WO2014161108A1 - Method for carbon sequestration by planting, harvesting and landfilling fast-growing herbaceous plants - Google Patents

Method for carbon sequestration by planting, harvesting and landfilling fast-growing herbaceous plants Download PDF

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WO2014161108A1
WO2014161108A1 PCT/CN2013/000436 CN2013000436W WO2014161108A1 WO 2014161108 A1 WO2014161108 A1 WO 2014161108A1 CN 2013000436 W CN2013000436 W CN 2013000436W WO 2014161108 A1 WO2014161108 A1 WO 2014161108A1
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landfill
growing
soil
fast
grass
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PCT/CN2013/000436
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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雷学军
雷训
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Lei Xuejun
Lei Xun
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Priority to CN201310111727.2A priority patent/CN103155776B/en
Application filed by Lei Xuejun, Lei Xun filed Critical Lei Xuejun
Publication of WO2014161108A1 publication Critical patent/WO2014161108A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B1/00Dumping solid waste
    • B09B1/006Shafts or wells in waste dumps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B1/00Dumping solid waste
    • B09B1/004Covering of dumping sites
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/30Landfill technologies aiming to mitigate methane emissions

Abstract

Disclosed is a method for carbon sequestration by using fast-growing herbaceous plants, fast-growing algae, lichens or mosses, comprising: (1) planting and/or cultivating fast-growing herbaceous plants, fast-growing algae, lichens or mosses in a selected land area or water area; (2) harvesting or recovering the plants, algae, lichens or mosses after growing to a suitable height or size over a period of time; (3) drying the harvested or recovered plants, preferably by natural drying, such as sun drying or air drying, to obtain dried plants, algae, lichens or mosses; (4) transporting the dried plants, algae, lichens or mosses to a landfill and landfilling same; (5) after finishing landfilling, covering the finally landfilled plants with a layer of ordinary soil; and (6) recovering vegetation in the landfill.

Description

说 明 书  Description
通过速生草本植物的种植、 收割和填埋实现固碳的方法 本发明的领域  Method for carbon sequestration by planting, harvesting and landfilling of fast-growing herbaceous plants
本发明涉及通过速生草本植物的种植和 /或培育, 收割和填埋实现固碳的方 法, 属于环保领域。  The present invention relates to a method for carbon sequestration by planting and/or cultivating, harvesting and landfilling of fast-growing herbs, and belongs to the field of environmental protection.
背景技术  Background technique
十八世纪工业革命以来, 人类向大气中排放的 C02等温室气体逐年增加, 大 气温室效应随之增强, 引起地球上的病、虫、害和传染性疾病濒发; 海平面上升; 气候反常, 海洋风暴增多; 土地干旱, 沙漠化面积迅速扩大等一系列严重问题。 近几十年来, 由于人口急剧增加, 工业迅猛发展, 呼吸产生的 C02及煤炭、石油、 天然气燃烧产生的 co2, 大大超出过去的水平。 大气中 C02增加 1倍, 全球平均 气温将上升 1. 5〜4. 5°C, 两极地区的气温升幅要比平均值高 3倍左右。 气温升 高不可避免地使极地冰层部分融解, 引起海平面上升。 海平面升高 l m, 淹没土 地五百万平方公里, 受影响的人口约 10亿, 世界耕地总量减少 1/3。 特大风暴 潮和盐水侵入, 沿海海拔 5m以下地区都将受到影响, 这些地区的人口和粮食产 量约占世界的 1/2。 温室效应和全球气候变暖已经引起了世界各国的普遍关注, 目前正在推进制订国际气候变化公约, 减少 C02的排放已经成为大势所趋。 世界 各国设想采取各种措施, 减少 (:02的排放, 尤其固碳技术已经成为人们讨论和研 究的焦点。例如, 有些科学家建议将二氧化碳封存于海洋底部, 但是封存的二氧 化碳仍然会溶于海水中导致海水酸化而影响到海洋的环境,并且在海底固碳的成 本也是相当高的。 另外还有人建议通过植树造林来固碳。 Since the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century, greenhouse gases such as C0 2 emitted by humans into the atmosphere have increased year by year, and the atmospheric greenhouse effect has increased, causing diseases, insects, pests and infectious diseases on the earth; sea level rise; climate anomalies , a series of serious problems such as the increase of marine storms; the rapid drought of land and the rapid expansion of desertification area. In recent decades, due to the rapid increase in population, rapid industrial development, co respiration of C0 2 and coal, oil, natural gas combustion 2, far beyond past levels. In the atmosphere, C0 2 is doubled, and the global average temperature will rise by 1. 5~4. 5°C, the temperature rise in the polar regions is about three times higher than the average. The rise in temperature inevitably melts the polar ice layer and causes sea level rise. The sea level is rising by lm, the land is inundated with 5 million square kilometers, the affected population is about 1 billion, and the total amount of cultivated land in the world is reduced by 1/3. Extraordinary storm surges and saltwater intrusion, which are affected by coastal elevations below 5 m, account for about half of the world's population and food production. The greenhouse effect and global warming have attracted widespread attention from all over the world. Currently, the formulation of the International Climate Change Convention is being promoted. The reduction of C0 2 emissions has become an irresistible trend. Countries around the world envisage various measures to reduce emissions (eg, 0 2 , especially carbon sequestration technology has become the focus of discussion and research. For example, some scientists suggest that carbon dioxide is stored at the bottom of the ocean, but the stored carbon dioxide will still dissolve in seawater. The cost of causing seawater acidification affects the ocean, and the cost of carbon sequestration on the seabed is also quite high. Others suggest that afforestation is used to fix carbon.
CN101224464A (2008. 07. 23, 申请号 CN200810018961. X)公开了利用生物质 进行地下固碳的方法, 该方法在于将生物质 (主要秸秆)预先干燥,进行压缩及添 加防腐剂处理, 然后埋藏于地下, 例如埋藏于地势高、干旱少雨的地区或埋藏于 废弃的煤矿井底下。该专利主要利用庄稼或农作物的桔秆进行地下填埋, 实现固 碳的目的,但是,秸秆的产量太低,一年中不能多次收割,一年中只能一次集中、 大规模地收割, 而且填埋场一般远离农作物种植区,秸秆运输到填埋场的运输成 本太高, 另外, 添加防腐剂会导致提高成本和污染环境。 CN101224464A (2008. 07. 23, application No. CN200810018961. X) discloses a method for underground carbon sequestration using biomass, which comprises pre-drying biomass (main straw), compressing and preservative treatment, and then burying it in Underground, for example buried in high-lying, dry and rain-stricken areas or buried under abandoned coal mines. The patent mainly uses the orange stalks of crops or crops for underground landfill to achieve carbon sequestration. However, the yield of straw is too low, and it cannot be harvested many times a year. It can only be harvested once and concentrated in one year. Moreover, the landfill is generally far away from the crop planting area, and the transportation of straw to the landfill is completed. This is too high, and the addition of preservatives can lead to increased costs and environmental pollution.
尽管人们设想和研究了各种技术来固定碳,但是目前仍然没有找到理想的固 碳方法。 现有技术中没有公开通过速生草本植物的种植 (或培育)、 收割和填埋 来实现固碳的方法。  Although various techniques have been conceived and studied to fix carbon, the ideal method of carbon sequestration has not yet been found. The method of carbon fixation by planting (or cultivating), harvesting and landfilling of fast-growing herbs is not disclosed in the prior art.
另外, 对于城市生活垃圾或城市生活污水 (或废水)的处理, 全世界各国每年 投入了巨大的资金和人力成本。  In addition, for the treatment of municipal solid waste or urban domestic sewage (or wastewater), countries around the world have invested huge capital and labor costs each year.
发明内容  Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是提供一种新型的固碳方法。通过在陆地或水体区域中种植和 It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel carbon sequestration method. By planting in land or water areas and
/或培育(1)速生丰产 (简称速生)的草本植物 (速生草本植物)、(2)速生藻类、 (3) 地衣或(4)苔藓, 收割或采收所培育或所生长的草本植物、 藻类、 地衣或苔藓, 干燥, 然后填埋, 来实现固碳的目的。 / or breeding (1) fast-growing (fast-growing) herb (fast-growing herb), (2) fast-growing algae, (3) lichens or (4) moss, harvesting or harvesting of herbs grown or grown, Algae, lichens or moss, dried, and then landfilled to achieve carbon sequestration.
在本申请中, 所述的植物广义地包括速生草本植物, 以及速生藻类, 地衣或 苔藓 (低等植物)。  In the present application, the plants broadly include fast-growing herbs, as well as fast-growing algae, lichens or mosses (lower plants).
在本申请中 "填埋植物"或 "植物"与生物质可互换使用。 种植和 /或培育 区域与生长区域可互换使用。  In this application "landfill plants" or "plants" are used interchangeably with biomass. Planting and/or growing areas are used interchangeably with growing areas.
本发明的实施方案概括如下:  Embodiments of the invention are summarized as follows:
1、 利用速生草本植物, 速生藻类, 地衣或苔藓来固碳的方法, 该方法包括: 1. A method of fixing carbon by using fast-growing herbs, fast-growing algae, lichens or moss, the method comprising:
(1)、在选定的陆地区域或水体区域中种植和 /或培育速生草本植物,速生藻 类, 地衣或苔藓; (1) Planting and/or cultivating fast-growing herbaceous plants, fast-growing algae, lichens or moss in selected land areas or water bodies;
(2)、在植物,藻类,地衣或苔藓经过一段时间生长到合适的高度或尺寸(例 如禾本科达到 1. 5米以上的高度, 水葫芦长到 30厘米高度以上) 后进行收割或 采收, 并且, 当收割或采收的植物是在陆地区域中种植和 /或培育的速生草本植 物时,控制该草本植物的收割或采收高度以便保留该草本植物的根和保留该草本 植物的茎的下部分 (因此实际上收割或采收的是速生草本植物的叶, 和茎的上部 分),或当收割或采收的植物是在水体区域中种植和 /或培育的速生草本植物或速 生藻类时, 在水体区域中保留一部分的草本植株或一部分的藻类, 或当收割或采 收的植物是在陆地区域中种植和 /或培育的地衣或苔藓时, 在陆地区域中保留一 部分的地衣或苔藓;  (2) Harvesting or harvesting of plants, algae, lichens or moss over a period of time to a suitable height or size (eg, grasses reaching a height of 1.5 m or more, water hyacinths growing to a height of 30 cm or more) And, when the harvested or harvested plant is a fast-growing herb planted and/or cultivated in a land area, controlling the harvesting or harvesting height of the herb to retain the root of the herb and retaining the stem of the herb The lower part (thus actually harvesting or harvesting the leaves of the fast-growing herb, and the upper part of the stem), or when the harvested or harvested plant is a fast-growing herb or fast-growing planted and/or cultivated in a water body area In the case of algae, a portion of the herb or part of the algae is retained in the water body area, or when the harvested or harvested plant is a lichen or moss planted and/or cultivated in the land area, a portion of the lichen is retained in the land area or Moss
(3)、 对于收割或采收的植物进行干燥, 优选自然干燥如晒干或风干, 以获 得干燥的植物、 藻类、 地衣或苔藓; (3) Drying the harvested or harvested plants, preferably drying naturally, such as drying or drying, to obtain Dry plants, algae, lichens or moss;
(4)、 将干燥的植物、 藻类、 地衣或苔藓运输到填埋场并进行填埋。  (4) Transport dry plants, algae, lichens or moss to the landfill and landfill.
在本发明中, 收割或采收一般是机械或人工收割或采收,优选是机械收割或 采收, 例如使用农用收割机收割禾本植物。可使用滤网来采收藻类, 或在水体区 域中利用细小网眼型的拖网来收集藻类。  In the present invention, the harvesting or harvesting is generally mechanical or manual harvesting or harvesting, preferably mechanical harvesting or harvesting, for example harvesting of the grass plants using an agricultural harvester. Filters can be used to harvest algae, or small mesh-type trawls can be used to collect algae in water bodies.
作为种植和 /或培育区域的以上所述的选定的陆地区域或水体区域一般远离 农作物或庄稼种植区域, 例如至少 1公里, 如 2-5公里。  The selected land area or water body area described above as a planting and/or growing area is generally remote from the crop or crop planting area, for example at least 1 km, such as 2-5 km.
填埋场一般远离农作物或庄稼种植区域,例如至少 1公里,如相隔 2-6公里。 Landfills are generally located away from crops or crop-growing areas, such as at least 1 km, such as 2-6 km apart.
2、根据以上 1项的方法, 其中在步骤 (2)中收割或采收在陆地区域中生长的 速生草本植物时, 所保留的 "茎的下部分" 具有至少一个节理, 优选具有 1-5 个节理, 优选 2- 3个节理, 以促进植物迅速发芽或长出新叶。 2. The method according to the above item 1, wherein in the step (2), when harvesting or harvesting fast-growing herbaceous plants grown in the land area, the retained "lower part of the stem" has at least one joint, preferably having 1-5 A joint, preferably 2 to 3 joints, to promote rapid germination or emergence of new leaves.
3、 根据以上 1项的方法, 其中在步骤(1)的植物培育或生长过程中和 /或在 步骤 (2)的收割或采收之后,对于作为种植和 /或培育区域 (或称作生长区域)的陆 地区域, 通过灌溉种植和 /或培育区域 (或称作生长区域)来保持这些区域中土壤 水分平衡, 并且在这些区域中定期或周期性地 (多次)施加肥料 (如氮肥、 磷肥、 复合肥料或由城市生活垃圾经过处理所制备的肥料或由城市生活污水经过处理 所获得的富含营养物的处理水), 或对于作为种植和 /或培育区域 (或称作生长区 域)的水体区域,在这些水体区域中定期或周期性地(多次)施加肥料 (如氮肥、磷 肥、复合肥料或由城市生活垃圾经过处理所制备的肥料或由城市生活污水经过处 理所获得的富含营养物的处理水)。  3. The method according to the above item 1, wherein during the plant cultivation or growth of the step (1) and/or after the harvesting or harvesting of the step (2), for the planting and/or cultivation area (or called growth) The terrestrial area of the area, which maintains the soil water balance in these areas by irrigating the planting and/or growing areas (or called growing areas), and applying fertilizers (such as nitrogen fertilizers) periodically or periodically (multiple times) in these areas. Phosphate fertilizer, compound fertilizer or fertilizer prepared by treatment of municipal solid waste or nutrient-rich treated water obtained by treatment of municipal domestic sewage, or as a planting and/or growing area (or called growing area) In the water body area, the fertilizer is applied regularly or periodically (multiple times) in these water bodies (such as nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, compound fertilizer or fertilizer prepared by treatment of municipal solid waste or rich by urban domestic sewage treatment). Nutrient-treated water).
