WO2015027952A1 - Energy saving and heat insulating wall - Google Patents

Energy saving and heat insulating wall Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2015027952A1
WO2015027952A1 PCT/CN2014/085666 CN2014085666W WO2015027952A1 WO 2015027952 A1 WO2015027952 A1 WO 2015027952A1 CN 2014085666 W CN2014085666 W CN 2014085666W WO 2015027952 A1 WO2015027952 A1 WO 2015027952A1
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WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
protective layer
prefabricated
thermal insulation
insulation
energy
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PCT/CN2014/085666
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
吴淑环
Original Assignee
Wu Shuhuan
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Priority to CN201310398040.1 priority Critical
Priority to CN201310398040 priority
Priority to CN201310723142.6 priority
Priority to CN201310723142 priority
Priority to CN201410235691.3 priority
Priority to CN201410235691.3A priority patent/CN105089173A/en
Application filed by Wu Shuhuan filed Critical Wu Shuhuan
Publication of WO2015027952A1 publication Critical patent/WO2015027952A1/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/762Exterior insulation of exterior walls
    • E04B1/7629Details of the mechanical connection of the insulation to the wall

Abstract

An energy saving and heat insulating wall, comprising a base wall (10), a heat insulating layer (15-3) and anchor bolts (20); the base wall (10) comprises a main building structure therein; the base wall (10) further comprises a prefabricated external protection layer (15-8-1), the external protection layer (15-8-1) being a prefabricated plate material protection layer or a prefabricated plaster protection layer; the wall is constructed sequentially as follows from the outside to the inside: an external protection layer (15-8-1), a heat insulating layer (15-3) and a base wall (10); the anchor bolts (20) pass through the external protection layer (15-8-1) and the heat insulating layer (15-3), and fixes the external protection layer (15-8-1) and the heat insulating layer (15-3) to the base wall (10).

Description

种节能保温墙体  Energy-saving insulation wall
本申请要求于 2013年 9月 2日提交中国专利局、 申请号为 201310398040.1、 发明名 称为 "一种装配式节能墙体" ; 于 2013年 12月 25日提交中国专利局、 申请号为 201310723142.6、 发明名称为 "一种安装预制板材保护层的外保温墙体" ; 于 2014年 5 月 25日提交中国专利局、 申请号为 201410235691.3、 发明名称为 "一种装配式节能保 温墙体防火构造" 的中国专利申请的优先权, 其全部内容通过引用结合在本申请中。 技术领域 This application is submitted to the Chinese Patent Office on September 2, 2013, the application number is 201310398040.1, and the invention name is "a fabricated energy-saving wall"; it was submitted to the Chinese Patent Office on December 25, 2013, and the application number is 201310723142.6. The invention name is "an external thermal insulation wall with a protective layer for prefabricated panels"; submitted to the Chinese Patent Office on May 25, 2014, application number 201410235691.3, and the invention name is "a type of energy-saving thermal insulation wall structure" Priority of the Chinese Patent Application, the entire contents of which is incorporated herein by reference. Technical field
本发明涉及建筑的墙体, 特别是一种节能保温墙体。 背景技术  The invention relates to a wall of a building, in particular to an energy-saving heat insulating wall. Background technique
1、 世界环境形势  1. The world's environmental situation
联合国曾在 2007年 3月发布报告显示, 绿色建筑和建筑节能蕴藏的减排效果要大于 《京都议定书》 中要求的所有温室气体排放量, 相当于 《京都议定书》 预定减排量的三 倍。 这说明建筑节能在减少温室气体排放、 减少粉尘排放中的重要作用。  According to a report released by the United Nations in March 2007, the green building and building energy conservation effects are greater than all the greenhouse gas emissions required by the Kyoto Protocol, which is equivalent to three times the Kyoto Protocol's scheduled emission reductions. This shows the important role of building energy conservation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing dust emissions.
世界银行 2012年 1 1月 18日发布报告称, 气候变化是全球发展面临的最大挑战之 一, 为子孙后代计, 各国应肩负起各自的道德义务, 切实采取行动减少温室气体排放。 2013年春, 世界银行发表报告警告说: "除非对气候变暖采取更多行动, 否则全球温 度将在本世纪末再上升四摄氏度。 全球正面临海平面上升、 食品短缺、 极端天气条件的 危险, 这将使得沿海城市和穷人面对灾难性后果" 。  The World Bank released a report on January 18, 2012, saying that climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing global development. For future generations, countries should shoulder their moral obligations and take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In the spring of 2013, the World Bank issued a report warning: "Unless more action is taken on climate warming, global temperatures will rise by another four degrees Celsius by the end of the century. The world is facing the danger of rising sea levels, food shortages, extreme weather conditions, Make coastal cities and the poor face disastrous consequences."
尽管全球环境形势如此严峻, 但世界上许多国家仍不认同中国当前大量应用的、 易 失火的薄抹灰保温墙体技术, 例如美国、 俄罗斯等国, 美国曾给越南移民、 古巴移民盖 过薄抹灰保温墙体的房子, 后遭到国内反对, 就不盖了。 因不仅平时防火不安全, 且一 旦有战争或恐怖活动发生时, 采用薄抹灰保温墙体的城市就很容易四处着火, 甚至变成 一片火海, 人们没有躲藏之处, 将使国家处于极端被动、 危险的局面。 我们在中东战 争、伊拉克战争、 阿富汗战争中看到, 他们都是非节能建筑, 并没有因战争使墙体着火。  Although the global environmental situation is so severe, many countries in the world still do not agree with China's current large-scale, easy-to-fire thin plaster insulation wall technology, such as the United States, Russia and other countries, the United States has given Vietnamese immigrants, Cuban immigrants over thin The house that plastered the insulation wall was not covered by the domestic opposition. Because not only is fire safety unsafe, but once war or terrorist activities occur, cities with thin plastering walls can easily catch fire everywhere, and even become a sea of fire. People do not hide, which will make the country extremely passive. Dangerous situation. We saw in the Middle East War, the Iraq War, and the Afghanistan War that they were all non-energy-efficient buildings, and there was no fire on the walls caused by the war.
全球大量既有建筑是非节能建筑, 新建建筑也是非节能建筑, 或是热桥多、 节能保 温效果不好的夹芯保温墙体等节能建筑, 这使得全球的建筑能耗居高不下, 这种形势极 大地影响控制全球温室气体排放。 联合国多次召开会议研究减少温室气体排放事宜, 世 界各国难以达成一致意见, 为何不愿意减排?本专利申请人认为, 重要原因之一是很多 节能减排技术没有解决所致, 否则怎能不减排?其中重要的就是墙体节能保温技术。  A large number of existing buildings in the world are non-energy-saving buildings, new buildings are also non-energy-saving buildings, or energy-saving buildings such as thermal bridges and sandwich insulation walls with poor energy-saving insulation effects, which makes the global building energy consumption remain high. The situation has greatly affected the control of global greenhouse gas emissions. The United Nations has held several meetings to study the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is difficult for countries around the world to reach an agreement. Why are they not willing to reduce emissions? The applicant of this patent believes that one of the important reasons is that many energy-saving and emission-reduction technologies have not been solved, otherwise how can they not reduce emissions? The important one is the wall energy-saving insulation technology.
2、 当前外墙外保温墙体技术存在的问题 中国为了能源安全及保护环境大量应用薄抹灰保温墙体技术, 薄抹灰保温墙体目前 只在中国和北欧少数国家应用。 但中国建筑情况与北欧大不相同: 中国建设规模大、 建 筑高度高、 密度大, 而北欧恰恰相反。 2. Problems existing in the external wall insulation technology China has applied a large amount of thin plaster insulation wall technology for energy security and environmental protection. The thin plaster insulation wall is currently only used in China and a few countries in northern Europe. However, China's construction situation is very different from that of Northern Europe: China has a large construction scale, high building height and high density, while Northern Europe is the opposite.
薄抹灰保温墙体的保护层是聚合物砂浆, 聚合物砂浆保护层内含有高分子胶粘剂。 若要聚合物砂浆保护层耐久性好、 不开裂、 不粉化, 胶粘剂含量就高, 则易于燃烧; 反 之, 胶粘剂含量少不易燃烧, 但易于开裂、 粉化, 耐久性不好, 防火还是不好。 中国已 经建设大量的薄抹灰保温墙体建筑, 聚合物砂浆保护层开裂、 脱落的现象比比皆是, 不 仅防火不好、 因保护层开裂还出现墙体进水的质量事故, 如 2014年 7月 2日报道的常州 的 "绷带楼" , 其它地区也有外保温墙体进水的事故。 大量建筑、 特别是高层建筑将如 何维修?用户要拿出多少钱维修?增加用户负担, 制造建筑垃圾, 影响社会可持续发 展。  The protective layer of the thin plaster insulation wall is a polymer mortar, and the polymer mortar protective layer contains a polymer adhesive. If the polymer mortar protective layer has good durability, no cracking, no powdering, and high adhesive content, it is easy to burn; on the contrary, the adhesive content is less likely to burn, but it is easy to crack, powder, poor durability, fireproof or not it is good. China has built a large number of thin plaster insulation wall buildings. The phenomenon of cracking and falling off of the protective layer of polymer mortar is everywhere. Not only the fire prevention is not good, but also the quality of the wall water inflow due to cracking of the protective layer, such as 2014 7 The "bandage floor" of Changzhou reported on the 2nd of the month, and other areas also have the accident of water ingress into the wall. How will a large number of buildings, especially high-rise buildings, be repaired? How much does the user have to pay for repairs? Increase user burden, build construction waste, and influence sustainable social development.
中国几次墙体大火之后, 2011年中国公安部消防局 65#文禁用有机保温材料, 但无 机保温材料远远不能满足市场需要, 全国在建的外墙外保温工程绝大部分停工。 于是很 多人士都搞无机保温材料研究, 但是无机保温材料有很多问题:  After several wall fires in China, in 2011, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security Fire Bureau 65# banned organic insulation materials, but the inorganic insulation materials were far from meeting the market needs. Most of the external thermal insulation projects under construction in the country were suspended. So many people are engaged in research on inorganic insulation materials, but inorganic insulation materials have many problems:
如发泡水泥重量重、 质量波动范围大, 难以控制, 导热系数较高, 导热系数波动范 围大, 易收缩变形, 抗冻融性能难以控制, 将来出现问题保温墙体将粉化, 一旦掉落下 来很危险, 最后外墙外保温主要还得用有机保温材料。  For example, foamed cement has heavy weight, large fluctuation range of mass, difficult to control, high thermal conductivity, large thermal conductivity fluctuation range, easy shrinkage deformation, and freeze-thaw resistance is difficult to control. In the future, the thermal insulation wall will be powdered, once dropped It is very dangerous to come down. Finally, the external insulation of the external wall mainly needs to use organic insulation materials.
中国现在规定达到一定高度的建筑, 保温材料的燃烧性能应达到难燃型 级, 或 用无机保温材料如岩棉保温。 阻燃剂价格昂贵, 例如密度 SOkg/m^^ Bi级难燃石墨 EPS 板价格 700多元 /m3, 而 B2级阻燃型 EPS板价格约 350元 /m3。 但所谓难燃仅仅是电焊火 花不能引燃, 在长期使用中一旦发生火灾, 达到聚苯板 500多度燃点时, 难燃型 ^级 EPS板与阻燃型 级 EPS板一样燃烧。 现在向着极低能耗的被动式节能房方向发展 (建 筑节能 90%) , 墙体的传热系数要求不大于 0.15w/m2*k, 中国目前在德国专家指导下进 行节能 90%的被动式节能房试点工程, 采用薄抹灰保温墙体技术, 需要用厚度 300mm 的^级石墨 EPS板, 造价达 200多元 /m2, 使建筑外墙保温成本大幅度上涨。 China is now stipulated that buildings with a certain height should be fire-resistant for fire-retardant grades or insulated with inorganic insulation materials such as rock wool. The flame retardant is expensive, for example, the price of the SOkg/m^^ Bi grade flame retardant graphite EPS board is 700 yuan/m 3 , and the price of the B 2 grade flame retardant EPS board is about 350 yuan/m 3 . However, the so-called flame-retardant is only that the welding spark can not be ignited. In the event of a fire in the long-term use, when the polystyrene board is fired more than 500 degrees, the flame-retardant type EPS board is burned like the flame-retardant grade EPS board. Now it is developing towards a passive energy-saving room with very low energy consumption (90% energy saving in buildings). The heat transfer coefficient of the wall is not more than 0.15w/m 2 *k. China is currently implementing energy-saving 90% passive energy saving under the guidance of German experts. The pilot project of the house adopts the technology of thin plastering insulation wall, which requires the use of a 300-meter-thick graphite EPS board with a cost of more than 200 yuan/m 2 , which greatly increases the insulation cost of the building exterior wall.
岩棉的供应量不足, 生产岩棉能耗高、 高污染, 造价高, 严寒地区冬季采暖期长, 室内外温差大, 室内水蒸气分压力是室外十几倍, 室内水蒸气穿过保温层向室外渗透。 《民用建筑热工设计规范》 GB50176规定: 岩棉水蒸气渗透系数为 0.0004880gwh*Pa, 允许湿度增量不超过 3%, 若冬季水蒸汽多就会在岩棉内结冰, 甚至外保温墙体就破坏 了, 全部用岩棉在采暖地区、 特别是严寒地区难以满足湿度增量的规定; 而 EPS板水蒸 气渗透系数为 0.0000162g*m*h*Pa, 允许湿度增量不超过 15%, EPS板对水蒸气的阻隔性 好得多, 易满足含湿量的规定。 但 EPS板防火不好, 这个问题如何解决?  The supply of rock wool is insufficient, the energy consumption of rock wool is high, the pollution is high, the construction cost is high, the winter heating period is cold in the cold region, the indoor and outdoor temperature difference is large, the indoor water vapor partial pressure is more than ten times outdoor, and the indoor water vapor passes through the insulation layer. Penetrate outdoors. GB50176: The water vapor permeability coefficient of rock wool is 0.0004880gwh*Pa, and the allowable humidity increase is not more than 3%. The body is destroyed, and all the rock wool is difficult to meet the humidity increment in the heating area, especially in the severe cold area; and the EPS plate water vapor permeability coefficient is 0.0000162g*m*h*Pa, and the allowable humidity increment does not exceed 15%. The EPS board has much better barrier to water vapor and is easy to meet the requirements of moisture content. However, the EPS board is not well fired. How to solve this problem?
按我国 《建筑外墙外保温系统的防火试验方法》 GB/T29416的规定, 模拟发生火灾 的试验是在室内进行, 室内试验没有风。 风力对火灾的影响随保温层厚度不同而不同: 保温层越薄, 风力对火灾影响越小; 保温层厚, 失火时可燃物多、 燃烧时间长, 风力大 就很危险。 高层建筑规模大, 50m、 100m高的风力约是基本风压的 4~5倍, 且救援困 难。 被动式节能房 EPS板 0.3m厚时, 在室内没有风条件下进行的试验不能说明高层建 筑设置的防火隔离带有效。 因此国际上认为高层建筑不能建设保温层很厚的被动式节能 房(2013年 10月 22日从美国专程来北京参加住博会的美籍华人郭凌女士在报告中说), 但中国大部分建筑恰恰是高层建筑。 保温层较薄时大部分国家都认为防火不安全, 更不 能建设保温层厚的被动式节能房了, 这制约了全球建筑向低能耗方向发展。 According to the provisions of GB/T29416 of China's "Fire Test Method for Exterior Exterior Insulation System of Buildings", the test for simulating fires is carried out indoors, and there is no wind in indoor tests. The effect of wind on fire varies with the thickness of the insulation: The thinner the insulation layer, the smaller the impact of wind on the fire; the thicker insulation layer, the more combustibles in the fire, the longer the burning time, and the greater the wind. The high-rise buildings are large in scale, and the winds of 50m and 100m are about 4~5 times of the basic wind pressure, and the rescue is difficult. When the passive energy-saving room EPS board is 0.3m thick, the test conducted under indoor airless conditions does not indicate that the fire isolation barrier installed in the high-rise building is effective. Therefore, internationally, it is believed that high-rise buildings cannot build passive energy-saving houses with thick insulation. (Mr. Guo Ling, a Chinese American who came to Beijing from the United States on October 22, 2013, said in the report), but most of China’s buildings It is precisely a high-rise building. When the insulation layer is thin, most countries think that the fire prevention is not safe, and it is impossible to build a passive energy-saving room with thick insulation layer, which restricts the development of global buildings towards low energy consumption.
为了提高保护层防火性能, 中国消防部门曾提出抹灰保护层厚度要达到 50mm, 但现 场抹灰达到如此厚在施工中是不可行的, 因此关于保护层厚度问题很长时间达不成一致意 见。 本专利申请人已经申请数个外保温墙体技术专利, 将聚合物砂浆保护层变作由混凝土 悬挑梁或悬挑钢桁架支承、 钢筋、 钢丝网吊挂的水泥砂浆厚抹灰保护层, 增加了长期使用 阶段外墙防火安全, 但因是现场抹灰, 施工麻烦、 增加造价, 且也远远不能达到抹灰保护 层厚度 50mm的要求 (达到 25mm) 。 所以按着本专利申请人的专利技术编制的 《有支承 外保温墙体工程技术规程》 , 虽然从 2007年就通过了黑龙江省建设厅组织的专家审查, 2010年又进行了一次修改, 但工程并不采用。  In order to improve the fire resistance of the protective layer, the Chinese fire department has proposed that the thickness of the plastering protective layer should reach 50mm, but it is not feasible to make the plastering of the site so thick in the construction. Therefore, the problem of the thickness of the protective layer is not consistent for a long time. The applicant of this patent has applied for several patents for external thermal insulation wall technology, and changed the protective layer of polymer mortar into a thick plastering layer of cement mortar supported by concrete cantilever beams or cantilevered steel trusses, and steel bars and steel meshes. The fire safety of the external wall during the long-term use period has been increased, but the construction is troublesome, the construction cost is increased, and the installation cost is too far, and the requirement of the thickness of the plaster protection layer is 50 mm (up to 25 mm). Therefore, according to the patent technology of this patent applicant, the Technical Regulations for Supporting External Thermal Insulation Walls, although it passed the expert review organized by the Construction Department of Heilongjiang Province in 2007, another revision was made in 2010, but the project Not used.
3、 当前装配式墙体技术存在的问题  3. Problems with current fabricated wall technology
1 ) 装配式墙体普遍存在热桥多, 节能保温不好问题, 如:  1) There are many thermal bridges in the assembled wall, and the problem of energy saving and insulation is not good, such as:
有在框架结构内全镶嵌式安装预制轻型保温墙板, 即预制轻型保温墙板全部位于框 架结构内, 梁柱完全暴露; 有半镶嵌式、 半外包式安装预制轻型保温墙板, 即一部分预 制轻型保温墙板或木骨架墙板位于框架结构内部, 另一部分 (通常 50%) 位于框架结构 外部; 或中间有钢骨架, 钢骨架与框架的梁柱连接, 钢骨架两侧安装预制轻型保温墙板。 在梁柱和窗口处都形成热桥, 且普遍有洞口周边热桥, 钢材用量多, 造价高, 且还不是 按结构公式计算可满足承载力安全性设计的墙体, 安全性差。  There are fully inlaid prefabricated lightweight thermal insulation wall panels in the frame structure, that is, the prefabricated lightweight thermal insulation wall panels are all located in the frame structure, the beams and columns are completely exposed; there are semi-inlaid, semi-outsourced installation prefabricated lightweight thermal insulation wall panels, that is, a part of prefabricated The light insulation wall panel or the wood skeleton wall panel is located inside the frame structure, and the other part (usually 50%) is located outside the frame structure; or there is a steel skeleton in the middle, the steel skeleton is connected with the beam and column of the frame, and the prefabricated light insulation wall is installed on both sides of the steel skeleton. board. Thermal bridges are formed at both the beam and the window, and there are generally thermal bridges around the hole. The amount of steel is high and the cost is high. It is not a wall designed to meet the bearing capacity safety design according to the structural formula, and the safety is poor.
2)中国和全球地震多发, 中国高层建筑比例很大, 现行有适应建筑主体结构变形的 装配式墙体构造太复杂、 造价高。 如北京市建筑设计研究院郁彦文章 "日本建筑墙板的 连接构造" , 可知其可滑移的装配式墙体构造人复杂, 加工预制保温墙板难度人、 安装 难度大、 钢筋用量多、 重量重。  2) China and the world have frequent earthquakes. The proportion of high-rise buildings in China is very large. The existing fabricated wall structures that adapt to the deformation of the main structure of the building are too complicated and costly. For example, Yu Yan, the Architectural Design and Research Institute of Beijing, "The Connection Structure of Japanese Building Wall Panels", it is known that the structure of the slip-fit assembled wall is complicated, the difficulty of installing prefabricated insulation wall panels, the difficulty of installation, the amount of steel bars, and the weight. weight.
4、 传统加气混凝土墙的质量通病几十年来没有得到解决。  4. The quality of traditional aerated concrete walls has not been solved for decades.
砌筑加气混凝土砌块的墙体, 在南方应用时普遍存在表面抹灰易起鼓、开裂、脱落、 渗漏等质量问题, 北方应用问题更严重, 此问题几十年得不到解决。 现场砌筑、 抹灰湿 作业多, 地震时必然破碎; 加气混凝土砌块缝隙内砌筑砂浆是热桥, 即使在夏热冬冷地 区应用, 还需要在墙体表面再抹保温砂浆保温。  The wall of aerated concrete block is commonly used in the south. It is common for surface plastering to cause drum, cracking, shedding, leakage and other quality problems. The application problem in the north is more serious. This problem has not been solved for decades. On-site masonry, plastering and wet operation are many, and it will be broken when the earthquake occurs. The masonry mortar in the aerated concrete block is a thermal bridge. Even in the hot summer and cold winter area, it is necessary to heat the mortar on the surface of the wall.
5、 当前幕墙装饰建筑的钢龙骨穿过保温层与基层墙体连接, 增加大量传热, 传热 系数约达到 1 w/m2*k, 根本不满足建筑节能的规定。 中国和全球的环境形势、 能源形势严峻, 我们要不断提高建筑节能标准, 向节能 90%的被动式节能房方向前进, 如何解决节能保温墙体技术存在的上述问题? 5. The steel keel of the current curtain wall decoration building is connected to the base wall through the insulation layer, which increases the heat transfer, and the heat transfer coefficient is about 1 w/m 2 *k, which does not meet the requirements of building energy conservation. The environmental situation and energy situation in China and the world are severe. We must continuously improve the building energy-saving standards and move toward the passive energy-saving house with 90% energy saving. How to solve the above problems in the energy-saving thermal insulation wall technology?
为解决上述问题, 本发明提出一种节能保温墙体。 发明内容  In order to solve the above problems, the present invention proposes an energy-saving heat insulating wall. Summary of the invention
本发明目的是提供一种节能保温墙体, 以解决背景技术所述的问题。  It is an object of the present invention to provide an energy efficient thermal insulation wall to solve the problems described in the background art.
本发明的一种节能保温墙体, 它包括基层墙体、 保温层、 锚栓和外部保护层; 所述 基层墙体内包括建筑主体结构; 所述外部保护层为预制形成的保护层;  The invention relates to an energy-saving heat insulation wall, which comprises a base wall, an insulation layer, an anchor bolt and an outer protection layer; the base wall body comprises a building main body structure; and the outer protection layer is a prefabricated protection layer;
所述预制形成的保护层为预制板材保护层, 或为预制形成的抹灰保护层; 所述节能保温墙体从外侧向内侧依次排列构造顺序为: 外部保护层、 保温层、 基层 墙体; 用锚栓穿过外部保护层和保温层, 将外部保护层、 保温层与基层墙体固定。  The prefabricated protective layer is a prefabricated sheet protective layer or a prefabricated plastering protective layer; the energy-saving and heat-insulating wall body is sequentially arranged from the outer side to the inner side in the following order: an outer protective layer, an insulating layer, a base layer wall; The anchoring bolt is passed through the outer protective layer and the insulating layer to fix the outer protective layer and the insulating layer to the base wall.
