical for three last elements.

As shown, BPPSS waveform provided by the present invention is useful for the gray scale performance of improving the especially bistable electro-optic displays of electro-optic displays.BPPSS waveform of the present invention can reach the gray scale performance of such improvement, still keeps the long-term DC balance of display simultaneously.(for the reason that is gone through in " method " application of mentioning in front; Importantly; The drive scheme that is used to drive at least some electro-optic displays is the DC balance; On this meaning, be limitary for the given voltage that pixel applied with respect to the integration of time, and whichever pixel is driven the sequence of the optical states of process).Have been found that the aspect according to BPPSS of the present invention, the final gray level of pixel can be through inserting or remove BPP and/or inserting and end to regulate.The final gray level of also finding pixel receives BPP to insert or remove and/or end the position effects of insertion.Though can control final gray level well through between adjacent BWE, inserting BPP usually, BPP also can be inserted in the single BWE, like what illustrated among Fig. 7 B, to change " adjustable " degree of final gray level; For example, if be added on the enough meticulous adjustability that two BPP between the reset pulse do not provide final gray level, then BPP moved to the middle point of BWE and can regulate final gray level more subtly.

For example; The gray level that the gray level that the waveform 420 of Fig. 5 B produces is usually generated than the corresponding basic waveform 400 by Fig. 5 A can be dark a little; Because the gray level of pulse 304 pixels among the BPP 304,302 has seldom or not influence; Because this gray level has been in white extreme optical state at the end of second reset pulse 404, and pulse 302 can make final gray level from white extreme optical state farther (that is dark a little point on the color) through the set pulse 408 that extends effectively.Contrast, the gray level that the gray level that produces usually at the waveform shown in Fig. 6 C 540 is generated than the corresponding basic waveform 400 by Fig. 6 A can be more shallow a little.Because Fig. 5 is A, 6A and 6C are based on such hypothesis: pixel can move between its extreme optical state through applying voltage 10TU (as mentioned above) as shown in the figure; 16-TU second reset pulse 404 pixels of basic waveform 400 are implemented sizable " overdriving " makes it get into white extreme optical guide rail (white extreme optical state); That is, second reset pulse 404 continues one period sizable period after pixel has arrived its extreme white light state.Therefore the end that, the second reset pulse 4041TU that shortens 16-TU is to produce 15-TU second reset pulse 404 of waveform 540 ", at second reset pulse 404 " will produce very little or do not influence gray level.Contrast; The 3-TU set pulse 4081TU that shortens waveform 400 is with the 2-TU set pulse 408 that produces waveform 540 ' will significantly be reduced in second reset pulse 404 " the white extreme optical state that exists of end be driven to black degree, thereby will be obviously terminal black in waveform 540 terminal final gray levels than basic waveform 400.

As shown, found that also termination (no-voltage period) can be used for regulating final gray level.For example, between last reset pulse and set pulse, increase by one and end the final gray level of influence.The point early that this termination is moved on to last reset pulse also causes the variation a little of final gray level entirely.Therefore, stop position can be used for regulating the final gray level that is produced by the BPPSS waveform.Usually, termination can be added in the waveform more arbitrarily.In addition; Advantageously can move all BWE of waveform in the update time that rewrites fully that is allocated for display in the interval in time forward or backward, move location correlation time of the various transformations that in the whole transformation from the original state to the end-state, take place thus.It is favourable that this time moves, and reason has several, for example reduces the undesired transient behaviour of display between tour, perhaps produces more satisfied final image, for example wants to be in the variation between the pixel of same grey level through minimizing.

Now will be with reference to Fig. 9 A-9D, 10A-10C and 11A-11C describe another preferred BPPSS waveform and drive scheme of the present invention.Fig. 9 A and 9B illustrate two basic waveforms of prior art two reset pulse lantern slide display drive scheme, and wherein each of first and second reset pulse and set pulse can occupy this maximal value of 12TU.Fig. 9 A illustrates and is used to realize white to the black waveform 800 that changes, and it comprises the first gradually black reset pulse 802 of 12-TU, second reset pulse 804 and the gradually black set pulse 808 of 12-TU that 12-TU is gradually white.Discussed with reference to Fig. 2 A and 2B as top; If the original state of pixel and end-state are the intermediate grey scales between the black and white extreme optical state of pixel; Then need regulate the length of first reset pulse and set pulse; Fig. 9 B shows basic waveform 810, and it comprises the set pulse 818 of first reset pulse 812,12-TU second reset pulse 804 (identical with the corresponding pulses of waveform 800) and the 6-TU of 7-TU.For " fill (pad) " waveform 810 to the total length 36-TU the same with waveform 800, at first reset pulse 812 no-voltage period 822 of 5-TU is arranged before, be the no-voltage period 824 of 6-TU after set pulse 824.

Fig. 9 C shows the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 840) that generates through the correction to the waveform 810 shown in Fig. 9 B.Particularly; Through obtaining waveform 840 at waveform 810 insertion the one BPP and similar the 2nd BPP; Wherein a BPP just comprises the positive pulse 842 of the 1-TU before first reset pulse 812 and similar negative pulse 844, the two BPP846,848 just after set pulse 818.Pulse 812,804 and 818 does not become, but in order to hold the total length that BPP keeps waveform 840 simultaneously, initial period 822 of no-voltage ' be reduced to 3TU, final period 824 of no-voltage ' be reduced to 4TU.

Using two BPP under at least some situation, to make with illustrated mode among Fig. 9 C compares more accurate with the gray level control that can reach with single BPP.Have been found that being arranged on set pulse BPP (like the BPP in the waveform 840 846,848) afterwards can make final gray level marked change; And if used driver only allow relatively to regulate roughly per half BPP duration (if; For example; In Fig. 9 C, should only can be conditioned the duration increases 1TU), possibly be big as can not to accept through the difference between the available gray level of duration smallest incremental that changes per half BPP.The BPP (like the BPP in the waveform 840 842,844) that is inserted in the waveform point place more early is much littler than the BPP that is inserted in after the set pulse to the influence of final gray level, and therefore permission changes final gray level more subtly.Therefore; Duration through control BPP 846,848, waveform 840 allowed final gray level is regulated in sizable scope final gray level is implemented coarse adjustment and the duration through control BPP 842,844 so that this gray level is implemented meticulous adjusting.

Fig. 9 D illustrates by to the optional correction of waveform 810 and the BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 860) that produces.As waveform 840, waveform 860 is included in the BPP 846,848 after the set pulse 818.Yet waveform 860 does not comprise and is arranged in the 2nd more preceding BPP of waveform, but between second reset pulse 804 and set pulse 818, comprises the termination 850 of 4-TU.The influence of ending trends towards littler than the BPP of the equal length at identical point place in waveform, and ends 850 to work with BPP 842, the 844 similar modes of waveform, and the variation of the length of termination 850 is used for final gray level is implemented meticulous adjusting.Be noted that; The final period 824 of no-voltage in waveform 860 ' with waveform 840 in equally have identical 4-TU length; And the initial period 822 of no-voltage " duration be reduced to 1TU, still keep the total length 36-TU of waveform simultaneously with the termination of holding 4-TU 850.

Figure 10 A-10C illustrates through the waveform 810 to Fig. 9 B and carries out the of the present invention other BPPSS waveform that various corrections generate.The waveform of Figure 10 A (being generally denoted as 920) forms through after the set pulse 818 of waveform 810 (Fig. 9 B), increasing BPP 846 ', 848 ', each pulse 846 of BPP ', 848 ' length be 2TU.The final period 824 of no-voltage " be reduced to 2TU, to hold the BPP of 4-TU length.

Discussed with reference to Fig. 9 C as top; The length that changes set pulse BPP afterwards possibly not provide the enough meticulous adjusting to final gray level, and Figure 10 B illustrates the waveform (being generally denoted as 940) that generates to overcome this meticulous adjusting problem through further correction waveform 920.Waveform 940 is combined with the 2nd BPP 842 ', 844 ' between second reset pulse 804 and set pulse 818.The length that changes BPP 842 ', 844 ' is less than the influence to final gray level of the length that correspondingly changes BPP 846 ', 848 ' to the influence of final gray level, thereby BPP 842 ', 844 ' can be used for the meticulous adjusting of final gray level.

Though the influence of the length of change BPP 842 ', 844 ' is less than the length that correspondingly changes BPP 846 ', 848 '; But the influence of the length of the BPP (for example, the BPP among Fig. 9 C 842,844) before being inserted in the waveform also more with change is compared and can also be wanted big.If the BPP 842 ', 844 ' in the waveform 940 does not provide the enough meticulous adjusting of final gray level, then the 2nd BPP can be inserted in the waveform earlier; Usually, BPP is by early being inserted in the waveform more, and the variation of the final gray level that the given variation through BPP length produces is more little.For example, Figure 10 C illustrates BPPSS waveform of the present invention (being generally denoted as 960), its except BPP 842 ', 844 ' by the BPP962 that is provided with between first reset pulse 812 and second reset pulse 804,964 similar with waveform 940 substituting.(BPP 962,964 and BPP 842 ', 844 ' polarity are opposite, and on this meaning, negative pulse 962 is before positive pulse 964; The BPP of arbitrary polarity may be used to the optional position in the waveform, though the polarity of BPP changes its influence to final gray level certainly.)