4、 根据以上 1或 2或 3项的方法, 其中步骤(1) - (4)或步骤 (2) - (4)能够重 复进行。 优选的是根据所述植物的生长高度或尺寸或植株大小(如陆地区域生长 的速生草本植物或水体区域生长的速生草本植物的生长高度或尺寸或植株大小) 或生长密度 (如藻类、 地衣或苔藓的生长密度), 重复步骤 (2) - (4)。 选择合适的 收割和 /或采收时机, 是本领域中技术人员容易实现的。  4. According to the above method 1 or 2 or 3, wherein steps (1) - (4) or steps (2) - (4) can be repeated. Preferably, it is based on the growth height or size of the plant or the size of the plant (such as the growth height or size or plant size of fast-growing herbaceous plants grown in the land region or the growth of the water body region) or the growth density (such as algae, lichens or Moss growth density), repeat steps (2) - (4). Selection of suitable harvesting and/or harvesting opportunities is readily accomplished by those skilled in the art.
5、根据以上 1-4项中任何一项所述的方法,其中作为种植和 /或培育区域 (或 生长区域)的陆地区域或水体区域是指位于热带、 亚热带、 温热带、 温带或寒带 地区的陆地区域 (如宜耕种的平地、 盆地、 缓坡、 山地、 砂砾区域、 荒滩、 不宜 耕种的沙漠、不宜耕种的戈壁滩、湿地或沼泽),淡水型的水体区域 (如淡水湖泊、 河流、 溪流、 水库、 池塘、 水池、 水沟或水渠), 或海洋区域如海岸附近的近海 水域或海湾水域。 5. The method according to any one of the above 1 to 4, wherein the land area or the water body area as a planting and/or growing area (or growing area) is located in a tropical, subtropical, warm tropical, temperate or frigid zone. Terrestrial areas of the area (such as flats, basins, gentle slopes, mountains, gravel areas, barren beaches, uncultivable deserts, unsuitable forages, wetlands or swamps), freshwater waters (such as freshwater lakes, Rivers, streams, reservoirs, ponds, pools, ditches or canals), or marine areas such as offshore waters or bay waters near the coast.
在本申请中, 水体区域分为淡水型的水体区域和海洋型的水体区域。  In the present application, the water body region is divided into a fresh water type water body region and a marine water body region.
速生草本植物在热带、 亚热带、 温热带、 温带地区中生长迅速, 并且一年中 能够多次收割和 /或采收。 在陆地区域中, 尤其在热带、 亚热带、 温热带地区的 陆地区域中,速生草本植物(如芦苇和荻,狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides (L) Spreng ) , 象草 ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum, 又名紫狼尾草) , 以及由狼尾 草和象草杂交所培育出的杂交品种如皇竹草、 巨象草、 甜象草或杂交狼尾草)在 一年中能够收割和 /或采收 4-6次, 甚至 5-8次。 在水体区域中, 尤其在热带、 亚热带、温热带地区的水体区域中,速生草本植物如凤眼莲 (水葫芦)或水藻甚至 一周就能够收割和 /或采收一次。 海水藻类能够在全世界广袤的海洋中培育, 尤 其适合在海岸线附件的近海区域中人工培育。淡水藻类广泛地分布在淡水型的水 体中。地衣或苔藓在地球上的分布非常广泛,在从热带到温带或甚至到寒带的各 种区域或地域中都有分布。  Fast-growing herbaceous plants grow rapidly in tropical, subtropical, warm tropical, temperate regions and can be harvested and/or harvested multiple times a year. In the terrestrial domain, especially in the tropical, subtropical, and warm tropical regions, fast-growing herbaceous plants (such as reeds and crickets, Pennisetum alopecuroides (L) Spreng, and grasses (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) Purple Pennisetum, and hybrids such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Corus gracilis, Sweet Grass or Hybrid Pennisetum, which are cultivated by the hybrid of Pennisetum and Grass, can be harvested and/or harvested in a year. -6 times, even 5-8 times. Fast-growing herbaceous plants such as water hyacinth (water hyacinth) or algae can be harvested and/or harvested in a single area of the water, especially in tropical, subtropical, and warm tropical regions. Seawater algae can be cultivated in the vast oceans of the world, especially in the offshore areas of coastal attachments. Freshwater algae are widely distributed in freshwater waters. Lichens or mosses are widely distributed on Earth and are distributed in various regions or regions from the tropics to the temperate zone or even to the frigid zone.
6、 根据以上 1项所述的方法, 其中通过对城市生活垃圾进行处理, 获得有 机肥料, 用于在步骤(1)的植物培育或生长过程中和 /或在步骤 (2)的收割或采收 之后对所述种植和 /或培育区域中的速生草本植物、速生藻类 (包括淡水藻类和海 水藻类)、 地衣或苔藓施加肥料以便进行培育。  6. The method according to the above item 1, wherein the organic fertilizer is obtained by treating the municipal solid waste, for use in the plant cultivation or growth process of the step (1) and/or in the harvesting or harvesting of the step (2) Fertilizers are applied to fast-growing herbs, fast-growing algae (including freshwater algae and seaweeds), lichens or moss in the planting and/or growing areas for cultivation.
7、 根据以上 6项所述的方法, 其中所述的处理包括:  7. The method according to the above item 6, wherein the processing comprises:
a)对垃圾进行人工拣选或机械拣选, 以除去杂物 (例如粗大的杂物,如电池、 电器、 电子产品、 金属物品, 石块或玻璃等);  a) manual or mechanical picking of waste to remove debris (such as coarse debris such as batteries, electrical appliances, electronics, metal objects, stones or glass);
b)使用城市生活垃圾分选装置或系统和方法对城市生活垃圾和 /或餐厨垃圾 进行分选, 获得富含有机质 (或营养物)的垃圾;  b) sorting municipal solid waste and/or kitchen waste using municipal solid waste sorting devices or systems and methods to obtain waste containing organic matter (or nutrients);
这些装置或系统以及方法是现有技术中常用的(如公开于 CN102601049A (CN201210069165. 5) 中的城市生活垃圾风力分选系统, 公开于 CN102962127A 中的一种生活垃圾分选装置, 公开于 CN102962129A中的一种分选生活垃圾中金 属物质的磁选装置和方法, 公幵于 CN102921548A中的一种分选生活垃圾中有毒 有害物质的组合装置及方法, 公开于 CN102896137A中的一种城市湿垃圾湿法分 选工艺, 公开于 CN2026834791KCN201220361145) 中的生活垃圾重力回转风选 机, 公开于 CN102671928A中的一种城市混合垃圾分选及综合利用方法, 公开于 CN102671928A一种城市混合垃圾分选及综合利用方法, 公开于 CN102794293A— 种城市生活垃圾综合处理方法, 公开于 CN101289336A—种城市生活垃圾综合处 置方法, 公开于 CN102179365A中的一种生活垃圾分选方法, CN102873031A垃圾 分选系统及方法, 公开于 CN102950140A中的一种生活垃圾联合分选装置, 公开 于 CN202683452U (CN201220351070)中的螺旋筛选式垃圾分选机, 公开于 CN202741241U (CN201220382777)中的一种生活垃圾金属分选器, 公开于 CN102688879A中的餐厨垃圾预处理系统和方法, 公开于 CN102688882A中的餐厨 垃圾除杂系统和方法, CN101597186B硫酸铵与丙二酸联合淋洗去除垃圾堆肥中 重金属的方法; These devices or systems and methods are commonly used in the prior art (such as the municipal solid waste wind sorting system disclosed in CN102601049A (CN201210069165. 5), a domestic waste sorting device disclosed in CN102962127A, disclosed in CN102962129A. Magnetic separation device and method for sorting metal materials in domestic garbage, and a device and method for sorting toxic and harmful substances in domestic garbage in CN102921548A, disclosed in CN102896137A, a city wet garbage wet Method of sorting process, disclosed in CN2026834791KCN201220361145) , a method for industrial mixed garbage sorting and comprehensive utilization disclosed in CN102671928A, disclosed in CN102671928A, a municipal mixed garbage sorting and comprehensive utilization method, disclosed in CN102794293A - a comprehensive treatment method for urban domestic garbage, disclosed in CN101289336A - Comprehensive disposal method of municipal solid waste, a domestic garbage sorting method disclosed in CN102179365A, CN102873031A garbage sorting system and method, a domestic garbage joint sorting device disclosed in CN102950140A, disclosed in CN202683452U (CN201220351070) A spiral-type garbage sorting machine disclosed in CN202741241U (CN201220382777), a domestic garbage metal sorter disclosed in CN102688879A, and a kitchen waste pretreatment system and method disclosed in CN102688882A, which is disclosed in CN102688882A System and method, CN101597186B method for removing heavy metals in garbage compost by combined washing with ammonium sulfate and malonic acid;
c)对于富含有机质 (或营养物)的垃圾进行生化处理和制造有机肥料,该生化 处理包括好氧发酵和 /或厌氧发酵, 和任选的堆肥处理;  c) biochemical treatment of organic matter (or nutrient-rich) waste and the manufacture of organic fertilizers, including aerobic fermentation and/or anaerobic fermentation, and optional composting;
该生化处理和制造有机肥料的技术是现有技术中常用的。 例如, 公开于 CN102921706A中的一种城市垃圾综合厌氧处理加热方法, 公幵于 CN102887736A 中的餐厨垃圾和污泥与生活垃圾同机处理制作专用肥方法, 公开于 CN102746034A 中的利用餐厨垃圾生产微生物光能有机肥的方法, 公开于 CN102658285A 中的一种生活垃圾有机质液化一生化处理工艺及装置, 公开于 CN102674908A中的生活垃圾制肥的设备设施配套工艺, 公开于 CN102303985A中 的一种以城市生活垃圾为原料制备有机肥的方法, 公开于 CN102921695A中的城 市生活垃圾水分选资源化无害化自然衍生循环生态系统, 公开于 CN102146002A 中的亚临界水处理城乡有机固废生产有机肥及设备, 公开于 CN102093137A中的 剩余污泥太阳能热辐射富氧发酵处理方法及处理系统, 公开于 CN101920259A中 的一种生活垃圾分相好氧与厌氧的处理方法, 公开于 CN101804417A中的城市生 活垃圾的活性填埋方法, 公开于 CN101747094A中的生化处理生活垃圾制有机肥 的方法, 公开于 CN101063152A中的一种利用厨余垃圾常温厌氧发酵的方法, 公 开于 CN101088965A中的一种城市垃圾再发酵方法。  This biochemical treatment and technique for producing organic fertilizers is commonly used in the prior art. For example, a municipal garbage comprehensive anaerobic treatment heating method disclosed in CN102921706A, the kitchen waste and sludge in the CN102887736A are processed in the same way as the domestic garbage to produce a special fertilizer method, and the kitchen waste is disclosed in CN102746034A. A method for producing microbial light energy organic fertilizer, disclosed in CN102658285A, a domestic garbage organic matter liquefaction-biochemical treatment process and device, disclosed in CN102674908A, a facility supporting process for domestic garbage fertilizer, disclosed in CN102303985A The method for preparing organic fertilizer by using municipal solid waste as raw material, disclosed in CN102921695A, the municipal solid waste water selection and resource-reducing natural derivatization cycle ecosystem, and the subcritical water treatment in urban and rural organic solid waste production organic fertilizer and equipment disclosed in CN102146002A The excess sludge solar thermal radiation oxygen-rich fermentation treatment method and treatment system disclosed in CN102093137A, disclosed in CN101920259A, a method for treating phase separation aerobic and anaerobic of domestic garbage, and the activity of municipal solid waste disclosed in CN101804417A Landfill The method disclosed in CN101747094A is a method for biochemical treatment of domestic waste organic fertilizer, disclosed in CN101063152A, which is a method for re-fermentation of municipal waste by using a method of anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste at room temperature, disclosed in CN101088965A.
8、根据以上 6或 7项的方法, 所获得的有机肥料被直接铺在种植和 /或培育 区域的土地上或者与客土(即其它地方的土壤)掺混后被铺在种植和 /或培育区域 的土地上作为种植土。 这对于改善不宜耕种的土地如砂砾区域、 荒漠 (如, 不宜 耕种的沙漠或戈壁滩)、 沙地或贫瘠的山地的耕种状况是有利的。 8. According to the method of 6 or 7 above, the obtained organic fertilizer is directly laid on the land of the planting and/or cultivation area or blended with the soil (ie the soil in other places) and then planted and/or planted and/or The cultivated area is used as a planting soil. This is to improve uncultivable land such as gravel areas and deserts (eg, not suitable) The cultivation of cultivated deserts or Gobi deserts, sandy land or barren hills is advantageous.
另外, 种植和 /或培育区域中的土壤通过施用有机肥料来改善土壤结构, 能 增加土壤团聚体, 增大土壤团聚体表面积, 增强土壤固碳能力。  In addition, soil in the growing and/or growing areas can improve soil structure by applying organic fertilizers, increase soil aggregates, increase soil agglomerate surface area, and enhance soil carbon sequestration capacity.
有机肥料能改良土壤结构, 促进团粒状结构的形成, 从而增加土壤的疏 松性, 改善土壤的通气性和透水性。  Organic fertilizers can improve soil structure and promote the formation of granular structures, thereby increasing soil porosity and improving soil aeration and water permeability.
9、 根据以上 1-8中任何一项所述的方法, 其中通过对城市生活污水或废水 进行处理, 获得处理后的富含营养物 (或有机质)的污水, 后者用于在步骤 (1)的 植物培育或生长过程中和 /或在步骤 (2)的收割或采收之后对所述种植和 /或培育 区域中的速生草本植物 (陆地区域速生草本植物,例如速生禾本植物如芦苇,荻, 狼尾草,象草, 以及由狼尾草和象草杂交所培育出的杂交品种如皇竹草、巨象草、 甜象草或杂交狼尾草; 或淡水型的水体区域中的速生草本植物, 例如芦苇、 荻、 凤眼莲或水藻)、 速生藻类 (包括淡水藻类和海水藻类)、 地衣或苔藓施加肥料进 行培育; 尤其用于在水体区域, 如淡水型的水体区域中或海洋区域 (或海洋型的 水体区域)中, 对所述速生草本植物 (芦苇、 荻、 凤眼莲或水藻)、 速生藻类 (包括 淡水藻类和海水藻类)施肥; 或, 所述富含营养物的污水用于浇灌陆地区域中种 植和 /或培育的速生草本植物。  9. The method according to any one of the above 1-8, wherein the treated nutrient-rich (or organic matter) sewage is obtained by treating municipal sewage or wastewater, the latter being used in the step (1) Fast-growing herbaceous plants in the planting and/or growing area during plant cultivation or growth and/or after harvesting or harvesting in step (2) (fast-growing herbaceous plants in terrestrial areas, such as fast-growing grasses such as reeds) , cockroaches, pennisetum, grassy, and hybrids cultivated by the hybrid of weeds and grasses, such as yarrow, giant grass, sweet grass or hybrid pennisetum; or freshwater water Fast-growing herbaceous plants, such as reeds, alfalfa, water hyacinth or algae), fast-growing algae (including freshwater algae and seaweeds), lichens or mosses for fertilizer application; especially for use in water bodies, such as freshwater water bodies or In the marine area (or marine type water body area), the fast-growing herb (reed, alfalfa, water hyacinth or algae), fast-growing algae (including freshwater algae and seawater algae) Fertilizer; or, the nutrient-rich sewage is used to irrigate fast-growing herbs grown and/or cultivated in the land area.