进一步还可在预制保温板保温层内侧安装内部保护层, 形成预制保温墙板, 用锚栓 穿过预制保温墙板, 将预制保温墙板与基层墙体、 与建筑主体结构连接; 形成一种将预 制保温墙板安装在建筑主体结构外侧, 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体。  Further, an inner protective layer may be installed on the inner side of the prefabricated thermal insulation layer to form a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is connected with the base wall and the main structure of the building by using anchor bolts; The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is installed on the outer side of the main structure of the building, and the fully assembled and installed energy-saving thermal insulation wall body.
本发明的技术效果:  Technical effects of the present invention:
1、 防火好  1, good fire protection
本发明对保证民生安全、 保证国防战略安全具有重要意义, 对推动中国乃至全球建 筑节能、 减少温室气体排放和减少粉尘排放等具有重要意义。  The invention is of great significance for ensuring the safety of people's livelihood and ensuring the strategic security of the national defense. It is of great significance for promoting energy conservation, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing dust emissions in China and the world.
外墙外保温技术若采用本发明,绝不会发生如 2011年中国上海静安区教师楼(聚氨 酯薄抹灰保温墙体)大火, 导致数十人死亡的悲剧; 绝不会发生 2012年中国春节前夕沈 阳皇朝万鑫大酒楼失火的巨大损失, 以及等等其它诸多外保温墙体失火的事故。  If the external insulation technology of the exterior wall adopts the invention, there will never be a tragedy such as the 2011 teacher fire building of the Jing'an District of Shanghai (polyurethane thin plaster insulation wall), which will lead to the death of dozens of people; never the 2012 Chinese New Year On the eve of the huge loss of fire in the Shenyang Imperial Wanxin Restaurant, and many other accidents involving the external thermal insulation wall.
2、 节能保温最好  2, energy saving insulation is best
因本发明可将预制保温板的大块保温层相互挤紧安装, 大幅度减小接缝透风对保温 的不利影响。 且本发明的节能保温墙体热量流失的通道一热桥最小, 故窗墙比大小对 平均传热系数的影响很小, 特别是保温层增厚时, 洞口保温层随之增厚, 钢筋周围的聚 合物砂浆保护层对减少保温层厚度的影响越来越小, 例如保温层厚 300mm 时, 仅增加 墙体传热系数 0.01w/m2*k, 还不到薄抹灰保温墙体洞口热桥增加传热的 10%, 见附表 2、 附表 3数据; 薄抹灰保温墙体洞口热桥是一个定值, 并不随着保温层增厚而缩小, 在保 温层增厚、 墙体传热系数越低时, 洞口热桥对墙体平均传热系数影响更大。 Because the invention can squeeze the large insulation layers of the prefabricated thermal insulation board to each other, the adverse effect of the joint ventilation on the thermal insulation is greatly reduced. Moreover, the heat-absorbing bridge of the energy-saving and heat-insulating wall of the invention has the smallest heat-bridge, so the influence of the window-to-wall ratio on the average heat transfer coefficient is small, especially when the heat-insulating layer is thickened, the heat-insulating layer of the hole is thickened, and the reinforcing steel is surrounded. The protective layer of polymer mortar has less and less influence on reducing the thickness of the insulation layer. For example, when the insulation layer is 300mm thick, only the wall heat transfer coefficient is increased by 0.01w/m 2 *k, and the thickness of the thin plaster insulation wall is not enough. The thermal bridge increases the heat transfer by 10%, see Table 2, Schedule 3 data; The thin plastering insulation wall is a fixed value of the thermal bridge, which does not shrink with the thickening of the insulation layer, thickening in the insulation layer, wall The lower the heat transfer coefficient of the body, the greater the effect of the thermal bridge on the wall on the average heat transfer coefficient of the wall.
薄抹灰保温墙体洞口外无钢筋,不方便采取洞口隔热断桥构造,洞口热桥影响很大, 即使采取隔热断桥构造, 构造很复杂, 因窗户距离基层墙体距离远安装不安全, 减少热 桥的效果小, 可能约减少 50%热桥, 且窗口没有岩棉等防火构造。 3、 耐久性好, 耐久年限不少于 50年, 远远高于薄抹灰保温墙体的 25年, 减少大量 维修, 对社会可持续发展具有重要意义。 保护层质量易于控制, 不会因保护层开裂而进 水成为 "绷带楼" , 还有其它保证耐久性的措施。 There is no steel bar outside the hole of the thin plastering insulation wall. It is not convenient to take the heat-insulated bridge structure of the hole. The heat bridge of the hole has great influence. Even if the heat-insulated bridge structure is adopted, the structure is very complicated. Because the window is far away from the base wall, the installation is not Safety, the effect of reducing the heat bridge is small, it may reduce the heat bridge by about 50%, and the window has no fireproof structure such as rock wool. 3, good durability, durability for not less than 50 years, far higher than the 25 years of thin plaster insulation wall, reducing a large number of maintenance, is of great significance to the sustainable development of society. The quality of the protective layer is easy to control, and it does not enter the water into a "bandage floor" due to cracking of the protective layer, and there are other measures to ensure durability.
4、 结构安全性好。  4. The structure is safe.
1 )人的脚可以踏在窗台上, 窗户安装在洞口保温层上安全, 窗户距离基层墙体的距 离不受限制, 所以减少洞口热桥效果明显。  1) The human foot can be stepped on the window sill. The window is installed on the insulation layer of the hole. The distance between the window and the base wall is not limited, so the effect of reducing the heat bridge at the hole is obvious.
2)本发明全装配式安装的节能保温墙体可以按结构公式计算, 安全度明确, 而不是 背景技术所述当前在框架结构内全镶嵌式或半全镶嵌式安装预制轻型保温墙板, 不能按 结构公式计算、 安全性差的装配式墙体。 本发明防震、 减震性能突出, 并可形成包容建 筑主体结构位移、 具有三个方向减震作用的装配式节能墙体, 其防震、 减震性能超过日 本抗震建筑的墙体。 并具有以下性能:  2) The fully-assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall of the present invention can be calculated according to the structural formula, and the safety is clear, instead of the full-embedded or semi-fully-mounted prefabricated light-insulated wallboard currently in the frame structure as described in the background art, An assembled wall that is calculated according to the structural formula and has poor safety. The shockproof and shock absorbing performance of the invention is outstanding, and the assembled energy-saving wall body which has the displacement of the main structure of the building and has the three-direction damping effect can be formed, and the shockproof and shock absorbing performance exceeds the wall of the Japanese earthquake-resistant building. And has the following performance:
①、 抗震好, 有利于建筑抗震。  1. Good earthquake resistance is conducive to building earthquake resistance.
a、 采用轻型预制保温墙板时, 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体重量轻, 以北京地区 为例计算, 罕遇地震作用组合值远远小于风荷载组合值, 因此按风荷载组合值计算满足 安全, 当然罕遇地震时也安全。  a. When using light prefabricated thermal insulation wall panels, the fully assembled and installed energy-saving thermal insulation wall is light in weight. Taking Beijing area as an example, the combined value of rare earthquakes is far less than the combined value of wind loads, so it is calculated according to the combined value of wind loads. Satisfy safety, and of course it is safe in the event of an earthquake.
b、 EPS板各向同性, EPS板的抗拉强度与砌体抗拉强度及抗剪切强度相当, 在一定 范围内, EPS板的变形是可恢复的。 预制保温板、 预制保温墙板的保温层或复合保温层 的内部保温层为 EPS板时, 可发挥 EPS板消耗地震能量、 以柔克刚性能, 增加建筑抗震 减震安全储备。  b. The EPS board is isotropic. The tensile strength of the EPS board is equivalent to the tensile strength and shear strength of the masonry. Within a certain range, the deformation of the EPS board is recoverable. When the pre-made insulation board, the insulation layer of the prefabricated insulation wall board or the inner insulation layer of the composite insulation layer is the EPS board, the EPS board can consume the seismic energy, and the performance of the soft shock can be increased.
②、 抗风好。  2, good wind resistance.
以中国风力很大的厦门和西沙地区为例, 将预制板材保护层作为受力材料。 在不同 建筑高度时, 采用两端固定支座形式, 计算得出附表 1弯矩值。  Taking the Xiamen and Xisha areas with great wind power in China as an example, the prefabricated sheet protective layer is used as the force material. At different building heights, the bending moment values of Schedule 1 are calculated using the fixed bearing forms at both ends.
按公式 M≤0.85 (fy As) h。计算,水泥纤维板抗拉强度设计值取 13Mpax0.5=6.5Mpa 时, 计算得出: 用 10mm的水泥纤维板, 就可满足抗弯承载力, 既安全、 又节约钢材。  According to the formula M ≤ 0.85 (fy As) h. Calculate, when the tensile strength design value of cement fiberboard is 13Mpax0.5=6.5Mpa, it is calculated: With 10mm cement fiberboard, it can meet the bending capacity, which is safe and saves steel.
附表 1 举例计算不同地区、 不同高度、 不同跨度时最大弯矩值  Schedule 1 Example of calculating the maximum bending moment value for different regions, heights and spans
Figure imgf000007_0001
Figure imgf000007_0001
注: 风荷载组合值 =基本风压 x高度系数 x阵风系数 x组合系数 1.4, 附表 1中数字 1. 是考虑开有洞口时的内力扩大系数。 满足一定锚固条件的支座可以按固定端计算。 美国每年飓风发生时, 多少房屋被吹散、 破坏, 由附表 1可见, 只要建筑主体结构 安全, 采用本发明的外墙, 通过调整墙体厚度、 调整水泥纤维板的强度、 厚度, 外墙不 会被大风破坏, 本发明对建筑抗震、 抗风具有重要意义。 Note: Wind load combination value = basic wind pressure x height coefficient x gust factor x combination coefficient 1.4, the number in the first table is 1. Consider the internal force expansion factor when opening a hole. Supports that meet certain anchoring conditions can be calculated at fixed ends. When the hurricane occurs every year in the United States, how many houses are blown up and destroyed. As can be seen from the attached table 1, as long as the main structure of the building is safe, the outer wall of the invention is used. By adjusting the thickness of the wall and adjusting the strength and thickness of the cement fiberboard, the outer wall is not It will be destroyed by strong winds, and the invention is of great significance for building earthquake resistance and wind resistance.
3 ) 外墙上可安装各种悬挂物, 如幕墙、 广告牌、 太阳能设施, 进行垂直绿化。 说明: 关于用结构计算公式计算与不能用结构计算公式计算墙体安全性对比 结构理论规定, 材料强度标准值是经过大量实验确定的, 例如 C30混凝土抗压强度 标准值为 20.1N/mm2, 但规定 C30混凝土抗压强度设计值规定为 14.3N/mm2, 即材料强 度设计值约有 30%的安全储备。 在计算墙体承受的风荷载时, 通常取 50年一遇的最大 风荷载值作为基本风压, 还要乘以高度系数、 阵风系数、 风荷载体型系数等等, 最后还 乘以荷载组合系数 1.4 (就是安全系数), 并考虑市中心、 郊区, 边远地区等还有不同系 数调整。 例如哈尔滨市基本风压为 0.55KN/m2, 计算哈尔滨郊区 50m、 100m高的墙 体, 乘以上述系数后, 风荷载组合值分别为 2.03KN/m2、 2.43KN/m2。 按此风荷载组合 值及材料强度设计值, 根据混凝土结构的公式计算进行设计, 这样的墙体有相当的安全 储备, 非常安全。 但背景技术所述当前在框架结构内全镶嵌式或半全镶嵌式安装预制轻 型保温墙板, 不能按结构公式计算, 显然其安全性差。 3) Various hanging objects, such as curtain walls, billboards, and solar facilities, can be installed on the outer wall for vertical greening. Explanation: With regard to the calculation of structural calculation formula and the calculation of wall safety comparison structure theory, the standard value of material strength is determined by a large number of experiments. For example, the standard value of C30 concrete compressive strength is 20.1N/mm 2 . C30 predetermined compressive strength of concrete but the design value defined as 14.3N / mm 2, i.e. the material strength design value of about 30% safety margin. When calculating the wind load on the wall, the maximum wind load value of 50 years is usually taken as the basic wind pressure, and the height coefficient, gust coefficient, wind load shape coefficient, etc. are multiplied, and finally the load combination coefficient is multiplied. 1.4 (that is, the safety factor), and consider different adjustments in the city center, suburbs, remote areas, etc. For example, the basic wind pressure in Harbin is 0.55KN/m 2 , and the wall with a height of 50m and 100m in the suburb of Harbin is calculated. After multiplying the above coefficient, the combined wind load values are 2.03KN/m 2 and 2.43KN/m 2 respectively . According to the wind load combination value and the material strength design value, the design is based on the formula calculation of the concrete structure. Such a wall has a considerable safety reserve and is very safe. However, in the background art, the fully-embedded or semi-fully-embedded prefabricated lightweight thermal insulation wall panels currently installed in the frame structure cannot be calculated according to the structural formula, and it is obviously poor in safety.
5、 可满足建筑立面造型的多种装饰、 多种变化。  5, can meet a variety of decoration, a variety of changes in the building facade.
6、 生产预制保温板厂家占地少、 设备投资少, 既可人工预制, 也可机械预制, 预 制速度快, 用工少。  6. The manufacturer of prefabricated thermal insulation board has less land occupation and less equipment investment. It can be artificially prefabricated or mechanically prefabricated. The prefabrication speed is fast and the labor is small.
7、 本发明将装配式技术引入节能保温墙体工程中, 大幅度减少现场湿作业, 并具 有前述其它诸多优点。 且预制保温板可同时作为现浇混凝土的模板, 方便施工, 不发生 现浇混凝土模板工程造价。  7. The invention introduces the assembly technology into the energy-saving thermal insulation wall project, greatly reduces on-site wet operation, and has many other advantages as described above. And the prefabricated insulation board can be used as a template for cast-in-place concrete at the same time, which is convenient for construction and does not cause cost of cast-in-place concrete formwork.
8、 本发明的全装配式安装的节能保温墙体构造简单, 用钢量极少、 安装方便、 速 度快、 耐久性好, 重量轻、 造价低、 质量易控制, 墙体厚度薄, 增加室内使用面积, 是 省地型墙体, 符合装配式安装的方向, 符合全生命周期低碳的理念, 对中国乃至全球减 少钢材消耗, 增加墙体安全度具有重要意义。  8. The fully assembled and installed energy-saving thermal insulation wall of the invention has simple structure, small steel consumption, convenient installation, high speed, good durability, light weight, low cost, easy quality control, thin wall thickness, and increased indoor The use area is a provincial-type wall, which conforms to the direction of assembly installation and conforms to the concept of low-carbon life cycle. It is of great significance for reducing steel consumption and increasing wall safety in China and the world.
一般仅在洞口有钢筋, 仅是很多装配式墙体用钢量的 1/30 1/20, 人幅度减少钢材消 耗, 且综合性能最好。 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体不仅自身造价低, 并降低建筑主体 结构造价, 特别是大幅度降低地震区建筑主体结构造价, 大幅度降低施工阶段碳排放。  Generally, there are only steel bars at the hole, which is only 1/30 1/20 of the steel used for many assembled walls. The reduction in steel consumption is achieved by people, and the overall performance is the best. The fully assembled and installed energy-saving thermal insulation wall not only has its own low cost, but also reduces the construction cost of the main structure of the building, especially the construction cost of the main structure of the seismic zone, and greatly reduces the carbon emissions during the construction phase.
9、本发明是当前各种节能保温墙体技术中, 唯一满足在外墙上安装太阳能光电、光 热设备, 安装幕墙装饰、 遮阳板、 广告牌, 且能实现极低能耗的节能保温墙体技术。  9. The present invention is the only energy-saving thermal insulation wall body that can meet the requirements of installing solar photovoltaic, photothermal equipment, curtain wall decoration, sun visor and billboard on the outer wall, and achieving extremely low energy consumption. technology.
10、 在外部保护层上安装装饰幕墙有以下利益:  10. Installing a decorative curtain wall on the outer protective layer has the following benefits:
a、 进一步增加防火性能、 增加耐久性。 失火时幕墙装饰层为受火面,装饰层内没有 可燃物, 且火焰串不到空气层内, 即使保温层为有机保温材料, 大大增加节能保温墙体 防火安全性, 见图 20〜图 22, 幕墙装饰层在作为装饰层的同时, 成为防火罩、 防水罩, 幕墙装饰层迎受风雨、 冻融的剥蚀, 保护节能保温墙体, 装饰层易于更换、 维修, 延长 节能保温墙体的耐久年限。 a. Further increase fire resistance and increase durability. In the case of fire, the decorative layer of the curtain wall is the fire surface. There is no combustible material in the decorative layer, and the flame string is not in the air layer. Even if the insulation layer is organic insulation material, the fire safety of the energy-saving insulation wall is greatly increased. See Figure 20~22. The decorative layer of the curtain wall serves as a decorative layer and becomes a fire cover and a waterproof cover. The decorative layer of the curtain wall is protected by wind and rain, freezing and thawing, protecting the energy-saving and heat-insulating wall, and the decorative layer is easy to replace and repair, and prolonging the durability of the energy-saving and heat-insulating wall.
b、 幕墙装饰时不增加铁件传热, 幕墙装饰建筑也能建设节能 90%的被动式节能 房。 本发明装饰幕墙龙骨规格小、 减少用钢量、 造价低, 可推动采用幕墙装饰, 美化建 筑、 美化城市。 而当前幕墙装饰建筑都不能满足建筑节能要求。  b. The curtain wall decoration does not increase the heat transfer of the iron parts, and the curtain wall decoration building can also build a passive energy-saving room with 90% energy saving. The decorative curtain wall keel of the invention has small specifications, reduces the amount of steel used, and has low cost, and can promote the decoration of the curtain wall, beautify the building, and beautify the city. The current curtain wall decoration buildings can not meet the building energy-saving requirements.
c、 增加隔热保温效果。 夏季时节能保温墙体空气层内热气从空气层上部排走, 采 暖地区冬季节能保温墙体保温层内的湿气从空气层上部排走, 都有利于隔热保温。  c. Increase the insulation effect. In summer, the hot air in the air layer of the energy-saving insulation wall is discharged from the upper part of the air layer. The moisture in the insulation layer of the energy-saving insulation wall in the heating area is discharged from the upper part of the air layer, which is beneficial to heat insulation.
而在保温层为有机保温材料的薄抹灰保温墙体上不能形成幕墙装饰, 因龙骨与基层 墙体连接, 不仅不能满足建筑节能要求, 且聚合物砂浆保护层防火能力差, 一旦失火因 烟囱效应, 可发生轰燃的可怕后果。  However, the curtain wall decoration can not be formed on the thin plaster insulation wall with the insulation layer as the organic insulation material. Because the keel is connected with the base wall, it can not only meet the energy-saving requirements of the building, and the polymer mortar protection layer has poor fireproof ability, once the fire is caused by the chimney Effect, the terrible consequences of a flashover can occur.
11、 本发明是当前唯一既可满足建设极低能耗的被动式节能房, 又满足住宅产业化 目标的装配式节能墙体技术。  11. The present invention is currently the only assembled energy-saving wall technology that can meet the requirements of building a passive energy-saving house with extremely low energy consumption and meeting the goal of residential industrialization.
12、 本发明应用面广, 是具有全面优越性、 具有广泛普及性的领先的墙体技术。 本发明所用材料广泛, 可利用原有传统建筑材料, 如加气混凝土、 EPS板、 岩棉, 发挥不同材料优势, 避免其不足, 投资少。 各地可以根据当地气温和材料状况、 根据建 筑高度不同等情况, 选用不同材料, 预制加工不同的预制保温板或预制保温墙板。  12. The invention has wide application range and is a leading wall technology with comprehensive advantages and wide popularity. The invention uses a wide range of materials, and can utilize the original traditional building materials, such as aerated concrete, EPS board, rock wool, to exert the advantages of different materials, avoid the shortage, and invest less. According to the local temperature and material conditions, and depending on the height of the building, different materials can be used to prefabricate different prefabricated insulation boards or prefabricated insulation wall boards.
各地自然环境差异大, 某一种建筑材料或建筑技术适用于某个地区或一定建筑高 度、 适用于某种结构体系, 但不一定适用于所有地区、 或所有建筑高度、 或所有结构体 系。 不具有全面优越性、 不具有广泛普及性的建筑技术不是领先的建筑技术, 二者缺一 不可。 以下工程需要应用本发明:  The natural environment varies greatly from place to place. A certain building material or building technology is applicable to a certain area or a certain building height, and is suitable for a certain structural system, but not necessarily applicable to all areas, or all building heights, or all structural systems. Building technologies that do not have overall superiority and are not widely available are not leading construction technologies, and both are indispensable. The following works need to apply the invention:
1 ) 新建建筑和既有建筑节能改造的外墙外保温工程; 2) 在原薄抹灰保温墙体上安 装水泥纤维板保护层进行维修, 增加防火性能、 增加防水性能、 增加耐久性; 3 )在原薄 抹灰保温墙体上安装预制保温板, 增厚保温层, 提高节能保温标准并增加防火性和耐久 性; 4) 应用于混凝土框架、 钢框架的全装配式安装的节能保温墙体; 5 ) 应用于被动式 节能房建设中, 包括幕墙装饰建筑也能建设被动式节能房; 6) 应用于抗震抗风建筑。  1) External wall insulation project for new buildings and energy-saving renovation of existing buildings; 2) Install cement fiber board protective layer on the original thin plaster insulation wall for maintenance, increase fire performance, increase waterproof performance and increase durability; 3) In the original Prefabricated thermal insulation board is installed on the thin plaster insulation wall to thicken the insulation layer, improve the energy-saving insulation standard and increase the fire resistance and durability; 4) Fully-assembled installation of energy-saving insulation wall for concrete frame and steel frame; ) It can be used in the construction of passive energy-saving houses, including passive energy-saving houses, including curtain wall decoration buildings; 6) It is applied to earthquake-resistant and wind-resistant buildings.
本专利申请人从 2002年 4月至今, 以全副精力对墙体技术进行了长期不懈的研究。 在研究墙体技术中需要进行跨学科、 跨领域的研究。 在建筑领域中除需要建筑结构知识 夕卜, 还涉及建筑技术、 建筑构造、 建筑物理、 建筑热工等多科知识, 需要掌握多种建筑 材料知识, 还要了解化工领域、金属学等相关知识, 才能打开思路、合理利用不同材料, 优化墙体构造, 提出科学的墙体技术体系。  Since April 2002, this patent applicant has conducted long-term and unremitting research on wall technology with full energy. Interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary research is needed in the study of wall technology. In addition to the knowledge of building structure in the field of construction, it also involves multi-disciplinary knowledge such as building technology, building structure, building physics, building thermal engineering, knowledge of various building materials, and knowledge of chemical engineering and metallurgy. In order to open up ideas, rationally use different materials, optimize wall structure, and propose a scientific wall technology system.