At last, Figure 11 A-11C illustrates the correction of basic waveform being carried out through introducing BPP and termination therein.Figure 11 A diagram is revised the waveform (being generally denoted as 1020) that basic waveform 810 generates through insertion BPP 842 ', 844 ' between second reset pulse 804 and set pulse 818, wherein the final period 824 of no-voltage ' the corresponding 4TU that reduces to of length.Owing to reason discussed above; The variation of the length of BPP 842 ', 844 ' possibly not provide the enough meticulous adjusting of final gray level; Figure 11 B illustrates through further correction waveform 1020; End 1042 through in second reset pulse, introducing 2-TU particularly, thereby this pulse is divided into the 804A of first and second portion 804B and the BPPSS waveform (being generally denoted as 1040) that generates.End 1042 in order to hold, the initial period 822 of no-voltage ' length be reduced to 3TU; Final period 824 of no-voltage ' remain on 5TU.

End 1042 and be used for the final gray level of meticulous adjusting.Meticulous adjusting like this can be implemented through the duration and/or its position in the second reset pulse 804A, 804B that change termination 1042; As with BPP, end the influence of final gray level is not only changed with its length in waveform but also changes with its position in waveform.Certain BPPSS of the present invention aspect is not limited to use single termination; For example, the termination that termination 1042 can be 1TU with the duration of two separation replaces, and makes second reset pulse can be split into three parts rather than two parts.

As already mentioned; When waveform does not occupy whole periods of providing for refresh display (like the example of the waveform 810 of Fig. 9 B; It only occupies 25TU, and the period that refresh display needs 36TU at least with hold identical drive scheme than long wave shape 800) time, advantageously; Upgrading mobile whole waveform in the period, for example to reduce in reproducting periods transition visual effect.The whole waveform 10402TU that Figure 11 C illustrates through Figure 11 B that moves forward in time (in fact just inserts the 2-TU gap after set pulse 818; Like what Figure 11 C showed) and the waveform (being generally denoted as 1060) of generation; Thereby reduce the initial period 822 of no-voltage and " arrive only 1TU, and the length of the final period 824A of increase no-voltage is to 6TU.

Part B: counter-rotating monochromatic projection method and device

As already mentioned, second aspect of the present invention provides a kind of method that is used to drive the electro-optic displays with a plurality of pixels, and each can both realize comprising at least four different grey-scales of two extreme optical state said pixel.Said method comprise to each pixel apply one comprise reset pulse waveform; Said reset pulse be enough to drive said pixel to or near one of its extreme optical state; Apply a set pulse afterwards, this set pulse is enough to drive said pixel to the final gray level that is different from said extreme optical state.Said reset pulse just is selected such that the monochromatic projection of the counter-rotating of the final image of the image on the display before the said set pulse after being said set pulse basically.This process is called as " monochromatic projection of counter-rotating " or " IMP " method here.

Use " dbjective state " nomenclature in such scheme 1, IMP method can be defined as the monochromatic projection of counter-rotating that the final goal state almost is the end-state of wanting (Ri) of display.In the preferred form of IMP method, (nomenclature with scheme 1 is goal to the dbjective state before the final goal state N-i) almost be the end-state (R that wants of display 1) monochromatic projection.Preferred IMP process like this can symbolically be the scheme 2 shown in Figure 12, wherein R I, mExpression R 1Monochromatic projection, on rule presentation video counter-rotating.

The monochromatic projection of optical states is one of two extreme optical state that all possible gray level is mapped to each pixel in the image or (owing to the following reason of the explaining) state near one of extreme optical state.For this purpose, gray level can be expressed as 1,2; 3 ..., N; Wherein N is a number of greyscale levels, and the gray level (being generally black) with minimum reflectance is expressed as 1, and the grey scale table with inferior minimum reflectance is shown 2; By that analogy, be expressed as N until the gray level with maximum reflectivity (being generally white).The monochromatic projection of gray level is such projection, and the gray level that is equal to or less than threshold value whereby is mapped to gray level 1 or near its state, is mapped to gray level N or near its state greater than the gray level of threshold value.That threshold value is hoped most is N/2, and can be arranged on the optional position in the half the scope in 1 to N centre in the practice effectively, and promptly threshold value is N/4 at least, is at most 3N/4.

An example of monochromatic projection is shown among Figure 13.In this example, gray level image (being shown in the left-hand side of Figure 13 with the mode of symbol) comprises 8 gray levels, is expressed as 1 to 8.In with the monochromatic projection on the right-hand side of symbol display at this figure, gray level 1 to 3 is mapped to gray level 1, and as represented by connecting line, and gray level 4 to 8 is mapped to gray level 8.The monochromatic projection of counter-rotating generates through two used states in the counter-rotating monochromatic projection certainly simply.

The front mentions that IMP method " basically " produces the monochromatic projection of counter-rotating, and this projection relates to the optical states near one of extreme optical state, and this need explain.In principle, monochromatic projection and counter-rotating monochromatic projection require to project on one of extreme optical state.Yet; In the practice; Drive scheme and the waveform that is used to drive electro-optic displays is that potential pulse or other waveform elements aspect from the single pixel that is applied to display defines, rather than from (though the two is closely related) that the definite optical states that produces by applying defined potential pulse or other waveform elements defines.As gone through in " method " mentioned in the above application; At least some bistable state electric light media not only depend on the initial optical state of pixel and definite waveform or waveform elements to the reaction of given waveform or waveform elements, and depend on such as some of pixel and before preceding optical states and pixel are applying waveform or waveform elements, keep the factor how long (aforementioned residence time relativity problem) at identical optical states.Because the lantern slide display waveform is not considered the correlative factor that all are so usually, so can be slightly different with the extreme optical state that in this projection, is reached in theory by the optical states of the reality that various pixel reached in the monochromatic projection of monochromatic projection or counter-rotating.

The departing from of the actual optical state of this pixel and extreme optical state can be held 15 with reference to Figure 14 and illustrated; It shows and is used for the waveform that two reset pulse lantern slides of the present invention show some selected transformation of IMP method; This method is used four gray level electro-optical mediums; The said medium of usefulness+15V200 millisecond pulsed drive from black (gray level 1) to white (gray level 4), and with-200 milliseconds of said media of pulsed drive of 15V from white to deceiving.Be used to deceive (gray level 1) to white (gray level 4) transformation at first waveform shown in Figure 14 (being generally denoted as 1420), and comprise first reset pulse 1422 (the driving pixel is from deceiving to white), second reset pulse 1424 (the driving pixel is from extremely black in vain) and set pulse 1426 (driving pixel) from deceiving extremely in vain.Figure 14 also illustrates and is used for the waveform 1440 that gray level 2 (dark-grey) to gray level 4 (in vain) changes; This waveform 1440 has first reset pulse 1428, and its length is merely 140 milliseconds, rather than as 200 milliseconds under the situation of the reset pulse 1422 of waveform 1420.Second reset pulse 1424 of waveform 1440 and set pulse 1426 are identical with waveform 1420.At last, Figure 14 also illustrates and is used for the waveform 1460 that gray level 4 (in vain) to gray level 4 changes; In this case, first reset pulse be zero duration (that is, and waveform begin have only 200 milliseconds no-voltage period), but second reset pulse 1424 of waveform 1460 and set pulse 1426 and waveform 1420 is identical.

Figure 15 illustrate with Figure 14 in the other waveform of the same drive scheme.First waveform shown in Figure 15 (being generally denoted as 1480) is used for 1 conversion of gray level 1 (deceiving) to gray level and is the counter-rotating of the waveform 1460 shown in Figure 14 basically.Waveform 1480 have the zero duration first reset pulse (that is, waveform begin locate that 200 milliseconds no-voltage period is arranged simply), second reset pulse 1482 (its drive pixel from black to white) and set pulse 1484 (drive pixel from white to black).Figure 15 also illustrates and is used for the waveform 1500 that gray level 1 (deceiving) to gray level 3 (light gray) changes.This waveform 1500 has first reset pulse 1422, and its first reset pulse with the waveform 1420 shown in Figure 14 is identical and drive pixel from black extremely white.Waveform 1500 also has second reset pulse 1502 (its drive pixel from white to black) and 130 milliseconds set pulse 1504 (it drives pixel from deceiving to gray level 3 (light gray)).At last, for the sake of completeness, Figure 15 repeats the black in white (gray level 1 to gray level 4) waveform of Figure 14.