10、根据以上 9项的方法,其中污水处理包括: 过滤,和任选的除臭处理 (如 用生石灰或熟石灰处理)。  10. The method according to the above item 9, wherein the sewage treatment comprises: filtration, and optionally deodorization treatment (e.g., treatment with quicklime or slaked lime).
11、 根据以上 1一 10项中任何一项所述的方法, 其中在陆地区域中种植和 / 或培育的速生草本植物是: 香根草, 黑麦草, 苏丹草, 假高粱, 墨西哥玉米草, 空心莲子草, 青蒿, 加拿大一枝黄花, 豚草, 松香草, 聚合草, 紫花苜蓿, 山苦 荬, 沙打旺, 籽粒苋, 龙须草, 欧洲菊苣, 稗, 芦苇, 荻, 草高粱, 大米草, 互 花米草, 狐米草, 大绳草, 海王神草, 喜盐草, 海菖蒲, 狼尾草或象草, 或由狼 尾草和象草杂交所培育出的杂交品种,如皇竹草、 巨象草、甜象草、杂交狼尾草、 杜牧一号或苏杂 2号。优选是:芦苇,荻,狼尾草 (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L) Spreng) , 象草(Pennisetum purpureum Schum, 又名紫狼尾草), 以及由狼尾草 和象草杂交所培育出的杂交品种, 如皇竹草、 巨象草、 甜象草、 杂交狼尾草、 杜 牧一号或苏杂 2号;  11. The method according to any one of the preceding items 1 to 10, wherein the fast-growing herbaceous plants planted and/or cultivated in the land area are: vetiver, ryegrass, sudangrass, false sorghum, Mexican corn grass, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Artemisia annua L., Solidago canadensis, Ragweed, Pine herb, Polymer grass, Alfalfa, Mountain bitter, Sandalwood, Amaranthus, Eulaliopsis, European chicory, Alfalfa, Reed, Alfalfa, Grass sorghum, Ricegrass, Spartina alterniflora, foxtail grass, big rope grass, sea king grass, salt grass, sea iris, pennisetum or grassy, or hybrids cultivated by weeds and grassy hybrids, Such as Huangzhucao, giant grass, sweet grass, hybrid pennisetum, Dumu No. 1 or Suza 2. Preferred are: reed, scorpion, pennisetum (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L) Spreng), grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum, also known as purple wolftail), and hybrids cultivated by the hybrid of weed and grass. Such as Huangzhucao, giant grass, sweet grass, hybrid pennisetum, Dumu No. 1 or Suza 2;
或在水体区域(尤其淡水型的水体区域)中种植和 /或培育的速生草本植物 是: 凤眼莲 (水葫芦), 水藻, 芦苇或荻。 Or fast-growing herbs grown and/or cultivated in water bodies (especially in freshwater areas) Yes: Water hyacinth (water hyacinth), algae, reed or scorpion.
本申请的发明人经过悉心研究后发现, 在种植和 /或培育 (生长)区域的相同 的单位地面面积中,上述速生草本植物利用光合作用捕获二氧化碳的能力大约是 乔木或灌木的 4- 6倍, 或, 同样, 至少是在一年中收割一次的其它草本植物捕获 二氧化碳的能力的 4-6倍。 在速生草本植物或速生藻类的种植和 /或培育过程中 或其生长过程中, 以及在速生草本植物或速生藻类的收割或采收之后, 定期或周 期性地对于种植和 /或培育区域中的速生草本植物或速生藻类施加肥料, 通过多 次施加肥料, 促进植物快速生长。  The inventors of the present application have carefully studied and found that in the same unit floor area of the planting and/or growing (growing) area, the above-mentioned fast-growing herbaceous plants are capable of capturing carbon dioxide by photosynthesis about 4 to 6 times that of trees or shrubs. Or, similarly, at least 4-6 times the ability of other herbs harvested in a year to capture carbon dioxide. Regular or periodic for planting and/or growing areas during the cultivation and/or cultivation of fast-growing herbs or fast-growing algae or during their growth, and after harvesting or harvesting of fast-growing herbs or fast-growing algae Fast-growing herbs or fast-growing algae apply fertilizers to promote rapid plant growth by applying fertilizer multiple times.
另外, 作为种植和 /或培育区域的以上所述的选定的陆地区域或水体区域一 般远离农作物或庄稼种植区域,例如相距至少 1公里,比如相距 2-5公里,因此, 对于这些区域的速生草本植物或速生藻类中施加肥料的要求较低,能够尽可能多 地施加氮肥和磷肥以满足植物快速生长的需要。  In addition, the selected land areas or water bodies described above as planting and/or growing areas are generally remote from crops or crop-growing areas, for example at least 1 km apart, such as 2-5 km apart, so fast-growing for these areas The application of fertilizers in herbaceous plants or fast-growing algae is relatively low, and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers can be applied as much as possible to meet the needs of rapid plant growth.
下表 1是速生草本植物的列表。 下表 2是速生藻类的列表。 Table 1 below is a list of fast-growing herbs. Table 2 below is a list of fast growing algae.
表 1、 速生植物 Table 1, fast-growing plants
Figure imgf000010_0001
Figure imgf000010_0001
Figure imgf000011_0001
Figure imgf000011_0001
Figure imgf000011_0002
Figure imgf000011_0002
12、 根据以上 1-11中任何一项的方法, 其中在步骤(1)中, 使用狼尾草、 象 草、 皇竹草、 甜象草、 杂交狼尾草、 空心莲子草、 豚草、 芦苇、 荻、 大米草、 互 花米草、 狐米草、 大绳草、 海王神草、 喜盐草、 海菖蒲、 假高粱或龙须草作为速 生草本植物,用它们的根或茎杆进行无性繁殖;或使用香根草、黑麦草、苏丹草、 假高粱、 墨西哥玉米草、 青蒿、 加拿大一枝黄花、 松香草、 聚合草、 紫花苜蓿、 山苦荬、 沙打旺、 籽粒苋、 欧洲菊苣、 稗或草高粱作为速生草本植物, 用它们的 种子进行繁殖。 12. The method according to any one of the above 1-11, wherein in the step (1), the use of pennisetum, grassy grass, royal bamboo grass, sweet grass, hybrid pennisetum, hollow lotus grass, ragweed, Reeds, alfalfa, rice grass, Spartina alterniflora, foxgrass, big rope grass, sea king grass, hi salt grass, sea iris, false sorghum or Eulaliopsis binata as fast-growing herbaceous plants, using their roots or stems Asexual reproduction; or use vetiver, ryegrass, sudangrass, false sorghum, Mexican corn grass, Artemisia annua L., Solidago canadensis, pine herb, polymeric grass, alfalfa, mountain bitter, sand sorghum, amaranth, European Chicory, alfalfa or grass sorghum are used as fast-growing herbs to reproduce with their seeds.
13、 根据以上 1一 12项中任何一项所述的方法, 其中填埋场是: 山谷型填埋 场, 或平地型填埋场 (如低洼地, 或在平地上挖掘的填埋坑)。优选的填埋场是天 然的山谷。  13. The method according to any one of the preceding items 1 to 12, wherein the landfill is: a valley type landfill, or a flat landfill (such as a low-lying land, or a landfill pit excavated on a flat land) . The preferred landfill is a natural valley.
14、 根据以上 13项的方法, 其中山谷型填埋场或平地型填埋场包括: 填埋 空间单元 (26 ) (简称坑), 填埋空间单元的底部(如山谷的谷底)及边坡(1)上设 有 A压实粘土层 (5), 所述 A压实粘土层 (5 ) 中设有防渗衬垫层 (6), 所述坑 底 A压实粘土层 (5 ) 上设有砂砾层 (3 ), 所述砂砾层 (3) 上设有土壤层 (2); 所述填埋空间单元(26) 由山谷的空间和上、 下游拦截坝组成, 或由低洼地或人 工挖掘的坑构成。  14. According to the above 13 methods, the valley type landfill or the flat landfill includes: a landfill unit (26) (referred to as a pit), a bottom of the landfill unit (such as the valley bottom) and a slope. (1) an A compacted clay layer (5) is disposed thereon, and the A compacted clay layer (5) is provided with a barrier liner layer (6), and the pit bottom A compacts the clay layer (5) a gravel layer (3) is provided, and the gravel layer (3) is provided with a soil layer (2); the landfill unit (26) consists of a space of the valley and an upper and lower intercepting dam, or a low-lying land or Artificially excavated pits.
15、 根据以上 14项的方法, 其中所述填埋空间单元 (26) 表层设有 B压实 粘土层 (33), 所述 B粘土层 (33 ) 上设有防水层 (18), 所述防水层 (18)上设 有覆盖土层 (17 ); 覆盖土层 (17) 边缘设有横向排水沟 (19)。  15. The method according to the above item 14, wherein the surface layer of the landfill unit (26) is provided with a B compacted clay layer (33), and the B clay layer (33) is provided with a waterproof layer (18). The waterproof layer (18) is provided with a covering soil layer (17); and the covering soil layer (17) has a lateral drainage groove (19) at the edge.
16、 根据以上 15项的方法, 其中所述填埋空间单元 (26) 中设有渗滤液回 灌管 (16 ), 若干个填埋气体收集井 (20) 和填埋热量收集井 (21 );  16. According to the above method 15, wherein the landfill unit (26) is provided with a leachate recirculation pipe (16), a plurality of landfill gas collection wells (20) and a landfill heat collection well (21). ;
所述砂砾层 (3) 中设有渗滤液抽取管 (7 ), 所述渗滤液抽取管 (7) 与渗滤 液处理利用设备(9 )连接, 所述渗滤液处理利用设备(9 )与渗滤液回灌管(16) 连接,所述渗滤液抽取管(7)上设有渗滤液抽取泵(8),所述渗滤液回灌管(16) 上设有渗滤液回灌泵 (15);  a leachate extraction pipe (7) is disposed in the gravel layer (3), and the leachate extraction pipe (7) is connected with the leachate treatment utilization device (9), and the leachate treatment and utilization device (9) is infiltrated The filtrate recirculation pipe (16) is connected, the leachate extraction pipe (7) is provided with a leachate extraction pump (8), and the leachate recirculation pipe (16) is provided with a leachate recirculation pump (15) ;
所述覆盖土层( 17 )中设有插入填埋热量收集井(21 )内的地热井出水管(13) 和地热井回水管 (14), 所述地热井出水管 (13 ) 与填埋热量利用设备 (10) 连 接, 所述填埋热量利用设备 (10) 与地热井回水管(14)连接, 所述地热井出水 管 (13 ) 上设有地源热泵 (12 ), 所述地热井回水管 ( ) 上设有地热井回灌泵 所述覆盖土层(17) 中还设有与填埋气体收集井(20)连接的集气管(22), 所述集气管 (22) 与贮气罐 (24) 连接, 所述集气管 (23) 上设有气泵 (23); 所述填埋场还包括设在地坑旁的与地下水层(4)连通的地下水监测井(25); 所述地下水监测井 (25) 旁设有纵向排水沟 (32)。 The cover soil layer (17) is provided with a geothermal well outlet pipe (13) and a geothermal well return pipe (14) inserted into the landfill heat collecting well (21), and the geothermal well outlet pipe (13) and landfill heat utilization are utilized. The device (10) is connected, the landfill heat utilization device (10) is connected to the geothermal well return pipe (14), and the geothermal well outlet pipe (13) is provided with a ground source heat pump (12), and the geothermal well return pipe ( ) is equipped with geothermal well recirculation pump The cover soil layer (17) is further provided with a gas collecting pipe (22) connected to the landfill gas collecting well (20), and the gas collecting pipe (22) is connected with the gas storage tank (24), and the gas collecting pipe (the gas collecting pipe) 23) an air pump (23) is provided thereon; the landfill further includes a groundwater monitoring well (25) connected to the groundwater layer (4) beside the pit; the groundwater monitoring well (25) is provided with a longitudinal Drainage channel (32).
17、 根据以上 14-16中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述防渗衬垫层 (6) 为 HDPE土工膜, 或 HDPE土工膜与土工复合膨胀润土衬垫组成的复合衬垫 层。  17. The method according to any of the above 14-16, characterized in that the barrier liner layer (6) is a composite of HDPE geomembrane, or HDPE geomembrane and a geocomposite composite soil compact liner. Liner layer.
18、 根据以上 14-17中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述插入填埋热 量收集井 (21) 内的地热井出水管 (13) 末端设有若干个小孔。  18. The method according to any of the above 14-17, characterized in that the geothermal well outlet pipe (13) inserted into the landfill heat collecting well (21) is provided with a plurality of small holes at the end.
19、 根据以上 14- 18中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述填埋气体收 集井 (20) 由外套 (27) 和内套 (28) 组成, 所述外套 (27) 和内套 (28) 之间 的环隙中填充有砂砾 (29), 外套 (27) 和内套 (28) 上均设有若干个小孔, 内 套 (28) 与集气管 (22) 连接。  19. The method of any of the above 14-18, wherein the landfill gas collection well (20) consists of a jacket (27) and an inner sleeve (28), the jacket (27) and The annulus between the inner sleeves (28) is filled with gravel (29), and the outer sleeve (27) and the inner sleeve (28) are provided with a plurality of small holes, and the inner sleeve (28) is connected with the gas collecting pipe (22).
20、 根据以上 14- 19中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述渗滤液抽取 管 (7)、 渗滤液回灌管 (16)、 集气管 (22)、 地热井出水管 (13)、 地热井回水 管 (14)、 外套 (27) 和内套 (28) 的管壁材料为 PVC或 HDPE; 所述填埋热量收 集井 (21) 管壁材料为 PVC、 HDPE, 玻璃、 玻璃钢、 陶瓷或水泥。  20. The method according to any one of the above 14-19, characterized in that the leachate extraction pipe (7), the leachate recirculation pipe (16), the gas collection pipe (22), the geothermal well outlet pipe (13) ), the wall material of the geothermal well return pipe (14), the outer casing (27) and the inner casing (28) is PVC or HDPE; the landfill heat collecting well (21) is made of PVC, HDPE, glass, glass steel , ceramic or cement.
21、 根据以上 14-20中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述填埋空间单 元 (26) 中的渗液回灌管 (16) 上设有若干个小孔。  21. The method according to any of the above 14-20, characterized in that the pervious liquid refill pipe (16) in the landfill unit (26) is provided with a plurality of small holes.
22、 根据以上 14-21中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述若干个填埋 热量收集井(21 )呈六边形排列,相邻两个填埋热量收集井(21 )距离 200〜500m, 填埋热量收集井 (21) 深度是填埋空间单元 (26) 高度的 1/2〜2/3, 填埋热量 收集井 (21) 井底距离填埋空间单元 (26) 底部 1〜2 m。  22. The method according to any one of the above 14-21, wherein the plurality of landfill heat collecting wells (21) are arranged in a hexagonal shape, and two adjacent landfill heat collecting wells (21) Distance 200~500m, landfill heat collection well (21) Depth is 1/2~2/3 of landfill space unit (26), landfill heat collection well (21) bottom hole distance landfill unit (26) The bottom is 1~2 m.