综上所述, 本发明解决了背景技术所述当前节能保温墙体技术存在的一系列技术难 题, 本发明的节能保温墙体不存在防火不好、 耐久性不好等问题, 且节能保温超过薄抹 灰保温墙体, 可满足一切建筑 (包括不同结构体系的建筑、 不同装饰的建筑、 不同使用 功能的建筑) 都能建设节能 90%的被动式节能房, 可使全球所有国家都有建筑节能的积 极性, 推动地球上 70亿人的房屋都成为被动式节能房, 减少温室气体排放, 节制冰山融 化和海平面上升, 及节制动植物灭绝带来的灾难, 并有利建筑抗震, 对社会可持续发展 具有重要意义。 附图说明 In summary, the present invention solves a series of technical problems existing in the current energy-saving thermal insulation wall technology described in the background art. The energy-saving thermal insulation wall of the present invention does not have problems such as poor fireproofness and poor durability, and the energy-saving insulation exceeds The thin plastering insulation wall can meet all buildings (including different structural systems, different decorative buildings, different functional buildings). It can build 90% energy-saving passive energy-saving houses, which can save energy in all countries in the world. Enthusiasm, pushing the housing of 7 billion people on the planet into passive energy-saving houses, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and curbing icebergs. The rise of sea level and the disaster caused by the extinction of braking plants and the building of earthquake resistance are of great significance to the sustainable development of society. DRAWINGS
图 1是实施方式一〜四、 实施方式七的节能保温墙体窗口垂直剖面图;  1 is a vertical sectional view of an energy-saving heat insulating wall window according to Embodiments 1 to 4 and Embodiment 7;
图 2是实施方式一的外部保护层或预制保温板的安装立面图;  Figure 2 is a perspective view showing the installation of an outer protective layer or a prefabricated thermal insulation plate according to the first embodiment;
图 3是实施方式一〜三的外部保护层或预制保温板或预制保温墙板的安装立面图, 结构承托件沿建筑周圈设置, 还表示实施方式四窗口接缝处安装钢筋立面图;  Figure 3 is a perspective view showing the installation of an external protective layer or a prefabricated thermal insulation board or a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel according to Embodiments 1 to 3, wherein the structural support member is disposed along the circumference of the building, and also indicates that the steel façade is installed at the joint of the fourth window of the embodiment. Figure
图 4是实施方式一〜三的预制保温板或预制保温墙板的安装立面图, 结构承托件局 部点状设置;  Figure 4 is a perspective view showing the installation of the prefabricated thermal insulation board or the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel according to Embodiments 1 to 3, and the structural support member is partially arranged in a point;
图 5是实施方式三的全装配式安装的节能保温墙体位于建筑主体结构的框架柱外部 水平剖面图, 预制保温墙板内部保护层为混凝土, 保温层为复合保温层; 还表示实施方 式三〜八中, 预制保温墙板的内部有铁件将预制保温墙板在室内部与建筑主体结构连 接; 还表示实施方式六预制保温墙板与建筑主体结构的柱固定, 在柱边有弹性伸缩缝构 造示意图;  5 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of the externally mounted energy-saving heat-insulating wall of the third embodiment of the frame structure of the main structure of the building, the inner protective layer of the pre-made insulating wall panel is concrete, and the thermal insulation layer is a composite thermal insulation layer; ~8, the interior of the prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard has iron parts to connect the prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard to the main structure of the building in the interior; also shows that the prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard of the sixth embodiment is fixed to the column of the main structure of the building, and has elastic expansion and contraction at the side of the column. Schematic diagram of the seam structure;
图 6是实施方式一的复合保温层构造剖面示意图, 外部保温层为岩棉板、 内部保温 层为 EPS板, 预制保温板与建筑主体结构之间形成卡合连接的构造, 可作为现浇混凝土 的模板;  6 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing the structure of a composite thermal insulation layer according to Embodiment 1, wherein the outer thermal insulation layer is a rock wool board, and the inner thermal insulation layer is an EPS board, and the prefabricated thermal insulation board forms a snap-fit connection with the main structure of the building, and can be used as a cast-in-place concrete. Template
图 7是实施方式三增加内部保护层形成预制保温墙板, 窗间墙处预制保温墙板由结 构承托件承托安装在框架结构外侧, 用锚栓与建筑主体结构的框架梁固定, 形成全装配 式安装的节能保温墙体垂直剖面图, 锚栓内有防腐材料;  Figure 7 is a third embodiment of the present invention to increase the internal protective layer to form a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel. The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel at the inter-window wall is supported by the structural support member on the outside of the frame structure, and is fixed with the anchor beam and the frame beam of the main structure of the building. Vertical sectional view of the fully-assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall, with anti-corrosion materials inside the anchor;
图 8是实施方式三位于窗下墙处预制保温墙板安装在框架梁外侧, 形成全装配式安 装的节能保温墙体的垂直剖面图;  Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view of the energy-saving thermal insulation wall of the third embodiment in which the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is installed outside the frame beam to form a fully assembled installation;
图 9是图 4节点 A放大图,表示按实施方式七安装拉接件将预制板材保护层与结构 承托件 (局部点状设置的结构承托件: 局部挑檐) 连接示意图;  Figure 9 is an enlarged view of the node A of Figure 4, showing the connection diagram of the prefabricated sheet protective layer and the structural support member (the structural support member of the partial point arrangement: partial provocation) according to the embodiment 7;
图 10是实施方式四安装钢筋时, 半装配式节能保温墙体位于窗口处水平剖面示意 图, 窗口钢筋位于保护层内侧保温层的缺口内,在缺口内钢筋周围有碱性材料的保护层, 并表示实施方式七中的防火构造;  Figure 10 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of the semi-assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall at the window when the steel bars are installed in the fourth embodiment, the window reinforcement is located in the gap of the inner insulation layer of the protective layer, and a protective layer of an alkaline material is arranged around the steel bars in the notch, and Representing the fireproof structure in the seventh embodiment;
图 11是实施方式四安装钢筋时, 半装配式的节能保温墙体位于窗口处水平剖面示 意图, 窗口钢筋位于保护层的外侧, 形成窗口处装饰线条, 在钢筋周围有碱性材料保护 层, 并表示实施方式七中的防火构造;  11 is a schematic horizontal cross-sectional view of a semi-assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall in a window according to Embodiment 4, wherein the window reinforcing bar is located outside the protective layer, forming a decorative line at the window, and an alkaline material protective layer around the reinforcing bar, and Representing the fireproof structure in the seventh embodiment;
图 12是实施方式四的预制保温墙板位于门窗口侧边设有加强肋保护层构造示意 图, 加强肋保护层为抹灰保护层或为预制板材保护层, 隔热断桥洞口不应釆用; 图 13是实施方式四装钢筋时, 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体位于窗口处水平剖面 示意图, 窗口钢筋位于外部保护层的外侧, 形成窗口处装饰线条, 在钢筋周围有碱性材 料保护层, 并表示实施方式七的防火构造; Figure 12 is a schematic view showing the structure of a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel of the fourth embodiment which is provided with a reinforcing rib protective layer on the side of the door window, and the reinforcing rib protective layer is a plaster protective layer or a prefabricated sheet protective layer, and the heat insulating broken bridge opening should not be used. ; Figure 13 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of the fully assembled installation of the energy-saving thermal insulation wall at the window in the fourth embodiment of the embodiment, the window reinforcement is located outside the outer protective layer, forming a decorative line at the window, and an alkaline material protective layer around the steel bar And indicating the fireproof structure of the seventh embodiment;
图 14是在外部保护层接缝处设有凹槽, 按实施方式七用拉接件将相邻外部保护层 连接, 外部保护层接缝的内侧安装条带状搭接预制板材示意图;  Figure 14 is a schematic view showing the arrangement of the inner side mounting strips of the outer protective layer at the joint of the outer protective layer, and the outer protective layer of the outer protective layer, according to the seventh embodiment;
图 15是实施方式七在外部保护层接缝内侧有防火材料, 如保温砂浆, 及表示说明 书最后 "关于本发明的说明 "中之 5, 在接缝外侧水泥纤维板保护层之间缝隙处形成凹 槽, 在凹槽处刮抹弹性防水材料如硅酮密封胶, 成为装饰分隔缝, 既防火、 又防水防裂 的要求。  Figure 15 is a seventh embodiment of the present invention having a fireproofing material on the inside of the joint of the outer protective layer, such as a heat insulating mortar, and 5 of the description of the present invention, which is the final description of the invention, forming a concave at the gap between the protective layers of the cement fiberboard outside the joint. The groove is scraped with an elastic waterproof material such as silicone sealant at the groove to become a decorative partition, which is required to be fireproof, waterproof and crack resistant.
图 16是实施方式四安装钢筋时, 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体位于窗口处水平剖 面示意图; 窗口钢筋位于保护层内侧保温层的缺口内, 在缺口内钢筋周围有碱性材料的 保护层, 并表示实施方式七的防火构造;  Figure 16 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of the fully assembled installation of the energy-saving thermal insulation wall at the window when the steel bars are installed in the fourth embodiment; the window reinforcement is located in the gap of the inner insulation layer of the protective layer, and the protective layer of the alkaline material is surrounded by the steel bars in the notch. And indicating the fireproof structure of the seventh embodiment;
图 17是预制保温板或预制保温墙板的外部保护层接缝处, 按实施方式七在接缝的 内侧安装条带状搭接预制板材, 接缝处夹有防火材料构造示意图;  Figure 17 is the joint of the outer protective layer of the prefabricated thermal insulation board or the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel. According to the seventh embodiment, the strip-shaped lap joint prefabricated plate is installed on the inner side of the joint, and the joint structure of the fireproof material is sandwiched at the joint;
图 18是实施方式三全装配式安装的节能保温墙体, 外部保护层为抹灰形成的预制 保护层, 保温层有燕尾式凹槽, 与抹灰形成的预制保护层形成卡合连接的构造;  Figure 18 is a three-component, energy-saving and heat-insulating wall of the third embodiment. The outer protective layer is a prefabricated protective layer formed by plastering. The insulating layer has a dovetail groove, and the prefabricated protective layer formed by the plaster forms a snap-fit structure. ;
图 19是实施方式四安装钢筋时, 在预制保温板或预制保温墙板的外部保护层接缝 处安装钢筋, 按实施方式七在接缝处夹有防火材料; 并在外部保护层接缝处, 涂刷防裂 防水涂料粘贴聚酯布, 形成弹性防水接缝剖面图;  Figure 19 is a fourth embodiment of the method of installing steel bars, the steel bars are installed at the joints of the outer protective layer of the prefabricated heat insulation board or the prefabricated heat insulation wall board, and the fireproof material is sandwiched at the joint according to the seventh embodiment; and at the joint of the outer protective layer Applying anti-cracking waterproof coating to the polyester cloth to form a flexible waterproof joint profile view;
图 20是实施方式八,在节能保温墙体的保护层上安装装饰幕墙的构造剖面图,在外 部保护层内有预埋钢板, 用自攻自钻螺钉将钢制小牛腿与预埋钢板连接;  20 is a cross-sectional view showing a structure in which a decorative curtain wall is installed on a protective layer of an energy-saving and heat-insulating wall body, and an embedded steel plate is provided in the outer protective layer, and the steel calf leg and the embedded steel plate are self-tapping screws. Connection
图 21是实施方式八安装装饰幕墙, 在装饰幕墙顶部留有开口构造示意图; 图 22也是实施方式八,在节能保温墙体的保护层上安装装饰幕墙的构造剖面图,在 外部保护层内有聚合物水泥细石混凝土, 用射钉将钢制小牛腿与聚合物水泥细石混凝土 连接图;  21 is a schematic view showing the structure of the decorative curtain wall in the eighth embodiment, and the opening structure is left at the top of the decorative curtain wall; FIG. 22 is also a structural sectional view of the decorative curtain wall installed on the protective layer of the energy-saving heat insulating wall body in the eighth embodiment, and the outer protective layer is provided in the outer protective layer. Polymer cement fine stone concrete, using nails to connect steel calf legs with polymer cement fine stone concrete;
图 23是实施方式二设置结构承托件, 预制保温墙板的上端为 L形, L形遮盖结构承 托件, 在按实施方式四安装钢筋时, 结构承托件外端安装悬挑钢桁架支承与室外垂直钢 筋连接;  Figure 23 is a second embodiment of the structural support member, the upper end of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is L-shaped, L-shaped covering structural support member, when the reinforcing steel is installed according to the fourth embodiment, the outer end of the structural supporting member is mounted with a cantilever steel truss The support is connected to the outdoor vertical steel bar;
图 24是图 25位于结构承托件的挑檐处垂直剖面图, 预制保温墙板的内部保护层为 混凝土, 图 24下部还表示实施方式三〜八中, 预制保温墙板的内部有铁件将预制保温墙 板在室内部与建筑主体结构连接;  Figure 24 is a vertical sectional view of the prosthetic portion of the structural support member of Figure 25, the inner protective layer of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is concrete, and the lower portion of Figure 24 also shows the third to eighth embodiments, the interior of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel has iron parts Connecting the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel to the main structure of the building inside the room;
图 25是实施方式六可滑移装配式节能墙体的预制保温墙板、 预制保温条板、 结构 承托件外立面安装图;  25 is a front view of a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, a prefabricated thermal insulation slab, and a structural support member of the sixth embodiment of the slidable assembled energy-saving wall;
图 26是图 24的节点 B放大图。 具体实施方式 Fig. 26 is an enlarged view of the node B of Fig. 24; detailed description
实施方式一:  Embodiment 1:
图 1〜图 4, 本实施方式的一种节能保温墙体, 它是由基层墙体 10、 保温层 15-3、 外 部保护层 15-8-1、锚栓 20组成; 所述基层墙体 10内包括建筑主体结构, 如框架的梁柱, 所述基层墙体 10为承重墙体或框架结构的填充墙体; 所述外部保护层 15-8-1为预制形 成的保护层; 所述预制形成的外部保护层为预制板材保护层, 或为抹灰形成的预制保护 层;  1 to FIG. 4, an energy-saving heat insulating wall body of the present embodiment, which is composed of a base wall 10, an insulating layer 15-3, an outer protective layer 15-8-1, and an anchor bolt 20; 10 includes a building main structure, such as a beam and column of a frame, the base wall 10 is a wall of a load-bearing wall or a frame structure; the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is a prefabricated protective layer; The prefabricated outer protective layer is a prefabricated sheet protective layer or a prefabricated protective layer formed by plastering;
所述节能保温墙体从外侧向内侧依次排列构造顺序为: 外部保护层 15-8-1、 保温层 15-3、基层墙体 10;用锚栓 20穿过外部保护层 15-8-1、保温层 15-3,将外部保护层 15-8-1、 保温层 15-3与基层墙体 10固定; 或外部保护层 15-8-1与保温层 15-3之间还粘结连接; 形成一种防火好、 耐久性好的节能保温墙体。  The energy-saving heat-insulating wall body is arranged in order from the outer side to the inner side: an outer protective layer 15-8-1, an insulating layer 15-3, a base wall 10; and an anchor 20 is passed through the outer protective layer 15-8-1 , the insulating layer 15-3, the outer protective layer 15-8-1, the insulating layer 15-3 and the base wall 10 are fixed; or the outer protective layer 15-8-1 and the insulating layer 15-3 are also bonded ; Form an energy-saving insulation wall with good fire resistance and good durability.
其安装工艺 (或称之为安装方法) 有以下二种, 根据使用需要选用:  The installation process (or the installation method) has the following two types, which are selected according to the use:
1 )将保温层 15-3先安装或已安装在基层墙体 10侧面, 用锚栓将预制形成的外部保 护层 15-8-1与保温层 15-3及基层墙体 10固定;  1) The insulating layer 15-3 is first installed or installed on the side of the base wall 10, and the prefabricated outer protective layer 15-8-1 is fixed with the insulating layer 15-3 and the base wall 10 by anchor bolts;
此安装工艺是仅将外部保护层装配式安装。  This installation process is to mount only the outer protective layer.
2)先将保温层 15-3与外部保护层 15-8-1连接(粘接连接, 或还有其它方式连接), 形成预制保温板 15, 将预制保温板 15置于基层墙体 10侧面, 用锚栓 20穿过预制保温 板 15, 将预制保温板 15与基层墙体 10固定, 或预制保温板 15与基层墙体 10之间还粘 结连接;  2) Firstly, the insulating layer 15-3 is connected to the outer protective layer 15-8-1 (bonded or otherwise connected) to form a prefabricated thermal insulation board 15, and the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is placed on the side of the base wall 10 , the anchor bolt 20 is passed through the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 , the prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15 is fixed to the base wall 10 , or the prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15 and the base wall 10 are also adhesively connected;
此安装工艺是装配式安装预制保温板, 进一步提高装配式安装程度。  This installation process is a prefabricated installation of prefabricated insulation panels to further increase the degree of assembly installation.
所述预制形成的保护层或预制保温板规格不受限制, 所述锚栓 20的安装位置不受 限制。  The prefabricated protective layer or pre-formed thermal insulation board is not limited in size, and the mounting position of the anchor 20 is not limited.
如预制板材保护层为水泥纤维板、 硅酸钙板、 刨花板、 秸秆板、 蛭石板、 定向木片 板 (如定向胶合板或组合木板) 、 薄钢板等预制板材保护层; 预制板材保护层应具有防 止火灾蔓延的性能 (采用木片板、 刨花板、 秸秆板时应涂刷防火涂料) ; 推荐预制板材 保护层选用水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板。  For example, the prefabricated sheet protection layer is a prefabricated sheet protective layer such as cement fiber board, calcium silicate board, particle board, straw board, slate board, oriented wood board (such as directional plywood or composite board), thin steel sheet, etc. Spreading performance (fireproof coating should be applied when using wood chipboard, particleboard, straw board); It is recommended to use cement fiberboard or calcium silicate board for prefabricated sheet protection layer.
抹灰形成的预制保护层内应有抗拉的网 5, 抹灰保护层重量较重、增加预制工作量, 在没有预制板材的条件下采用。 预制保温板是工厂化生产的, 工厂的抹灰保护层配合比 与现场施工配合比对比, 更易控制准确性, 且工厂是用专用设备浇筑、 滚压形成抹灰保 护层, 密实度好, 对于节能保温墙体而言, 也是预制形成的保护层, 在制作预制保温板 时形成的预制保护层, 比现场湿作业的抹灰保护层质量容易控制, 易保证耐久性、 防火 等安全性要求。  The prefabricated protective layer formed by the plaster should have a tensile net 5, the plastering layer is heavier in weight, increases the prefabrication workload, and is used without prefabricated panels. Prefabricated insulation board is factory-produced. The ratio of the plastering protection layer of the factory to the on-site construction is easier to control. The factory is poured with special equipment and rolled to form a plaster protection layer. The compactness is good. The energy-saving thermal insulation wall is also a prefabricated protective layer. The prefabricated protective layer formed during the preparation of the prefabricated thermal insulation board is easier to control than the quality of the plastering protective layer on the site, and it is easy to ensure the safety requirements such as durability and fire prevention.
所述保温层 15-3为无机保温材料或有机保温材料, 或为无机保温材料与有机保温 材料的复合保温层, 或为无机保温材料与有机保温材料的混合材料等一切可以作为保温 层的材料, 如高分子保温材料 (EPS板、 XPS板、 PU板、 PF板)、 纸蜂窝板、 蜂窝铝、 矿物棉 (岩棉、 玻璃丝棉、 硅酸铝保温棉板) 、 保温砂浆、 硅藻土、 膨胀蛭石、 发泡玻 璃、 胶粉聚苯颗粒、 发泡水泥 (也叫发泡混凝土、 泡沫混凝土) 、 加气混凝土、 稻壳混 凝土, 或为粉煤灰、 水泥等材料与苯板颗粒等复合的轻质保温材料等; 现在新型保温材 料层出不穷, 只要符合质量要求, 都可以做本发明的保温材料。 The heat insulating layer 15-3 is an inorganic heat insulating material or an organic heat insulating material, or a composite heat insulating layer of an inorganic heat insulating material and an organic heat insulating material, or a mixed material of an inorganic heat insulating material and an organic heat insulating material, etc. Layer materials, such as polymer insulation materials (EPS board, XPS board, PU board, PF board), paper honeycomb board, honeycomb aluminum, mineral wool (rock wool, glass wool, aluminum silicate insulation cotton board), thermal insulation mortar, Diatomaceous earth, expanded vermiculite, foamed glass, rubber powder polystyrene pellets, foamed cement (also called foamed concrete, foam concrete), aerated concrete, rice husk concrete, or materials such as fly ash, cement, etc. Composite lightweight heat-insulating materials such as benzene board particles; nowadays, new types of insulation materials are emerging, and as long as the quality requirements are met, the insulation materials of the invention can be made.
所述锚栓 20为钢制锚栓或塑料锚栓, 所述锚栓 20为射钉型塑料锚栓、 射钉型钢制 锚栓, 或为膨胀型锚栓, 及植筋或预埋锚固的锚栓等等。  The anchor bolt 20 is a steel anchor bolt or a plastic anchor bolt, and the anchor bolt 20 is a nail-type plastic anchor bolt, a nail-type steel anchor bolt, or an expansion anchor bolt, and a planting or pre-embedded anchor. Anchors and so on.
在安装预制保温板 15时, 保温层 15-3内侧表面为非平整面时, 预制保温板 15的保 温层 15-3与现浇混凝土的基层墙体 10之间形成卡合连接构造, 见图 10; 预制保温板 15 可兼做现浇混凝土的模板, 施工方便, 不发生现浇混凝土时模板费用, 降低造价。  When the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is installed, when the inner surface of the thermal insulation layer 15-3 is a non-flat surface, the thermal insulation layer 15-3 of the pre-heat insulation board 15 and the base wall 10 of the cast-in-place concrete form a snap-fit connection structure, see 10; Prefabricated insulation board 15 can also be used as a template for cast-in-place concrete, which is convenient for construction, does not cost the formwork when cast-in-place concrete, and reduces the cost.
所述预制保温板 15的保温层 15-3为一种材料, 或为二种材料或多种材料的复合保 温层。 例如: 内部保温层 15-3-2为 EPS板、 外部保温层 15-3-1为岩棉板的复合保温层。  The insulating layer 15-3 of the pre-made thermal insulation board 15 is a material, or a composite thermal insulation layer of two materials or a plurality of materials. For example: Internal insulation layer 15-3-2 is EPS board, external insulation layer 15-3-1 is the composite insulation layer of rock wool board.
第 2) 项装配式安装预制保温板 15的安装工艺可同时达到以下目的:  The installation process of the 2nd item prefabricated prefabricated insulation board 15 can simultaneously achieve the following objectives:
①、 将目前保温层裸板上墙变为带有保护层上墙的安装工艺, 不仅进一步增加了施 工中防火安全, 还保证长期使用中防火安全。 即使保温材料为 B2级 EPS板, 失火时其 防火安全性远远高于保温材料为 级的薄抹灰保温墙体, 火灾难以蔓延。 1. The installation process of the bare wall of the current insulation layer is changed to the wall with the protective layer, which not only further increases the fire safety during construction, but also ensures the fire safety during long-term use. Even if the insulation material is a B 2 grade EPS board, the fire safety during fire is much higher than that of the thermal plaster-grade thin plaster insulation wall, and the fire is difficult to spread.
②、 施工安装方便、 加快安装速度, 减少湿作业, 符合装配式施工方向。  2. Convenient construction and installation, speed up installation, reduce wet work, and conform to the direction of assembly construction.
③、 可降低保温材料造价, EPS板 300mm厚时, 用阻燃型的 B2级 EPS板比 级 的石墨苯板可降低造价 100元 /m2还多。 3, can reduce the cost of insulation materials, EPS sheet 300mm thick, with flame retardant B 2 grade EPS board than grade graphite benzene board can reduce the cost of 100 yuan / m 2 more.
④、 水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板是高温、 高压下用专业设备生产的, 易于控制保护层质 量, 重量轻、 预制加工方便。  4. Cement fiberboard or calcium silicate board is produced by professional equipment under high temperature and high pressure. It is easy to control the quality of the protective layer, light weight and convenient for prefabrication.
⑤、 只有装配式安装预制保温板, 才方便保温层采用复合保温层构造, 在现场脚手 架上安装复合保温层太麻烦了, 是施工不能接受的。 复合保温层可大幅度提高节能保温 墙体的防火性能, 并容易满足保温材料含湿率的规定。  5. Only the prefabricated thermal insulation board is assembled. It is convenient to use the composite insulation layer structure for the insulation layer. It is too troublesome to install the composite insulation layer on the site scaffolding, which is unacceptable for construction. The composite insulation layer can greatly improve the fireproof performance of the energy-saving insulation wall and easily meet the requirements of the moisture content of the insulation material.
如外部保温层 15-3-1为 40mm厚岩棉板、 内部保温层 15-3-2为 EPS板时, 燃烧试 验证明, 在丙垸人火燃烧 21分钟时, EPS板不破坏, 40mm厚岩棉热阻相当于 800mm 厚水泥砂浆热阻, 其防火效果是背景技术所述希望达到 50mm厚的抹灰保护层不可比 的。 采用复合保温层构造, 绝对不会发生火灾蔓延, 易维修。  If the external insulation layer 15-3-1 is a 40mm thick rock wool board and the internal insulation layer 15-3-2 is an EPS board, the burning test proves that the EPS board does not break when the Binger fire is burned for 21 minutes, 40mm thick. The thermal resistance of rock wool is equivalent to the thermal resistance of 800mm thick cement mortar, and its fireproof effect is incomparable with the plaster protective layer which is hoped to reach 50mm thick as described in the background art. With a composite insulation layer construction, there is absolutely no fire spread and easy maintenance.