To see that from Figure 14 and 15 illustrated drive scheme is the IMP drive scheme, wherein, as by the R that has line before the set pulse just in the various waveforms I, mRepresented, the counter-rotating monochromatic projection of the final image after just the image on the display before the set pulse is set pulse; More specifically, changed in the institute with gray level 3 or 4 endings, just pixel is deceived before set pulse, and for gray level 1 or 2 endings changed, just set pulse before pixel be white.In addition, according to the preferred another kind of form of IMP method, as by the R before second reset pulse just in the various waveforms 1, mRepresented, the monochromatic projection of the final image after just the image on the display before second reset pulse is set pulse; More specifically, changed in the institute with gray level 3 or 4 endings, just pixel is white before second reset pulse, and for gray level 1 or 2 endings changed, just second reset pulse before pixel deceive.

Yet; Can draw from Figure 14 and 15; The reflectivity of the given gray level that in various waveforms, realizes at the each point place is not necessarily accurately identical, though hypothesis is little in the difference between the pixel of same grey level with respect to the whole dynamic range (difference between the reflectivity of two extreme optical state) of display.For example, just before second reset pulse, the pixel that stands waveform 1420 among Figure 14 and 1460 all should be in gray level (in vain).Yet; The pixel that stands waveform 1420 will be accomplished just in this and blackly change to white, and the pixel that stands waveform 1460 possibly be in that the optical states of white state a period of time and (like what in some aforementioned " methods " applications, discussed) bistable state electric light medium trends towards " drift " (i.e. change gradually in time) and they are not driven.Therefore, standing the actual white state of the pixel of waveform 1460 can be slightly different with the white state of the pixel that was rewritten just now that stands waveform 1420.Correction to the IMP drive scheme; Like following those that discuss; Can revise the reflectivity that all types of target state and other some place reach in waveform, thereby the reflectivity of all types of target and other state can obviously depart from the reflectivity at the dbjective state place that does not carry out such correction and reach.

Though thereby illustrated IMP drive scheme only uses two reset pulses only to use two dbjective states in Figure 14 and 15, IMP of the present invention aspect does not limit the reset pulse and the dbjective state of given number certainly; For example, Figure 16 is to illustrate a kind of IMP drive scheme with the same mode of Figure 12 with symbol, and this IMP drive scheme is black (B) and white (W) state in the middle of comprising before monochromatic projection and the counter-rotating monochromatic projection dbjective state.

Should be noted in the discussion above that be not display all pixels inevitably during display is rewritten to the final image of wanting from initial pictures in time identical point reach given dbjective state (for example, counter-rotating monochromatic projection dbjective state).Time point in the transformation that dbjective state arrives is respectively final gray level R initial and that want 2And R 1Function.(and as illustrated usually here) ideally is for R 2With R 1Time point and the whole display coupling that is driven through all types of target state, and these dbjective states are arrived by all pixels simultaneously.Yet, usually hope that various waveform mobile phases with drive scheme are to timing.Can move from the time that aesthetic reasons is accomplished waveform, for example, to improve the outward appearance of outward appearance that changes or the image that is produced.Also have, the relative time position that the correction as following the discussion can the moving target state, thereby for R 2With R 1Various combinations, between tour, reach dbjective state at different time.

Can provide the alternative definition of IMP drive scheme, and the indeterminate counter-rotating monochromatic projection of mentioning.The IMP drive scheme is such drive scheme; Wherein the various gray levels of display can make an extreme optical state and at least one non-extreme optical state be positioned on each side of threshold value by Threshold Segmentation, and the set pulse of lantern slide display drive scheme is defined and makes each set pulse influence pass the transformation of threshold value.Illustrated like this definition; In the IMP drive scheme; The final set pulse of each waveform drive pixel from away from the extreme optical state of wanting final gray level to this final gray level of wanting, wherein " far away " be used to represent " on the opposition side of threshold value " rather than count the final gray level wanted simply and two extreme optical state between number of grayscale levels poor.

Have been found that the IMP drive scheme allows accurately to control final gray level and wide temperature performance scope is provided.What believe is (although the present invention is limited by this conviction never); What interrelate with these advantages is to be used for driving the long relatively set pulse from " far away " extreme optical state to final gray level, and is driving the constant relatively power consumption (power drain) that produces on the electronic circuit at the display reproducting periods.

Basic IMP drive scheme recited above can be revised so that the final gray level of reached is carried out little adjusting with several kinds of different modes effectively, thereby changes the outward appearance of display between tour and reach desired image quality.

First type of correction of IMP drive scheme be, use with the BPPSS drive scheme in the similar mode of mode (like what discussed in the part A in the above) implemented, it is right to insert or remove equalizing pulse, and/or inserts the no-voltage period in waveform.Used equalizing pulse is to can for example having any form shown in Fig. 4 A-4C.Revise basic I MP waveform to insert or to remove BPP or to insert the no-voltage period (termination) and can implement with foregoing any way.BPP can be inserted between two continuous basic waveform elements or in single basic waveform element.In many cases, this can produce and be increased to the specific objective state or away from the effect of the pulse length of specific objective state.The BPP that removes can be replaced by the no-voltage period, or other basic waveform element can move the period that was occupied in the past by the BPP that is removed with " closure " in time, and the no-voltage period can be inserted in other point in the waveform.As in the BPPSS drive scheme; The final gray level that is reached is not only to the existence sensitivity of BPP in the waveform and termination but also to they position sensitives in waveform; Total rule is; BPP is inserted into or removes or end to be inserted in the waveform more early, and is more little to the influence of the variation of final gray level.

Importantly, recognize that such waveform modification not only influences the reflectivity of final optical states (that is, final gray level) but also influences the reflectivity of intermediate target state.Though the dbjective state of basic I MP waveform is usually near one of extreme optical state (optics guide rail); And by definition; Near optics guide rail to the ideal state; Perhaps latter two dbjective state in the preferred form of IMP drive scheme, but correction recited above can change at the reflectivity away from the dbjective state of optics guide rail.The degree variation that drives to the optics guide rail exactly provides the minor adjustment to final optical states (gray level).

It is quite little to have found to hope to keep the impact of each potential pulse that comprises BPP.The amplitude of BPP can be limited parameter d, and the absolute value of parameter d is described each length of two potential pulses of BPP, and the symbol of second pulse in two pulses of the symbolic representation of parameter d.For example, be endowed respectively with the BPP shown in the 4B at Fig. 4 A+1 with-1 d value (and the BPP among Fig. 4 C is endowed-1 d value in consistent scheme, it has inserted the gap correction between two pulses).In the preferred embodiment of IMP drive scheme; All used BPP have the d value of amplitude less than PL, preferably, and less than PL/2; Wherein PL (measuring BPP with identical unit) is defined as and drives pixel from the required potential pulse length of an extreme optical state to another extreme optical state; The perhaps mean value of this potential pulse, wherein aspect the driving voltage characteristic of this drive scheme, the length that is used for the transformation of both direction is inequality.In the example that has just provided, d is with the unit representation of scanning of a display frame, and the BPP of Fig. 4 A and 4B has a plurality of potential pulses, and each potential pulse length is a scanning frame.In this case, PL also will define with scanning frame.Certainly all quantity alternately can be used the time unit representation, like second or millisecond.

Figure 17 illustrates through inserting BPP and revises three waveforms that the IMP waveform 1440 shown in Figure 14 generates.First waveform shown in Figure 17 (being generally denoted as 1700) is identical with waveform 1440 except BPP 1702 is inserted in place, waveform end, and wherein said BPP 1702 comprises-10 milliseconds of pulses of 15V, is afterwards+10 milliseconds of pulses of 15V.Second waveform shown in Figure 17 (being generally denoted as 1720) is inserted into the BPP 1722 identical with BPP 1702, but is inserted between second reset pulse and set pulse of waveform; Move forward 20 milliseconds in time in order to hold BPP 1722, two reset pulses, correspondingly reduce the no-voltage period when waveform begins.The 3rd waveform shown in Figure 17 (being generally denoted as 1740) has BPP 1742 between first and second reset pulses that are inserted in waveform; BPP 1742 compares with 1722 with BPP 1702 has the pulse order opposite with it, and each pulse length is 20 milliseconds.In order to hold BPP1742, first reset pulse is moved forward 40 milliseconds in time, correspondingly reduces the no-voltage period when waveform begins.

Figure 18 shows through therefrom removing BPP and revises three waveforms that the IMP waveform 1440 shown in Figure 14 generates.First waveform shown in Figure 18 (being generally denoted as 1760) generates through removing BPP 1762 and do not change remaining waveform elements from waveform 1440, and wherein BPP 1762 comprises last 10 milliseconds of scanning frames of second reset pulse and first scanning frame of set pulse.Second waveform shown in Figure 18 (being generally denoted as 1780) is through removing BPP 1782 and do not change remaining waveform elements and generation similarly from waveform 1440; Wherein BPP 1782 comprises latter two scanning frame of first reset pulse and two scanning frames of second reset pulse, thereby makes at occupied that place of removed BPP there are 40 milliseconds of no-voltage periods.At last, the 3rd waveform shown in Figure 18 (being generally denoted as 1800) is through the closed gap (beginning at this waveform correspondingly increases the no-voltage period) that is produced generates from waveform 1440 removal one BPP (said BPP comprises last scanning frame of first reset pulse and first scanning frame of second reset pulse) and through moving 20 milliseconds of the residue scanning frames of first reset pulse backward in time.