23、 根据以上 14-22中任何一项所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述若干个填埋 气体收集井(20)呈六边形排列, 相邻两个填埋气体收集井(20)距离 10〜50m, 填埋气体收集井 (20) 的深度是填埋空间单元 (26) 高度的 1/3〜1/2, 填埋气 体收集井 (20) 井底距填埋空间单元 (26) 顶部 2〜5 m。  23. The method of any of the above 14-22, wherein the plurality of landfill gas collection wells (20) are arranged in a hexagonal shape, adjacent to two landfill gas collection wells (20) The distance from the landfill gas collection well (20) is 1/3 to 1/2 of the height of the landfill unit (26), and the landfill gas collection well (20) is at the bottom of the landfill unit (26). ) Top 2~5 m.
平地型填埋场指建在地势平缓地区的填埋场,包括在地势平缓的平原、滩涂、 戈壁滩、 沙漠中修建的填埋场。 主要填埋空间单元位于地表上, 在填埋场外四周 截洪沟, 拦截场外雨水, 排出场区。 渗沥液收集后汇入下游的调节池, 作集中处 理。山谷型填埋场指建立在两山之间低凹处的填埋场,包括在山谷、沟涧、坑洼、 坡地, 废弃、 干涸的水库、 河道及矿井修建的生物质填埋场; 是利用山谷形成的 填埋空间,在山谷下游修筑堤坝(或在一段山谷的上、 下游分别修建堤坝)建造而 成, 场地为独立的水文地质单元, 地下水流至谷口向外排泄。在库区外设置环库 截洪沟, 拦截场外雨水, 排入场区下游。 渗沥液收集后汇入下游的调节池, 作集 中处理。 Flat landfills refer to landfills built in flat terrain, including landfills built on flat plains, tidal flats, Gobi deserts, and deserts. The main landfill unit is located on the surface of the land, and the flood trench is intercepted around the landfill to intercept the rainwater outside the site and discharge the site. After the leachate is collected, it is sent to the downstream adjustment tank for concentration. Reason. A valley-type landfill is a landfill built in a low depression between two mountains, including a biomass landfill built in valleys, gullies, potholes, sloping fields, abandoned, dry reservoirs, rivers and mines; Using the landfill space formed by the valley, the dam is built in the lower reaches of the valley (or dams are built on the upper and lower reaches of a valley). The site is an independent hydrogeological unit, and the groundwater flows out to the valley. Outside the reservoir area, a circular reservoir intercepting ditch is set up to intercept the off-site rainwater and discharge into the downstream of the site. The leachate is collected and sent to the downstream conditioning tank for centralized treatment.
一般, 所述填埋空间单元由山谷的空间(或一段的山谷空间)和上、下游的拦 截坝 (或堤坝)组成。  Typically, the landfill unit consists of a valley space (or a section of a valley space) and an upstream and downstream interceptor dam (or dam).
两种填埋场要避开自然保护区、 风景旅游区、 文物古迹区、 居民集中区和水 源保护区。 距离最近的人畜居栖点应大于 800m, 对集中式生活用水取水点不能 产生污染影响, 填埋场位于地下水流向的下游, 进场道路尽量避开居民集中区。  The two landfills should avoid nature reserves, scenic tourist areas, cultural relics and historic areas, residential areas and water conservation areas. The nearest human and animal habitats should be greater than 800m, and there is no pollution impact on centralized domestic water intake points. The landfill is located downstream of the groundwater flow, and the access roads should avoid the residents' concentrated areas.
24、 根据以上 1-23项中任何一项的方法, 还包括下列步骤:  24. The method according to any of the above 1-23, further comprising the steps of:
(5)、在植物填埋结束之后在最终填埋的植物之上覆盖一层覆盖的普通土壤。 (5) Covering the final landfilled plant with a layer of covered common soil after the end of the plant landfill.
25、 根据以上 24的方法, 还包括下列步骤: 25. According to the method of the above 24, the following steps are also included:
(6)、填埋场的植被恢复:在覆盖土壤上铺一层 5〜200cm厚(优选 20〜 100cm) 的种植土, 再种植草本植物、 灌木植物和乔木植物; 所述种植土是由土壤、 草炭 土与腐熟的有机质按 3〜5 : 1〜2 : 1 (按 wt)混合形成。  (6) Vegetation restoration in the landfill: lay a layer of 5~200cm thick (preferably 20~100cm) planting soil on the covered soil, and then plant herbaceous plants, shrub plants and arbor plants; the planting soil is soil , peat soil and decomposed organic matter are formed by mixing 3~5: 1~2: 1 (by wt).
26、 根据以上 1-25项中任何一项的方法, 还包括:  26. The method according to any one of the above 1-25, further comprising:
(7)、 植物填埋场中渗滤液的利用步骤, 该利用步骤包括下列子步骤: (al ) 收集填埋场中的渗滤液至渗滤液池;  (7) a step of utilizing leachate in a plant landfill, the utilization step comprising the following substeps: (al) collecting leachate from the landfill to the leachate pool;
(a2 )将步骤(al )收集的渗滤液经机械格栅和均和池后送入氨氮吹脱塔脱 氮, 将脱氮产生的氨气经氨气回收塔回收; 其中, 当渗滤液经过均和池时, 通过 石灰乳槽中的石灰乳液调节均和池内的 PH值;  (a2) the leachate collected in the step (al) is sent to the ammonia nitrogen stripping tower for denitrification through the mechanical grid and the homogenization tank, and the ammonia gas generated by the denitrification is recovered by the ammonia recovery tower; wherein, when the leachate passes When the pool is uniform, the pH value in the pool is adjusted by the lime emulsion in the lime milk tank;
(a3 )将脱氮后的渗滤液经酸化池酸化、 厌氧反应器发酵降解, 将发酵降解 产生的甲垸经甲烷回收塔除杂后贮存;将发酵降解形成的污泥送入污泥浓缩池浓 缩;  (a3) The leachate after denitrification is acidified by acidification tank and degraded by anaerobic reactor, and the formazan produced by fermentation degradation is stored after being removed by the methane recovery tower; the sludge formed by fermentation degradation is sent to the sludge for concentration. Pool concentration
(a4) 将发酵降解后的澄清液经中沉池澄清后送入生物接触氧化塔内氧化, 再经二沉池澄清后送入反渗透膜装置过滤, 过滤后的清水排放至成品水箱;将中 沉池和二沉池中的污泥送入污泥浓缩池浓缩;  (a4) The clarified liquid after fermentation degradation is clarified by the intermediate sedimentation tank and sent to the biological contact oxidation tower for oxidation, and then clarified by the secondary settling tank and sent to the reverse osmosis membrane device for filtration, and the filtered clean water is discharged to the finished water tank; The sludge in the intermediate and secondary sedimentation tanks is sent to the sludge concentration tank for concentration;
(a5 )将污泥浓縮池中的浓缩固体颗粒经脱水机脱水生成泥饼, 将泥饼与新 的生物质重新填埋, 脱出的污水重新回流至均和池中。 (a5) Dewatering the concentrated solid particles in the sludge concentration tank through a dehydrator to form a mud cake, and the mud cake and the new The biomass is re-buried and the effluent from the effluent is returned to the pool.
27、 根据以上 1-26项中任何一项的方法, 还包括:  27. The method according to any one of the above 1-26, further comprising:
(8)、 植物填埋场中热量的综合利用步骤, 该步骤包括下列子步骤: (bl) 通过地热井收集生物质填埋产生的热量;  (8) A comprehensive utilization step of heat in a plant landfill, the step comprising the following sub-steps: (bl) collecting heat generated by the biomass landfill through the geothermal well;
(b2) 将步骤 (bl) 收集的热量分别由发电机热泵送入汽轮发电机组发电, 由制冷机热泵送入吸附式制冷机机组制冷, 由工厂设备热泵送入工厂热备供热, 由供暖泵送入暖气片供暖, 由供热泵送入养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量; (b2) The heat collected in step (bl) is sent to the steam turbine generator set by the generator heat pump, and is sent to the adsorption refrigeration unit for cooling by the heat pump of the refrigerator, and sent to the factory for heat supply by the heat pump of the factory equipment. The heating pump is fed into the radiator for heating, and the heat pump is sent to the breeding pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crops;
(b3)将步骤(b2) 中发电后从汽轮发电机组出水口排出的热水分别由制冷 机热泵送入吸附式制冷机机组制冷, 由工厂设备热泵送入工厂热备供热, 由供暖 泵送入暖气片供暖, 由供热泵送入养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量; (b3) The hot water discharged from the steam turbine generator set outlet after power generation in step (b2) is separately sent from the chiller heat pump to the adsorption chiller unit for cooling, and the factory equipment heat pump is sent to the factory for heat supply and heating. The pump is sent to the radiator for heating, and the heat pump is sent to the breeding pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crops;
(b4)将步骤(b2) 中吸附式制冷机机组制冷过程使用过的热水分别由供暖 泵送入暖气片供暖, 由供热泵送入养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量;  (b4) The hot water used in the refrigeration process of the adsorption chiller unit in step (b2) is separately sent from the heating pump to the radiator for heating, and the heat pump is sent to the breeding pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crop;
(b5)将步骤(b2) 中工厂热备供热过程使用过的热水分别由供暖泵送入暖 气片供暖, 由供热泵送入养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量;  (b5) The hot water used in the hot standby heating process in the step (b2) is separately sent to the heating sheet by the heating pump, and the heat pump is sent to the breeding pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crop;
(b6)将步骤(b3) 中吸附式制冷机机组制冷过程使用过的热水分别由供暖 泵送入暖气片供暖, 由供热泵送入养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量;  (b6) The hot water used in the refrigeration process of the adsorption chiller unit in step (b3) is separately sent from the heating pump to the radiator for heating, and the heat pump is sent to the breeding pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crop;
(b7)将步骤(b3) 中工厂热备供热过程使用过的热水分别由供暖泵送入暖 气片供暖, 由供热泵送入养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量;  (b7) The hot water used in the hot standby heating process in the step (b3) is separately sent to the heating sheet by the heating pump, and the heat pump is sent to the breeding pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crop;
(b8)将步骤(b2)至 (b7) 中暖气片供暖过程使用过的热水由供热泵送入 养殖池和水田中为农作物提供热量。  (b8) The hot water used in the heating process of the radiator in steps (b2) to (b7) is fed from the heating pump into the culture pond and the paddy field to provide heat for the crops.
28、 根据以上 1-27项中任何一项的方法, 还包括:  28. The method according to any one of the above 1-27, further comprising:
(9)、 植物填埋场所产生气体的综合利用步骤, 包括下列子步骤:  (9) The comprehensive utilization steps of gas generated at the landfill site, including the following sub-steps:
(cl) 收集生物质填埋气体至集气罐;  (cl) collecting biomass landfill gas to the gas collection tank;
(c2) 将步骤 (cl) 收集的气体经脱水塔脱水、 过滤塔过滤、 脱硫塔脱硫、 真空脱氧塔脱氧、 干燥塔干燥后再经膜分离装置分离出甲垸、 氮气和二氧化碳; (c2) dehydrating the gas collected in the step (cl) through a dehydration tower, filtration through a filtration tower, desulfurization in a desulfurization tower, deoxidation in a vacuum deoxidation tower, drying in a drying tower, and separating the formazan, nitrogen and carbon dioxide through a membrane separation device;
(c3)将步骤(c2)分离出的甲垸经吸附装置提纯并压缩后收集到甲垸贮存 罐中; 将氮气经氮气纯化装置提纯并压缩后收集到氮气贮存罐中; 将二氧化碳经 二氧化碳纯化装置提纯并压缩后收集到二氧化碳贮存罐中。 (c3) the formazan separated in the step (c2) is purified by an adsorption device and compressed and collected in a formazan storage tank; the nitrogen is purified by a nitrogen purifying device and compressed and collected in a nitrogen storage tank; the carbon dioxide is purified by carbon dioxide The device is purified and compressed and collected in a carbon dioxide storage tank.
29、 根据以上 1-28项中任何一项的方法, 还包括:  29. The method according to any one of the above 1-28, further comprising:
(10)、 植物填埋场所产生恶臭的处理步骤, 包括下列子步骤: ( dl )收集生物质在腐烂分解过程产生的气体至集气罐, 收集生物质在腐烂 分解过程产生的液体至渗滤液池; (10) The processing steps for producing malodor in a plant landfill site, including the following sub-steps: ( dl ) collecting the gas generated by the decomposition process of the biomass in the decomposition process to the gas collection tank, and collecting the liquid generated by the decomposition process of the biomass into the leachate pool;
( d2 )当处理集气罐中的气体恶臭时,将集气罐中的气体送入 A生物过滤池; 当处理渗滤液池中液体的恶臭时,将渗滤液池中的液体送入布水塔除去液体散发 的气体的恶臭, 再将该除臭后的气体送入 A生物过滤池;  (d2) When the gas malodor in the gas collecting tank is treated, the gas in the gas collecting tank is sent to the A biological filter tank; when the malodor of the liquid in the leachate tank is treated, the liquid in the leachate tank is sent to the water distribution tower Removing the malodor of the gas emitted by the liquid, and then feeding the deodorized gas into the A biological filter tank;
( d3 )将步骤(d2 ) 中送入 A生物过滤池的气体经过 A生物过滤池和 B生物 过滤池除臭后排出。  (d3) The gas sent to the biological filter tank in the step (d2) is deodorized and discharged through the A biological filter tank and the B biological filter tank.
种植速生、 丰产、 捕碳效率高的陆生和水生草本植物, 一年可收割多次, 其 叶面总面积和叶绿体总数量,大于相同面积周期的绿化植物的叶面总面积和叶绿 体总数量, 但是绿化植物的生长期长达 10年以上; 速生草本植物的总捕碳量是 相同面积绿化植物总捕碳量的 30〜50倍。 两者的叶面积对比数据参见下表 3。  Planting fast-growing, high-yield, high-carbon-harvesting terrestrial and aquatic herbaceous plants that can be harvested many times a year, with total leaf area and total number of chloroplasts, greater than the total leaf area and total number of chloroplasts of green plants of the same area cycle However, the growth period of green plants lasts for more than 10 years; the total carbon capture of fast-growing herbs is 30 to 50 times the total carbon capture of green plants in the same area. See Table 3 below for comparison of leaf area of the two.