本实施方式中两种安装工艺形成的节能保温墙体构造是相同的, 但是第 2) 项装配 式程度高, 优越性更大。 在新建建筑的外墙外保温工程中, 或需要在已有保温层上增加 保温层厚度时, 应采用 2) ; 既有薄抹灰保温墙体改善防火性能和耐久性, 不增加保温 层厚度时, 采用 1 ) 。  In the present embodiment, the energy-saving thermal insulation wall structure formed by the two installation processes is the same, but the second assembly has a high degree of assembly and superiority. In the exterior insulation project of a new building, or when it is necessary to increase the thickness of the insulation layer on the existing insulation layer, 2) should be used; the thin plaster insulation wall can improve the fire performance and durability without increasing the thickness of the insulation layer. When using 1).
有以下四点根据说明本实施方式与现有技术不同, 不是显而易见的: 1、 目前在节能保温墙体上都是用锚栓固定保温层, 没有用锚栓穿透安装预制形成 的外部保护层的安装构造和方法。 当前大量应用的薄抹灰保温墙体是用塑料锚栓固定保 温层, 还有安装钢丝网架水泥夹芯板也是在抹灰前用锚栓先固定在基层墙体上。 有在工 业厂房中用金属锚栓将彩色保温钢板固定在钢骨架上, 钢骨架与建筑主体结构的框架梁 柱连接, 钢骨架不是基层墙体, 本实施方式不需要设置钢骨架。 通常人们认为彩色保温 钢板的墙体不能应用于民用建筑和公共建筑中, 认为金属锚栓透寒、结露, 无法刷涂料、 粘贴饰面砖, 装饰受限制。 本实施方式的预制板材为薄钢板时, 因为室内有基层墙体, 不存在透寒结露问题,尤其适用于用于室外潮湿地区的建筑,可阻隔室外潮气进入室内, 在薄钢板上面涂刷界面剂刮腻子找平可遮盖锚栓, 也可以刷涂料、 粘贴饰面砖。 The following four points are different from the prior art according to the description, and it is not obvious: 1. At present, the anchoring bolt is used to fix the thermal insulation layer on the energy-saving thermal insulation wall, and the installation structure and method of the external protective layer formed by prefabrication are not penetrated by the anchor bolt. At present, a large number of thin plaster insulation walls are fixed with plastic anchor bolts, and a steel mesh frame is also used to fix the cement sandwich panels to the base wall before anchoring. In the industrial plant, the metal thermal insulation steel plate is fixed on the steel skeleton by the metal anchor bolt, the steel skeleton is connected with the frame beam and column of the main structure of the building, and the steel skeleton is not the base wall, and the steel skeleton is not required in the embodiment. It is generally believed that the wall of a color insulation steel plate cannot be used in civil buildings and public buildings. It is considered that the metal anchor bolts are exposed to cold, condensation, paint, and decorative tiles, and the decoration is limited. When the prefabricated sheet material of the present embodiment is a thin steel sheet, since there is a base wall in the room, there is no problem of cold and condensation, and it is especially suitable for a building used in an outdoor humid area, which can block outdoor moisture from entering the room and brushing on the thin steel sheet. The interface agent can be covered with a putty to cover the anchor bolt, or the paint can be applied and the facing brick can be applied.
没有人想到用预制板材作为预制保温板的外部保护层, 用锚栓穿透式安装的构造, 或者在保温层上先预制形成的保护层,形成预制保温板,再用锚栓穿透式安装预制板材。 本实施方式虽然锚栓 20的外盖暴露在外部保护层 15-8-1的外侧, 但锚栓外盖厚度约 2~3mm, 刮腻子找平遮盖就看不见了。 不采用锚栓 20穿过外部保护层 15-8-1和保温层 15-3的固定方法和构造, 就不能立马将外部保护层或预制保温板固定, 就不方便施工。 所以本实施方式大大减轻劳动强度、 加快施工速度、 降低工程造价, 具有重要意义。 虽 可将外部保护层 15-8-1局部切口, 将锚栓 20外盖卧入外部保护层 15-8-1内, 但是麻烦, 且也是属于穿透外部保护层 15-8-1安装, 一般没有必要。  No one thought of using prefabricated panels as the outer protective layer of the prefabricated thermal insulation board, using the anchor plug-through installation structure, or prefabricating the protective layer on the insulation layer to form the prefabricated insulation board, and then using the anchor bolt through installation. Prefabricated panels. In the present embodiment, although the outer cover of the anchor bolt 20 is exposed on the outer side of the outer protective layer 15-8-1, the thickness of the anchor cover is about 2 to 3 mm, and the flattening of the putty can not be seen. Without the anchoring method and structure of the outer protective layer 15-8-1 and the insulating layer 15-3, it is not convenient to construct the outer protective layer or the prefabricated thermal insulation board. Therefore, the embodiment has great significance in greatly reducing labor intensity, speeding up construction, and reducing construction cost. Although the outer protective layer 15-8-1 can be partially cut, the outer cover of the anchor 20 is placed in the outer protective layer 15-8-1, but it is troublesome and also belongs to the penetrating outer protective layer 15-8-1. Generally not necessary.
2、 外部保护层 15-8-1为预制板材保护层时, 将目前现场湿作业抹灰的聚合物砂浆 薄抹灰保护层 (3~5mm) , 或将现场湿作业抹灰的厚保护层 (约 25mm) , 变为用锚栓 装配式安装预制板材保护层, 或装配式安装预制保温板。 已公开技术没有用这种构造形 成节能保温墙体的规定或工程实例。  2. When the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is a prefabricated sheet protective layer, the current mortar wet plastering of the polymer mortar is plastered with a protective layer (3~5mm), or a thick protective layer for wet work plastering on site. (approx. 25mm), the installation of prefabricated sheet protection with anchor bolts, or the installation of prefabricated insulation boards. The disclosed technology does not have provisions or engineering examples for forming an energy efficient thermal insulation wall using such a configuration.
现在用水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板制作的装饰板随处可见,其安装方式主要由以下二种: 1 )在基层墙体上安装钢龙骨, 在装饰板侧边中部切槽, 将连接钢片插入槽中并与钢龙骨 固定, 从而将装饰板固定; 2) 在装饰面背面安装铁件直接与基层墙体连接。  Nowadays, the decorative board made of cement fiberboard or calcium silicate board can be seen everywhere. The installation method mainly consists of the following two types: 1) installing steel keel on the base wall, grooving in the middle of the side of the decorative board, inserting the connecting steel sheet The trough is fixed with the steel keel to fix the decorative panel; 2) The iron piece is attached to the back of the decorative surface to directly connect with the base wall.
还有用水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板用于模板使用的, 内部浇筑混凝土、 发泡水泥等。 人们对上述水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板的使用熟视无睹, 虽然常见, 但也没有人想到可 以将水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板作为节能保温墙体的保护层, 用锚栓穿透式安装, 将其保温 层和基层墙体固定, 用于解决聚合物砂浆保护层防火不好和耐久性不好的问题, 以及解 决其它节能保温墙体现场湿作业抹灰多、 劳动强度大, 热桥多等问题。 如前述维修 "绷 带楼" , 在维修时不知道安装预制板材保护层, 维修方案既费工、 且还会继续发生裂 缝、 渗水, 而安装预制板材保护层可彻底解决此质量问题, 且施工方便。  There are also cement fiberboard or calcium silicate boards for use in formwork, internal pouring concrete, foamed cement, and the like. The use of the above cement fiber board or calcium silicate board has been ignored, although it is common, but no one thought that the cement fiber board or the calcium silicate board can be used as a protective layer of the energy-saving heat-insulating wall, and the anchor bolt is used for penetrating installation. The insulation layer and the base wall are fixed, which is used to solve the problem of poor fireproofness and poor durability of the polymer mortar protective layer, and solve the problems of other wet energy-saving walls, wet work, large labor intensity, heat bridge and other problems. . As mentioned above, the maintenance of the "bandage floor" does not know the installation of the protective layer of the prefabricated sheet during the maintenance. The maintenance scheme is labor-intensive and will continue to crack and seep, and the installation of the protective layer of the prefabricated sheet can completely solve the quality problem, and the construction is convenient. .
3、 世界各国, 包括以美国、 德国为首的最发达国家, 都没有提出此墙体技术。 近三年来, 在德国专家指导下, 中国在哈尔滨市及秦皇岛等地陆续试点建设了几处 节能 90%的被动式节能房。 因除了本发明以外, 薄抹灰保温墙体是热量流失通道 (即热桥) 最少、 节能保温最 好的墙体技术。 但因为在窗口周边的保温层比墙体正立面保温层薄, 窗口周边形成热 桥, 且无论墙体正立面保温层多厚, 都不能减少窗口周边热量流失的数量。 但其它节能 保温墙体技术不仅有窗口周边热桥, 还有更多热桥, 所以在德国专家指导下, 这些试点 建设的被动式节能房都采用了薄抹灰保温墙体, 且在德国国内也是大量应用 EPS板为保 温层的薄抹灰保温墙体。 3. The world's countries, including the most developed countries headed by the United States and Germany, have not proposed this wall technology. In the past three years, under the guidance of German experts, China has successively built several passive energy-saving houses with energy saving of 90% in Harbin and Qinhuangdao. In addition to the present invention, the thin plastering insulation wall is the wall technology with the least heat loss passage (ie, heat bridge) and the best energy-saving insulation. However, because the insulation layer around the window is thinner than the insulation layer of the front wall of the wall, a heat bridge is formed around the window, and no matter how thick the insulation layer of the front wall of the wall is, the amount of heat loss around the window cannot be reduced. However, other energy-saving insulation wall technologies not only have thermal bridges around the window, but also more thermal bridges. Therefore, under the guidance of German experts, these passive energy-saving houses built by the pilots all use thin plaster insulation walls, and also in Germany. A large number of applications are applied to the EPS board as a thin plastering insulation wall for the insulation layer.
背景技术已阐述: 联合国多次召开会议研究减少温室气体排放事宜, 世界各国难以 达成一致意见。 德国政府在减少全球温室气体排放中发挥积极的作用, 曾提出对航空征 收碳排放税, 遭到美国等多国反对。 建筑节能减排的效果要远远大于京都议定书的减排 量, 美国和德国都是世界上技术最先进的国家, 既然薄抹灰保温墙体存在防火不安全、 耐久性不好的严重问题, 而本实施方式解决了此严重问题, 若本实施方式是显而易见的 话, 为何德国专家亲自指导中国的被动式节能房工程不采用本实施方式呢? 为何德国国 内不采用本实施方式呢? 为何德国不促使世界各国都按本实施方式的技术建设高效节能 建筑, 大幅度推动全球减少温室气体排放? 毕竟中国人口仅占世界 20%。 美国是对全球 负责任的大国, 为何美国不采用本实施方式建设节能建筑的墙体呢?  The background art has already stated: The United Nations has held several meetings to study the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and it is difficult for countries around the world to reach an agreement. The German government has played an active role in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions. It has proposed a carbon emission tax on aviation, which has been opposed by many countries such as the United States. The effect of building energy conservation and emission reduction is far greater than that of the Kyoto Protocol. The United States and Germany are the most technologically advanced countries in the world. Since the thin plaster insulation wall has serious problems of fire safety and poor durability, The present embodiment solves this serious problem. If the embodiment is obvious, why does the German expert personally guide China's passive energy-saving house project without adopting this embodiment? Why is this implementation not used in Germany? Why does Germany not encourage all countries in the world to build energy-efficient buildings according to the technology of this embodiment, and greatly promote global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions? After all, China's population accounts for only 20% of the world. The United States is a globally responsible big country. Why does the United States not use this embodiment to build walls for energy-efficient buildings?
这是因为在外墙外保温工程领域中, 人们囿于已有的技术, 认为保温材料的保护层 就是聚合物砂浆保护层, 或是加入钢丝网现场抹灰的水泥砂浆保护层, 或者是配筋混凝 土保护层。没有想到应使用预制形成的外部保护层,特别是用预制板材作为外部保护层, 用于作为外墙外保温工程中保温材料的保护层, 提高防火性能和耐久性, 用锚栓穿透式 安装的构造和方法。  This is because in the field of exterior insulation engineering, people are immersed in the existing technology, that the protective layer of the insulation material is the polymer mortar protection layer, or the cement mortar protection layer added to the steel mesh on-site plastering, or the reinforcement Concrete protective layer. It is not thought that the prefabricated external protective layer should be used, especially the prefabricated sheet is used as the outer protective layer, which is used as a protective layer for the thermal insulation material in the external thermal insulation project, improving the fire performance and durability, and using the anchor bolt through installation. Construction and methods.
因为在外墙外保温工程领域中, 人们囿于已有的技术, 认为保温材料的保护层就是 聚合物砂浆保护层, 或是加入钢丝网现场抹灰的水泥砂浆保护层, 或者是配筋混凝土保 护层, 没有本实施方式这种用预制形成的外部保护层创意, 于是就都投入到研究新型保 温材料中。  Because in the field of exterior insulation engineering, people are immersed in the existing technology, that the protective layer of the insulation material is the polymer mortar protection layer, or the cement mortar protection layer added to the steel mesh on-site plastering, or the reinforced concrete protection. The layer, without the pre-formed outer protective layer idea of the present embodiment, has been devoted to the research of new insulating materials.
4、从中国和全球节能保温墙体形势分析,进一步证明本实施方式是现有技术所没有 的。  4. From the analysis of the situation of energy-saving and thermal insulation walls in China and the world, it is further proved that this embodiment is not available in the prior art.
中国进行建筑节能约 30年, 大规模普及建筑节能已经十几年了, 由于建筑节能保 温的标准要求越来越高, 其它节能保温墙体都不满足节能保温要求, 所以近几年来中国 大部分建筑都是采用安全性差、 耐久性差的薄抹灰保温墙体。  China has been building energy conservation for about 30 years, and it has been popularizing building energy conservation for more than a decade. As the standard requirements for building energy-saving insulation are getting higher and higher, other energy-saving insulation walls do not meet the requirements for energy-saving insulation, so most of China has been in recent years. The building is made of a thin plaster insulation wall with poor safety and poor durability.
如背景技术所述, 无机保温材料广泛应用有困难, 应用 ^级保温材料也有诸多问 题。 而聚合物砂浆保护层开裂、 脱落的质量问题长期得不到解决, 没有人考虑解决。 因 为仅从提高保温材料的防火性能上解决节能保温墙体的防火安全是常规思路, 即使采用 防火较好的保温材料如岩棉、发泡水泥、酚醛树脂等等, 仍然是采用聚合物砂浆保护层, 聚合物砂浆保护层不能有效保护这些材料, 自身破坏后加速这些保温材料的破坏。 中国以至于世界范围内, 推广装配式建筑的思路仅局限于装配式安装建筑主体结 构、 装配式安装建筑的墙体, 还没有想到将装配式安装技术应用到外墙外保温工程中。 As described in the background art, inorganic insulating materials are widely used, and there are many problems in applying the heat insulating materials. However, the quality problem of cracking and falling off of the protective layer of polymer mortar has not been solved for a long time, and no one has considered solving it. Because it is a common idea to solve the fire safety of energy-saving insulation walls only by improving the fire performance of insulation materials, even the use of fire-resistant insulation materials such as rock wool, foamed cement, phenolic resin, etc., is still protected by polymer mortar. Layer, polymer mortar protective layer can not effectively protect these materials, and accelerate the destruction of these insulation materials after self-destruction. In China and around the world, the idea of promoting prefabricated buildings is limited to the main structure of the prefabricated building and the wall of the prefabricated building. It has not been expected to apply the prefabricated installation technology to the external thermal insulation project.
本实施方式有上述诸多优越性, 在中国和世界能源形势、 环境形势如此严峻时期, 包括中国和世界上最发达的美国、德国等国家,为何不按本实施方式的构造和安装工艺, 安装预制板材保护层, 以及安装外部保护层为预制形成的保护层的预制保温板呢?这是 因为本实施方式不是按常规思路解决外墙外保温技术存在的问题。  This embodiment has many advantages. In the period of China and the world's energy situation and the environmental situation, including China and the most developed countries in the world, Germany and other countries, why not install the prefabrication according to the structure and installation process of this embodiment. The protective layer of the sheet, and the prefabricated insulation board with the outer protective layer being the prefabricated protective layer? This is because the present embodiment does not solve the problems existing in the external thermal insulation technology according to conventional ideas.
中国和全球范围内, 都认为墙体技术是依靠新型墙体材料来解决的。 但任何材料都 有其优缺点, 例如要求材料既保温好, 又强度高、 防火好, 可消灭或减小各种热桥等, 这怎么可能呢?这使得墙体技术多年来难以有突破性的进展。 只有发挥不同材料的优 点, 避免其缺点, 将不同材料进行组合, 优化墙体构造, 形成科学的节能保温墙体技术 体系, 才能攻克墙体节能保温技术难点、 攻克现代墙体技术的难点。  Both China and the world believe that wall technology is solved by relying on new wall materials. However, any material has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, it is required to keep the material warm, high strength, good fireproof, and eliminate or reduce various heat bridges. How is this possible? This makes wall technology difficult to make breakthroughs over the years. Only by exploiting the advantages of different materials, avoiding their shortcomings, combining different materials, optimizing the wall structure, and forming a scientific energy-saving thermal insulation wall technology system, can overcome the difficulties of wall energy-saving insulation technology and overcome the difficulties of modern wall technology.
尽管中国政府二三十年来为建筑节能、 墙体改革投入大量资金扶持, 但建筑节能、 墙体改革进展仍很艰难, 外保温墙体不是着火、 就是开裂进水。 中国建筑节能、 墙体改 革长期进展艰难的事实, 及中国和全球建筑节能和环境的严峻形势都说明: 本实施方式 不是按常规思路解决墙体节能保温技术存在的问题, 不是显而易见的。 实施方式二:  Although the Chinese government has invested a lot of money for building energy conservation and wall reform in the past 20 or 30 years, the progress of building energy conservation and wall reform is still very difficult. The external thermal insulation wall is not on fire or cracked into water. The fact that China's building energy conservation and wall reform have been difficult to make long-term progress, as well as the grim situation of China's and global building energy conservation and the environment, all indicate that this embodiment is not a solution to the problems existing in the wall energy-saving insulation technology, which is not obvious. Embodiment 2:
图 1、 图 3、 图 4、 图 7, 本实施方式与实施方式一的不同点在于, 本实施方式增加 结构承托件 1-1 ; 所述结构承托件 1-1设置在基层墙体 10中建筑主体结构的侧面, 所述 结构承托件 1-1是基层墙体 10中建筑主体结构在水平方向的外延。  1, FIG. 3, FIG. 4, and FIG. 7, the difference between this embodiment and the first embodiment is that the structural support member 1-1 is added to the embodiment; the structural support member 1-1 is disposed on the base wall. In the side of the main structure of the building 10, the structural receiving member 1-1 is an extension of the main structure of the building in the base wall 10 in the horizontal direction.
结构承托件 1-1承托外部保护层 15-8-1, 或承托由外部保护层 15-8-1与保温层 15-3 组成的预制保温板 15 ;主要是承托窗间墙和无洞口处的外部保护层 15-8-1和预制保温板 15; 窗下墙的外部保护层 15-8-1和预制保温板 15不一定设结构承托件 1-1承托, 窗下墙 的预制保温板 15可以与窗间墙的预制保温板 15相互挤紧粘贴安装, 也就是说窗下墙的 预制保温板 15重量可通过窗间墙的预制保温板 15传递给窗间墙下面的结构承托件 1-1。  The structural support member 1-1 supports the outer protective layer 15-8-1, or supports the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 composed of the outer protective layer 15-8-1 and the thermal insulation layer 15-3; mainly supporting the window wall And the outer protective layer 15-8-1 at the opening and the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15; the outer protective layer 15-8-1 of the lower wall of the window and the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 are not necessarily provided with the structural support member 1-1, the window The prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 of the lower wall can be squeezed and attached to the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 of the window partition wall, that is, the weight of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 of the lower wall of the window can be transmitted to the window partition wall through the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 of the window partition wall. The following structural support 1-1.
所述结构承托件 1-1按以下构造设置, 根据使用需要选用:  The structural support member 1-1 is set according to the following configuration, and is selected according to the use:
1 ) 结构承托件 1-1为局部点状设置, 见图 4;  1) The structural support member 1-1 is a local point arrangement, see Figure 4;
2) 或结构承托件 1-1沿建筑周圈设置 (例如沿建筑周圈设置的混凝土挑檐) 。 在上述两种构造中,预制保温板 15的外部保护层 15-8-1位于结构承托件 1-1上,见 图 7, 即结构承托件 1-1承托外部保护层 15-8-1, 安装预制保温板 15时结构承托件 1-1 就是承托预制保温板 15 ; 或结构承托件 1-1的长度比预制保温板短, 结构承托件 1-1仅 承托预制保温板 15的部分保温层 15-3, 预制保温板 15的一端为 L形, 预制保温板 15 的外部保护层 15-8-1位于结构承托件 1-1外侧, 预制保温板 15的 L形遮盖结构承托件 1-1, 见图 23。 保温材料满足一定拉力时, 结构承托件 1-1也能承托一部分保温层, 这也 是承托预制保温板 15。 结构承托件 1-1为局部点状设置(见图 4) , 或预制保温板 15端 头为 L形, 结构承托件 1-1仅承托保温层 15-3, 都是为了减少结构承托件 1-1的热桥。 2) Or structural support 1-1 is placed along the perimeter of the building (for example, concrete plaques placed along the perimeter of the building). In the above two configurations, the outer protective layer 15-8-1 of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is located on the structural support member 1-1, as shown in Fig. 7, that is, the structural support member 1-1 supports the outer protective layer 15-8. -1, when the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is installed, the structural support member 1-1 is the support prefabricated thermal insulation board 15; or the length of the structural support member 1-1 is shorter than the prefabricated thermal insulation board, and the structural support member 1-1 is only supported A part of the thermal insulation layer 15-3 of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 has an L shape at one end of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15, and an outer protective layer 15-8-1 of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is located outside the structural support member 1-1, and the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 L-shaped cover structure support member 1-1, see Figure 23. When the insulation material satisfies a certain tensile force, the structural support member 1-1 can also support a part of the insulation layer, which is also It is supported by prefabricated insulation board 15. The structural support member 1-1 is arranged in a local point (see Fig. 4), or the end of the prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15 is L-shaped, and the structural support member 1-1 supports only the thermal insulation layer 15-3, in order to reduce the structure. The thermal bridge of the support member 1-1.
例如结构承托件 1-1为局部点状设置或周圈设置的混凝土挑檐、 金属承托件 (如为 角钢),或为木或竹的挑檐(应用到木、竹结构时为木或竹的挑檐,也可用金属承托件)。  For example, the structural support member 1-1 is a concrete point-providing or circumferentially set concrete provocation, a metal support member (such as an angle steel), or a wooden or bamboo provocation (when applied to wood or bamboo structures) Or bamboo provocation, metal support parts are also available.
推荐结构承托件 1-1采用局部点状设置的混凝土挑檐;推荐锚栓用射钉型塑料锚栓, 在塑料外套管内很方便填入水泥聚合物砂浆,且塑料锚栓基本不增加传热,安装速度快、 价格低; 而若用钢锚栓需用不锈钢材质, 造价高且增加传热, 本发明附图均表示采用射 钉型塑料锚栓。  It is recommended that the structural support member 1-1 adopt a concrete point-provided concrete provocation; it is recommended to use a nail-type plastic anchor bolt for anchor bolts, and it is convenient to fill the cement polymer mortar in the plastic outer sleeve, and the plastic anchor bolt is basically not increased. Heat, fast installation speed and low price; if steel anchor bolts are made of stainless steel, which is expensive and heat transfer is increased, the drawings of the present invention all indicate the use of nail-type plastic anchor bolts.