Figure 19 illustrates another possible correction of the waveform 1720 shown in Figure 17.The basic waveform 1720 of Figure 17 is repeated on the top of Figure 19, comprises BPP 1722.Figure 19 also illustrates the waveform (being generally denoted as 1920) of correction, and the waveform of this correction comprises the BPP 1922 that is similar to BPP 1722, but it is before the time, early 40 milliseconds of ground were inserted in last four scanning frames of second reset pulse.Figure 19 also illustrates second correction waveform (being generally denoted as 1940), and it comprises the BPP 1942 that is similar to BPP 1722, but it is before the time, early 130 milliseconds of ground were inserted in back 13 scanning frames of second reset pulse.As pointed out, the final gray level that is reached by some waveforms of that kind shown in Figure 19 is the function of equalizing pulse to the insertion position, so such as shown in Figure 19 correction can be used for the final gray level of meticulous adjusting.

Figure 20 diagram is passed through the IMP waveform of the correction that insertion no-voltage period (termination) generates in the basic I MP waveform 1440 shown in Figure 14.First waveform shown in Figure 20 (being generally denoted as 2000) is to generate through between second reset pulse of waveform and set pulse, inserting 20 milliseconds of termination (being expressed as 2002); Described two reset pulses have moved forward 20 milliseconds in time, and have correspondingly reduced the no-voltage period in the beginning of waveform.Second waveform shown in Figure 20 (being generally denoted as 2020) is to be similar to waveform 2000 substantially, but the termination that waveform 2020 has (being expressed as 2022) is inserted in after preceding four scanning frames of set pulse than ending 2002 late 40 milliseconds of ground.The 3rd waveform shown in Figure 20 (being generally denoted as 2040) also is similar to waveform 2000 substantially, but the termination that waveform 2040 has (being expressed as 2042) is inserted in after preceding 13 scanning frames of set pulse than ending 2002 late 130 milliseconds of ground.In waveform 2020 and 2040, compare with waveform 2000 at the scanning frame of ending the set pulse before 2022 or 2042 respectively and move forward 20 milliseconds in time, to hold termination.As already mentioned, be sensitive by final gray level that waveform reached to the existence and the position of ending, so the correction of the basic waveform of that kind shown in the image pattern 20 can be used for meticulous adjusting by final gray level that waveform generated.

As pointed out, hope that the IMP drive scheme is the DC balance, on this meaning, for any gray level circulation (promptly beginning and end at any gray scale sequence of same grey level), the algebraic sum that is applied to the impact on the pixel is zero.Gray level round-robin example is:

1-》1

2→3→2

4→4→3-》2-》4

We can define irreducible gray level circulation and be such gray scale sequence; It begins in first gray level; Through zero or more multi-grey level to the first gray level finish, and except final gray level (it is identical with first gray level like what pointed out), do not visit any gray level once more than.Significantly, for any gray level, there is the circulation that to reduce of some.In addition, any gray scale sequence can be shown, for example complicated sequence:

1→4→3→2-》3→2-》3→2→1→2→1

Can become cyclic sequence that can not reduce and the circulation that can not reduce that is embedded in the circulation that can not reduce.For example, above-mentioned sequence can be broken down into the limited group of circulation that can not reduce, i.e. two 2 → 3 → 2 continuous circulations are embedded in 1 → 4 → 3 → 2 → 1 circulation, and and then circulate 1 → 2 → 1 thereafter.

If all circulations that can not reduce are DC balances, then begin and end at same grey level might sequence all be the DC balance.The preferred implementation of IMP drive scheme is to be zero for the clean voltge surge of all round-robin that can not reduce, and promptly said waveform is the DC balance.

DC balance IMP waveform is not indispensable.Though big DC imbalance makes the imaging performance of display undermined, the DC imbalance of smallest number is an acceptable.When reaching that the DC balance is impossible completely; The IMP drive scheme hopes that Be Controlled makes that round-robin of being cut apart by the number of transitions in any circulation that can not reduce impact only less than Q; Wherein Q is that wherein said impact comes definite with the character voltage (characteristic voltage) of drive scheme to the smaller's of the absolute value of the clean impact of the transformation between two extreme optical state of pixel 1/4th.Be driven into as film and represent that from the desired clean impact of an extreme optical state to another extreme optical state the characteristic of medium impacts (characteristic impulse), and approximate DC imbalance should be impacted with respect to this characteristic and measured.

What also have hope usually is that the IMP drive scheme is " pointed stake fence (picket fence) " type.As described in " method " mentioned in front application, need or hope that usually the driving circuit of two driving voltages drives electro-optic displays with only providing.Because bistable state electric light medium need drive on both direction between their extreme optical state usually; So at first possibly be that meeting needs at least three driving voltages; Promptly 0; + V ,-V, wherein V is a driving voltage arbitrarily basically; Make the electrode (the public preceding electrode in the active matrix displays (active matrix display) normally commonly used) for particular pixels can remain on 0, and the another one electrode pixel capacitors of that pixel (normally for) can remain on according to the driven direction of said pixel needs+V and-V.When using two Voltag driving circuits, each waveform of drive scheme is divided into a plurality of time periods; Usually these time periods are to wait the duration, but are not necessarily this situation.In non-pointed stake fence drive scheme, can to the pixel of any appointment at any time section apply positive, zero or negative driving voltage.For example, in three driving voltage systems, shared preceding electrode can remain on 0, and single pixel capacitors is maintained at+V, and 0, or-V.In pointed stake fence drive scheme, in fact each time period is divided into two; In one of two time periods that produced, can only apply negative to the pixel of any appointment or zero driving voltage, and in the time period that another produced, can just only apply the pixel of any appointment or zero driving voltage.For example, consider to have two driving voltage system, the wherein V>v of driving voltage V and v.In first time period of every pair of time period, shared preceding electrode is set to V, and pixel capacitors is set to V (zero driving voltage) or v (negative driving voltage).In second time period of every pair of time period, shared preceding electrode is set to v, and pixel capacitors is set to v (zero driving voltage) or V (positive driving voltage).The waveform that is produced is than the long twice of corresponding non-pointed stake fence waveform.

Usually also it is desirable for the IMP drive scheme can local updating.As described in " method " mentioned in front application; Usually hope drives electro-optic displays with the mode of the specific region of permission local updating display, and wherein the specific region of electro-optic displays is standing to change and the still not variation of remainder of display; For example, can hope to upgrade the just background image of refresh display in the dialog box of input text and not of user.The local updating version of any IMP drive scheme can be through from generating to removing all non-zero voltage the said waveform that zero changes the transformation of gray level a to same grey level (promptly from).For example, form by the series of voltage pulse usually from the waveform of gray level 2 to gray level 2.From this waveform, remove non-zero voltage, and other zero transformation is done like this to all, obtains the local updating version of IMP waveform.This local updating version is useful when between tour, hoping to minimize irrelevant flicker.

Below description of test the use of correction discussed above in the meticulous control of the gray level that is generated by the IMP drive scheme.

Packaged electrophoretic medium comprises interior phase (internal phase); Comprise the polymer coating titanium in hydrocarbon liquid and the polymer coating carbon black particle that are encapsulated in gel/gum arabic; Packaged electrophoretic medium is produced and is introduced in experimental single pixel display, and all these discloses like above-mentioned United States Patent (USP) described in 2002/0180687 [0069] to [0076] section basically.Then, experimental display drives with four gray level IMP drive schemes.Having been found that can be by+15V, and 500 milliseconds of pulsed drive displays are from gray level 4 (in vain) to gray level 1 (deceiving), and by-15V, opposite transformations are implemented in 500 milliseconds of pulses, thereby have made up two basic reset pulse IMP drive schemes.Figure 21 has shown all 16 waveforms of this basic I MP drive scheme with the height shows in schematic form, and it is indicated label [Ri, R 2] make first number that provides represent final gray level.For example; The waveform [14] that shows in the upper right corner of Figure 21 is implemented from the transformation of (deceive) of gray level 4 (in vain) to gray level 1, and comprise 500 milliseconds of reset pulses of first+15V (it drives the pixel blackening), second-15V500 millisecond reset pulse (its driving pixel bleaches) and+500 milliseconds of set pulses of 15V (its driving pixel blackening).

Drive the change sequence of experimental display with this basic I MP drive scheme, and when each sequence finishes, measure the reflectivity of display through gray level; Said result is illustrated among Figure 22.Each point among Figure 22 be illustrated in reach on the horizontal ordinate final gray level before reflectivity after the different grey-scale sequence.To see that from Figure 22 the reflectance varies that reaches at the gray level place of same nominal is remarkable, and this variation that yes is undesired because it is to being had a negative impact by the picture quality that many pixel displays generated.Especially, human eye is all very responsive to the subtle change that occurs in the gray level of hypothesis in the pixel block of same grey level, and Figure 22 indicates the result that such variation possibly be considered to the scale grade difference formerly of pixel.