表 3 植物的叶面总面积 /亩(以长江中、 下游地区的夏季为准) 草本植物  Table 3 Total leaf area per acre / acre (in summer in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River) Herbaceous plants
皇竹草 甜象草 芦苇  Emperor bamboo grass sweet grass reed
1950. 6 1837. 8 1918. 9 叶面积 (m2) 1973. 5 1819. 7 1889. 3 1950. 6 1837. 8 1918. 9 Leaf area (m 2 ) 1973. 5 1819. 7 1889. 3
1926. 7 1867. 7 1835. 6 平均值 (m2) 1950. 2 1841. 7 1881. 2 成年绿化植物 1926. 7 1867. 7 1835. 6 Average (m 2 ) 1950. 2 1841. 7 1881. 2 Adult green plants
桉 树 榆 树 樟 树  桉 tree 榆 tree 樟 tree
1310. 1 1423. 2 1762. 1 叶面积 ( m2) 1291. 1 1411. 2 1731. 3 1310. 1 1423. 2 1762. 1 Leaf area ( m 2 ) 1291. 1 1411. 2 1731. 3
1303. 2 1398. 7 1694. 5 平均值 (m2) 1301. 4 1411. 0 1729. 3 上述绿化植物经过长达 10-15年的生长时间才成为成年绿化植物。 1303. 2 1398. 7 1694. 5 Average (m 2 ) 1301. 4 1411. 0 1729. 3 The above green plants have become adult green plants after 10-15 years of growth.
根据发明人的上述发现, 本发明人首次提出种植速生、 丰产的草本植物, 通 过光合作用将大气中的(:02转变成有机质填埋到地层下, 并对填埋植物所产生的 气体、 渗滤液、 热量等收集利用, 实现全球碳排放量负增长的方法。 每年填埋 138. 77〜142. 85亿吨 (干重) 植物, 100年内, 即可将大气中的 C02浓度由当前 的 0. 03909%降至工业革命前的 0. 0275%。开辟了人类应对大气温室效应危害新途 径。 一般而言, 填埋场与种植区域之间的距离是比较短的, 通常在 100公里的半 径之内。 According to the above findings of the inventors, the present inventors first proposed planting fast-growing, high-yielding herbaceous plants, and by photosynthetic use, the atmosphere (the 0 2 is converted into organic matter and buried under the formation, and the gas generated by the landfill plant, Leachate, heat, etc. are collected and utilized to achieve a global growth in carbon emissions. Annual landfill 138. 77~142.85 billion tons (dry weight) plants, within 100 years, the atmospheric concentration of C0 2 can be obtained from the current 0. 03909% fell to 0. 0275% before the industrial revolution. It opened up a new way for humans to cope with the atmospheric greenhouse effect. In general, the distance between the landfill and the planting area is relatively short, usually within a radius of 100 km.
本发明的优点  Advantages of the invention
1)、 种植速生、 丰产、 捕捉 co2效率高的陆生和水生草本植物, 每年可收获 4〜6次,每公顷每年平均收获 300〜525吨(干重)植物;可捕获 C02 达 294〜 514 吨。一年中多次收割或采收, 单位种植面积中的总捕碳量显著高于相同种植面积 中绿化植物的总捕碳量, 在 50年的时间中前者是后者的 30-50倍, 这是过去没 有想到的。 种植和 /或培育速生藻类、 地衣和苔藓, 鉴于它们在地球上的广泛分 布, 同样能够获得理想的捕碳效果。 1) Planting fast-growing, high-yield, terrestrial and aquatic herbaceous plants with high CO 2 efficiency, harvesting 4~6 times per year, harvesting an average of 300~525 tons (dry weight) per hectare per year; capturing C0 2 up to 294 ~ 514 tons. Harvesting or harvesting multiple times a year, the total carbon capture per unit area is significantly higher than the total carbon capture of green plants in the same planting area, which is 30-50 times that of the latter in 50 years. This was not thought of in the past. Planting and/or cultivating fast-growing algae, lichens and mosses, as well as their widespread distribution on the planet, can also achieve the desired carbon capture effect.
2)、 为国际上的碳交易提供操作性强的技术手段和参考依据。  2) Provide operational and technical means and reference for international carbon trading.
3)、 作为一个产业来推广, 有利于提高就业率。  3) As an industry to promote, it will help to increase the employment rate.
4)、 资源的综合利用, 如热量、 气体、 渗漏液的综合利用, 能够产生社会经 济效益。  4) Comprehensive utilization of resources, such as the comprehensive utilization of heat, gas and leachate, can generate social economic benefits.
5)、 填埋场与种植区域之间的距离短, 运输成本低, 可操作性高。  5) The distance between the landfill and the planting area is short, the transportation cost is low, and the operability is high.
6)、 由于在选定的陆地区域或水体区域中进行大规模种植和 /或培育, 这些 区域对于有机肥料和灌溉水的质量要求不如农作物种植区域中那样严格, 因此, 城市生活垃圾和生活污水经过不太复杂的处理即可用来施肥或侥灌。为城市生活 垃圾和生活污水的处理提供了一种低成本的途径, 使得资源可持续利用, 实现了 资源利用与环境保护的有机结合。  6) Due to the large-scale cultivation and/or cultivation in selected land areas or water bodies, the quality requirements for organic fertilizers and irrigation water in these areas are not as strict as those in crop cultivation areas. Therefore, municipal solid waste and domestic sewage It can be used for fertilization or drip irrigation after less complicated treatment. It provides a low-cost way for the treatment of urban domestic waste and domestic sewage, enabling the sustainable use of resources and realizing the organic combination of resource utilization and environmental protection.
7)、 由于种植和 /或培育的植物主要是速生草本植物或速生藻类, 因此方便 大规模收割, 尤其是, 速生草本植物能够利用农用收割机进行收割, 避免了因为 人工收割所带来的成本。  7) Since the plants grown and/or cultivated are mainly fast-growing herbs or fast-growing algae, it is convenient for large-scale harvesting. In particular, fast-growing herbs can be harvested by agricultural harvesters, avoiding the cost of manual harvesting. .
附图说明  DRAWINGS
图 1是本发明的填埋场的结构示意图;  Figure 1 is a schematic view showing the structure of a landfill of the present invention;
图 2是填埋气体收集井示意图;  Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of a landfill gas collection well;
图 3是填埋热量收集井示意图。  Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of a landfill heat collection well.
图中:  In the picture:
1、 边坡, 2、 土壤层, 3、 砂砾层, 4、 地下水层, 5、 压实粘土层, 6、 防渗 衬垫, 7、 渗滤液抽取管, 8、 渗滤液抽取泵, 9、 渗滤液处理利用设备, 10、 填 埋热量利用设备, 11、 地热井回灌泵, 12、 地源热泵, 13、 地热井出水管, 14、 地热井回水管, 15、 渗滤液回灌泵, 16、 渗滤液回灌管, 17、 覆盖土层, 18、 防 水层, 19、 横向排水沟, 20、 填埋气体收集井, 21、 填埋热量收集井, 22、 集气 管, 23、 气泵, 24, 贮气罐, 25、 地下水监测井, 26、 填埋空间单元, 27、 填埋 场气体的收集井外套, 28、 填埋场气体的收集井内套, 29、 砂砾, 30、 外套透气 孔, 31内套透气孔, 32、 纵向排水沟, 33、 B压实粘土层。 1. Slope, 2. Soil layer, 3. Gravel layer, 4. Groundwater layer, 5. Compacted clay layer, 6. Impervious liner, 7. Leachate extraction pipe, 8. Leachate pump, 9. Leachate treatment and utilization equipment, 10, landfill heat utilization equipment, 11, geothermal well recirculation pump, 12, ground source heat pump, 13, geothermal well outlet pipe, 14, Geothermal well return pipe, 15, leachate recirculation pump, 16, leachate recirculation pipe, 17, covering soil layer, 18, waterproof layer, 19, horizontal drainage ditch, 20, landfill gas collection well, 21, landfill Heat collection wells, 22, gas collection pipes, 23, gas pumps, 24, gas storage tanks, 25. Groundwater monitoring wells, 26. Landfill space units, 27. Collection wells for landfill gas, 28. Landfill gas Collecting the inner casing, 29, gravel, 30, jacket venting holes, 31 inner venting holes, 32, longitudinal drainage ditch, 33, B compacted clay layer.
具体的实施方式  Specific embodiment
下面详细说明本发明优选的技术方案, 但本发明不限于所提供的实施例。 实施例 A-城市生活垃圾处理, 获得有机肥料  Preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in detail below, but the present invention is not limited to the embodiments provided. Example A - Urban Domestic Waste Treatment, Obtaining Organic Fertilizer
1、 将大块的木材、 纸板、 装饰材料、 泡沫等可燃物和水泥、 砖瓦、 大理石、 瓷砖、 石膏板等建筑垃圾处理分拣出来。  1. Sort out large pieces of wood, cardboard, decorative materials, foam and other combustible materials and construction waste such as cement, brick, marble, ceramic tile, gypsum board.
2、 将装有生活垃圾的塑料袋破开, 使袋子物品全部散开。  2. Break the plastic bag containing the household garbage and spread the bag.
3、 采用磁选的方式, 将铁类金属分选择出来。  3. Select the iron metal by magnetic separation.
4、 使用垃圾风力分选系统 (参见 CN102601049A)对于处理后的城市生活垃圾 进行筛选, 筛选出无机物, 留下的有机物被粉碎成大颗粒物。  4. Use the garbage wind sorting system (see CN102601049A) to screen the treated municipal solid waste, screen out the inorganic matter, and leave the organic matter crushed into large particles.
5、粉碎后的有机物加入人畜粪便、磷肥、氮肥等混合, 碳氮比为 20〜30 : 1; 5, the crushed organic matter is added to human and animal waste, phosphate fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer, etc., carbon to nitrogen ratio of 20~30: 1;
6、 将复合益菌粉剂加水稀释 50〜100倍, 常温下培养 8〜12小时, 得菌液 后, 再培养好的菌液喷洒在有机物上; 每 10t有机物原料使用 0. 5kg复合益菌粉 剂, pH值为 6〜9; 控制有机物堆湿度为 45〜60%。 5公斤复合益菌粉剂。 The compound of the beneficial bacteria powder is diluted with 50~100 times, and the mixture is incubated for 8 to 12 hours. , pH value is 6~9; control organic matter reactor humidity is 45~60%.
7、 发酵 5〜10天后翻堆, 翻堆时一边搅拌一边往有机物原料中添加复合益 菌粉剂, 添加量为每 10t原料添加 0. 5kg复合益菌粉剂; 堆肥原料湿度保持在 55〜60%之间。  After the fermentation is carried out for 5 to 10 days, the mixture is stirred and the compound is added to the organic material, and the amount of the additive is 0. 5kg of compound beneficial bacteria powder; the composting material humidity is maintained at 55~60%. between.
8、 翻堆后, 夏天, 翻堆后 5〜10天堆肥原料进入后熟期, 冬天时, 翻堆后 7〜15天肥原料进入后熟期; 经过后熟期后, 露天下降解 5〜10天完全腐熟; 8. After turning over the pile, in summer, 5~10 days after the pile is piled up, the compost material enters the post-ripening period. In winter, after 7~15 days, the fertilizer raw material enters the post-ripening period; after the post-ripening period, it degrades under the open stage. 10 days completely decomposed;
9、将完全腐熟后的有机肥摊开,使其自然干燥或日晒,然后破碎并经 0. 1〜 2目筛除大颗粒后即成有机肥料成品。 9. Spread the fully decomposed organic fertilizer to make it dry or sun-dried, then crush and sieve the large particles through 0.1 to 2 mesh to form the finished organic fertilizer.
实施例 B-城市生活污水处理, 获得富含营养物的处理污水  Example B - Urban domestic sewage treatment, obtaining nutrient-rich treated sewage
城市生活污水主要包括厨房洗涤水、冲厕废水及其它生活杂水。该类废水含 大量固体悬浮物、可化学或生物降解的溶解性或胶态分散有机物、含氮化合物 (包 括氨氮、 硝酸盐氮、 亚硝酸盐氮和有机氮)、 磷酸盐、 钾钠及重金属离子、 菌类 生物群等。若不加处理或处理程度不足而排入天然水体, 会导致水体富营养化及 毒性积累,当含氮量和含磷量较高的水质排入自然界,容易引起水体的富营养化, 以致水质恶化, 污染环境。 Urban domestic sewage mainly includes kitchen washing water, flushing wastewater and other living waste water. This type of wastewater contains a large amount of solid suspended matter, chemically or biodegradable dissolved or colloidally dispersed organic matter, nitrogenous compounds (including ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and organic nitrogen), phosphate, potassium sodium and heavy metals. Ions, fungal biota, etc. If it is discharged into natural water without treatment or treatment, it will lead to eutrophication of water bodies. Toxicity accumulation, when water with high nitrogen content and high phosphorus content is discharged into the natural world, it is easy to cause eutrophication of water bodies, resulting in deterioration of water quality and environmental pollution.
1、 污泥和污水同时进入曝气池充分混合, 曝气池中的微生物吸附、 分解污 水中的有机物, 起到净化污水的作用。  1. The sludge and sewage enter the aeration tank at the same time, and the microorganisms in the aeration tank adsorb and decompose the organic matter in the sewage to purify the sewage.
2、 处理后的污水经沉淀后排出曝气池, 可直接进行浇灌速生丰产的草本植 物。  2. The treated sewage is discharged into the aeration tank after sedimentation, and can directly feed the fast-growing and high-yield herb plants.
3、 污泥二次沉淀后, 自然干燥 (如日晒), 然后破碎并经 0. 1〜2 目筛除大 颗粒后即成有机肥料成品。  3. After the secondary sedimentation of the sludge, it is naturally dried (such as sun exposure), then crushed and sieved through 0. 1~2 mesh to remove the large particles and then become the finished organic fertilizer.
实施例 C-城市生活污水处理, 获得富含营养物的处理污水  Example C - Urban domestic sewage treatment, obtaining nutrient-rich treated sewage
从城市生活污水排放系统中引出的污水经过过滤之后被输送到处理池中,在 处理池中添加生石灰进行处理, 石灰添加量使得 pH保持在 7. 0-7. 5左右, 经过 处理的污水通过运输车辆或输送管道被输送到种植和 /或培育区域中用于浇灌植 物。  The effluent of the treated sewage is passed through the effluent of the treated sewage. The effluent is passed through the effluent. Transport vehicles or pipelines are transported to the planting and/or growing area for watering the plants.