附表 2 本实施方式的节能保温墙体与薄抹灰保温墙体平均传热系数对比表  Appendix 2 Comparison Table of Average Heat Transfer Coefficient of Energy-saving Thermal Insulation Wall and Thin Plaster Thermal Insulation Wall of the Present Embodiment
Figure imgf000017_0001
Figure imgf000017_0001
注: 1 ) 、 附表 2是假定基层墙体为 200mm混凝土墙, 3m开间、 层高 3m, 窗户 分别为 2. 1 x 1.5=3.15m2、 2.4x 1.5=3.6 m2、 2.7x 1.5=4.05 m2, 窗墙比分别为 0.35、 0.4、 0.45 进行计算。 Note: 1), Schedule 2 assumes that the base wall is a 200mm concrete wall, 3m open, 3m high, windows are 2. 1 x 1.5=3.15m 2 , 2.4x 1.5=3.6 m 2 , 2.7x 1.5= 4.05 m 2 , the window-to-wall ratio is calculated as 0.35, 0.4, and 0.45, respectively.
2) 、 按 EPS板含水率 15%时, EPS板导热系数 0.039w/m*k, 接缝处 EPS板 之间挤紧粘贴安装, 不考虑缝隙的不利影响, 但考虑 Φ2不锈钢拉接钢丝增加传热后计 算主墙体传热系数; 薄抹灰保温墙体按 EPS板修正的导热系数 =0.039x l .2=0.0468w/m-k 计算。  2) When the moisture content of the EPS board is 15%, the thermal conductivity of the EPS board is 0.039w/m*k, and the EPS board at the joint is squeezed and installed, regardless of the adverse effects of the gap, but considering the increase of the Φ2 stainless steel pull wire The heat transfer coefficient of the main wall is calculated after heat transfer; the thermal insulation coefficient of the thin plastering insulation wall is calculated according to the EPS plate corrected thermal conductivity=0.039xl.2=0.0468w/mk.
3 ) 、 本发明的节能保温墙体的热桥包括局部点状设置的挑檐热桥, 窗口有钢 筋使保温层减薄的影响; 薄抹灰保温墙体的热桥是洞口热桥, 按 《黑龙江省居住建筑节 能 65%设计标准》 DB23/1270中附录 D的规定, 计算洞口热桥对墙体平均系数的影响。 在锚栓 20的套管内还注入防腐蚀材料 9 (如用水泥聚合物砂浆, 外端再用保温材料 堵上) , 保护锚栓 20内的射钉或其它钢制连接件满足耐久性要求。 3) The thermal bridge of the energy-saving thermal insulation wall of the invention comprises a provocative thermal bridge arranged locally, and the window has steel bars to reduce the influence of the thermal insulation layer; the thermal bridge of the thin plaster thermal insulation wall is a thermal bridge of the portal, according to "Design Standard for 65% Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Heilongjiang Province" The provisions of Appendix D of DB23/1270 calculate the influence of the thermal bridge on the wall on the average coefficient of the wall. An anti-corrosion material 9 is also injected into the sleeve of the anchor bolt 20 (for example, cement cement mortar, and the outer end is plugged with a heat insulating material), and the nail or other steel connecting member in the anchor bolt 20 is protected to meet the durability requirement.
有以下 2点根据说明本实施方式是现有墙体技术没有的, 也不是显而易见的。  There are the following two points. According to the description, the present embodiment is not available in the conventional wall technology, and is not obvious.
1、 局部点状设置结构承托件承托预制形成的保护层、 或承托预制保温板, 此构造 是本发明热桥最少、 节能保温最好的关键技术创新点。  1. The local point-like structure support member supports the prefabricated protective layer or the prefabricated thermal insulation board. This structure is the key technical innovation point of the invention with the least heat bridge and the best energy-saving insulation.
采用局部点状设置的结构承托件, 才能安装窗口钢筋, 窗户的连接钢片可交错与基 层墙体和外部钢筋上的钢片连接, 才方便采取隔热断桥窗口构造, 拉接钢丝用 Φ2不锈 钢拉接钢丝即可, 见图 1、 图 4、 图 7、 图 9, 热量流失的通道才最小, 节能保温最好, 见附表 2数据, 才能满足低能耗建筑对节能保温墙体的要求。 而当前其它各种节能保温 墙体都没有采用局部点状设置的结构承托件, 所以不能减少窗口热桥、 或减少的热桥 少。 在当今世界环境形势如此严峻时期, 包括发达国家在内, 为何都没有人提出本实施 方式呢?这说明, 局部点状设置的结构承托件是现有墙体技术所没有的, 不是显而易见 的。  The structural support member with local point arrangement can be used to install the window steel bar. The connecting steel piece of the window can be staggered and connected with the steel plate on the base wall and the external steel bar, so that it is convenient to adopt the heat insulation broken bridge window structure, Φ2 stainless steel pull wire can be, see Figure 1, Figure 4, Figure 7, Figure 9, the heat loss channel is the smallest, energy-saving insulation is best, see Table 2 data, in order to meet the low-energy building energy-saving insulation wall Claim. However, various other energy-saving thermal insulation walls do not use structural support members that are partially arranged in a point, so that the window thermal bridge cannot be reduced, or the number of thermal bridges reduced is small. In the current severe environmental situation in the world, including developed countries, why have no people proposed this implementation? This shows that the structural support of the local point arrangement is not available in the existing wall technology and is not obvious.
2、在锚栓的套管内注入防腐蚀材料。建筑耐久性是重要问题,影响社会可持续发展, 为何没有人提出本实施方式在锚栓套管内注入防腐蚀材料的简单易行技术措施呢? 实施方式三:  2. Inject anti-corrosion material into the casing of the anchor bolt. Building durability is an important issue that affects the sustainable development of society. Why is there no simple technical measure for injecting anti-corrosion materials into anchor bolts in this embodiment? Embodiment 3:
图 7、 图 8、 图 12、 图 13、 图 16, 本实施方式与实施方式一或二的不同点在于, 本 实施方式在预制保温板 15的内部还增加内部保护层 15-8-2, 内部保护层 15-8-2与保温 层 15-3连接, 形成预制保温墙板 15-2; 所述内部保护层 15-8-2为预制形成的保护层; 所述预制形成的保护层为预制板材保护层, 或为抹灰形成的预制保护层; 本实施方式的预制保温墙板 15-2可以为各种构造的预制保温墙板:包括轻型预制保 温墙板、 重型预制保温墙板、 钢丝网架水泥夹芯板; 钢骨架预制保温墙板、 木骨架预制 保温墙板, 预制保温墙板 15-2边缘内部有加强肋或没有加强肋, 如图 12有加强肋, 预 制保温墙板 15-2内有拉接钢丝或拉接钢筋等, 都可按本实施方式安装。  7 , 8 , 12 , 13 , and 16 , the present embodiment differs from the first or second embodiment in that the internal protective layer 15-8-2 is further added to the interior of the pre-heat insulation panel 15 . The inner protective layer 15-8-2 is connected to the heat insulating layer 15-3 to form a prefabricated heat insulating wall panel 15-2; the inner protective layer 15-8-2 is a prefabricated protective layer; the prefabricated protective layer is Prefabricated sheet protective layer, or prefabricated protective layer formed by plastering; prefabricated insulating wall panel 15-2 of the present embodiment may be prefabricated insulating wallboard of various structures: including light prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard, heavy prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard, Steel mesh frame cement sandwich panel; steel skeleton prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, wood skeleton prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 with reinforcing ribs or without reinforcing ribs inside, as shown in Fig. 12, reinforcing ribs, prefabricated thermal insulation wall panels In 15-2, there are pull wires or pull bars, which can be installed according to this embodiment.
不宜用抹灰层夹抗拉的网 5作为加气混凝土的内部保护层 15-8-2, 因易开裂。  It is not advisable to use the plaster layer to clamp the tensile web 5 as the inner protective layer of aerated concrete 15-8-2, due to easy cracking.
将预制保温墙板 15-2置于基层墙体 10的侧面,即置于基层墙体 10中建筑主体结构 的侧面; 用锚栓 20穿过预制保温墙板 15-2, 将预制保温墙板 15-2与基层墙体 10固定、 与建筑主体结构固定, 或 /和预制保温墙板 15-2的内部有铁件或混凝土连接件 60将预制 保温墙板 15-2的内侧与建筑主体结构连接, 见图 5、 图 24; 或预制保温墙板 15-2与基 层墙体 10之间还用胶结材料粘结, 形成一种将预制保温墙板安装在建筑主体结构外侧, 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体。  The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 is placed on the side of the base wall 10, that is, placed on the side of the main structure of the main wall 10; the anchor 20 is passed through the prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15-2, and the prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15-2 is fixed to the base wall 10, fixed to the main structure of the building, or/and the interior of the prefabricated insulating wall panel 15-2 has iron or concrete connecting members 60. The inner side of the prefabricated insulating wall panel 15-2 and the main structure of the building Connection, see Figure 5, Figure 24; or prefabricated insulation wall panel 15-2 and the base wall 10 are also bonded with cement material to form a prefabricated insulation wall panel installed outside the main structure of the building, fully assembled installation Energy-saving insulation wall.
推荐预制保温墙板 15-2采用以下分层构造: 1 ) 所述内部保温层 15-3-2为无机保温材料, 内部保温层 15-3-2的弹性模量大于外 部保温层 15-3-1或大于中部保温层 15-3-3的弹性模量,如内部保温层 15-3-2为加气混凝 土板, 或为无机与有机的混合保温材料, 外部保温层 15-3-1为 EPS板, 或外部保温层 15-3-1为岩棉、 中部保温层 15-3-3为 EPS板; 优点重量轻、 同时满足防火和刚度要求, 墙体传热系数最低, 是采暖地区墙体的首选构造; It is recommended that the prefabricated insulation wall panel 15-2 be constructed in the following layers: 1) The inner thermal insulation layer 15-3-2 is an inorganic thermal insulation material, and the elastic modulus of the inner thermal insulation layer 15-3-2 is greater than that of the outer thermal insulation layer 15-3-1 or greater than the elasticity of the central thermal insulation layer 15-3-3 Modulus, such as internal insulation layer 15-3-2 is aerated concrete slab, or inorganic and organic mixed insulation material, external insulation layer 15-3-1 is EPS board, or external insulation layer 15-3-1 is Rockwool and central insulation layer 15-3-3 are EPS boards; the advantages are light weight, meet the requirements of fireproof and rigidity, and the wall has the lowest heat transfer coefficient, which is the preferred structure for the wall in heating area;
若采用相反构造: 外部保温层 15-3-1为加气混凝土板, 中部保温层 15-3-3为 EPS 板, 内部保温层 15-3-2为岩棉, 也可以满足防火和刚度要求, 但是存在岩棉含湿量不符 合采暖地区要求的问题;  If the opposite structure is adopted: the outer insulation layer 15-3-1 is an aerated concrete slab, the middle insulation layer 15-3-3 is an EPS board, and the inner insulation layer 15-3-2 is rock wool, which can also meet the fireproof and rigidity requirements. However, there is a problem that the moisture content of rock wool does not meet the requirements of the heating area;
弹性大的无机保温材料或无机与有机的混合保温材料必然防火好, 但是防火好的保 温材料不一定弹性模量大, 如岩棉弹性模量很小;  Inorganic thermal insulation materials with large elasticity or inorganic and organic mixed thermal insulation materials are inevitably fireproof, but good thermal insulation materials do not necessarily have large elastic modulus, such as rock wool elastic modulus is small;
2) 所述保温层 15-3为无机保温材料或为无机与有机的混合保温材料, 如全部保温 层用加气混凝土板; 适用于夏热地区墙体隔热保温, 重量较重;  2) The insulation layer 15-3 is an inorganic thermal insulation material or a mixed insulation material of inorganic and organic materials, such as aerated concrete slab for all insulation layers; suitable for wall insulation in summer heat, with heavy weight;
保温层为以上构造时,外部保护层 15-8-1及内部保护层 15-8-2均选用预制板材保护 层最方便;  When the insulation layer is of the above structure, the outer protective layer 15-8-1 and the inner protective layer 15-8-2 are most convenient to use the prefabricated sheet protective layer;
3 ) 所述内部保护层 15-8-2的刚度大于外部保护层 15-8-1的刚度, 例如内部保护层 为配筋混凝土, 或预制板材的内部保护层厚度大于外部预制板材保护层厚度;  3) The rigidity of the inner protective layer 15-8-2 is greater than the rigidity of the outer protective layer 15-8-1, for example, the inner protective layer is reinforced concrete, or the inner protective layer thickness of the prefabricated board is greater than the thickness of the outer prefabricated sheet protective layer ;
内部保护层 15-8-2为配筋混凝土, 外部保护层 15-8-1为预制板材保护层最方便; 若 内部保护层 15-8-2为配筋加气混凝土, 不需要内部再安装预制板材保护层, 即加气混凝 土既作为保护层,又作为保温层。但加气混凝土内配筋麻烦, 抹灰易开裂, 不推荐采用; 4) 或预制保温墙板 15-2内还有钢骨架或木骨架, 在钢骨架或木骨架的表面有预制 形成的外部保护层、 内部保护层, 形成钢骨架预制保温墙板或木骨架预制保温墙板; 预制保温墙板 15-2各层材料之间应层层粘结, 还可用塑料锚栓加强连接; 或 /和混 凝土的内部保护层 15-8-2与保温层 15-3还形成卡合连接的构造, 。  The inner protective layer 15-8-2 is reinforced concrete, and the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is the most convenient for the prefabricated sheet protective layer; if the inner protective layer 15-8-2 is reinforced aerated concrete, no internal reinstallation is required. The prefabricated sheet protective layer, that is, the aerated concrete acts both as a protective layer and as an insulating layer. However, the reinforcement in the aerated concrete is troublesome, the plaster is easy to crack, it is not recommended; 4) or the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 also has a steel skeleton or a wooden skeleton, and a prefabricated outer surface is formed on the surface of the steel skeleton or the wood skeleton. The protective layer and the inner protective layer form a steel skeleton prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard or a wooden skeleton prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel; the prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard 15-2 layers of the materials shall be layer-by-layer bonded, and the plastic anchor bolts may be used to strengthen the connection; or The inner protective layer 15-8-2 of the concrete and the insulating layer 15-3 also form a snap-fit structure.
建筑主体结构为框架结构时, 本实施方式在框架结构内不用砌筑轻质填充墙, 就形 成全装配式安装的节能保温墙体, 也可在全装配式安装的节能保温墙体内侧还有砌筑墙 体, 此时预制保温墙板内不需要有加气混凝土板, 内部保护层应选用预制板材保护层。 根据当地气候条件、 材料条件, 以及不同的结构形式, 确定选用保温层 15-3的材料品 种、 构造, 以及确定外部保护层 15-8-1, 内部保护层 15-8-2材料品种。 本实施方式可发 挥不同材料的优点, 避免其缺点。  When the main structure of the building is a frame structure, the present embodiment does not need to build a lightweight infill wall in the frame structure to form a fully assembled and installed energy-saving thermal insulation wall, and can also be installed inside the fully-assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall. Masonry walls, at this time, there is no need for aerated concrete slabs in prefabricated insulation wall panels, and the inner protective layer should be made of prefabricated sheet protection. According to the local climatic conditions, material conditions, and different structural forms, determine the material type and structure of the insulation layer 15-3, and determine the external protective layer 15-8-1, the inner protective layer 15-8-2 material variety. This embodiment can take advantage of different materials and avoid its disadvantages.
本实施方式将预制保温墙板 15-2安装在建筑主体结构侧面, 形成一种外包式安 装、 全装配式的节能保温墙体, 这是现有墙体技术所没有的, 也不是显而易见的, 其根 据是: 1、首要的根据是: 目前没有将预制保温墙板全外包式、装配式安装在建筑主体结构 侧面形成一种节能保温墙体, 从而形成热桥最小, 节能保温最好的墙体。 正因为如此, 如背景技术所述, 当前各种装配式节能保温墙体的热桥都多,不满足低能耗建筑的要求; In this embodiment, the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 is installed on the side of the main structure of the building to form an outer-mounted, fully assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall, which is not available in the existing wall technology, and is not obvious. Its basis is: 1. The primary basis is: At present, the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panels are not fully outsourced and assembled on the side of the main structure of the building to form an energy-saving thermal insulation wall, thus forming the wall with the smallest thermal bridge and the best energy-saving insulation. Because of this, as described in the background art, there are many thermal bridges of various assembled energy-saving thermal insulation walls, which do not meet the requirements of low-energy buildings;
2、 目前没有预制保温墙板的内部保温层的弹性模量大于外部保温层或大于中部保 温层的弹性模量的规定或工程实例, 从而满足墙体刚度要求、 耐火极限要求。  2. At present, the elastic modulus of the internal thermal insulation layer without prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard is larger than the external thermal insulation layer or the elastic modulus of the central thermal insulation layer or the engineering example, so as to meet the wall stiffness requirements and fire endurance requirements.
3、 目前没有在无机保温材料(如加气混凝土), 或无机保温材料与有机保温材料的 混合材料两侧安装预制板材保护层, 组成预制保温墙板的规定或工程实例。 不安装预制 板材保护层, 加气混凝土板内需配筋, 预制加工不方便, 且会发生背景技术所述加气混 凝土墙抹灰的质量通病。  3. At present, there are no provisions or engineering examples for prefabricated thermal insulation wallboards installed on both sides of inorganic insulation materials (such as aerated concrete) or mixed materials of inorganic insulation materials and organic insulation materials. The prefabricated sheet protection layer is not installed, and the aerated concrete slab is required to be reinforced, and the prefabrication processing is inconvenient, and the quality problem of the aerated concrete wall plastering described in the background art may occur.
4、 目前重型预制保温墙板的外部保护层没有采用预制板材保护层的规定或工程实 例, 因此存在模板投入量大、 重量重、 造价高的问题。  4. At present, the external protective layer of heavy prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard does not use the prefabricated sheet protective layer regulations or engineering examples, so there is a problem that the template input amount is large, the weight is heavy, and the cost is high.
本实施方式将预制保温墙板安装在建筑主体结构外侧, 同样也形成装配式安装的外 保温墙体, 但是形成的是全装配式安装的节能保温墙体。  In this embodiment, the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is installed outside the main structure of the building, and the outer thermal insulation wall of the assembled installation is also formed, but the energy-saving thermal insulation wall body of the full assembly type is formed.
本实施方式又进一步提高装配式安装程度, 在预制保温板的内部还增加内部保护 层, 使预制保温板成为预制保温墙板, 装配式安装有内部保护层的预制保温墙板, 形成 种全装配式安装的节能保温墙体。  The embodiment further improves the degree of assembly installation, and further increases the internal protective layer inside the prefabricated thermal insulation board, so that the prefabricated thermal insulation panel becomes a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel which is assembled and installed with an internal protective layer forms a full assembly. Energy-saving insulation wall installed.
本实施方式的节能保温墙体传热系数见附表 3  The heat transfer coefficient of the energy-saving heat insulation wall of the present embodiment is shown in the attached table 3
附表 3 本实施方式全装配式安装的节能保温墙体传热系数参考表  Appendix 3 Energy-saving coefficient reference table of energy-saving heat-insulating wall in full assembly installation of this embodiment
Figure imgf000020_0001
Figure imgf000020_0001
注: 附表 3是按窗墙比 0.35、 室内部安装铝箔复合膜隔气层, 按 EPS板含水 率 7.5%计算, EPS板导热系数为 0.034w/m*k, Φ2不锈钢拉接钢丝为数量 5根 /m2, EPS 板修正的导热系数为 0.0356w/m*k计算。 本实施方式内部保护层 15-8-2为配筋混凝土时, 可按当前装配式安装混凝土剪力墙 的规定预制和安装预制保温墙板, 所不同的是, 外部保护层采用预制板材保护层, 而不 是采用配筋的混凝土保护层。 把保温材料安装到建筑主体结构和基层墙体外侧, 形成就是外保温墙体, 反之形成 的是内保温墙体。 外保温墙体比内保温墙体减少大量楼层和间隔墙热桥, 节能保温效果 好。 因此本发明主要是应用于外保温墙体。 实施方式四的内部保温层 15-3-2采用加气混 凝土时, 因其弹性模量大于采用有机保温材料或岩棉的外部保温层 15-3-1或中部保温层 15-3-3弹性模量, 所以导热系数必然高于外部保温层 15-3-1或高于中部保温层 15-3-3, 所以内部保温层 15-3-2相当于传统的基层墙体, 但也有一定保温作用, 例如 100mm厚 加气混凝土约相当于 30mm厚 EPS板的保温效果。因此本发明实施方式一、 二的保温层 15-3位于基层墙体 10的外侧, 是外保温的节能保温墙体; 本实施方式将预制保温墙板 安装到建筑主体结构的外侧, 就是将保温层 15-3安装到建筑主体结构的外侧, 因此也 是外保温节能保温墙体。 但是将实施方式一〜四安装到室内墙体时, 就是内保温墙体, 或成为户间隔热的保温墙体。 实施方式四: Note: Schedule 3 is to install the aluminum foil composite film gas barrier layer according to the window to wall ratio of 0.35. According to the moisture content of EPS board, the thermal conductivity of EPS board is 0.034w/m*k, and the Φ2 stainless steel wire is the quantity. 5 / m 2 , the corrected thermal conductivity of the EPS board is calculated as 0.0356w/m*k. In the embodiment, when the inner protective layer 15-8-2 is a reinforced concrete, the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel can be prefabricated and installed according to the current prefabricated installation of the concrete shear wall, except that the outer protective layer is made of a prefabricated sheet protective layer. Instead of a reinforced concrete cover. The insulating material is installed on the outer side of the main structure of the building and the base wall, and the outer insulating wall is formed, and the inner insulating wall is formed instead. The external thermal insulation wall reduces the number of floor and partition wall thermal bridges compared with the inner thermal insulation wall, and the energy saving and heat preservation effect is good. Therefore, the present invention is mainly applied to an external thermal insulation wall. When the inner insulation layer 15-3-2 of the fourth embodiment adopts aerated concrete, the elastic modulus is larger than that of the outer thermal insulation layer 15-3-1 or the intermediate thermal insulation layer 15-3-3 using organic thermal insulation material or rock wool. Modulus, so the thermal conductivity is necessarily higher than the external insulation layer 15-3-1 or higher than the middle insulation layer 15-3-3, so the internal insulation layer 15-3-2 is equivalent to the traditional base wall, but there is also a certain insulation The effect, for example, 100mm thick aerated concrete is equivalent to the insulation effect of a 30mm thick EPS board. Therefore, the thermal insulation layer 15-3 of the first embodiment and the second embodiment of the present invention is located outside the base wall 10, and is an energy-saving thermal insulation wall for external thermal insulation; in this embodiment, the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is installed on the outer side of the main structure of the building, that is, the thermal insulation is The layer 15-3 is installed to the outside of the main structure of the building, and is therefore also an external thermal insulation and energy-saving thermal insulation wall. However, when the first to fourth embodiments are installed into the indoor wall, it is an inner thermal insulation wall or a thermal insulation wall that is separated by heat. Embodiment 4:
本实施方式与实施方式一〜三之一的不同点在于, 本实施方式用预制板材保护层替 代钢筋受拉或替代抗拉的网 5受拉、 或替代受压区混凝土受压 (在正风压、 负风压交替 作用下, 预制板材保护层有时受拉、 有时受压) , 以及作为抗剪切材料 (建筑沿墙体平 面有位移时受到剪切力作用) , 即将预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 预制板材保护层具 有抗拉、 抗压及抗剪切承载力, 对预制保温墙板可以按混凝土结构的理论进行承载力设 计。 采用预制板材保护层时, 不必还沿着保护层内外配置抗拉的网或钢筋 (门窗洞口配 置的钢筋除外) ; 所述预制板材保护层位于预制保温墙板的两侧或一侧, 例如另一侧为 抹灰保护层, 抗拉的网 5位于另侧抹灰保护层内或表面, 见图 5、 图 12; 所述抗拉的网 5为耐碱网布、 金属网或为玄武岩纤维网等; 或室内侧为混凝土的内部保护层 15-8-2, 外部保护层 15-8-1为预制板材保护层, 或 /和预制保温墙板内部有铁件或混凝土连接件 60将预制保温墙板在室内部与建筑主体结构连接。  The difference between this embodiment and one of the first to third embodiments is that the present embodiment uses a prefabricated sheet protective layer instead of a steel bar that is pulled or replaced by a tensile reinforcement, or is replaced by a concrete in the compression zone (in the positive wind) Under the action of alternating pressure and negative wind pressure, the prefabricated sheet protective layer is sometimes subjected to tension and sometimes pressure), and as a shear-resistant material (the shearing force is applied when the building is displaced along the plane of the wall), The stressed material, the prefabricated sheet protective layer has tensile, compressive and shear bearing capacity, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wallboard can be designed according to the theory of concrete structure. When the prefabricated sheet protection layer is used, it is not necessary to arrange tensile nets or steel bars along the inside and outside of the protective layer (except for the steel bars arranged in the door and window openings); the prefabricated sheet protection layer is located on both sides or one side of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panels, for example, another One side is a plaster protective layer, and the tensile net 5 is located in or on the other side plaster protective layer, as shown in FIG. 5 and FIG. 12; the tensile net 5 is an alkali resistant mesh cloth, a metal mesh or a basalt fiber. The interior of the interior is a concrete inner protective layer 15-8-2, the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is a prefabricated sheet protective layer, or / and the prefabricated insulating wall panel has iron or concrete joints 60 which will be prefabricated The insulating wall panel is connected to the main structure of the building inside the room.