The IMP drive scheme is revised with mode recited above then; Promptly inserting or remove equalizing pulse inserts or removes the no-voltage period to (the closed gap that is produced under situation about removing) and in the beginning or ending place of each waveform; So that after various gray scale sequence, realize consistent gray level, to generate the IMP drive scheme of correction shown in Figure 23.Figure 24 shown use with Figure 22 in the gray level that generated by the IMP drive scheme of the correction of Figure 23 of identical gray scale sequence.It will be appreciated that from Figure 24 the IMP drive scheme of the correction of Figure 24 generates much more consistent gray level than the drive scheme of the unmodified of Figure 21.

Portion C: equalizing pulse is to residence time compensation method and device

As already mentioned, in the third aspect, the present invention provides a kind of electro-optic displays with at least one pixel that is used to drive, and said pixel can be realized at least two different gray levels.In this method, according to the persistence length of the residence time of pixel in the state that changes beginning, at least two different waveforms are used to the same transition between the particular gray level; These two waveforms because at least once insert and/or remove at least one equalizing pulse to or insert at least one no-voltage period and differ from one another, wherein " equalizing pulse to " have the defined implication in front.It is most preferred that drive scheme is DC balance (this term defined in front) in this method.

This equalizing pulse to residence time compensation (BPPDTC) method (with the same in the BPPSS that is describing and the IMP method) in, insertion and/or removal equalizing pulse to and/or the no-voltage period (termination) can in single waveform elements or between two continuous waveform elements, implement.Two waveforms that are used for the same transition after the different residence times of original state that change beginning can be called " alternative residence time " or " ADT " waveform later.

Should be noted that; The ADT waveform is because BPP or terminate in position and/or the duration in the waveform and differ from one another (for example referring to following Figure 25 B-25E discussion); Because BPP or termination this moves and can be considered to be in a position usually and remove BPP or termination and insert the combination of BPP or termination at diverse location, or (under the situation about changing in the same position place duration) is considered to be in that BPP or termination are removed in said position and inserts the different BPP or the combination of termination at the same position place.

In the BPPDTC drive scheme, the same in the IMP drive scheme of BPPSS described in part A and the part B and correction with the front, the insertion of BPP and/or termination or removal cause identical problem, and can handle in a like fashion.Therefore, wherein comprise and remove at least one BPP according to the difference between the ADT waveform of BPPDTC of the present invention aspect, by the period said or that each removed BPP occupied in the past can the vanishing voltage period.Alternately; This period can be " closed " through the some or all of waveform elements of back that move forward in time; Generally insert the no-voltage period, usually at the end of said waveform, to guarantee to keep the whole length of waveform in certain stage at the back of said waveform.(in the display of any reality, it has thousands of at least pixels usually, but in any transformation, has at least one each conversion of energy of pixel experience usually, and if different for the waveform length of all pixels, then controller logic becomes very complicated.) alternately, certainly, the said period can be " closed " than waveform elements early through mobile some or all of backward in time, in (common beginning at said waveform) the insertion no-voltage period in stage early of said waveform.

Similarly, insert total duration that BPP has increased waveform, only if the existing no-voltage period is removed simultaneously.Has identical total length because hope very much all waveforms of drive scheme; When a waveform of drive scheme has the BPP of insertion; Other waveform of all of this drive scheme should have the adding no-voltage period wherein; Or do some other correction, with the increase of compensation because of total waveform length of inserting BPP and causing.For example, if 40 milliseconds of BPP are inserted into deceiving to white wave shape (it has 420 milliseconds waveform length) shown in the top table 1, then 40 milliseconds possibly be added in its excess-three waveform shown in the table 1, make all waveforms have 460 milliseconds length.Significantly, if suitably, BPP be introduced in other three waveforms rather than ends, and perhaps can use length overall is 40 milliseconds BPP and certain combination of termination.

Existing preferred drive scheme and the waveform that BPPDTC of the present invention aspect will only be described through the mode that illustrates.Equalizing pulse used in this drive scheme and waveform is to being any kind recited above; For example, can use the BPP of type shown in Fig. 4 A-4C.

Figure 25 A-25E has illustrated the alternative residence time waveform that can be used for according to the single transformation of BPPDTC of the present invention aspect.Figure 25 A has illustrated mentioned in last column of the third line and table 2 of table 1 in the above black in white wave shape.Because this is the black extremely white waveform that changes that is suitable for after black state presence is long-time; So what it can be considered to revised according to BPPDTC of the present invention aspect deceives to white wave shape, be suitable at the black waveform to white transformation of black state presence after the short period with generation.As pointed out, the basic waveform of Figure 25 A comprises-15V, 400 milliseconds of pulses continue 20 milliseconds for 0V thereafter.

Figure 25 B illustrates the correction of the basic waveform of Figure 25 A, has found that reflectivity of state is effective to reducing at last in vain for it when implementing after being not more than short time of 0.3 second blackly during to white the transformation in that initial black state is only resident.The waveform of Figure 25 B through the waveform of Figure 25 A-15V; 400 milliseconds of pulse ends are inserted and are similar to the BPP of the BPP 300 shown in Fig. 4 A and generate, thereby the waveform of Figure 25 B comprises-15V, 420 milliseconds of pulses; Follow thereafter+15,20 milliseconds of pulses and 0V continue 20 milliseconds.

Figure 25 C has illustrated with 25D and has been used for black two the other ADT waveforms to white transformation identical with the waveform of Figure 25 A and 25B.Find, black during when implementing after resident 0.3 to 1 second and 1 to 3 second respectively to white the transformation at black state, the waveform of Figure 25 C and 25D to standardization finally in vain the reflectivity of state be effective.The waveform of Figure 25 C and 25D be through in the waveform of Figure 25 A, insert with Figure 25 B in identical BPP generate, but the position of insertion is different from Figure 25 B.As noted above; Invent; There is remarkable influence the position that BPP is inserted into basic waveform (or from basic waveform, removing) to the final optical states after changing, and therefore moves the insertion position of BPP in basic waveform and be the effective means that in the variation of initial optical state residence time waveform is compensated because of pixel.

Figure 25 E is the preferred alternative hereto to the waveform of Figure 25 A, is used for implementing to deceive extremely white the transformation in black state presence long-time (3 seconds or longer) back.The waveform of Figure 25 E is similar to the waveform of Figure 25 B-25D substantially, and wherein it is to generate through in the waveform of Figure 25 A, inserting identical BPP.Yet in Figure 25 E, BPP is inserted in the section start of waveform; What also found to want is 40 milliseconds rather than 20 milliseconds of pulse persistances that make BPP; Because this total duration that makes waveform is 500 milliseconds; When the waveform of Figure 25 E is used in combination with the waveform of Figure 25 B-25D, be necessary 40 milliseconds other 0V of " insertion " at the place, end of waveform.Therefore, for shown in the black extremely white preferred one group of ADT waveform such as following table 3 that changes:

Table 3

Therefore notice that for all ADT waveforms and for all original state residence times, being used for blackly all is-15V*400ms or 6V second, to make that this drive scheme is the DC balance to the white impact that changes in table 3.

As already mentioned, DTC also can be implemented through from basic waveform, removing BPP.For example, consideration is following at the drive scheme shown in the table 4:

Table 4

Change Waveform Black in black 0V,820ms Black in white + 15V, 400ms;-15V, 400ms; 0V then, 20ms White to black -15V, 400ms; + 15V, 400ms; 0V then, 20ms Bai Zhibai 0V,820ms

Notice that in this drive scheme, not only whole drive scheme but also all waveforms all are " inside " DC balances; Gone through among the WO2004/090857 that the desirability of this internal DC balance is mentioned in front.Also have, the method that is used for DTC will be discussed to white the transformation with reference to black, though what should understand is whitely can realize with similar mode to the black DTC that changes.

In this example; Black realize that a part that promptly has the potential pulse of a polarity and one period duration through removal removes simultaneously that the similar portions of a potential pulse with opposite polarity and equal duration realizes to the white DTC that changes through removing BPP.Can perhaps replace removed segment pulse with the no-voltage period; The remainder that perhaps can move waveform in time is to occupy by the period of the pulse of being removed to occupying in the past; And; In order to keep total update time, the no-voltage section that is complementary with the right duration of the pulse of being removed can be added to other any position, usually at the beginning or the end of waveform.

Figure 26 A, 26B and 26C indicative icon to the process that is used for being less than listed black correction to white wave shape in above-mentioned table 4 the third line of DTC of short time of 0.3 second at black state presence.Figure 26 A illustrates the basic waveform of table 4.Figure 26 B has schematically shown from the waveform of Figure 26 A and has removed the BPP that is formed by preceding 80 milliseconds of parts of back 80 milliseconds of parts of positive voltage pulse and negative voltage pulse; The gap that is produced is eliminated through the negative pulse that moves forward in time, as by shown in the arrow among Figure 26 B.Shown the residence time compensation waveform that is produced among Figure 26 C, it comprises 320 milliseconds of positive pulses, 320 milliseconds of negative pulses and 180 milliseconds of no-voltage periods.