实施例 1-山谷型填埋场或平地型填埋场  Example 1 - Valley type landfill or flat landfill
对于典型的填埋场参见图 1至图 3, 所述一种山谷型生物质填埋场包括填埋 空间单元 26, 填埋空间单元的底部(山谷的谷底或坑的底部)及边坡 1 上设有 A 压实粘土层 5, 所述坑底及边坡的 A压实粘土层 5中设有防渗衬垫 6, 所述坑底 A压实粘土层 5上设有砂砾层 3, 所述砂砾层 3上设有土壤层 2; 所述填埋空间 单元 26填充山谷, 所述填埋空间单元 26表层设有 B压实粘土层 33, 所述 B粘 土层 33上设有防水层 18, 所述防水层 18上设有覆盖土层 17; 覆盖土层 17边缘 设有横向排水沟 19; 所述填埋空间单元 26中设有渗滤液回灌管 16, 若干个填埋 气体收集井 20和填埋热量收集井 21 ; 所述砂砾层 3中设有渗滤液抽取管 7, 所 述渗滤液抽取管 7与渗滤液处理利用设备 9连接,所述渗滤液处理利用设备 9与 渗滤液回灌管 16连接, 所述渗滤液抽取管 7上设有渗滤液抽取泵 8, 所述渗滤 液回灌管 16上设有渗滤液回灌泵 15; 所述覆盖土层 17中设有插入填埋热量收 集井 21内的地热井出水管 13和地热井回水管 14, 所述地热井出水管 13与填埋 热量利用设备 10连接, 所述填埋热量利用设备 10与地热井回水管 14连接, 所 述地热井出水管 13上设有地源热泵 12, 所地热井回水管 14上设有地热井回灌 泵 11 ; 所述覆盖土层 17中还设有与填埋气体收集井 20连接的集气管 22, 所述 集气管 22与贮气罐 24连接, 所述集气管 23上设有气泵 23; 所述填埋场还包括 设在地坑旁的与地下水层 4连通的地下水监测井 25; 所述地下水监测井 25旁设 有纵向排水沟 32。 Referring to Figures 1 to 3 for a typical landfill, the valley type biomass landfill includes a landfill unit 26, a bottom of the landfill unit (the bottom of the valley or the bottom of the pit) and the slope 1 An A compacted clay layer 5 is disposed thereon, and an impervious liner 6 is disposed in the A compacted clay layer 5 of the pit bottom and the slope, and the gravel layer 3 is disposed on the compacted clay layer 5 of the pit bottom A. The gravel layer 3 is provided with a soil layer 2; the landfill space unit 26 is filled with a valley, and the buried space unit 26 is provided with a B compacted clay layer 33 on the surface layer, and the B clay layer 33 is provided with a waterproof layer. 18, the waterproof layer 18 is provided with a covering soil layer 17; the edge of the covering soil layer 17 is provided with a horizontal drainage ditch 19; the landfill space unit 26 is provided with a leachate recirculation pipe 16, and a plurality of landfill gas collection The well 20 and the landfill heat collecting well 21; the gravel layer 3 is provided with a leachate extraction pipe 7, and the leachate extraction pipe 7 is connected with the leachate treatment and utilization device 9, and the leachate treatment and utilization device 9 is infiltrated The filtrate recirculation pipe 16 is connected, and the leachate extraction pipe 7 is provided with a leachate extraction pump 8, and the leachate recirculation pipe 16 is provided with an infiltration a liquid recirculation pump 15; the cover soil layer 17 is provided with a geothermal well outlet pipe 13 and a geothermal well return pipe 14 inserted into the landfill heat collecting well 21, and the geothermal well outlet pipe 13 is connected to the landfill heat utilization device 10, The landfill heat utilization device 10 is connected to the geothermal well return pipe 14, and the geothermal well outlet pipe 13 is provided with a ground source heat pump 12, and the hot well return pipe 14 is provided with a geothermal well return pump 11; The layer 17 is further provided with a gas collecting pipe 22 connected to the landfill gas collecting well 20, the gas collecting pipe 22 is connected to the gas storage tank 24, and the gas collecting pipe 23 is provided with a gas pump 23; the landfill also includes A groundwater monitoring well 25 connected to the groundwater layer 4 next to the pit; a vertical drain 32 is provided beside the groundwater monitoring well 25.
其中, 所述防渗衬垫 6为 HDPE土工膜, 或 HDPE土工膜与土工复合膨胀润土 衬垫组成的复合衬垫。所述插入填埋热量收集井 21内的地热井出水管 13末端设 有若干个小孔。 所述填埋气体收集井 20由外套 27和内套 28组成, 所述外套 27 和内套 28之间的环隙中填充有砂砾 29,外套 27和内套 28上均设有若干个小孔, 内套 28与集气管 22连接。 所述渗滤液抽取管 7、 渗滤液回灌管 16、 集气管 22、 地热井出水管 13、地热井回水管 14、外套 27和内套 28的管壁材料为 PVC或 HDPE; 所述填埋热量收集井 21 管壁材料为 PVC、 HDPE, 玻璃、 玻璃钢、 陶瓷或水泥。 所述填埋空间单元 26中的渗液回灌管 16上设有若干个小孔。所述若干个填埋热 量收集井 21呈六边形排列, 相邻两个填埋热量收集井 21距离 200〜500m, 填埋 热量收集井 21深度是填埋空间单元 26高度的 1/2〜2/3, 填埋热量收集井 21井 底距离填埋空间单元 26底部 1〜2 mo 所述若干个填埋气体收集井 20呈六边形 排列, 相邻两个填埋气体收集井 20距离 10〜50m, 填埋气体收集井 20的深度是 填埋空间单元 (26 ) 高度的 1/3〜1/2, 填埋气体收集井 20井底距填埋空间单元 26顶部 2〜5 m。  Wherein, the impervious liner 6 is a composite liner composed of an HDPE geomembrane, or an HDPE geomembrane and a geocomposite composite intumescent liner. The geothermal well outlet pipe 13 inserted into the landfill heat collecting well 21 is provided with a plurality of small holes at the end. The landfill gas collection well 20 is composed of a jacket 27 and an inner sleeve 28. The annulus between the jacket 27 and the inner sleeve 28 is filled with grit 29, and the outer casing 27 and the inner sleeve 28 are provided with a plurality of small holes. The inner sleeve 28 is connected to the gas collecting pipe 22. The wall material of the leachate extraction pipe 7, the leachate recirculation pipe 16, the gas collection pipe 22, the geothermal well outlet pipe 13, the geothermal well return pipe 14, the outer casing 27 and the inner casing 28 is PVC or HDPE; The collection wall 21 material is PVC, HDPE, glass, glass steel, ceramic or cement. The liquid pervious recirculation pipe 16 in the landfill space unit 26 is provided with a plurality of small holes. The plurality of landfill heat collecting wells 21 are arranged in a hexagonal shape, and the distance between two adjacent landfill heat collecting wells 21 is 200 to 500 m, and the depth of the landfill heat collecting well 21 is 1/2 of the height of the landfill space unit 26. 2/3, the landfill heat collection well 21 is located at the bottom of the landfill unit 26 and the bottom of the landfill unit 26 is 1~2 mo. The plurality of landfill gas collection wells 20 are arranged in a hexagonal shape, and the distance between two adjacent landfill gas collection wells 20 10~50m, the depth of the landfill gas collection well 20 is 1/3~1/2 of the height of the landfill space unit (26), and the bottom of the landfill gas collection well 20 is 2~5 m from the top of the landfill space unit 26.
实施例 2-狼尾草、 象草、 皇竹草、 甜象草或杂交狼尾草的种植和培育、 收 割和填埋  Example 2 - Planting and cultivating, harvesting and landfilling of Pennisetum, Elephant Grass, Royal Bamboo Grass, Sweet Grass or Hybrid Pennisetum
以中国长江中、 下游地区和中南、 华南地区举例。  Take the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China and the Central South and South China.
利用狼尾草、 象草及狼尾草与象草杂交培育出的品种, 如皇竹草、 甜象草、 杂交狼尾草等,用茎杆进行无性繁殖,扩大种植面积,通过水肥管理、多次收割, 实现高产栽培与科学填埋。  The species cultivated by the hybridization of Pennisetum, Elephant Grass and Pennisetum, such as Huangzhucao, Sweet Grass, Hybrid Pennisetum, etc., are vegetatively propagated with stems, expand the planting area, and pass water and fertilizer management. Multiple harvesting to achieve high-yield cultivation and scientific landfill.
具体步骤如下:  Specific steps are as follows:
一、 快速繁殖  First, rapid reproduction
( 1 ) 选地与整地  (1) Site selection and site preparation
选择土层深厚、 疏松肥沃、 向阳、 排水性能良好的土壤, 在栽植的上年冬季 将土地深翻 20〜30cm, 经过冬冻使土壤熟化, 在下种前再浅耕 1遍, 将土块细 碎,清除杂草、石块等,结合浅耕每亩施加实施例 A或 B的有机肥料 3000〜5000kg 或复合肥 50〜100kg。按 2〜5m宽起垄作畦,垄沟深 10〜30cm,垄长依地形而定, 陡坡地沿等高线起垄, 以利排水及田间管理。 ( 2 ) 育苗时间 Select the soil with deep soil, loose and fertile, sunny, and good drainage performance. In the winter of the last year, the land will be turned 20~30cm deep. After the winter, the soil will be matured, and then the soil will be ploughed 1 time before the next planting. To remove weeds, stones, etc., combined with shallow tillage, apply organic fertilizers of Example A or B 3000 to 5000 kg per mu or 50 to 100 kg of compound fertilizer. According to the width of 2~5m, the ridge is 10~30cm deep. The ridge length depends on the terrain. The steep slope is ridged along the contour line to facilitate drainage and field management. (2) Seedling time
2〜5月气温达到 12Ό以上时下种育苗较适宜, 下种后遇上气温低于 5°C时 用拱棚覆盖塑料薄膜保温育苗, 天晴干旱、 气温超过 40Ό时不宜下种育苗。  When the temperature reaches 2Ό5 in May and May, it is more suitable for seedlings. When the temperature is lower than 5°C, the plastic mulch is used to cover the seedlings. When the weather is dry and the temperature exceeds 40Ό, it is not suitable for seedlings.
( 2 ) 种茎准备  (2) Stem preparation
从 6月龄以上的成熟植株中选取芽眼饱满、 健康、 无病虫害的茎秆为种节, 播种前先撕去包裹腋芽的叶片, 用刀斜切成小段, 每段保留 1〜3个节, 每个节 上有 1〜2个腋芽, 芽眼上部留短, 下部留长, 切好的种节应及时下种, 防水分 丧失。  Select the stalks with full, healthy and disease-free buds from the mature plants over 6 months old as the seed stalks. Before planting, tear off the leaves that wrap the buds and cut them into small pieces with a knife. Each section retains 1~3 knots. There are 1~2 axillary buds on each section, the upper part of the bud eye is short, and the lower part is long. The cut seed section should be planted in time, and the waterproof part is lost.
切好的种节可用质量浓度比为 lOOppm的 ABT生根粉浸泡 20〜24h, 促进生 根发芽, 1克生根粉可处理 3000〜5000株茎节; 也可直接在切口处沾上草木灰 或石灰 200〜300g、 氯化钠 5〜10g、 水 0. 8〜1L配成的混合液, 进行防腐消毒处 理, 或者经生根粉浸泡后再进行防腐消毒处理。  The cut section can be soaked with ABT rooting powder with a mass concentration ratio of lOOppm for 20~24h to promote rooting and germination. 1g of rooting powder can treat 3000~5000 stem segments; or it can be directly stained with grass ash or lime at the incision. 300g, sodium chloride 5~10g, water 0. 8~1L mixture, anti-corrosion treatment, or soaked in rooting powder before anti-corrosion treatment.
( 3 ) 下种  (3) the next species
种节腋芽朝上与地面呈 30〜45° 角斜插于土壤中, 1个节的节芽入土 2〜 3cm, 多次个节的最上一个节芽可露在土壤外; 也可将种节腋芽朝上平放在土上, 用细土将腋芽及种茎覆盖。 下种完后及时浇足 1次清粪水或清水。  The buds of the buds are placed at an angle of 30~45° to the ground and inserted into the soil at an angle of 30~45°. One section of the buds is inserted into the soil 2~3cm, and the last bud of many sections can be exposed outside the soil; The axillary buds are placed flat on the soil, and the axillary buds and stems are covered with fine soil. After the next planting, timely pour the foot 1 time to clear the dung water or clear water.
( 4 ) 育苗期管理  (4) Nursery management
幼苗长出地面前,要保持苗床土壤湿润, 晴天及时浇水。 7〜10天开始出苗, 20〜30天后, 苗高达 20〜25cm时可进行移栽。 育苗期因浇水造成土表层板结, 应及时疏松种节周围土层。 幼苗出土 10天后, 幼苗还比较黄、 瘦, 结合浇水每 亩追施 20〜25kg尿素, 或人畜粪水 200〜300kg中加 10〜15kg氮铵, 均匀洒泼。  Before the seedlings grow out of the ground, keep the soil in the seedbed moist and water in sunny days. After 7 to 10 days, the seedlings will start to be transplanted. After 20 to 30 days, the seedlings can be transplanted at a height of 20 to 25 cm. During the seedling stage, the surface layer of the soil is caused by watering, and the soil around the seed section should be loosened in time. After the seedlings are unearthed for 10 days, the seedlings are still yellow and thin, and 20~25kg of urea is applied per acre combined with watering, or 10~15kg of ammonium nitrite is added to 200~300kg of human and animal manure, evenly splashed.
幼苗出土的初期, 地老虎喜欢咬断幼苗、 肉质根茎, 造成植株死亡或生长不 良。 人工捕捉或用质量浓度比为 50%的辛硫磷兑水稀释 800〜1000倍液, 或质量 浓度比为 80%敌百虫兌水稀释 800〜1000倍液喷洒防治。  In the early days of seedling unearthing, the tigers like to bite off seedlings and fleshy roots, causing plant death or poor growth. Manually capture or dilute 800~1000 times with phoxim with a mass concentration ratio of 50%, or mass concentration ratio of 80% trichlorfon diluted with water 800~1000 times liquid spray control.
育苗期蚜虫危害植株的叶和茎, 用质量浓度比为 40%的氧化乐果兑水稀释成 1000〜1500倍液, 或用质量浓度比为 25%敌杀死乳油兑水稀释成 2000〜3000倍 液喷洒防治。  During the nursery period, the aphids endanger the leaves and stems of the plants, and dilute them with 1000% to 1500 times of water with a concentration of 40% by weight of omethoate, or dilute them to 2000~3000 with a concentration ratio of 25%. Double liquid spray control.
二、 r¾产栽培  Second, r3⁄4 production and cultivation
( 1 ) 土地平整 大田移栽前 1〜2个月, 深耕 20〜30cm促迸土壤熟化, 移栽前再浅耕 1遍, 结合浅耕每亩施有机肥 4000〜5000kg, 过磷酸钙或钙镁磷 100〜150kg。 按 10〜 20m宽起垄作畦, 垄沟深 10〜30cm, 垄长依地形而定, 坡地沿等高线起垄, 以利 排水及田间管理。 倾斜角度大的山地, 为防止水土流失可不起垄, 须作做好排水 沟。 (1) Land leveling 1~2 months before transplanting in Daejeon, deep tillage 20~30cm to promote soil ripening, shallow tillage 1 time before transplanting, combined with shallow tillage application of organic fertilizer 4000~5000kg per mu, superphosphate or calcium magnesium phosphate 100~150kg . According to the 10~20m wide ridge, the ridge is 10~30cm deep. The ridge length depends on the terrain. The slope is ridged along the contour line to facilitate drainage and field management. In the mountainous areas with large inclination angles, in order to prevent soil erosion, there is no need for ridges.