或还再在门窗洞口侧边设钢筋或薄壁型钢, 本实施方式可对全装配式安装的节能保 温墙体用结构公式进行承载力设计计算, 全装配式安装的节能保温墙体与建筑主体结构 具有同样的安全度。 而不是背景技术所述不能用结构公式计算的轻型墙体, 安全性差。  Or re-arranged steel or thin-walled steel on the side of the door and window opening. This embodiment can design and calculate the bearing capacity of the fully-assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall structure formula, fully assembled installation of energy-saving thermal insulation wall and building main body. The structure has the same degree of security. Rather than the lightweight wall that cannot be calculated using the structural formula as described in the background art, the safety is poor.
钢筋或薄壁轻钢参照以下构造设置:  Reinforced or thin-walled light steel is referred to the following construction settings:
在门窗洞口侧边设钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-7、 拉接钢丝 2-1, 所述钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-7包 括室外钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6、 除配筋混凝土内保护层以外其它全装配式安装的节能保温墙 体还包括室内钢筋或薄壁轻钢 7; 所述钢筋为单根钢筋, 或为并列的双钢筋。  On the side of the door and window opening, there are steel bars or thin-walled light steels 6-7 and pull-wires 2-1. The steel bars or thin-walled light steels 6-7 include outdoor steel bars or thin-walled light steels. The energy-saving thermal insulation wall of the fully assembled installation other than the layer also includes indoor steel or thin-walled light steel 7; the steel bar is a single steel bar, or is a parallel double steel bar.
门窗洞口是受力薄弱部位, 洞口边缘设置钢筋或薄壁轻钢可增加洞口侧边薄弱部位 抗弯承载力; 当采用钢骨架预制保温墙板时, 钢骨架就是钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-7, 或仅在 室外侧或室内侧一侧有钢骨架, 钢骨架一般采用薄壁钢材制作。 室外主要钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-1与结构承托件 1-1外端连接;或结构承托件 1-1的长度 比预制保温板短, 其长度不能满足与室外主要钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-1连接, 见图 23, 需要 在结构承托件 1-1外端设置悬挑钢桁架支承 1-1-5, 或将结构承托件 1-1局部延长形成混 凝土悬挑梁支承 1-1-5 (见已公幵专利 CN202611016U中图 2、 图 5 ) , 用悬挑钢桁架支 承 1-1-5或混凝土悬挑梁支承 1-1-5吊挂室外主要钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-1, 但这样增加了工 作量, 不推荐采用。 且由附表 1可见, 窗墙比 0.4、 结构承托件 1-1为局部点状设置时, 在 EPS板厚度 100mm、 300mm时, 其热桥增加的传热仅分别是薄抹灰保温墙体洞口热 桥的 1/4和 1/10, 增加传热很少, 且施工方便, 故不推荐图 23的构造, 而推荐采用图 4、 图 7局部点状设置的结构承托件 1-1。 The door and window openings are weak parts, and the steel bars or thin-walled light steel at the edge of the hole can increase the bending capacity of the weak parts of the side of the hole; when the steel frame is used to pre-heat the wallboard, the steel frame is the steel or thin-walled light steel 6- 7, or only on the outdoor side or on the side of the indoor side, there is a steel skeleton, and the steel skeleton is generally made of thin-walled steel. The outdoor main steel or thin-walled light steel 6-1 is connected with the outer end of the structural support member 1-1; or the length of the structural support member 1-1 is shorter than the pre-made insulation board, and its length cannot meet the main outdoor steel bar or thin wall Light steel 6-1 connection, see Figure 23, it is necessary to provide cantilever steel truss support 1-1-5 at the outer end of structural support member 1-1, or to partially extend structural support member 1-1 to form concrete cantilever beam Support 1-1-5 (see Figure 2, Figure 5 of the publicly-owned patent CN202611016U), support 1-1-5 or concrete cantilever beam support with cantilever steel truss 1-1-5 hanging outdoor main steel bar or thin Wall light steel 6-1, but this increases the workload and is not recommended. It can be seen from the attached table that when the window-to-wall ratio is 0.4 and the structural support member 1-1 is set as a local point, when the thickness of the EPS board is 100mm or 300mm, the heat transfer of the thermal bridge is only a thin plastering wall. The 1/4 and 1/10 of the thermal bridge of the body cavity has little heat transfer and is convenient for construction. Therefore, the structure of Fig. 23 is not recommended, and it is recommended to use the structural support member of the local point arrangement of Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 1.
已公开技术的钢桁架支承 1-1-5或混凝土悬挑梁支承 1-1-5只是起到吊挂钢筋作用, 不起到承托作用, 因为已公开技术安装保温层的方法与薄抹灰保温墙体相同, 安装小块 EPS板, EPS板之间有缝隙, 承托某一块 EPS板没有意义。 本发明的结构承托件上不一 定安装钢筋, 例如在无洞口墙体处就不需要安装钢筋, 节约钢材; 但已公开技术在无洞 口处的钢桁架支承 1-1-5或混凝土悬挑梁支承 1-1-5外端都需要安装钢筋, 用于吊挂抹灰 层, 这说明二者作用是不同的。 当保温层越厚时, 钢桁架支承 1-1-5或混凝土悬挑梁支 承 1-1-5的高度越高, 其断面垂直高、 水平宽度小; 而局部点状设置的结构承托件 1-1 有承托作用, 其断面垂直小、 水平宽度较长, 局部点状设置的结构承托件 1-1在热桥面 积(即断面积)与钢桁架支承 1-1-5或混凝土悬挑梁支承 1-1-5接近时, 既起到吊挂钢筋 的作用, 又起到承托作用。 因此本发明的结构承托件 1-1与钢桁架支承 1-1-5或混凝土悬 挑梁支承 1-1-5有不同点, 其作用超过了已公开技术的钢桁架支承 1-1-5或混凝土悬挑梁 支承 1-1-5, 既达到了方便施工安装预制保温板或安装预制保温墙板, 节约钢筋, 又可 满足洞口安装钢筋的要求。  The steel truss support 1-1-5 or the concrete cantilever beam support 1-1-5 of the prior art only serves to hang the reinforcing bar and does not serve as a support, because the method of installing the thermal insulation layer and the thin wipe have been disclosed. The gray insulation wall is the same, the small EPS board is installed, there is a gap between the EPS boards, and it is meaningless to support one EPS board. The structural support member of the present invention does not necessarily have steel bars installed. For example, there is no need to install steel bars at the wall without holes to save steel; however, the disclosed technology supports the steel truss support 1-1-5 or concrete cantilever at the non-porous opening. The outer ends of the beam supports 1-1-5 need to be installed with steel bars for hanging the plaster layer, which means that the two functions are different. When the insulation layer is thicker, the height of the steel truss support 1-1-5 or the concrete cantilever beam support 1-1-5 is higher, the section is vertical and the horizontal width is small; and the structural support of the local point arrangement 1-1 has supporting role, its section is small in vertical and horizontal width is long, and the structural support member 1-1 with local point arrangement is in the thermal bridge area (ie, the sectional area) and the steel truss support 1-1-5 or concrete suspension When the beam support 1-1-5 is approached, it not only plays the role of hanging steel bars, but also plays a supporting role. Therefore, the structural support member 1-1 of the present invention differs from the steel truss support 1-1-5 or the concrete cantilever beam support 1-1-5 in that it exceeds the prior art steel truss support 1-1- 5 or concrete cantilever beam support 1-1-5, not only to facilitate the construction and installation of prefabricated insulation panels or the installation of prefabricated insulation wall panels, saving steel, but also meet the requirements of the installation of steel bars at the hole.
通常情况下室外垂直钢筋为主要钢筋; 室外次要钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-2与主要钢筋或 薄壁轻钢 6-1连接, 例如窗口的室外水平钢筋通常为次要钢筋。  Normally, the outdoor vertical reinforcement is the main reinforcement; the outdoor secondary reinforcement or thin-walled light steel 6-2 is connected to the main reinforcement or thin-walled light steel 6-1, for example, the outdoor horizontal reinforcement of the window is usually the secondary reinforcement.
全装配式安装的节能保温墙体的室内主要钢筋或薄壁轻钢 7-1与结构承托件 1-1内 端连接, 或与建筑主体结构连接, 室内垂直钢筋或薄壁轻钢通常为主要钢筋; 室内次要 钢筋或薄壁轻钢 7-2与室内主要钢筋或薄壁轻钢 7-1连接, 例如窗口的室内水平钢筋或 薄壁轻钢通常为次要钢筋或薄壁轻钢; 室外钢筋 6、 室内钢筋 7为并列双钢筋时, 应设 置预制保温条板 15-1, 因为在预制保温条板 15-1内方便安装并列的双钢筋。 预制保温 条板 15-1实质也是预制保温墙板, 只是宽度窄, 内外两侧配筋。  The indoor main steel bar or thin-walled light steel 7-1 of the fully assembled and installed energy-saving thermal insulation wall is connected with the inner end of the structural support member 1-1 or connected with the main structure of the building. The indoor vertical steel bar or thin-walled light steel is usually Main steel bars; indoor secondary steel bars or thin-walled light steels 7-2 are connected to indoor main steel bars or thin-walled light steels 7-1. For example, indoor horizontal steel bars or thin-walled light steels in windows are usually secondary steel bars or thin-walled light steels. When the outdoor steel bar 6 and the indoor steel bar 7 are parallel double reinforcing bars, the prefabricated heat insulating strip plate 15-1 shall be provided, because it is convenient to install the parallel double reinforcing bars in the prefabricated heat insulating strip plate 15-1. Prefabricated insulation board 15-1 is also a prefabricated insulation wall board, but the width is narrow, and the inner and outer sides are reinforced.
总结以上构造: 室外钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6与结构承托件 1-1外端连接、 室内钢筋或薄 壁轻钢 7与结构承托件 1-1内端连接或建筑主体结构连接, 或钢筋、 薄壁轻钢位于碱性 材料保护层内 (如水泥聚合物砂浆保护层) , 推荐钢筋或薄壁轻钢与结构承托件连接。 拉接钢丝 2-1将室外钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6与基层墙体 10连接; 或拉接钢丝 2-1将室外 钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6与室内钢筋或薄壁轻钢 7之间连接。 Summarize the above structure: the outdoor steel bar or thin-walled light steel 6 is connected with the outer end of the structural support member 1-1, the indoor steel bar or the thin-walled light steel 7 is connected with the inner end of the structural support member 1-1 or the main structure of the building, or Reinforced steel and thin-walled light steel are located in the protective layer of alkaline material (such as cement polymer mortar protective layer). It is recommended to connect steel bars or thin-walled light steel to structural support members. Pull the steel wire 2-1 to connect the outdoor steel bar or the thin-walled light steel 6 to the base wall 10; or pull the wire 2-1 to connect the outdoor steel bar or the thin-walled light steel 6 with the indoor steel bar or the thin-walled light steel 7 .
钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-7位于预制保温板 15的保温层 15-3的缺口内, 见图 10、 图 12、 图 16; 或安装在预制保温板 15的外部保护层 15-8-1的外部, 见图 11、 图 13 ;  The steel or thin-walled light steel 6-7 is located in the gap of the insulating layer 15-3 of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15, see Fig. 10, Fig. 12, Fig. 16; or the outer protective layer 15-8-1 installed on the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15. External, see Figure 11, Figure 13;
或所述预制保温板 15不设有缺口, 在相邻预制保温板 15之间设有后安装带, 在后 安装带内安装保温层 15-3、 钢筋或薄壁轻钢 6-7, 在预制保温板 15接缝处, 设连接钢筋 与建筑主体结构的梁柱、 剪力墙连接, 将后安装带与建筑主体结构连接, 可植筋或预埋 安装连接钢筋。  Or the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is not provided with a gap, and a rear mounting belt is disposed between the adjacent prefabricated thermal insulation panels 15, and an insulation layer 15-3, a steel bar or a thin-walled light steel 6-7 is installed in the rear installation belt. The joints of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 are connected with the beams and columns and the shear wall connecting the steel bars to the main structure of the building, and the rear installation belts are connected with the main structure of the building, and the reinforcing bars can be implanted or pre-buried.
以下情况需要设置钢筋:  The following conditions require the reinforcement to be set:
1 ) 为避免窗口角部开裂应在窗口安装钢筋。  1) To avoid cracking of the corners of the window, the steel bars should be installed in the window.
2) 门窗洞口采取隔热断桥构造时, 洞口周边需有钢筋, 将窗户安装在洞口保温层 上, 门窗连接钢片交错与洞口钢筋上的钢片连接及与基层墙体连接。 洞口周边局部保温 层 15-3-3应为防火性能好、 保温性能好的材料, 如岩棉板、 硅酸铝保温板等。  2) When the door and window openings are constructed with heat-insulated bridges, steel bars are required around the holes, and the windows are installed on the insulation layer of the openings. The doors and windows are connected with steel sheets and connected with the steel sheets on the steel bars of the openings and connected to the base wall. Partial insulation layer around the hole 15-3-3 should be a material with good fire performance and good insulation performance, such as rock wool board, aluminum silicate insulation board, etc.
3 ) 实施方式七中②需要在钢筋上安装连接件 2与外部保护层 15-8-1连接时。 本实施方式将预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 扩大了预制板材的用途范围, 这是现 有建筑结构技术中所没有的, 也不是显而易见的。 其根据是:  3) In the seventh embodiment, the connector 2 is required to be attached to the reinforcing bar 2 when it is connected to the outer protective layer 15-8-1. In the present embodiment, the prefabricated sheet protective layer is used as a force-receiving material, which expands the range of use of the pre-formed sheet, which is not found in the existing building structure technology, and is not obvious. Its basis is:
水泥纤维板或硅酸钙板多年来只是作为装饰材料, 或作为轻钢龙骨的室内间隔墙的 面层使用。 有谁想到它可以作为受力材料, 对预制保温墙板可以按混凝土结构理论进行 承载力设计呢?  Cement fiberboard or calcium silicate boards have only been used as decorative materials for many years, or as a surface layer for indoor partition walls of light steel keels. Who would have thought that it could be used as a force-bearing material? Can the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panels be designed according to the concrete structure theory?
建筑专业、 材料专业的技术人员不懂结构知识, 或所知较少。 结构专业技术人员只 是利用结构理论和传统受力材料对梁、 板、 柱、 墙和基础进行设计, 参与现代墙体技术 研究的人少, 或者研究不深入, 对各种装饰材料了解少, 因觉得这不属于本专业范畴。 长期以来没有人提出利用预制板材保护层作为受力材料的设计理念。  Technicians in architecture and materials do not understand structural knowledge or know less. Structural professional technicians only use structural theory and traditional force materials to design beams, plates, columns, walls and foundations. There are few people involved in the research of modern wall technology, or the research is not deep, and there are few understandings of various decorative materials. I feel that this is not within the scope of this profession. For a long time, no one has proposed the design concept of using a prefabricated sheet protective layer as a force material.
本专利申请人长久以来也认为预制板材就是装饰用, 装饰材料也是需要一定强度 的, 但是很多装饰材料不能作为受力材料。 因此多年来也没有提出将其作为受力材料的 理念。 实施方式五:  The applicant of this patent has long believed that prefabricated panels are decorative, and decorative materials also require a certain amount of strength, but many decorative materials cannot be used as stressed materials. Therefore, the concept of using it as a material for force has not been proposed for many years. Embodiment 5:
本实施方式与实施方式一〜四之一的不同点在于, 本实施方式安装局部点状设置的 结构承托件 1-1, 及确定锚栓 20的安装位置采用以下安装方法:  The present embodiment differs from one of the first to fourth embodiments in that the present embodiment mounts the structural support member 1-1 provided in a partial dot shape, and determines the mounting position of the anchor 20 by the following mounting method:
在建筑主体结构的混凝土支模时, 在模板内部安装结构承托件 1-1, 以及在适合安 装锚栓 20的位置, 安装一片临时占位板, 例如临时占位板为木板薄片、 EPS板薄片, 通常 20mm厚即可, 临时占位板应避开建筑主体结构内的钢筋; 拆模时将临时占位板拆 掉, 混凝土侧面就会有一个凹陷位置, 可在凹陷处植筋安装局部点状设置的结构承托件 1-1 ; 或对应凹陷处安装锚栓 20, 固定预制保温板 15 ; 或 /和预制保温墙板内部有铁件或 混凝土连接件 60将预制保温墙板在室内部与建筑主体结构连接。 In the concrete formwork of the main structure of the building, the structural support member 1-1 is installed inside the formwork, and a temporary place-holder plate is installed at a position suitable for mounting the anchor bolt 20, for example, the temporary place-holder board is a wood board sheet, an EPS board. Sheet, usually 20mm thick, the temporary placeholder should avoid the steel bars in the main structure of the building; remove the temporary placeholder when demolishing, there will be a recessed position on the side of the concrete, and the part can be installed in the recess Point-shaped structural support 1-1; or the anchor bolt 20 is installed corresponding to the recess, and the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 is fixed; or/and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel has iron or concrete connecting member 60 to connect the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel to the main structure of the building inside.
本实施方式的优点: 1 )安装局部点状设置的结构承托件 1-1时不破坏混凝土模板, 支模方便; 且后浇筑的局部结构承托件 1-1与建筑主体结构的混凝土连接面的抗剪切承 载力好, 安全可靠。 2)安装预制保温板时, 锚栓不会与建筑主体结构混凝土内的钢筋相 撞。 本实施方式提出的安装局部点状设置的结构承托件 1-1和锚栓 20的方法, 是现有技 术所没有的, 也不是显而易见的。 因为在建筑主体结构上有悬挑构件外伸时, 现在都是 一次支模浇筑完成, 没有本实施方式的施工方法, 更没有这种预先确定锚栓安装位置的 施工方法。 实施方式六:  Advantages of the embodiment: 1) When the structural support member 1-1 is installed in a local point, the concrete formwork is not damaged, and the mold is convenient; and the post-casting partial structural support member 1-1 is connected to the concrete of the main structure of the building. The surface has good shear resistance and is safe and reliable. 2) When installing the prefabricated insulation board, the anchor bolt will not collide with the reinforcement in the concrete of the main structure of the building. The method of mounting the structural support member 1-1 and the anchor bolt 20 provided in the present embodiment in the present embodiment is not and is not obvious in the prior art. Since there is a overhanging of the overhanging member on the main structure of the building, it is now completed by one-time casting, without the construction method of the present embodiment, and there is no such construction method for predetermining the mounting position of the anchor. Embodiment 6:
图 5、 图 24〜图 26, 本实施方式与实施方式三〜五之一的不同点在于, 本实施方式还 增加滑移构件 50; 所述预制保温墙板 15-2与建筑主体结构的柱或剪力墙 10-1外侧连 接, 在柱或剪力墙 10-1侧边设有弹性伸缩缝 30, 见图 5 ; 位于弹性伸缩缝之间的预制保 温墙板 15-2的一端与建筑主体结构的梁板 10-2外侧面连接, 构成装配式节能保温墙体 固定端, 另一端为滑移端, 预制保温墙板 15-2与建筑主体结构的柱或剪力墙 10-1不连 接; 用锚栓 20将预制保温墙板 15-2固定端与建筑主体结构连接, 或还用胶结材料粘 结, 或在室内侧还有铁件或混凝土连接件 60固定。  5, FIG. 24 to FIG. 26, the difference between this embodiment and one of the third to fifth embodiments is that the present embodiment further increases the sliding member 50; the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 and the column of the main structure of the building Or the outer side of the shear wall 10-1, with elastic expansion joints 30 on the side of the column or shear wall 10-1, see Figure 5; one end of the prefabricated insulation wall panel 15-2 between the elastic expansion joints and the building The outer side of the beam plate 10-2 of the main structure is connected to form a fixed end of the assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall, and the other end is a sliding end. The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 and the pillar or shear wall 10-1 of the main structure of the building are not Connection; The fixed end of the prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15-2 is connected to the main structure of the building by anchor bolts 20, or is also bonded with a cement material, or is fixed by an iron or concrete joint 60 on the indoor side.
滑移构件 50位于装配式节能保温墙体滑移端与结构承托件 1-1之间, 即滑移构件 50位于预制保温墙板 15-2滑移端的端头与结构承托件 1-1之间; 在预制保温墙板 15-2 的端头有滑移构件 50; 或预制保温墙板 15-2的端头有滑移构件 50的部分零件, 滑移构 件 50的其余部分零件位于结构承托件 1-1上; 所述滑移构件 50具有不限制装配式节能 保温墙体在墙体平面内位移的功能; 形成可滑移的装配式节能保温墙体。  The sliding member 50 is located between the sliding end of the assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall and the structural support member 1-1, that is, the sliding member 50 is located at the end of the sliding end of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2 and the structural support member 1 - Between 1; there is a sliding member 50 at the end of the prefabricated insulating wall panel 15-2; or the end of the prefabricated insulating wall panel 15-2 has a part of the sliding member 50, and the remaining parts of the sliding member 50 are located The structural support member 1-1; the sliding member 50 has a function of not restricting the displacement of the assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall in the plane of the wall; forming a slip-fit assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall.
所述滑移构件 50有以下 2种构造:  The sliding member 50 has the following two configurations:
1 ) 、 滑移构件 50包括滑移件 50-1、 钢滑槽 50-2、 减震橡胶垫 50-3, 滑移件 50-1 与钢滑槽 50-2之间有减震橡胶垫 50-3 ; 滑移件 50-1位于预制保温墙板 15-2的滑移端, 钢滑槽 50-2安装在结构承托件 1-1内, 减震橡胶垫 50-3安装在钢滑槽 50-2内;  1) The sliding member 50 includes a sliding member 50-1, a steel sliding slot 50-2, a damping rubber pad 50-3, and a damping rubber pad between the sliding member 50-1 and the steel sliding slot 50-2. 50-3; the sliding member 50-1 is located at the sliding end of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel 15-2, the steel sliding slot 50-2 is installed in the structural support member 1-1, and the damping rubber pad 50-3 is mounted on the steel Inside the chute 50-2;
即组成滑移构件 50的滑移件 50-1安装在装配式节能保温墙体滑移端, 滑移构件 50 另一部分零件中的钢滑槽 50-2与减震橡胶垫 50-3安装在装配式节能保温墙体固定端, 滑移端的滑移件 50-1可在钢滑槽 50-2及减震橡胶垫 50-3内滑移; 钢滑槽 50-2及减震橡 胶垫 50-3是限位器, 限制装配式节能保温墙体在钢滑槽 50-2内滑动;  That is, the sliding member 50-1 constituting the sliding member 50 is installed at the sliding end of the assembled energy-saving heat insulating wall, and the steel sliding groove 50-2 and the damping rubber pad 50-3 of the other part of the sliding member 50 are installed at The fixed end of the assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall, the sliding part 50-1 of the sliding end can slide in the steel sliding slot 50-2 and the damping rubber pad 50-3; the steel sliding groove 50-2 and the damping rubber pad 50 -3 is a limiter that restricts the assembly of the energy-saving thermal insulation wall from sliding in the steel chute 50-2;
2) 、 滑移件 50-1还可为减震胶轮或弹簧减震垫等 (未画图表示) 。 应预制前面所述的预制保温条板 15-1, 将滑移构件 50的零件分别安装在预制保温 条板 15-1端头和结构承托件 1-1内, 滑移构件 50随同预制保温条板 15-1安装方便, 将 预制保温条板 15-1安装固定后, 再安装预制保温墙板 15-2。 2) The sliding member 50-1 can also be a damping rubber wheel or a spring damping pad (not shown). The prefabricated insulation strip 15-1 described above shall be prefabricated, and the parts of the sliding member 50 shall be respectively installed in the end of the prefabricated insulation strip 15-1 and the structural support member 1-1, and the sliding member 50 may be prefabricated along with the prefabrication The strip 15-1 is conveniently installed, and the prefabricated heat insulating strip 15-1 is installed and fixed, and then the prefabricated insulating wall panel 15-2 is installed.