In this case, find, can realize simply through the length that changes the BPP that is removed, and find that for black state presence long-time more than 3 seconds, the basic waveform of Figure 26 A satisfies to the DTC of all residence times.Therefore be shown in the following table 5 for black whole tabulations in this case to the white ADT waveform that changes:

Table 5

Residence time Waveform 0 to 0.3 second + 15V, 320ms;-15V, 320ms; 0V then, 180ms 0.3 second was to 1 second + 15V, 360ms;-15V, 360ms; 0V then, 100ms 1 second to 3 seconds + 15V, 380ms;-15V, 380ms; 0V then, 60ms 3 seconds or longer + 15V, 400ms;-15V, 400ms; 0V then, 20ms

As already mentioned, when from basic waveform, removing BPP with the mode shown in Figure 26 B, it is dispensable to move remainder in time; The BPP that is removed can be replaced by the no-voltage period simply.Below table 6 shown with table 5 in the ADT waveform of similar one group of correction, but the BPP that is removed replaced with the no-voltage period:

Table 6

Residence time Waveform 0 to 0.3 second + 15V, 320ms; 0V, 160ms;-15V, 320ms; 0V then, 20ms 0.3 second was to 1 second + 15V, 360ms; 0V, 80ms;-15V, 360ms; 0V then, 20ms 1 second to 3 seconds + 15V, 380ms; 0V, 40ms;-15V, 380ms; 0V then, 60ms 3 seconds or longer + 15V, 400ms;-15V, 400ms; 0V then, 20ms

Though the display of two gray levels tentatively is described with reference to only having in the above in BPPDTC of the present invention aspect, is not so limited but can be applied to have the more display of more number gray level.Also have, though in the specific waveforms in the accompanying drawings, a single point place has implemented to insert or remove two elements of BPP in said waveform, the present invention is not limited to insert or remove at a single point the waveform of BPP; Two elements of BPP can insert or remove at different points, that is, two pulses that form BPP need not to be just continuous, but can be separated by the time interval.In addition, one or two BPP pulse can be subdivided into several sections, and these parts can be inserted into the waveform that is used for DTC or therefrom remove then.For example, BPP can be by+15V, 60 milliseconds of pulses and-15V, and 60 milliseconds of pulses are formed.This BPP can be divided into two parts, and for example, the back is followed by-15V, 20 milliseconds of pulses+15V, 60 milliseconds of pulses and-15V, 40 milliseconds of pulses, and these two parts are inserted in the waveform simultaneously or from wherein removing to realize DTC.

Also find, in waveform, insert no-voltage section or the final gray level after wherein removing no-voltage section influence conversion, therefore the insertion of this no-voltage section or removal provide and have been used to regulate last gray level to realize the second method of DTC.The insertion of this no-voltage section or removal can be used separately or be used in combination with insertion or the removal of BPP.

Though mainly (voltage that wherein is applied at any given time on the pixel can only be-V with reference to pulse-width modulation waveform in the above in BPPDTC of the present invention aspect; 0 or+V) describe; But the invention is not restricted to use this pulse-width modulation waveform but can the working voltage modulation waveform, perhaps use the waveform of pulse and voltage modulated.The definition of the front that equalizing pulse is right can be satisfied by having zero clean opposite polarity two pulses of impacting, and does not require that these two pulse voltages or duration are identical.For example, in the voltage modulated drive scheme, BPP can be by followed-5V, 60 milliseconds of pulses+15V, 20 milliseconds of pulses are formed.

To see that according to the front explanation BPPDTC of the present invention aspect allows the residence time compensation of drive scheme, keep the DC balance of drive scheme simultaneously.This DTC can reduce ghost image degree in the electro-optic displays.

Part D: destination buffer method and device

As already mentioned, the present invention provide the electro-optic displays that uses destination buffer to drive to have a plurality of pixels two kinds of distinct methods, wherein each pixel can be realized at least two kinds of different gray levels.First method in these two kinds of methods, be that nonpolar destination buffer method comprises: initial, final and target data buffer zone are provided; Determine when that the data in initial sum final data buffer zone are different; And when this species diversity is found; Upgrade the numerical value in the target data buffer zone in the following manner; Said mode is: (i) when initial sum final data buffer zone comprised the identical value to particular pixels, the target data buffer zone was set to this value; (ii) when initial data buffer comprise to the value of particular pixels when bigger than the value of final data buffer zone, the numerical value that the target data buffer zone is set to the primary data buffer zone adds an increment; And (iii) when initial data buffer comprise to the value of particular pixels more hour than the value of final data buffer zone, the numerical value that the target data buffer zone is set to the primary data buffer zone deducts said increment; Use respectively as the primary data buffer zone of the initial sum end-state of each pixel and the image on the Data Update display in the target data buffer zone; Then, will be in the primary data buffer zone from the copying data in the target data buffer zone; And repeat these steps and comprise identical data up to initial sum final data buffer zone.

In the second method of these two kinds of methods, promptly in polarity destination buffer method, final, initial sum target data buffer zone are provided once more, and the polarity bit array, this polarity bit array is set to the polarity bit of each pixel of iatron.Once more; Compare the numerical value in the initial sum final data buffer zone; When their values in the polarity bit array not simultaneously; The target data buffer zone upgrades in the following manner, and promptly (i) is set to the numerical value of expression to antipole end optical state transition to the polarity bit of said pixel when the extreme optical state of different to the numerical value of particular pixels in initial sum final data buffer zone and the said pixel of numeric representation in the primary data buffer zone; And according to the correlation values in the polarity bit array, the numerical value that the target data buffer zone is set to the primary data buffer zone adds or deducts an increment.Then, to upgrade with mode identical in first method, the data from the target data buffer zone are copied in the primary data buffer zone afterwards at the image on the display.These steps are repeated to comprise identical data until the final buffer zone of initial sum.

The prior art controller that is used for bistable electro-optic displays uses and logic (all tabulations here are to use pseudo-code) like the logic class shown in the following tabulation 1 usually:

Tabulation 1

With the controller of working by this way; Display is waited for the reception new image information, then, and when having received this new image information; Upgrade fresh information being sent to carry out one before the display comprehensively; In case promptly new images has been shown device and accepts, display shows that at needs the rewriting of the display of first new images can not accept second new images before being done, and in some cases; This rewrite process may be spent hundreds of millisecond, referring to the drive scheme that is proposed among part A-C in front.Therefore, read or when typewriting, upgrade (rewriting) time at this comprehensively when the user is rolling, display reveals insensitive to user input.

Contrast, the controller of the nonpolar destination buffer method of embodiment of the present invention moves (for convenience's sake, can be called " 2 controllers of tabulating " after such controller) by the illustrative logic of following tabulation 2:

Tabulation 2

At this controller logic that is used for the correction of NPTB method, three image buffers are arranged.The final buffer zone of initial sum is identical with the prior art controller, and the 3rd new buffer zone is " target " buffer zone.This display controller can receive new image data in the final buffer zone at any time.When the data of said controller discovery in final buffer zone no longer equal the data (promptly requiring to rewrite image) in the initial buffer district; According to the difference between the correlation values in the final buffer zone of initial sum, add 1 or subtract 1 (or letting them remain unchanged) and make up new target data set through making numerical value in the initial buffer district.Then, said controller uses the numerical value from the initial sum destination buffer to carry out the display renewal with common mode.When this upgrades completion, said controller will be copied to from the numerical value in the destination buffer in the initial buffer district, and the difference of asking that repeats then between the final buffer zone of initial sum is operated., accomplishes the final buffer zone of initial sum whole renewal when having identical data set.

Therefore, in this NPTB method, whole renewal is implemented as a series of sons and upgrades operation, and once such son upgrades operation and occurs in when using initial sum destination buffer update image.To use a technical term " intermediate frame " (meso-frame) in each desired period later on for this a little renewal operation; Certainly such intermediate frame is illustrated in the desired frame of single scanning frame (referring to aforementioned " method " application) and the period between the superframe into display, perhaps for accomplishing the desired period of whole renewal.

NPTB method of the present invention has improved interactive performance with dual mode.At first; In the method for prior art; Controller uses the final data buffer zone during renewal process, make that not having new data can be written in this final data buffer zone upgrades simultaneously, so display can not respond new input during upgrading the desired whole period.In NPTB method of the present invention; The final data buffer zone only is used for the calculating of target data buffer zone data set; And this calculating is simple COMPUTER CALCULATION, can to implement fast many than upgrading operation, and said renewal operation requires the physical responses from electrooptical material.In case the calculating of the data set in the target data buffer zone is accomplished, said renewal do not require and visits again the final data buffer zone, thereby the final data buffer zone can be used for accepting new data.