( 2 ) 大田移栽  (2) Field transplanting
平整的大田株行距按30〜4001^ 40〜500;:11,深 10〜15cm开种植沟或种植穴, 每穴 1株, 每亩可种植 2000〜3000株; 光照不足的土地或贫瘠山地, 株行距按 50〜70cm x 80〜100cm, 深 10〜15cm开种植沟或种植穴, 每穴 1株, 每亩可种植 800〜1200株。 小苗移栽前每穴施复合肥或尿素 10〜15g, 促使植株早分蘖、 多 分蘖、 加速蘖苗生长。 再回填 2〜5cm厚的细土将底肥盖住; 然后把小苗放在种 植沟内扶正,四周用泥土压实。移栽后浇足定根水,保持土壤湿润,天晴干旱 1〜 2天浇 1次水, 5〜7天便幵始转青。 对缺苗少蔸的地方, 要及时移苗补栽, 保证 成活率在 95%以上。  The level of Datian plant spacing is 30~4001^40~500;:11, 10~15cm deep, planting ditch or planting hole, 1 hole per hole, 2000~3000 plants per acre; poorly lighted land or barren mountainous area, Plant spacing is 50~70cm x 80~100cm, depth 10~15cm to open planting ditch or planting hole, 1 hole per hole, 800~1200 plants per acre. Before the transplanting of the seedlings, 10~15g of compound fertilizer or urea is applied to each hole to promote early tillering, multi-split, and accelerate seedling growth. Then backfill 2~5cm thick fine soil to cover the bottom fertilizer; then put the seedlings in the planting ditch and strengthen the surrounding area with soil. After transplanting, water the roots to keep the soil moist, keep the soil dry and dry for 1~2 days, and then turn the water for 5~7 days. For places where there is a shortage of seedlings, it is necessary to transplant the seedlings in time to ensure that the survival rate is above 95%.
( 3 ) 中耕除草  (3) cultivating and weeding
小苗前期生长较缓慢, 容易受杂草的影响,在植株封垄前中耕除草 1〜2次。 第一次中耕在移栽后 25〜35天植株开始分蘖时, 选晴天进行除草松土; 第二次 除草在移栽后 60〜70天, 这时植物生长最旺盛, 结合除草松土, 在苗蔸四周进 行培土, 避免植株倒伏; 每次收割后均应进行中耕除草, 疏松土壤。  The seedlings grow slowly in the early stage, and are easily affected by weeds. The plants are weeded and weeded 1 to 2 times before the plants are closed. The first time of cultivating, when the plants start to divide till 25~35 days after transplanting, choose the sunny day for weeding and loosening the soil; the second weeding is 60~70 days after transplanting, then the plant grows most vigorously, combined with weeding and loosening soil, The soil is planted around the nursery to avoid plant lodging; after each harvest, weeding and weeding should be carried out to loosen the soil.
( 4 ) 肥水管理  (4) Fertilizer management
狼尾草、象草及狼尾草与象草杂交培育出的品种均喜肥水, 天晴久旱, 每隔 3〜5天浇水 1次或施 1次清粪水; 连续阴雨天, 注意排涝防渍。 植株长到 50〜 60cm高时, 每蔸追施复合肥或尿素 10〜15g; 植株长到 100〜150cm高时, 每蔸 追施复合肥或尿素 20〜25g, 或每亩施人畜粪水 400〜500kg加氮铵 20〜25kg。 每次收割后 2〜5天, 松土后每亩施人畜粪水 500〜800kg, 或结合浇水每亩施氮 铵或尿素 20〜25kg。  The varieties cultivated by the hybrids of Pennisetum, Elephant Grass and Pennisetum are like fertile water, and the weather is fine and dry for a long time. Watering once every 3~5 days or applying 1 time of clearing water; continuous rainy days, pay attention to drainage Anti-staining. When the plant grows to a height of 50~60cm, each compound is applied with 10~15g of compound fertilizer or urea; when the plant grows to a height of 100~150cm, 20~25g of compound fertilizer or urea is applied per hectare, or 400g of manure per acre. ~500kg plus nitrogen ammonium 20~25kg. 2~5 days after each harvest, 500~800kg of animal manure per acre after loosening, or 20~25kg of urea or urea per mu combined with watering.
( 5 ) 病虫害防治  (5) Pest control
狼尾草、 象草及狼尾草与象草杂交培育出的品种, 如皇竹草、 甜象草、 杂交 狼尾草等抗病力较强, 很少发生病虫害。 拔节前, 主要是蚜虫和钻心虫危害植株的叶和茎, 用质量浓度比为 40%的氧 化乐果兑水稀释 800〜1200倍液, 或用质量浓度比为 25%敌杀死乳油兑水稀释 1500〜2000倍液喷雾防治。 The varieties cultivated by the hybrids of Pennisetum, Elephant Grass and Pennisetum, such as Huangzhucao, Sweet Grass, and Hybrid Pennisetum, have strong disease resistance, and few pests and diseases occur. Before jointing, mainly the aphids and borers harm the leaves and stems of the plants, and dilute 800~1200 times with omethoate with a mass concentration ratio of 40%, or kill the cream with a mass concentration ratio of 25%. Water dilution 1500~2000 times liquid spray control.
拔节后,主要是炭疽病和白粉病危害幼苗叶和茎秆,保持植株间的空气流通, 降低田间湿度; 炭疽病和白粉病防治用质量浓度比为 5%多菌灵兑水稀释 800〜 1000倍液, 或用石灰 3〜5kg、 硫磺 3〜5kg、 水 1000〜1500kg混合成的波尔多 液进行喷洒, 隔 5〜7天连续喷洒 2次。  After jointing, mainly anthracnose and powdery mildew harm the seedling leaves and stems, keep the air circulation between the plants and reduce the humidity in the field; the mass concentration ratio of anthracnose and powdery mildew prevention and control is 5% carbendazim diluted with water 800~ 1000 The liquid is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture of 3 to 5 kg of lime, 3 to 5 kg of sulfur, and 1000 to 1500 kg of water, and sprayed twice continuously for 5 to 7 days.
( 5 ) 越冬管理  (5) Wintering management
狼尾草、 象草及狼尾草与象草杂交培育出的品种宿根性强, 可连续生长 4〜 8年,冬季清除田间残叶杂草,减少病虫害越冬场所。 冬季气温 5Ό以上的地区, 最后一茬收割时留茬 10〜15cm, 可自然越冬; 冬季气温最低气温 0〜- 5°C, 霜冻 期较长的地区, 留荐 12〜18cm,培土保护篼, 加盖干草或塑料薄膜保温越冬。  The varieties cultivated by the hybrids of Pennisetum, Elephant Grass and Pennisetum are strong in roots and can grow continuously for 4 to 8 years. In winter, the weeds in the field are cleared to reduce the pests and winters. In areas with a temperature of more than 5 冬季 in winter, the last one will be left at 10~15cm during harvest, which will naturally winter; the lowest temperature in winter is 0~-5°C, and the area with long frost period is recommended to be 12~18cm. Covered with hay or plastic film to keep warm for the winter.
三、 多次收割  Third, multiple harvesting
5〜11月每隔 20〜40天, 株高达 100〜150cm时收割 1次, 每年可收割 4〜8 次。 第 1次收割时留茬 10cm, 以后 "顺次青割" 以利植株再生, 最后留茬高度 不超过 20cm。 避免雨天收割, 以减少病虫害发生。 第 1年产量略低, 亩产量在 10〜15吨, 第 2年后亩产量可达 20〜30吨。  Every 5 to 11 days from May to November, when the plant is as high as 100~150cm, it can be harvested once, and it can be harvested 4~8 times a year. At the first harvest, leave 10cm, and then "successive green cutting" to facilitate plant regeneration, and finally the height of the stubble does not exceed 20cm. Avoid rain harvesting to reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases. The output in the first year is slightly lower, the output per mu is 10~15 tons, and the output after the second year is 20~30 tons.
四、 适时填埋  Fourth, timely landfill
收获的青苗堆放在生长地里不能超过 2天, 青苗含水丰富, 堆放过程中易 发热, 影响下一茬再生。 最好是当天刈割当天将青苗移出生长区, 经日晒 3〜5 天, 自然干燥降低植物含水量, 再运往植物填埋场进行填埋。  The harvested young crops should not be stacked in the growing ground for more than 2 days. The young crops are rich in water and are prone to heat during the stacking process, which affects the next regeneration. It is best to remove the young crops from the growing area on the day of castration, and dry for 3 to 5 days, naturally dry to reduce the water content of the plants, and then transport them to the plant landfill for landfill.
秋季收割的植物地表部分, 经打捆后便可运往植物填埋场进行填埋。  The surface parts of the plants harvested in autumn can be transported to the landfill for landfill after being bundled.
实施例 3-芦苇或荻的种植和培育、 收割和填埋  Example 3 - Planting and cultivating, harvesting and landfilling of reeds or alfalfa
利用芦苇和荻的根状茎进行无性繁殖, 扩大种植面积, 通过水肥管理、 多次 收割, 实现高产栽培与科学填埋。  Using the rhizome of reeds and alfalfa for asexual reproduction, expanding the planting area, and achieving high-yield cultivation and scientific landfill through water and fertilizer management and multiple harvesting.
具体步骤如下:  Specific steps are as follows:
一、 快速繁殖  First, rapid reproduction
春季土壤解冻后、 根状茎上分株芽开始萌发时, 从丰产的区域选取深黄色 至褐色,表皮较厚且每节有侧芽和分叉的地下茎,鹿角状最佳。截取根茎长 30〜 50cm, 3〜5节以上, 按行株距各为 l〜1. 5m, 开挖 5〜10cm深的土沟, 将根状茎 平放后覆土厚 8〜12cm, 栽种后要踩实, 以达到保墒保水; 或斜插于松软泥层中, 上端露出地面 2〜5cm, 1〜2个节, 这样出苗快, 出土苗多。 幼苗出土前要保持 土壤湿润或 2〜5cm的浅水, 最深不能超过 10cm。 After thawing in spring and germination of ramets on rhizomes, dark yellow to brown were selected from the high-yield areas, and the epidermis was thick and the lateral buds and bifurcations of the stalks were the best. The length of the roots is 30~50cm, 3~5 knots, and the row spacing is l~1. 5m, excavating 5~10cm deep soil ditch, rhizomes After laying flat, the thickness of the soil is 8~12cm. After planting, it should be stepped on to ensure water retention; or obliquely inserted into the soft mud layer, the upper end is exposed to the ground 2~5cm, 1~2 knots, so that the seedlings are quick and the seedlings are unearthed. Before the seedlings are unearthed, keep the soil moist or shallow water of 2~5cm, and the deepest can not exceed 10cm.
二、 高产栽培  Second, high-yield cultivation
1、 肥水管理  1. Fertilizer management
芦苇和荻是一种需要高氮、高钾的植物,氮、磷、钾比例 16〜20: 1〜2: 8〜 10最有利于生长。 盐碱土地区, 每亩可增施钙肥 10〜20kg, 促进生长。  Reeds and alfalfa are plants that require high nitrogen and high potassium. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 16~20: 1~2: 8~10 is most beneficial for growth. In the saline-alkaline soil area, 10~20kg of calcium fertilizer can be added per acre to promote growth.
拔节前的营养生长期, 以氮代谢为主, 地上部分对氮、 磷、 钾的吸收是一年 中最高的时期,每亩施复合肥 10〜15kg或尿素 10〜15kg;拔节后到抽穗开花前, 碳、 氮代谢均旺盛, 养分供应的重点仍是地上部分, 每亩施尿素 5〜10kg; 抽穗 开花后, 以碳代谢为主, 地上部分植株停止生长, 养分主要供应地下器官。  The vegetative growth period before jointing is mainly based on nitrogen metabolism. The absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the aerial part is the highest period of the year, applying 10~15kg per mu or 10~15kg of urea; after heading to heading Before flowering, carbon and nitrogen metabolism are vigorous. The focus of nutrient supply is still above ground, and 5~10kg of urea per acre. After heading and flowering, carbon metabolism is the main factor, and some aboveground plants stop growing. Nutrients mainly supply underground organs.
冬季芦苇和荻收获后至春季萌芽前,整个生长区铺一层腐熟的有机肥,厚 2〜 Winter reeds and alfalfa before harvesting until spring germination, the entire growth area is covered with a layer of decomposed organic fertilizer, thick 2~
10cm; 酸性重的土壤, 有机肥中每亩混入 50〜100kg石灰。 10cm; Acidic heavy soil, organic fertilizer mixed with 50~100kg lime per acre.
芦苇和荻是喜水植物, 多生长在淤泥沼泽土、 腐殖质沼泽土、 泥炭沼泽土、 泥炭土和滨海盐土上, 对水分的适应范围很广, 从水深几厘米到 lm以上均能生 长。 最适宜的水深约为 20〜30cm。 pH6. 0〜7. 5, 耐碱不耐酸, pH8. 5以上也能生 存, 但长势不好, 植株较矮, 茎秆细软。  Reeds and alfalfa are hi-water plants, which grow on silt swamp soil, humus marsh soil, peat swamp soil, peat soil and coastal salt soil. They have a wide adaptability to water, and can grow from a few centimeters to a depth of lm. The most suitable water depth is about 20 to 30 cm. pH6. 0~7. 5, alkali resistance is not acid resistant, pH above 8. 5 can also survive, but the growth is not good, the plant is short, and the stem is soft.
多年生芦苇和荻发芽吋, 土壤保持潮湿或地表薄层积水, 深度不超过 lOcni; 随着气温上升, 植株不断增高, 水层可慢慢加深, 进入 6月后增至 10〜30crn, 一直持续到 8月中下旬, 最深不超过 lm, 不能淹没植株。  Perennial reeds and alfalfa sprouts, the soil remains moist or thin water on the surface, the depth does not exceed lOcni; as the temperature rises, the plants continue to increase, the water layer can slowly deepen, and increase to 10~30crn after entering June, which continues By the middle and late August, the deepest is no more than lm, and the plants cannot be submerged.
在 6〜8月份气温高、 生长旺盛期, 水量充足地区实施 "三排三灌", 短期 内撤 2〜3次水, 能加速有机质分解, 对生长更加有利。 8月中下旬后开花、 结 实, 不再增高加粗, 此时排除地表积水, 可加速茎秆老化, 提高纤维素含量, 并 且也可加速地表和土壤中有机质的分解, 有利于翌年更好地生长。  In the period of high temperature and strong growth period from June to August, the implementation of "three rows of three irrigations" in areas with sufficient water supply and the withdrawal of water for 2 to 3 times in a short period of time can accelerate the decomposition of organic matter and is more beneficial to growth. After mid-to-late August, flowering and fruiting will no longer increase and thicken. At this time, the accumulation of water on the surface will accelerate the aging of the stalk, increase the cellulose content, and accelerate the decomposition of organic matter on the surface and soil, which is better for the leap year. Growing.