设置滑移构件的目的是, 在风荷载或水平地震作用下, 装配式节能保温墙体滑移端 与固定端之间发生相对位移, 滑移件在钢滑槽的减震橡胶垫内移动, 减震橡胶垫在三个 方向都起到减震作用, 装配式节能保温墙体是可滑移的、 及在三个方向减震的墙体。 实施方式七:  The purpose of setting the sliding member is that under the action of wind load or horizontal earthquake, the relative displacement between the sliding end and the fixed end of the assembled energy-saving thermal insulation wall, the sliding member moves in the damping rubber pad of the steel sliding slot, The shock absorbing rubber mat acts as a shock absorber in all three directions, and the assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall is a wall that can be slid and damped in three directions. Embodiment 7:
本实施方式与实施方式一〜六之一的不同点在于, 本实施方式增加防火措施, 根据 使用需要选择一种或多种:  The difference between this embodiment and one of the first to sixth embodiments is that the present embodiment increases the fire prevention measures, and one or more types are selected according to the use requirements:
1 ) 、 设置拉接件 2固定外部保护层 15-8-1, 避免失火时外部保护层 15-8-1脱落、 发生危险, 引起火灾蔓延; 拉接件 2的安装有以下几种方式, 根据使用需要选择:  1) Set the connecting member 2 to fix the outer protective layer 15-8-1 to avoid the external protective layer 15-8-1 falling off during a fire, causing danger and causing fire to spread; the mounting of the connecting member 2 is as follows: Choose according to your needs:
①、 拉接件 2将外部保护层 15-8-1与结构承托件 1-1连接; 如图 9拉接件 2为钢板 条;  1. Pulling member 2 connects the outer protective layer 15-8-1 with the structural receiving member 1-1; as shown in Fig. 9, the pulling member 2 is a steel strip;
②、 拉接件 2内端与基层墙体 10连接, 或拉接件 2内端与钢筋 6固定, 拉接件 2 外端与外部保护层 15-8-1连接; 拉接件 2可为钢片, 或拉接钢丝 2-1兼做拉接件 2; 在 外部保护层 15-8-1上钻孔, 将拉接钢丝 2-1穿过外部保护层 15-8-1连接, 见图 1、 图 10~ 图 13、 图 16;  2. The inner end of the pull member 2 is connected with the base wall 10, or the inner end of the pull member 2 is fixed with the steel bar 6, and the outer end of the pull member 2 is connected with the outer protective layer 15-8-1; the pull member 2 can be Steel sheet, or pull wire 2-1 also serves as puller 2; drill holes in outer protective layer 15-8-1, connect pull wire 2-1 through outer protective layer 15-8-1, see Figure 1, Figure 10 ~ Figure 13, Figure 16;
③、 在相邻外部保护层 15-8-1之间接缝处设置拉接件 2, 拉接件 2将相邻外部保护 层 15-8-1连接, 例如拉接件 2为图 14的 U型薄钢板条, U型薄钢板条既可起到拉接作 用, 又可适应变形;  3. A puller 2 is disposed at a joint between adjacent outer protective layers 15-8-1, and the puller 2 connects adjacent outer protective layers 15-8-1, for example, the puller 2 is U of FIG. Type thin steel strip, U-shaped thin steel strip can both pull and adapt to deformation;
2) 、 采用加强外部保护层 15-8-1接缝的防火措施, 见图 15 :  2), using the fire protection measures to strengthen the outer protective layer 15-8-1 joint, see Figure 15:
例如: 在外部保护层 15-8-1接缝之间安装防火材料 40, 如接缝处刮抹防火胶泥或 嵌入硅酸铝防火棉; 或在接缝内侧有防火材料 40, 如接缝内局部宽度范围有保温砂 浆, 或在外部保护层 15-8-1接缝的内侧安装条带状搭接预制板材 15-8-3, 条带状搭接预 制板材 15-8-3将接缝处外部保护层 15-8-1加厚, 还兼作为防火材料 40;  For example: Install fireproof material 40 between the outer protective layer 15-8-1 joints, such as fireproof mortar or embedded aluminum silicate fireproof cotton at the joint; or fireproof material 40 inside the joint, such as inside the joint The local width range is insulated with mortar, or the inner layer of the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is installed with a strip-shaped overlapping prefabricated plate 15-8-3, and the strip-shaped overlapping prefabricated plate 15-8-3 will be seamed. The outer protective layer 15-8-1 is thickened and also serves as a fireproof material 40;
3 ) 、 采取加强门窗口侧面保温层的防火构造, 见图 1、 图 10〜图 13、 图 16:  3) Take the fireproof structure of the side insulation layer of the door window, see Figure 1, Figure 10~13, Figure 16:
将预制保温板 15位于门窗口周围的外部保护层 15-8-1加宽, 洞口侧面保温层 15-3-4 的保护层为预制板材保护层 15-8-4, 将预制板材保护层 15-8-4与墙体正立面的外部保护 层 15-8-1固定(粘贴加钉固定); 所述预制板材保护层 15-8-4具有防火性能, 在外部保 护层 15-8-1、 洞口侧面预制板材保护层 15-8-4与门窗框之间的空腔内有洞口侧面保温层 15-3-4; 安装岩棉板、 硅酸铝防火保温板作为洞口侧面保温层 15-3-4为宜;  The outer protective layer 15 is located outside the door window and the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is widened. The protective layer of the side insulating layer 15-3-4 is a prefabricated protective layer 15-8-4, and the prefabricated protective layer 15 -8-4 is fixed to the outer protective layer 15-8-1 of the front side of the wall (adhesive fixing); the prefabricated sheet protective layer 15-8-4 has fireproof performance, in the outer protective layer 15-8- 1. The side between the prefabricated sheet protective layer 15-8-4 and the door and window frame has a hole side insulation layer 15-3-4; the rock wool board and the aluminum silicate fire insulation board are installed as the hole side insulation layer 15 -3-4 is appropriate;
采用有机保温材料时, 第 2)、 第 3 )防火构造可防止失火时火焰串入相邻预制保温 板的保温材料内部; 4) 、 在锚栓 20外端安装防火材料; When using organic insulation materials, the 2) and 3) fireproof structures prevent the flame from entering the interior of the insulation material of the adjacent prefabricated insulation board during a fire; 4) Install fireproof material on the outer end of the anchor bolt 20;
5 )、 采用周边粘贴与中间局部点粘相结合的方法安装预制保温板 15, 或按 100%面 积或接近 100%面积粘贴安装预制保温板 15 ;  5), install the prefabricated thermal insulation board by the method of combining the peripheral paste and the intermediate local point glue, or paste the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15 by 100% area or close to 100% area;
6)、 隔热断桥洞口内保温层 15-3-3为满足防火要求的保温材料, 如洞口用岩棉板、 硅酸铝防火板, 见图 1、 图 10〜图 13 ;  6), thermal insulation broken bridge inner insulation layer 15-3-3 to meet the fire protection requirements of thermal insulation materials, such as rock wool board, aluminum silicate fire board, see Figure 1, Figure 10 ~ Figure 13;
7) 、 或在预制保温板 15的保温层 15-3的横断面或 /和内侧表面还有内部防火层; 例如涂刷防火涂料作为内部防火层, 或在保温层 15-3内还有防火隔离带;  7) or an internal fireproof layer on the cross section or/and the inner side surface of the insulating layer 15-3 of the prefabricated thermal insulation board 15; for example, a fireproof coating is applied as an internal fireproof layer, or there is fire protection in the insulation layer 15-3 Isolation zone
8 ) 、 不同部位外部保护层 15-8-1厚度不同; 如窗上墙的外部保护层 15-8-1厚度大 于窗间墙的外部保护层 15-8-1厚度;  8), different parts of the outer protective layer 15-8-1 thickness; such as the outer protective layer of the window upper wall 15-8-1 thickness is greater than the outer protective layer of the window wall 15-8-1 thickness;
9) 、 在外部保护层 15-8-1表面抹胶粉聚苯颗粒保温浆料、 保温砂浆, 以及抹水泥 砂浆, 可进一步加强保护层防火, 形成一种预制板材与抹灰层的复合层保护层。  9) In the outer protective layer 15-8-1, the surface of the rubber powder polystyrene granule insulation slurry, thermal insulation mortar, and trowel mortar can further strengthen the fire protection of the protective layer to form a composite layer of prefabricated plate and plaster layer. The protective layer.
或 /和预制保温墙板 15-2内部有铁件或混凝土连接件 60将预制保温墙板 15-2在室内 部与建筑主体结构连接。  Or / and prefabricated insulation wall panels 15-2 have iron or concrete joints inside. 60 The prefabricated insulation wall panels 15-2 are connected to the main structure of the building in the interior.
本实施方式的诸多防火构造是已公开技术所没有的, 也不是显而易见的, 在装配式 墙体技术中未见有此规定或工程实例。 实施方式八:  Many of the fire protection constructions of the present embodiment are not disclosed in the prior art and are not readily apparent. This specification or engineering example is not found in the fabricated wall technology. Embodiment 8:
图 20〜图 22, 本实施方式与实施方式一〜七之一的不同点在于, 本实施方式增加预 埋钢板 15-8-5、 装饰板 21、 连接铁件 22; 所述外部保护层 15-8-1内有预埋钢板 15-8-5, 连接铁件 22与预埋钢板 15-8-5连接,如用自攻自钻螺钉 22-3将连接铁件 22内端钢板与 外部保护层 15-8-1内预埋钢板 15-8-5连接; 或用螺栓(用 M2.5或 M3不锈钢螺栓为宜, 增加的传热仅仅是钢龙骨的 5~10%左右) 穿过节能保温墙体, 将连接铁件 22根部的钢 板固定在节能保温墙体的外保护层 15-8-1上 (再用结构胶辅助粘结固定为宜) , 未画图 表示; 或 /和还用端头具有扩大功能的紧固件连接, 或用局部粘接件 25辅助连接; 装饰 板 21与连接铁件 22外端连接安装, 形成一种节能保温墙体的装饰幕墙; 或 /和预制保温 墙板 15-2的内部有铁件或混凝土连接件 60将预制保温墙板 15-2在室内部与建筑主体结 构连接。 将装饰幕墙与外部保护层 15-8-1连接的构造有以下连接方式:  20 to 22, the present embodiment differs from one of the first to seventh embodiments in that the present embodiment increases the embedded steel plate 15-8-5, the decorative panel 21, and the connecting iron member 22; the outer protective layer 15 There is a pre-embedded steel plate 15-8-5 in -8-1, and the connecting iron piece 22 is connected with the pre-buried steel plate 15-8-5. If the self-drilling self-drilling screw 22-3 is used, the inner end plate of the iron piece 22 is connected with the outer part. Pre-embedded steel plate 15-8-5 in protective layer 15-8-1; or bolted (use M2.5 or M3 stainless steel bolts, the added heat transfer is only about 5~10% of steel keel) For the energy-saving insulation wall, the steel plate connecting the 22nd part of the iron piece is fixed on the outer protective layer 15-8-1 of the energy-saving heat-insulating wall body (recombination with the structural glue to assist the bonding), not shown; or / and also Attached by a fastener having an enlarged function at the end, or by a partial bonding member 25; the decorative panel 21 is connected to the outer end of the connecting iron member 22 to form a decorative curtain wall of an energy-saving heat insulating wall; or/and prefabricated The interior of the insulating wall panel 15-2 has iron or concrete connectors 60. The prefabricated thermal insulation panel 15-2 is inside the room and the building. Body connection structure. The structure connecting the decorative curtain wall to the outer protective layer 15-8-1 has the following connection methods:
1 ) 连接铁件 22直接将与装饰板 21与外部保护层 15-8-1内预埋钢板 15-8-5连接; 或设钢制小牛腿 22-1、 龙骨 22-2, 见图 20; 即连接铁件 22包括钢制小牛腿 22-1、 龙骨 22-2; 龙骨 22-2包括垂直龙骨、 水平龙骨, 钢制小牛腿 22-1、 龙骨 22-2通常用工 字钢、 槽钢、 角钢、 方钢; 钢制小牛腿 22-1内端有钢板, 用自攻自钻螺钉 22-3穿过钢 板及外部保护层 15-8-1, 与预埋钢板 15-8-5连接, 图 20的钢制小牛腿 22-1为方钢; 方 钢端头有钢板, 用自攻自钻螺钉 22-3将钢制小牛腿 22-1与预埋钢板 15-8-5连接, 龙骨 22-2为槽钢与钢制小牛腿 22-1连接;装饰板 21侧面开槽插入弯折的连接钢片 22-4并在 槽内用胶粘结, 用自攻自钻螺钉将连接钢片 22-4与槽钢 22-2连接, 并用结构胶粘贴, 在相邻装饰板缝隙之间刮抹弹性密封胶, 形成装饰分隔缝; 或钢制小牛腿 22-1与预制保 温板 15接缝处钢筋周围的细石混凝土或聚合物水泥细石混凝土 26锚固连接, 见图 22, 从而将钢制小牛腿 22-1与外部保护层 15-8-1连接; 龙骨 22-2与钢制小牛腿 22-1外端连 接, 以及与结构承托件 1-1连接; 将装饰板 21安装到龙骨 22-2上。 1) The connecting iron member 22 is directly connected to the decorative plate 21 and the embedded steel plate 15-8-5 in the outer protective layer 15-8-1; or the steel calf leg 22-1 and the keel 22-2 are shown. 20; that is, the connecting iron 22 includes a steel calf leg 22-1, a keel 22-2; the keel 22-2 includes a vertical keel, a horizontal keel, a steel calf leg 22-1, a keel 22-2 usually made of I-beam , channel steel, angle steel, square steel; steel calf leg 22-1 at the inner end of the steel plate, with self-tapping self-drilling screws 22-3 through the steel plate and outer protective layer 15-8-1, and embedded steel plate 15- 8-5 connection, the steel calf leg 22-1 of Figure 20 is square steel; the square steel end has steel plate, and the steel calf leg 22-1 and the embedded steel plate 15 are self-tapping self-drilling screws 22-3 -8-5 connection, the keel 22-2 is connected to the steel calf leg 22-1; the side of the decorative panel 21 is slotted into the bent connecting steel piece 22-4 and The groove is glued together, and the connecting steel piece 22-4 is connected with the channel steel 22-2 by self-tapping self-drilling screws, and is pasted with structural glue, and the elastic sealing glue is scraped between the gaps of the adjacent decorative plates to form a decoration. Separate joints; or steel calf legs 22-1 and the prefabricated insulation board 15 joints at the joints of the fine stone concrete or polymer cement fine stone concrete 26 anchor connection, see Figure 22, thus the steel calf legs 22- 1 is connected to the outer protective layer 15-8-1; the keel 22-2 is connected to the outer end of the steel calf leg 22-1, and is connected to the structural support member 1-1; the decorative plate 21 is attached to the keel 22-2 on.
设钢制小牛腿 22-1与连接铁件 22直接与预埋钢板 15-8-5连接比, 预埋钢板 15-8-5 的数量少, 安装装饰板 21与龙骨 22-2连接时更方便。  The steel calf leg 22-1 and the connecting iron member 22 are directly connected to the embedded steel plate 15-8-5, and the number of the embedded steel plate 15-8-5 is small, and when the decorative plate 21 is attached to the keel 22-2. more convenient.
2) 用螺栓穿过节能保温墙体, 将钢制小牛腿 22-1根部的钢板固定在的外保护层 15-8-1上;  2) bolt through the energy-saving thermal insulation wall, and fix the steel plate of the steel calf leg 22-1 to the outer protective layer 15-8-1;
3 ) 将端头具有扩大功能的紧固件穿过连接铁件 22及外部保护层 15-8-1, 与外部保 护层 15-8-1内预埋钢板 15-8-5固定, 连接铁件 22外端与装饰板 21固定;  3) The fastener with the enlarged function of the end is passed through the connecting iron member 22 and the outer protective layer 15-8-1, and is fixed with the embedded steel plate 15-8-5 in the outer protective layer 15-8-1, and the iron is connected. The outer end of the member 22 is fixed to the decorative panel 21;
端头具有扩大功能的紧固件类似于托克斯钉, 但是托克斯钉内端的扩大头是塑料, 本发明的紧固件不能用塑料, 因失火时不安全, 应该用钢件。  The fastener with the enlarged function at the end is similar to the tox nail, but the enlarged head of the inner end of the tox nail is plastic. The fastener of the present invention cannot be made of plastic, and steel is used because it is unsafe during fire.
4) 增加粘结件 25, 用胶粘剂将粘结件 25与外部保护层 15-8-1和装饰板 21粘结连 接, 形成一种干湿结合安装的装饰幕墙, 见图 20、 图 22。 外部保护层 15-8-1内有聚合 物水泥细石混凝土 26,用射钉 22-3将钢制小牛腿 22-1与聚合物水泥细石混凝土 26连接; 粘结件 25选用轻质无机材料为宜, 例如竖丝岩棉抗拉强度高, 用耐久性好的丙烯 酸酯乳液配制的胶粘剂, 竖丝岩棉可与保护层 15-8-1及装饰层 2可靠连结。  4) Adding the bonding member 25, bonding the bonding member 25 to the outer protective layer 15-8-1 and the decorative panel 21 with an adhesive to form a decorative curtain wall which is dry and wetly mounted, as shown in Figs. 20 and 22. The outer protective layer 15-8-1 has a polymer cement fine stone concrete 26, and the steel calf leg 22-1 is connected with the polymer cement fine stone concrete 26 by the nail 22-3; the bonding member 25 is light in weight. Inorganic materials are suitable. For example, the vertical tensile wool has high tensile strength, and the adhesive prepared by the durable acrylate emulsion can be reliably connected with the protective layer 15-8-1 and the decorative layer 2.
粘结件 25的作用是, 在装饰板面积较大时, 例如装饰板规格为 800x 1200mm时, 在装饰板中部粘贴安装一块竖丝岩棉, 既简单、 又大幅度增加安装可靠性, 避免装饰板 挠度较大, 发生变形。  The function of the bonding member 25 is that when the decorative panel has a large area, for example, when the decorative panel is 800x 1200 mm, a vertical silk wool is attached and attached in the middle of the decorative panel, which is simple and greatly increases the installation reliability and avoids decoration. The plate has a large deflection and is deformed.
装饰板 21与外部保护层 15-8-1之间应有一定距离, 形成贯通的空气层, 在装饰幕 墙顶部应留有开口, 并有混凝土压顶或斜屋面板遮住开口, 避免雨水进入, 见图 21 ; 在 窗口周边应有岩棉填塞, 其余位置没有必要填塞岩棉。 贯通的空气层有利于失火时热量 迅速散失, 即使保温层为岩棉等无机保温材料, 也可减少保护层在高温下的破坏。 还有 其它诸多优点, 见本发明技术效果第 10点。  There should be a certain distance between the decorative panel 21 and the outer protective layer 15-8-1 to form a continuous air layer. There should be an opening at the top of the decorative curtain wall, and a concrete pressing roof or a sloping roof panel to cover the opening to prevent rainwater from entering. See Figure 21; there should be rock wool packing around the window, and there is no need to fill the rock wool in other locations. The through air layer is beneficial to the rapid loss of heat during the fire. Even if the insulation layer is an inorganic thermal insulation material such as rock wool, the damage of the protective layer at high temperatures can be reduced. There are many other advantages, see point 10 of the technical effect of the present invention.
本实施方式用连接铁件 22或钢制小牛腿 22-1 (钢制小牛腿 22-1也是连接铁件) 与 外部保护层 15-8-1内预埋钢板 15-8-5连接, 或与细石混凝土 26锚固连接, 与传统幕墙 安装构造比, 可减小龙骨规格, 减少用钢量, 降低造价。 本实施方式的装饰幕墙可以称 之为小幕墙, 但与当前传统装饰幕墙安装构造不同, 传统装饰幕墙是龙骨穿过保温层与 建筑主体结构或基层墙体连接, 不能与节能保温墙体的外部保护层连接, 传统装饰幕墙 的用钢量多、 传热多, 而本发明用钢量少得多, 且不发生龙骨热桥。  In the present embodiment, the connecting iron member 22 or the steel calf leg 22-1 (the steel calf leg 22-1 is also a connecting iron member) is connected to the embedded steel plate 15-8-5 in the outer protective layer 15-8-1. , or anchored to the fine stone concrete 26, compared with the traditional curtain wall installation structure, can reduce the keel specifications, reduce the amount of steel used, reduce the cost. The decorative curtain wall of the present embodiment can be called a small curtain wall, but unlike the current traditional decorative curtain wall installation structure, the traditional decorative curtain wall is a keel that is connected to the main structure of the building or the base wall through the insulation layer, and cannot be external to the energy-saving thermal insulation wall. The protective layer is connected, and the traditional decorative curtain wall has a large amount of steel and a large amount of heat transfer, and the amount of steel used in the invention is much less, and the keel heat bridge does not occur.
在外部保护层 15-8-1内预埋的薄壁轻钢骨架就是预埋钢板 15-8-5。 火灾时钢制小牛腿 22-1的热量透过外部保护层 15-8-1将传给保温层 15-3, 为避免 或减少保温层 15-3的破坏, 可在钢制小牛腿 22-1端头与外部保护层 15-8-1之间安装隔 热材料, 如用硅酸钙板作为隔热材料。 自攻自钻螺钉穿过硅酸钙板、 外部保护层 15-8-1 与预埋钢板 15-8-5连接。 The thin-walled light steel skeleton embedded in the outer protective layer 15-8-1 is the pre-embedded steel plate 15-8-5. In the event of fire, the heat of the steel calf leg 22-1 will be transmitted to the insulation layer 15-3 through the outer protective layer 15-8-1. In order to avoid or reduce the damage of the insulation layer 15-3, the steel calf leg can be used. A heat insulating material is installed between the end of the 22-1 and the outer protective layer 15-8-1, such as a calcium silicate board as a heat insulating material. The self-tapping self-drilling screw is connected to the pre-buried steel plate 15-8-5 through the calcium silicate board, the outer protective layer 15-8-1.
有以下 2点依据说明本实施方式是现有技术所没有的, 也不是显而易见的: The following two points are based on the description that the present embodiment is not available in the prior art, and is not obvious:
1、未见有安装装饰幕墙的连接铁件与外保温墙体的外部保护层连接的技术规定或工 程实例, 也未见用螺栓穿过节能保温墙体, 将钢制小牛腿 22-1固定在的外保护层 15-8-1 上的技术规定或工程实例。 1. There are no technical regulations or engineering examples for connecting the connecting iron parts of the decorative curtain wall with the outer protective layer of the external thermal insulation wall, nor for bolting through the energy-saving thermal insulation wall, the steel calf legs 22-1 Technical specifications or engineering examples attached to the outer protective layer 15-8-1.
现在传统装饰幕墙的连接铁件是钢龙骨, 钢龙骨是型钢或薄壁型钢, 钢龙骨都是穿 过保温层与建筑主体结构或基层墙体连接, 所以凡是幕墙建筑因为有型钢骨架与建筑主 体结构或基层墙体连接, 钢骨架成为大量热量流失的通道, 节能保温很不好。  Now the connecting iron parts of the traditional decorative curtain wall are steel keels. The steel keels are steel or thin-walled steel. The steel keels are connected to the main structure of the building or the base wall through the insulation layer. Therefore, the curtain wall construction has the steel skeleton and the main body of the building. The structure or the base wall is connected, and the steel skeleton becomes a passage for a large amount of heat loss, and the energy-saving insulation is very bad.