Because the reason that discuss again reason of being discussed in " method " above-mentioned application and back about waveform; Usually expectation drives pixel with the round-robin mode; On this meaning; In case the potential pulse by a polarity has driven pixel away from an extreme optical state, reach its another extreme optical state just applies opposite polarity to this pixel potential pulse up to this pixel; Referring to, for example, the associated description of Figure 11 A and 11B and front 2003/0137521.This restriction is satisfied by PTB method of the present invention, and this method can be used the controller that moves with 3 illustrative logics of following tabulation, and (after this, for convenience's sake, such controller can be called as " 3 controllers of tabulating "; This tabulation hypothesis has four gray level systems of the gray level that is numbered 1 (deceive) to 4 (in vain), though those skilled in the art can be easy to revise the pseudo-code of the operation that is used to have the gray levels that difference numbers):

Tabulation 3

This PTB method requires four image buffers; The 4th is single " polarity " buffer zone that has each pixel of display; The current of pixel that this single bit representation is associated turns, and whether promptly pixel is current just changes to black (0) or black extremely white (1) from white.If the current not experience of the pixel that is associated changes, then polarity bit keeps its numerical value from previous transformation; For example, be in now light grey state constant and be in the past white pixel will have polarity bit 0.

In the PTB method, when having made up new destination buffer data set, consider the polarity bit array.If said pixel is current is black or white, and requires to be converted to inverse state, and then polarity bit correspondingly is set, and desired value is set to the most approaching black or white gray level respectively.Alternately, if (gray scale) state in the middle of for the original state of pixel being, then according to the numerical value of polarity bit, desired value is calculated (if polarity=1 then is+1 through said state is increased or deducts 1; If polarity=0 then is-1).

Should be noted in the discussion above that in this drive scheme, be independent of currency for the end-state of this pixel in the behavior of the pixel of intermediateness.Pixel is converted to white or will will continue to arrive opposite optics guide rail (extreme optical state, black usually or white) until it in same direction after black from being converted in vain from black since beginning.If the image of between tour, wanting and therefore dbjective state change, then pixel can return with opposite direction, or the like like that.

The preferred wave shape form that now discussion is used for TB method of the present invention.Below table 7 show a kind of possible transition matrix, this transition matrix can be used to use NPTB of the present invention and PTB method to carry out the operation of (one-bit) (monochrome), this transition matrix is used two intermediate states.

Table 7

The structure of this transition matrix has black, white and two kinds of middle gray states, the very similar problem that seems Yu in two (two-bit) drive schemes of prior art, use, as " method " application described in those.Yet in TB method of the present invention, these intermediate states do not correspond to stable grey states, but only corresponding transition state, and these transition states exist only between the beginning of completion and next intermediate frame of an intermediate frame.Also have, to the not restriction of homogeneity of the reflectivity of these intermediatenesses.

Be to be noted that in the transition matrix shown in the table 7 many elements (being represented by dash line) are not allowed to.Controller only allows each the transformation in arbitrary direction to change unit of gray level, thereby the transformation (for example directly 1-4 is black changes to white) that relates to a plurality of changes of gray level is under an embargo.Element on the principal diagonal of transition matrix (changing corresponding to zero) is under an embargo for intermediate state; To white and black state, such principal diagonal element is not recommended, but not strict forbidding, as represented in the table 7 by asterisk.

In monochromatic NPTB method, upgrade sequence and show as a series of states, begin and end at extreme optical state (optics guide rail), the intermediate grey scales sequence is by zero residence time separately.For example, will show as from black extremely white simple transformation:

1→2→3→4

On the other hand, if the end-state of display changes at reproducting periods, then this transformation possibly become:

1→2→3→2→1

Repeatedly changing of end-state possibly produce following such transformation:

1→2→3→2→3→4

More at large, but between extreme B&W optical states, four kinds of conversion of energy types are being arranged.

1→2→3(→2→3)-s-4

1→2(→3→2)→1

4→3-→2(→3→2)->1

4→3(→2→3)→4

Zero or repeatedly repetition of sequence in the bracket represented in its bracket.

The nonzero element that the optimization of this type NPTB drive scheme (" adjusting ") requires to regulate transition matrix is to guarantee the reflectivity values for 1 (deceiving) and 4 (in vain) state consistency, and is irrelevant with the repetition number of parenthesized sequence.Waveform any residence time of must in black and white extreme optical state, working, but at the residence time of intermediateness always zero, thereby as stated, the reflectivity of transition state is unessential.

Usually, any single intermediate frame upgrades the length that the seeking time of wanting equals element the longest in the transition matrix.Therefore, the time that is used for whole renewal is three times of length of this longest element.Under the situation of the best, deceive to bletilla is white and possibly be divided into the fragment of three equal lengths to deceiving (being respectively 1 → 4 and 4 → 1) waveform; This mode will make the delay of renewal be reduced to 1/3rd of whole update time, and comprehensive renewal is kept the identical duration.When the length of middle frame update becomes longer (this possibly be the result of optimized waveform), beneficial effect becomes still less.For example, if an element becomes two double-lengths, the stand-by period will be increased to 2/3rds of simple update time so, change the time of two double-lengths that will require the front fully.Can test the longest element that in given intermediate frame, exists to find, and dynamically regulate update time, but the effect of this additional calculation can not be significant to that length.

Considered also, what electro-optical characteristic of medium let the display that uses this medium be applicable to and use such NPTB drive scheme.At first, the residence time correlativity of this medium will be zero (ideally, or at least very low), because this waveform combines a series of near zero residence time between the intermediate frame with much longer probably residence time between the transformation.The second, the optical states before the original state of said medium reply special transition is less responsive or insensitive, because the direction that changes possibly change in intermediate flow; For example, possibly be 1-before 2 → 1 transformations " 2 or 3 → 2 transformations.At last, electro-optical medium should be symmetrical in its response, especially near black and white state; Be difficult to generate the DC balanced waveform, or 4 → 3-→ 4 that said DC balanced waveform can be carried out the black or white state that reaches identical respectively change.

Because previous reasons, " inverted (the intermediate reversal) " in the NPTB drive scheme makes that the waveform that forms optimization is very difficult.Contrast, the PTB drive scheme has significantly reduced the demand to electro-optical medium, thereby having reduced many difficulties aspect the optimization NTPB drive scheme, the performance of improvement still is provided simultaneously.

Though it is identical with the structure of the transition matrix that is used for the NPTB drive scheme to be used for the structure of transition matrix of PTB drive scheme, the PTB drive scheme only allow two black to Bai Yubai to black transformation, that is:

1 → 2 → 3 → 4; And

4→3→2→1。

In fact, these two transformations can be identical with normal 1 → 4 and 4 → 1 transformations, and these transformations are divided into three equal parts.In order to consider that any delay between the intermediate frame possibly need some adjustings more a little, but said adjusting is direct.For simple typewriting input, this drive scheme can cause postponing to reduce 2/3rds.

The PTB method has some shortcomings.Need extra storer for the polarity bit array, and more the controller of complicacy moves this simpler drive scheme, requires to consider the extra data (polarity bit) except that the initial sum end-state of transformation because permission turns at each pixel place.Also have, be used to the delay that begins to upgrade though the PTB method has been reduced really, controller must upgrade by the time accomplishes just counter-rotating transformation.This user of being limited in makes a call to a character, and to delete under its situation then be tangible at once; Equaled complete update time at this character by the delay before deleting.This has limited the PTB method for cursor tracking or roll the practicality of reading.

Be described though NPTB and PTB method relate generally to monochrome drive scheme in the above, they and many gray scale drive schemes also are compatible.The NPTB method is that complete gray scale is compatible inherently; The gray scale that the PTB method is discussed below is compatible.

From the drive scheme angle; Be apparent that; The spendable gray scale drive schemes that generation is used for the NPTB method is more difficult than corresponding monochrome drive scheme; Because intermediateness is now corresponding to the gray level of reality in gray scale drive schemes, thereby the optical numerical value of these intermediatenesses is restricted.The gray scale drive schemes that generation is used for the PTB method also is very difficult.In order to reduce delay, intermediate frame changes and must shorten slightly.For example, 2 → 3 to change possibly be independent transformation, can be 1 → 2 → 3 back segment, perhaps can be 2 → 3 → 4 beginning section.Therefore, to making this transformation shorten (to reach shorter total renewal) and accurately (stopping) having strong demand in gray level 3 if change.

Gray scale PTB method can be through introducing a plurality of gray level steps (promptly; Gray level changes an above unit during each intermediate frame through allowing; This is corresponding to insert a plurality of elements of removing from the principal diagonal of relevant transition matrix again with more than one step; Like what shown in the above-mentioned table 7), thus the degeneracy (degeneracy) of the intermediate frame step described in the paragraph in front eliminated.This correction can be through replacing the polarity bit matrix to realize with counter array, and this counter array comprises more than one position to each pixel of display, representes required figure place up to complete grayscale image.Said then waveform can comprise until N * N transition matrix completely, and each waveform is divided into four (or intermediate frames of other arbitrary number basically) in equal size.