而本实施方式用自攻自钻螺钉将连接铁件内端钢板与外部保护层内预埋钢板连接 时, 不发生连接铁件传热; 用螺栓穿过节能保温墙体, 将连接铁件根部的钢板固定在外 保护层上时, 钢龙骨也不穿过保温层, 螺栓的面积比型钢小得多, 这是当前幕墙装饰所 没有的, 也不是显而易见的。  In the embodiment, when the inner end steel plate of the connecting iron piece is connected with the pre-embedded steel plate in the outer protective layer by the self-tapping self-drilling screw, heat transfer of the connecting iron piece does not occur; the bolt is passed through the energy-saving heat insulating wall body, and the root of the iron piece is connected When the steel plate is fixed on the outer protective layer, the steel keel does not pass through the insulation layer. The area of the bolt is much smaller than that of the profile steel. This is not obvious in the current curtain wall decoration, and it is not obvious.
2、 没有人想到在外保温墙体上的外部保护层上安装装饰幕墙带来的巨大利益 (见本 发明技术效果第 10条所述) , 所以没有人研究。  2. No one has thought of the great benefits of installing a decorative curtain wall on the outer protective layer on the external thermal insulation wall (see the technical effect of Article 10), so no one studies it.
就连夹芯保温墙体外部保护层为 120mm厚砖砌体 (建筑中称为外叶砌体) , 或夹 芯混凝土墙的外部保护层为 50~100mm厚配筋混凝土 (称为外叶混凝土) , 都没有把装 饰幕墙的连接铁件与外叶砌体保护层或外叶混凝土保护层连接的技术规定或工程实例。 因为人们认为: 外叶砌体或外叶混凝土不是建筑主体结构, 承受装饰幕墙传来的风荷载 及重力等不安全; 且外保温墙体的外部保护层比夹芯保温墙体的外叶砌体或外叶混凝土 保护层薄弱得多, 所以没有人想到可以把幕墙的连接铁件与外保温墙体的外部保护层连 接。  Even the outer protective layer of the sandwich insulation wall is 120mm thick brick masonry (called outer leaf masonry in the building), or the outer protective layer of the sandwich concrete wall is 50~100mm thick reinforced concrete (called outer leaf concrete) There are no technical regulations or engineering examples for connecting the connecting iron parts of the decorative curtain wall with the outer leaf masonry protective layer or the outer leaf concrete protective layer. Because people think that: outer leaf masonry or outer leaf concrete is not the main structure of the building, it is unsafe to bear the wind load and gravity caused by the decorative curtain wall; and the outer protective layer of the outer thermal insulation wall is more than the outer layer of the sandwich thermal insulation wall The concrete protection of the body or outer blade is much weaker, so no one thought that the connecting iron of the curtain wall could be connected to the outer protective layer of the external thermal insulation wall.
但在本发明的节能保温墙体上, 按本实施方式安装装饰幕墙, 有技术效果第 10条 所述的诸多好处, 为何没有人想到呢?这说明本实施方式的这种创意不是显而易见的。  However, in the energy-saving and heat-insulating wall of the present invention, installing the decorative curtain wall according to the present embodiment has many advantages as described in Article 10 of the technical effect, why no one thinks of it? This shows that the idea of the present embodiment is not obvious.
外装饰是建筑师考虑的范畴, 建筑师具有的结构理论基础与结构工程师相差很多, 虽然建筑师想美化建筑, 但因为建筑师没有坚实的结构理论基础, 没有如本专利申请人 为解决节能保温墙体的诸多问题, 在长期研究中做出的巨大付出, 所以至今没有建筑师 提出本实施方式。 结构工程师考虑的是属于建筑主体结构范畴的梁板柱基础设计和研 究, 不考虑外装饰、 不考虑建筑节能及节能建筑防火, 所以至今没有结构工程师提出本 实施方式。 本实施方式的装饰幕墙与传统装饰幕墙与建筑主体结构连接安装的构造不同, 用钢 量比传统装饰幕墙少, 降低造价。 在预制板材的外部保护层上或预制的抹灰层或混凝土 层时都可以保证连接铁件 22安装的安全性。 The exterior decoration is the category considered by the architect. The structural theory of the architect has a lot different from that of the structural engineer. Although the architect wants to beautify the building, because the architect does not have a solid structural theory foundation, there is no such thing as the patent applicant to solve the energy-saving thermal insulation wall. Many problems in the body, great efforts made in long-term research, so no architect has proposed this embodiment. The structural engineer considers the design and research of the beam-slab column foundation belonging to the main structure of the building. Regardless of the exterior decoration, the building energy saving and the energy-saving building fire prevention are not considered, so no structural engineer has proposed this embodiment. The decorative curtain wall of the present embodiment is different from the structure of the traditional decorative curtain wall and the main structure of the building, and the amount of steel used is less than that of the traditional decorative curtain wall, thereby reducing the cost. The safety of the attachment of the connecting iron 22 can be ensured on the outer protective layer of the prefabricated sheet or on the prefabricated plaster layer or concrete layer.
由上述可见, 本发明每个实施例都有创新点。  As can be seen from the above, each of the embodiments of the present invention has innovations.
关于本发明的说明:  Description of the invention:
1、 关于预制板材:  1. About prefabricated plates:
本发明所述预制板材是指在专门工厂生产的, 可安装在保温层表面作为保温材料保 护层的材料。  The prefabricated sheet according to the present invention refers to a material which is produced in a special factory and can be mounted on the surface of the insulating layer as a protective layer for the insulating material.
2、 关于装配式节能保温墙体配筋: 因预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 在保护层内 不需要配筋。 但门窗洞口边缘是墙体的薄弱环节, 应安装钢筋。 洞口边缘垂直钢筋一般 用 1Φ10即可, 外墙有悬挂物时需要加大规格, 水平钢筋为 Φ4镀锌钢筋与两侧垂直钢 筋绑扎。  2. About the assembly type energy-saving insulation wall reinforcement: Because the pre-made sheet protection layer is used as the force material, no reinforcement is needed in the protection layer. However, the edge of the door and window opening is the weak link of the wall, and steel bars should be installed. The vertical steel bars at the edge of the hole are generally 1Φ10. When the outer wall has hanging objects, the specifications are required. The horizontal steel bars are Φ4 galvanized steel bars and the vertical steel bars on both sides are tied.
3、 关于保温层与保护层: 材料的保温性能是相对的, 如陶粒或浮石的轻骨料混凝 土用于非采暖地区, 可视为保温材料; 但在寒冷地区, 特别是严寒地区不宜视为保温材 料。 轻骨料混凝土可以作为承重构件, 推荐严寒地区的局部点状设置的结构承托件一 挑檐采用陶粒或浮石的轻骨料混凝土。 轻骨料混凝土既可以作为保温层, 还可以作为保 护层。  3. About insulation layer and protective layer: The thermal insulation properties of materials are relative. For example, ceramsite or pumice lightweight aggregate concrete is used for non-heating areas, which can be regarded as insulation material; but it is not suitable for cold areas, especially cold areas. For insulation materials. Lightweight aggregate concrete can be used as a load-bearing component. It is recommended to support the structural support of a local point in the severe cold area. One is to use lightweight aggregate concrete with ceramsite or pumice. Lightweight aggregate concrete can be used both as an insulation layer and as a protective layer.
4、 关于拉接件 2与拉接钢丝 2-1 : 拉接件 2可以为拉接钢丝 2-1或为钢片。  4. About the pull-on 2 and the pull-wire 2-1: The pull-on 2 can be a pull-wire 2-1 or a steel sheet.
5、 关于节能保温墙体接缝构造:  5. About the joint structure of energy-saving insulation wall:
接缝处保温层 15-3之间相互挤紧安装, 或接缝上涂刷界面剂挤紧粘贴安装; 或 /和 接缝的横断面上形成有利于阻隔空气渗透的形状, 如有凸起或缩进的沟槽, 或断面形成 阶梯状, 缝隙对保温的影响小, 可不考虑缝隙对保温层如 EPS板导热系数的不利影响, 保温层之间相互粘贴对利用保温层的抗拉强度, 增加墙体抗震性能有利。  The insulation layer 15-3 at the joint is tightly packed with each other, or the interface agent is squeezed and attached on the joint; or/and the cross section of the joint forms a shape which is favorable for blocking the penetration of air, such as a bulge Or the indented groove, or the section formed into a stepped shape, the gap has little influence on the heat preservation, and the adverse effect of the gap on the thermal conductivity of the heat insulating layer such as the EPS board may be ignored, and the tensile strength of the insulating layer is adhered to each other by the heat insulating layer, It is advantageous to increase the seismic performance of the wall.
在外部保护层 15-8接缝处, 涂刷防裂防水涂料粘贴聚酯布 4, 形成弹性防水接缝, 见图 13、 图 16、 图 19。 保护层 15-8-1接缝处同时要防火、 防水时, 可在接缝内刮抹防 火胶泥, 在外部用防裂防水涂料粘贴聚酯布; 若外部有装饰幕墙, 由幕墙承担防水功 能。 或实施方式七在接缝内侧有保温砂浆作为防火材料 40, 接缝外侧的水泥纤维板保 护层之间留有缝隙形成凹槽, 在缝隙处刮抹弹性防水材料如硅酮密封胶, 成为装饰分隔 缝, 见图 15。 此种接缝构造可形成假幕墙装饰, 外表看是幕墙装饰, 但实质其安装不 属于幕墙装饰。  At the joint of the outer protective layer 15-8, apply the anti-cracking waterproof coating to the polyester cloth 4 to form an elastic waterproof joint, as shown in Figure 13, Figure 16, and Figure 19. When the joint of the protective layer 15-8-1 is fireproof and waterproof at the same time, the fireproof glue can be scraped in the joint, and the polyester cloth is pasted with the anti-cracking waterproof coating on the outside; if the exterior has a decorative curtain wall, the curtain wall bears the waterproof function. . Or in the seventh embodiment, there is a thermal insulation mortar as a fireproof material 40 on the inner side of the joint, and a gap is formed between the protective layers of the cement fiberboard outside the joint to form a groove, and an elastic waterproof material such as a silicone sealant is scraped at the slit to become a decorative partition. Seam, see Figure 15. This joint structure can form a false curtain wall decoration, and the exterior is a curtain wall decoration, but the installation is not a curtain wall decoration.
6、本发明所述抹灰形成的预制保护层, 也包括预制的配筋混凝土保护层, 但是重量 更重, 不推荐用于外部保护层, 但可以用于内部保护层。 即内部保护层 15-8-2可以为配 筋混凝土层作为抹灰形成的预制保护层, 包括普通混凝土、 轻骨料混凝土或利用建筑垃 圾粉碎的骨料, 可用于作为承重墙, 配筋混凝土层还包括配筋加气混凝土。  6. The prefabricated protective layer formed by the plaster of the present invention also includes a prefabricated reinforced concrete protective layer, but is heavier in weight and is not recommended for the outer protective layer, but can be used for the inner protective layer. That is, the inner protective layer 15-8-2 may be a prefabricated protective layer formed by the reinforced concrete layer as a plaster, including ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete or aggregate crushed by construction waste, which can be used as a load-bearing wall, reinforced concrete The layer also includes reinforced aerated concrete.

Claims

权 利 要 求  Rights request
1、 一种节能保温墙体, 它包括基层墙体、 保温层、 锚栓; 所述基层墙体内包括建筑 主体结构; 其特征在于, 它还包括外部保护层, 所述外部保护层为预制形成的保护层; 所述预制形成的外部保护层为预制板材保护层, 或为抹灰形成的预制保护层; 所述节能保温墙体从外侧向内侧依次排列构造顺序为: 外部保护层、 保温层、 基层 墙体; 用锚栓穿过外部保护层和保温层, 将外部保护层、 保温层与基层墙体固定。  An energy-saving thermal insulation wall comprising a base wall, an insulation layer and an anchor bolt; the base wall body comprises a main structure of the building; and characterized in that it further comprises an outer protective layer, the outer protective layer being prefabricated The protective layer formed; the prefabricated outer protective layer is a prefabricated sheet protective layer, or a prefabricated protective layer formed by plastering; the energy-saving insulating wall body is arranged in order from the outer side to the inner side in order of: outer protective layer, heat preservation Layer, base wall; anchoring the outer protective layer and the insulating layer through the outer protective layer and the insulating layer, and fixing the outer protective layer and the insulating layer to the base wall.
2、 根据权利要求 1所述的一种节能保温墙体, 其特征在于, 2. An energy-saving heat insulating wall according to claim 1, wherein
它还包括结构承托件, 结构承托件是基层墙体中建筑主体结构的外延, 所述结构承 托件安装在建筑主体结构的侧面;  The utility model also comprises a structural support member, wherein the structural support member is an extension of the main structure of the building in the base wall, and the structural support member is installed on the side of the main structure of the building;
结构承托件承托预制形成的外部保护层, 或承托由外部保护层与保温层组成的预制 保温板;  The structural support member supports the external protective layer formed by the prefabrication, or supports the prefabricated thermal insulation board composed of the outer protective layer and the thermal insulation layer;
所述结构承托件为局部设置, 或结构承托件沿建筑周圈设置。  The structural support member is partially disposed, or the structural support member is disposed along the circumference of the building.
3、 根据权利要求 1所述的一种节能保温墙体, 其特征在于, 3. An energy-saving heat insulating wall according to claim 1, wherein
它还包括内部保护层, 内部保护层与保温层连接, 形成预制保温墙板;  It also includes an inner protective layer, and the inner protective layer is connected with the thermal insulation layer to form a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel;
所述内部保护层为预制形成的保护层, 所述预制形成的保护层为预制板材保护层, 或为抹灰形成的预制保护层;  The inner protective layer is a prefabricated protective layer, and the prefabricated protective layer is a prefabricated protective layer or a prefabricated protective layer formed by plastering;
将预制保温墙板置于基层墙体侧面, 即置于基层墙体中建筑主体结构的侧面; 用锚 栓穿过预制保温墙板, 将预制保温墙板与基层墙体固定、 与建筑主体结构固定, 或 /和预 制保温墙板的内部有铁件或混凝土连接件将预制保温墙板的内侧与建筑主体结构连接; 形成一种将预制保温墙板安装在建筑主体结构外侧,全装配式安装的节能保温墙体。 4、 根据权利要求 2所述的一种节能保温墙体, 其特征在于,  The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is placed on the side of the base wall, that is, placed on the side of the main structure of the building in the base wall; the anchor bolt is passed through the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is fixed to the base wall and the main structure of the building Fixed, or / and prefabricated insulation wall panels with iron or concrete joints to connect the inside of the prefabricated insulation wall panel to the main structure of the building; form a prefabricated insulation wall panel installed outside the main structure of the building, fully assembled installation Energy-saving insulation wall. 4. An energy-saving heat insulating wall according to claim 2, wherein
它还包括内部保护层, 内部保护层与保温层连接, 形成预制保温墙板;  It also includes an inner protective layer, and the inner protective layer is connected with the thermal insulation layer to form a prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel;
所述内部保护层为预制形成的保护层, 所述预制形成的保护层为预制板材保护层, 或为抹灰形成的预制保护层;  The inner protective layer is a prefabricated protective layer, and the prefabricated protective layer is a prefabricated protective layer or a prefabricated protective layer formed by plastering;
将预制保温墙板置于基层墙体侧面, 即置于基层墙体中建筑主体结构的侧面; 用锚 栓穿过预制保温墙板, 将预制保温墙板与基层墙体固定、 与建筑主体结构固定, 或 /和预 制保温墙板的内部有铁件或混凝土连接件将预制保温墙板的内侧与建筑主体结构连接; 形成一种将预制保温墙板安装在建筑主体结构外侧,全装配式安装的节能保温墙体。  The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is placed on the side of the base wall, that is, placed on the side of the main structure of the building in the base wall; the anchor bolt is passed through the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is fixed to the base wall and the main structure of the building Fixed, or / and prefabricated insulation wall panels with iron or concrete joints to connect the inside of the prefabricated insulation wall panel to the main structure of the building; form a prefabricated insulation wall panel installed outside the main structure of the building, fully assembled installation Energy-saving insulation wall.
5、 根据权利要求 1所述的一种节能保温墙体, 其特征在于, 将预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 预制板材保护层具有抗拉、 抗压、 抗剪切承载力。 5. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to claim 1, The utility model is characterized in that the prefabricated sheet protective layer is used as a force receiving material, and the prefabricated sheet protective layer has tensile, compressive and shear resistance.
6、 根据权利要求 2所述的一种节能保温墙体, 6. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to claim 2,
其特征在于, 将预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 预制板材保护层具有抗拉、 抗压、 抗剪切承载力。  The utility model is characterized in that the prefabricated sheet protective layer is used as a force receiving material, and the prefabricated sheet protective layer has tensile, compressive and shear resistance.
7、 根据权利要求 3所述的一种节能保温墙体, 7. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to claim 3,
其特征在于, 将预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 预制板材保护层具有抗拉、 抗压、 抗剪切承载力, 对预制保温墙板可以按混凝土结构理论进行承载力设计。  The utility model is characterized in that the prefabricated sheet protective layer is used as the force receiving material, and the prefabricated sheet protective layer has tensile, compressive and shear bearing capacity, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel can be designed according to the concrete structure theory.
8、 根据权利要求 4所述的一种节能保温墙体, 8. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to claim 4,
其特征在于, 将预制板材保护层作为受力材料, 预制板材保护层具有抗拉、 抗压、 抗剪切承载力, 对预制保温墙板可以按混凝土结构理论进行承载力设计。  The utility model is characterized in that the prefabricated sheet protective layer is used as the force receiving material, and the prefabricated sheet protective layer has tensile, compressive and shear bearing capacity, and the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel can be designed according to the concrete structure theory.
9、 根据权利要求 4所述的一种节能保温墙体, 9. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to claim 4,
其特征在于, 它还包括滑移构件;  Characterized in that it further comprises a sliding member;
预制保温墙板与建筑主体结构的柱或剪力墙外侧连接, 在柱或剪力墙侧边设有弹性 伸缩缝; 位于弹性伸缩缝之间的预制保温墙板的一端与建筑主体结构的梁板外侧面连 接, 构成装配式节能保温墙体固定端, 另一端为滑移端, 预制保温墙板与柱或剪力墙不 连接; 用锚栓将预制保温墙板的固定端与建筑主体结构连接;  The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is connected to the outer side of the column or shear wall of the main structure of the building, and the elastic expansion joint is provided on the side of the column or the shear wall; the end of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel between the elastic expansion joints and the beam of the main structure of the building The outer side of the board is connected to form a fixed end of the assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall, and the other end is a sliding end, and the pre-made insulating wall board is not connected with the column or the shear wall; the fixed end of the pre-made insulating wall board and the main structure of the building are anchored by the anchor bolt Connection
滑移构件位于预制保温墙板滑移端端头与结构承托件之间;  The sliding member is located between the sliding end of the prefabricated insulating wall panel and the structural support member;
形成可滑移的装配式节能保温墙体。 10、 根据权利要求 8所述的一种节能保温墙体,  Form a slip-fit, assembled, energy-saving insulation wall. 10. An energy efficient thermal insulation wall according to claim 8
其特征在于, 它还包括滑移构件;  Characterized in that it further comprises a sliding member;
预制保温墙板与建筑主体结构的柱或剪力墙外侧连接, 在柱或剪力墙侧边设有弹性 伸缩缝; 位于弹性伸缩缝之间的预制保温墙板的一端与建筑主体结构的梁板外侧面连 接, 构成装配式节能保温墙体固定端, 另一端为滑移端, 预制保温墙板与柱或剪力墙不 连接; 用锚栓将预制保温墙板的固定端与建筑主体结构连接;  The prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel is connected to the outer side of the column or shear wall of the main structure of the building, and the elastic expansion joint is provided on the side of the column or the shear wall; the end of the prefabricated thermal insulation wall panel between the elastic expansion joints and the beam of the main structure of the building The outer side of the board is connected to form a fixed end of the assembled energy-saving heat-insulating wall, and the other end is a sliding end, and the pre-made insulating wall board is not connected with the column or the shear wall; the fixed end of the pre-made insulating wall board and the main structure of the building are anchored by the anchor bolt Connection
滑移构件位于预制保温墙板滑移端端头与结构承托件之间;  The sliding member is located between the sliding end of the prefabricated insulating wall panel and the structural support member;
形成可滑移的装配式节能保温墙体。  Form a slip-fit, assembled, energy-saving insulation wall.
11、 根据权利要求 1~10中任一项所述的一种节能保温墙体, 其特征在于, 它还包括防火措施: 11. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to any one of claims 1 to 10. It is characterized in that it also includes fire prevention measures:
1 ) 、 设置拉接件固定外部保护层, 避免失火时外部保护层脱落;  1), set the pull piece to fix the outer protective layer to avoid the outer protective layer falling off during the fire;
2)、 采用加强外部保护层接缝的防火措施: 在外部保护层接缝之间或在接缝内侧有 防火材料;  2) Fire protection measures to strengthen the joint of the outer protective layer: fireproof material between the joints of the outer protective layer or inside the joint;
3 )、 采取加强门窗口侧面保温层的防火构造: 将预制保温板位于门窗口周围的外部 保护层加宽, 洞口侧面保温层的保护层为预制板材保护层, 在外部保护层、 洞口侧面预 制板材保护层与门窗框之间的空腔内有洞口侧面保温层;  3), adopting the fireproof structure of the side insulation layer of the reinforcing door window: widening the outer protective layer of the prefabricated thermal insulation board around the door window, the protective layer of the side insulation layer of the opening is a prefabricated sheet protective layer, prefabricated on the outer protective layer and the side of the opening a cavity side insulation layer is formed in the cavity between the sheet protective layer and the door and window frame;
4) 、 在锚栓外端头安装防火材料。 12、 根据权利要求 1~10中任一项所述的一种节能保温墙体,  4) Install fireproof material on the outer end of the anchor bolt. 12. An energy-saving thermal insulation wall according to any one of claims 1 to 10,
其特征在于, 它还包括装饰板、 连接铁件;  The utility model is characterized in that it further comprises a decorative board and a connecting iron piece;
所述外部保护层内有预埋钢板, 连接铁件与预埋钢板连接; 或用螺栓穿过节能保温 墙体, 将连接铁件根部的钢板固定在外保护层上; 或 /和还用端头具有扩大功能的紧固件 连接;  The outer protective layer has a pre-embedded steel plate, and the connecting iron piece is connected with the pre-embedded steel plate; or the bolt is passed through the energy-saving heat insulating wall body, and the steel plate connecting the root of the iron piece is fixed on the outer protective layer; or/and the end is also used Fastener connection with expanded function;
装饰板与连接铁件外端连接安装; 形成一种节能保温墙体的装饰幕墙。  The decorative board is connected with the outer end of the connecting iron piece; forming a decorative curtain wall of the energy-saving heat insulating wall.
13、 根据权利要求 11所述的一种节能保温墙体, 13. An energy efficient thermal insulation wall according to claim 11
其特征在于, 它还包括装饰板、 连接铁件;  The utility model is characterized in that it further comprises a decorative board and a connecting iron piece;
所述外部保护层内有预埋钢板, 连接铁件与预埋钢板连接; 或用螺栓穿过节能保温 墙体, 将连接铁件根部的钢板固定在外保护层上; 或 /和还用端头具有扩大功能的紧固件 连接;  The outer protective layer has a pre-embedded steel plate, and the connecting iron piece is connected with the pre-embedded steel plate; or the bolt is passed through the energy-saving heat insulating wall body, and the steel plate connecting the root of the iron piece is fixed on the outer protective layer; or/and the end is also used Fastener connection with expanded function;
装饰板与连接铁件外端连接安装; 形成一种节能保温墙体的装饰幕墙。  The decorative board is connected with the outer end of the connecting iron piece; forming a decorative curtain wall of the energy-saving heat insulating wall.
PCT/CN2014/085666 2013-09-02 2014-09-01 Energy saving and heat insulating wall WO2015027952A1 (en)

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