Though specific TB method discussed above is two gray scale approach, it has two intermediate grey scales, and the TB method certainly is used for the gray level of any number.Yet, postpone reduction and the beneficial effect that increases will increase and trend towards reducing along with the number of greyscale levels purpose.

Therefore, the present invention is provided at two types the TB method of obviously reducing updating delay under the monochromatic mode, and the complicacy of controller algorithm is minimized.These methods can prove in mutual one (monochrome) used and be particularly useful, for example, personal digital assistant and electronic dictionary, wherein the quick response to user's input is extremely important.

Part E: Wave-shape compression method and device

As mentioned, last main aspect of the present invention relates to the method for the quantity of the Wave data that is used to be reduced to the driving bistable electro-optic displays and must stores.More specifically; This aspect of the present invention is provided for driving " waveform compression " or " WC " of the electro-optic displays with a plurality of pixels; Wherein each pixel can be realized at least two different gray levels, and said method comprises: the basic waveform of the contact potential series that the area definition pixel will apply during special transition between the gray level; Storage is to the multiplication factor (multiplication factor) of said special transition; And realize said special transition through said pixel being applied said contact potential series in the period of depending on multiplication factor.

When the electro-optic displays that impacts driving is driven; Each pixel of display receives potential pulse (promptly; Voltage difference between two electrodes related) or a plurality of time serieses (temporal series) (being waveform) of potential pulse with that pixel; To realize a optical state transition from pixel to another optical states, the normally transformation between the gray level.Be stored in the storer for each changes the required data of definition said waveform collection (forming complete drive scheme), this storer is on display controller usually, though alternately, data can be stored on main frame or other utility appliance.Drive scheme can comprise a large amount of waveforms; And (described in " method " application of mentioning in front) can need a plurality of waveform dataset of storage, with the variation of permission environmental parameter (like temperature and humidity) and the variation (the for example mission life of electro-optical medium) of non-ambient parameter.Therefore, the required memory span of maintenance Wave data maybe be quite big.This capacity of hoping to reduce storer is to reduce the cost of display controller.The simple compression scheme that can be contained under the actual conditions in display controller or the main frame is helpful reducing that thereby the required memory span of Wave data reduces aspect the display controller cost.Wave-shape compression method of the present invention provides the simple compression scheme that is particularly advantageous in electrophoretic display device (EPD) and other known bistable display.

The incompressible waveform that is used for special transition is stored as a series of set (bit set) usually, and each set specifies in the specific voltage that the specified point of waveform will apply.As an example, consider three rank voltage drive schemes, wherein with forward voltage drive the pixel blackening (in this example ,+10V), (10V) the driving pixel bleaches, and remains on its current optical states with no-voltage with negative voltage.Voltage for element preset time (for the scanning frame of active matrix displays) can use two to encode, for example, below table 8 shown:

Table 8

The voltage of wanting (V) Binary representation +10 01 -10 10 0 00

Use this binary representation, be used for active matrix drive and comprise two scanning frames of followed no-voltage continue five scanning frames+waveform of 10V pulse can represent to become:

01010101010000。

The waveform that comprises the plenty of time section requires a large amount of set of stored waveform data.

According to WC method of the present invention, Wave data is stored as basic waveform (binary representation of that kind recited above) and multiplication factor.In a plurality of periods of depending on multiplication factor, display controller (or other suitable hardware) applies the contact potential series by the basic waveform definition to pixel.In the preferred form of this WC method, position set (as top given) is used for representing basic waveform, and is applied on the said pixel n time period by the defined voltage of each set, and wherein n is the multiplication factor that is associated with said waveform.Said multiplication factor must be a natural number.For multiplication factor is 1 situation, and waveform that is applied and basic waveform do not change.Greater than 1 situation, at least some waveforms, the expression of contact potential series is compressed for multiplication factor, and required figure place is still less during with incompressible stored in form than data to be the required figure place of these waveforms of expression.

As an example, it uses three voltage level binary representations of table 8, and consider such waveform: it requires 12+10V scanning frame, 9-10V of followed scanning frame, 6+10V of followed scanning frame, 3 0V scanning frames of followed.This waveform is expressed as with non-compressed format:

010101010101010101010101?10?10?10?10?10?10?10?10?10?01?01?01?01?01?01?00?00?00

And be expressed as with the mode of compression:

Multiplication factor: 3

Basic waveform 01 01 01 01 10 10 10 01 01 00.

The length of the contact potential series that must distribute each waveform is by the longest waveform decision.Electrophoresis and many other electro-optic displays for encapsulation require the longest waveform at minimum temperature place usually, in that to support temperature place electro-optical medium most the slowest to the electric field response that is applied.Simultaneously, realize that the successful necessary resolution of transformation is lowered when said low-response, so, do not having what loss aspect the accuracy of optical states through continuous scanning frame being divided into groups through WC method of the present invention.Use this compression method, can distribute the number of scanning frame (or being generally the time period) to each waveform, the number of this scanning frame is suitable for the short waveform under moderate temperature and high temperature update time.When low temperature (wherein required scanning frame number possibly surpass memory allocation), the multiplication factor greater than 1 can be used for producing long wave shape.This causes reducing the demand of storer and reducing cost at last.

WC method of the present invention is equivalent to the frame time that changes active matrix displays under all temps simply in principle.For example, display can be actuated to and driven with 25Hz at 0 ℃ at room temperature with 50Hz, to prolong the admissible waveform time.But, the WC method is better, because base plate is designed to be in the given scan rate place minimize capacitance property and the artificial factor of resistive voltage.When arbitrary direction obviously departs from this preferred scan rate, the human factor of at least a type increases.Therefore, be more preferably and keep the actual scanning rate constant, and with WC method grouping scanning frame, in fact this provide a kind of and realize the virtual variation of scan rate and really do not change the method for physical scan rate.

Claims (2)

1. method that is used to drive electro-optic displays, wherein electro-optic displays has a plurality of pixels, and each pixel can be realized at least two different gray levels, and said method comprises:
(a) the final data buffer zone is provided, this final data buffer zone is used to receive the data of the end-state of wanting of each pixel of definition display;
(b) the primary data buffer zone is provided, this primary data buffer zone is used to the data of original state of each pixel of area definition display;
(c) the target data buffer zone is provided, this target data buffer zone is used to the data of dbjective state of each pixel of area definition display;
(d) determine when that the data in initial and final data buffer zone are different; And it is this not simultaneously in discovery; Upgrade the numerical value in the target data buffer zone through following manner: (i) when initial and final data buffer zone comprised the identical numerical value for particular pixels, the target setting data buffer was this numerical value; (ii) compare with the final data buffer zone when comprising the bigger numerical value for particular pixels when initial data buffer, the target setting data buffer is that the numerical value of primary data buffer zone deducts an increment; And (iii) compare with the final data buffer zone when comprising the littler numerical value for particular pixels when initial data buffer, the target setting data buffer is that the numerical value of primary data buffer zone increases said increment;
(e) use respectively as data in the primary data buffer zone that initially reaches end-state of each pixel and the image on the Data Update display in the target data buffer zone;
(f) afterwards, said data are copied to the primary data buffer zone from the target data buffer zone in step (e); And
(g) repeating step (d) comprises identical data to (f) until initial and final data buffer zone.
2. method that is used to drive electro-optic displays, this electro-optic displays has a plurality of pixels, and each pixel can be realized at least three different gray levels, and said method comprises:
(a) the final data buffer zone is provided, this final data buffer zone is used to receive the data of the end-state of wanting of each pixel of definition display;
(b) the primary data buffer zone is provided, this primary data buffer zone is used to the data of original state of each pixel of area definition display;
(c) the target data buffer zone is provided, this target data buffer zone is used to the data of dbjective state of each pixel of area definition display;
(d) the polarity bit array is provided, this polarity bit array is used to store the polarity bit for each pixel of display;
(e) determine when that the data in initial and final data buffer zone are different; And it is this not simultaneously in discovery; Upgrade the numerical value in polarity bit array and the target data buffer zone through following manner: (i) when the extreme optical state of different for the numerical value of particular pixels in initial and the final data buffer zone and the said pixel of numeric representation in the primary data buffer zone, the polarity bit of setting to said pixel is the numerical value of expression to antipole end optical state transition; (ii) when in initial and final data buffer zone for the numerical value of particular pixels not simultaneously, coming the target setting data buffer according to the correlation values in the polarity bit array is the numerical value of the primary data buffer zone increment that adds deduct;
(f) use respectively as data in the primary data buffer zone that initially reaches end-state of each pixel and the image on the Data Update display in the target data buffer zone;
(g) afterwards, said data are copied to the primary data buffer zone from the target data buffer zone in step (f); And
(h) repeating step (e) comprises identical data to (g) until initial and final data buffer zone.
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CN101859544B (en) 2012-07-04
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JP4672727B2 (en) 2011-04-20
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