2、 除草防虫  2, weeding and pest control
在幼芽没有钻出地面以前, 根据田间杂草生长情况, 用质量浓度比为 20%的 百草枯 1. 5〜2. 5L/hm2, 与质量浓度比为 45%的扑乙 3〜3. 5kg/ hm2两种除草剂混 合, 兑水稀释成 500〜600倍液。 在土壤潮湿的清晨和傍晚喷施效果最好, 可防 止田间大量杂草生长, 生长后期的零星杂草, 人工铲除。 5~ 2 . 5L/hm 2 , with a mass concentration ratio of 45%, according to the growth of the weeds in the field, according to the growth of the weeds in the field. 5kg / hm 2 two herbicides mixed, diluted with water to 500 ~ 600 times liquid. It is best applied in the wet morning and evening of the soil, which can prevent the growth of a large number of weeds in the field, and the sporadic weeds in the late growth stage, artificially eradicated.
主要害虫是岈虫, 用质量浓度比为 10%的吡虫咻可湿性粉剂 500倍液喷雾; 或质量浓度比为 40%氧化乐果乳油 1. 5〜2. 5L/hm2,加质量浓度比为 80%的敌敌畏 乳油 0. 75〜lL/hm2, 兑水稀释成 500〜600倍液喷雾防治。 The main pest is aphid, sprayed with 500 times solution of imipenem wettable powder with a mass concentration ratio of 10%; Or a mass concentration ratio of 40% omethoate emulsifiable concentrate 1. 5~ 2 . 5L / hm 2 , plus 80% of the dilute emulsifiable concentrate with a mass concentration ratio of 0. 75~lL/hm 2 , diluted with water to 500~600 times Spray control.
三、 多次收割  Third, multiple harvesting
1、 收割时期  1. Harvest time
在拔节中期进行刈割比较适宜, 不仅可增加再生收获次数, 对秋季的收获影 响也较小。 在拔节中期以前收获, 对后一茬生长有利, 但单次产量低。 在拔节中 期以后, 收获单次产量高, 但影响后一茬生长, 降低总产量。 洪水期可适当推迟 收获, 但不能迟于抽穗开花期。  Castration in the middle of jointing is more appropriate, which not only increases the number of harvests, but also has less impact on autumn harvest. Harvesting before the middle of jointing is beneficial to the growth of the latter, but the yield is low. After the mid-section of jointing, the yield per harvest is high, but it affects the growth of the next one and reduces the total yield. The harvest can be postponed appropriately during the flood period, but not later than the flowering period.
2、 留茬高度  2, the height of the stubble
每次刈割后, 植物的顶端优势被去除, 从而会促使残茬上的腋芽萌发形成新 株。 芦苇只有下部的腋芽可萌发, 荻则各处均可萌发。 留茬高度在 10〜30cm, 保证有 1〜2个节。 每次刈割都要在前一次留茬的基础上留 1〜2个节。  After each castration, the plant's apical dominance is removed, which causes the axillary buds on the wreck to sprout into new strains. Only the lower axillary buds of the reeds can germinate, and the buds can germinate everywhere. The height of the stubble is 10~30cm, and there are 1~2 knots guaranteed. Each time you cast, you must leave 1 or 2 knots on the basis of the previous stay.
秋冬季, 茎叶变黄进行最后一茬收获时, 排除地表积水硬化土壤, 留茬 5〜 10cm进行收割。  In autumn and winter, when the stems and leaves turn yellow for the last harvest, the surface water is removed to harden the soil, and the stubble is 5~10cm for harvesting.
3、 再生复壮  3, regeneration and rejuvenation
每次收获都会使植株的光合作用面积急剧减少,长势下降甚至不能正常生长 发育。 每一次青苗收获后, 每亩施复合肥 10〜15kg或尿素 10〜15kg, 保持土壤 湿润或 5〜10cm的浅水。 8月中上旬, 最后一次收获青苗后, 每亩施复合肥 5〜 10kg和尿素 10〜15kg。  Each harvest will drastically reduce the photosynthesis area of the plant, and the growth will decline or even fail to grow normally. After each young crop is harvested, apply 10~15kg of compound fertilizer per acre or 10~15kg of urea to keep the soil moist or 5~10cm shallow water. In the middle and early August, after the last harvest of young crops, apply 5~10kg of compound fertilizer per acre and 10~15kg of urea.
四、 适时填埋  Fourth, timely landfill
拔节中期收获的青苗堆放在生长地里, 不能超过 2天。 青苗含水丰富, 堆放 过程中易发热, 影响下一茬再生。 最好是将青苗移出生长区, 经日晒 3〜5天, 自然干燥降低植物含水量, 再运往植物填埋场进行填埋。  The young crops harvested in the middle of the jointing period are stacked in the growing ground and cannot exceed 2 days. The young seedlings are rich in water and are prone to heat during the stacking process, which affects the next regeneration. It is best to remove the young crops from the growing area and dry them for 3 to 5 days, naturally drying to reduce the water content of the plants, and then transport them to the plant landfill for landfill.
秋冬季收割的植物地表部分, 经打捆后便可运往植物填埋场进行填埋。 实施例 4-凤眼莲和水藻的种植和培育、 收割和填埋  The surface parts of the plants harvested in autumn and winter can be transported to the landfill for landfill after being bundled. Example 4 - Planting and cultivating, harvesting and landfilling of Eichhornia crassipes and algae
利用凤眼莲和水藻的幼苗进行无性繁殖, 扩大种植面积, 通过水肥管理、 多 次收割, 实现高产栽培与科学填埋。  The seedlings of Eichhornia crassipes and algae are used for asexual reproduction, the planting area is expanded, and high-yield cultivation and scientific landfill are realized through water and fertilizer management and multiple harvesting.
具体步骤如下:  Specific steps are as follows:
一、 快速繁殖 凤眼莲和水藻在温度不低于 10Ό的水面, 可以全年繁殖, 而在冬季有霜的 地方就需要保护越冬。 次年当日平均水温达到 15°C以上时, 选择富含有机物质, 水深以 0. 5〜lm的平静水体或流速缓慢的水体,将植株根系朝下投入水中即可自 然成活, 每亩水面投放种苗 500〜1000棵。 种苗用绳子或框架围住, 避免风浪冲 散。 20〜40天可以长满水面, 每隔 10〜15天追肥 1次, 每次每亩施腐熟的有机 肥 500〜1000kg或叶面喷施 1〜3%的尿素溶液 50〜100kg。 First, rapid reproduction Eichhornia crassipes and algae can be propagated throughout the year at temperatures below 10 温度, and winters need to be protected in frosty areas in winter. When the average water temperature reaches 15 °C or higher in the following year, choose a water body rich in organic matter, a water depth of 0. 5~lm or a water body with a slow flow rate, and the roots of the plant can be naturally put into the water downwards, and the water surface is placed on each acre. Seedlings 500~1000 trees. Seedlings are enclosed by ropes or frames to avoid wind and waves. 20~40 days can be overgrown with water surface, topdressing once every 10~15 days, 500~1000kg per mu of fermented organic fertilizer or 50~100kg of 1~3% urea solution sprayed on the foliar surface.
二、 高产栽培  Second, high-yield cultivation
1、 水肥管理  1. Water and fertilizer management
凤眼莲和水藻喜生长在浅水而土质肥沃的水体里, 水深以 30〜100Cm为宜, 水深超过 10米仍可正常生长, 但不便于肥水管理。 Eichhornia crassipes and algae grow in shallow water and fertile soil. The water depth is 30~100 cm , and the water depth can exceed 10 meters. It can still grow normally, but it is not convenient for fertilizer and water management.
大面积种植前要施足底肥, 营养物质丰富的水体施腐熟的有机肥 500〜 1000kg, 营养物质缺乏的水体施腐熟的有机肥 1000〜2000kg。  Before the large-scale planting, the base fertilizer should be applied. The nutrient-rich water body should be fertilized with organic fertilizer 500~1000kg, and the nutrient-deficient water body should be cooked with 1000~2000kg of organic fertilizer.
在 6〜8月的生长旺季期, 每次捕捞后每亩施腐熟的有机肥施 200〜500kg, 或每月施腐熟的有机肥 2〜3次, 每次每亩施腐熟的有机肥 500〜1000kg。 水底 淤泥富含有机物的富营养性水体, 每次捕捞后搅动淤泥, 可减少腐熟的有机肥施 用量和施用次数。  During the peak season of growth from June to August, 200~500kg per mu of organic fertilizer applied per mu, or 2~3 times of organic fertilizer per month, each time per mu of fermented organic fertilizer 500~ 1000kg. Bottom The eutrophic water body rich in organic matter, which stirs the sludge after each fishing, can reduce the amount of application and the number of application of the decomposed organic fertilizer.
为促进凤眼莲和水藻生长高度, 用绳子、 树木、竹子等材料将水面分成若干 个单元, 防止水流影响植物分株, 适当的植株密度能提高植物个体生长高度。 大 面积种植时,单个生长单元面积 1000〜5000m2为宜,围栏露出水面高度 10〜50cm。 In order to promote the growth height of Eichhornia crassipes and algae, the water surface is divided into several units by rope, trees, bamboo and other materials to prevent the water from affecting the plant ramets, and the appropriate plant density can increase the individual growth height of the plants. When planting in a large area, a single growth unit area of 1000~5000 m 2 is suitable, and the fence is exposed to a water surface height of 10 to 50 cm.
2、 越冬管理  2, winter management
多采用母株防寒越冬, 春季放养于大面积水体中。 在冬季气温低于 5°C, 有 霜冻的地区, 凤眼莲和水藻必须进行保护才能越冬。 在温室大棚内采用秸秆、 谷 壳、 动物粪便等酿温材料做成温床, 使床温保持在 1CTC以上, 再将健壮的越冬 母株移栽到温床。 越冬期间, 阳光充足, 并保持一定水分,及时防治病虫害, 春 暖后移入露天放养。  Most of the mother plants are used for winter and winter, and are stocked in large areas of water in spring. In areas where the temperature is below 5 °C in winter and there is frost, the water hyacinth and algae must be protected to survive the winter. In the greenhouse, straws, husks, animal droppings and other tempering materials are used to make hot beds, so that the bed temperature is kept above 1CTC, and the robust wintering mother plants are transplanted to the hotbed. During the winter, the sun is sufficient, and a certain amount of water is maintained, and pests and diseases are prevented in time. After warming, they are moved into the open air for stocking.
3、 病虫害防止  3. Prevention of pests and diseases
病虫害主要有蚜虫、 卷叶虫、 青虫、 粉甲虫和黄萎病, 危害最大的是蚜虫和 黄萎病。 防治蚜虫可用质量浓度比为 40%乐果乳剂, 兑水稀释成 200〜300倍液 喷洒。 黄萎病出现后, 用石灰 5kg、 硫磺 5kg、 水 800〜1000kg混合成的波尔多 液进行喷洒。 三、 多次收获 The main pests and diseases are aphids, leaf curlers, green worms, powder beetles and verticillium wilt. The most harmful are aphids and verticillium wilt. The aphid can be sprayed with a mass concentration ratio of 40% dimethoate emulsion, diluted with water to 200~300 times. After the onset of verticillium wilt, spray with Bordeaux mixture of 5 kg of lime, 5 kg of sulfur, and 800 to 1000 kg of water. Third, multiple harvests
凤眼莲和水藻在 6〜8月间生长旺季繁殖、生长速度极快, 2〜5天收获一次, 每次捕捞总生长量的 30〜40%, 最多不超过 50%。 保证有足够的种苗继续繁殖, 同时将留下的植株均匀拨散开,每亩施腐熟的有机肥施 200〜500kg或搅动淤泥, 以利生长。  Eichhornia crassipes and algae breed in the peak season from June to August, and grow very fast. Harvest once every 2~5 days, the total growth of each catch is 30~40%, and the maximum is no more than 50%. Ensure that there are enough seedlings to continue to breed, and at the same time spread the plants evenly, and apply 200~500kg per mu of fermented organic fertilizer or stir the sludge to facilitate growth.
四、 适时填埋  Fourth, timely landfill
凤眼莲和水藻的含水量高达 95%, 捕捞上来后, 在岸上摊开 2〜5天, 沥干 水份减少运输重量。 气温高的时候, 岸上集中堆放时间不能超过 5天, 便一定要 进行填埋。  The water content of Eichhornia crassipes and algae is as high as 95%. After catching the fish, spread it on the shore for 2 to 5 days, draining the water to reduce the transport weight. When the temperature is high, the concentrated stacking time on the shore cannot exceed 5 days, so it must be landfilled.
实施例 5-速生草本植物填埋场中渗滤液的利用  Example 5 - Utilization of leachate in fast-growing herb landfills
速生草本植物填埋场中渗滤液的利用方法:  Utilization of leachate in fast-growing herbicide landfills:
( 1 ) 收集填埋场中的渗滤液至渗滤液池;  (1) collecting leachate from the landfill to the leachate pool;
( 2 )将步骤(1 )收集的渗滤液经机械格栅和均和池后送入氨氮吹脱塔脱氮, 将脱氮产生的氨气经氨气回收塔回收; 其中, 当渗滤液经过均和池时, 通过石灰 乳槽中的石灰乳液调节均和池内的 PH值;  (2) The leachate collected in step (1) is sent to the ammonia nitrogen stripping tower for denitrification through the mechanical grid and the homogenization tank, and the ammonia gas generated by the denitrification is recovered by the ammonia recovery tower; wherein, when the leachate passes through When the pool is uniform, the pH value in the pool is adjusted by the lime emulsion in the lime milk tank;
( 3 ) 将脱氮后的渗滤液经酸化池酸化、 厌氧反应器发酵降解, 将发酵降解 产生的甲垸经甲烷回收塔除杂后贮存;将发酵降解形成的污泥送入污泥浓缩池浓 缩;  (3) The leachate after denitrification is acidified by acidification tank and degraded by anaerobic reactor, and the formazan produced by fermentation degradation is stored after being removed by the methane recovery tower; the sludge formed by fermentation degradation is sent to the sludge for concentration. Pool concentration
( 4 ) 将发酵降解后的澄清液经中沉池澄清后送入生物接触氧化塔内氧化, 再经二沉池澄清后送入反渗透膜装置过滤, 过滤后的清水排放至成品水箱;将中 沉池和二沉池中的污泥送入污泥浓缩池浓缩;  (4) The clarified liquid after fermentation degradation is clarified by the intermediate sedimentation tank, sent to the biological contact oxidation tower for oxidation, and then clarified by the secondary settling tank and sent to the reverse osmosis membrane device for filtration, and the filtered clean water is discharged to the finished water tank; The sludge in the intermediate and secondary sedimentation tanks is sent to the sludge concentration tank for concentration;
( 5 ) 将污泥浓缩池中的浓缩固体颗粒经脱水机脱水生成泥饼, 将泥饼与新 的生物质重新填埋, 脱出的污水重新回流至均和池中。  (5) The concentrated solid particles in the sludge concentration tank are dehydrated by a dehydrator to form a mud cake, the mud cake and the new biomass are re-buried, and the separated sewage is returned to the homogenization tank.
另外, 填埋速生植物所产生热量的综合利用设备及方法参见 201210588028. 2 , 填埋速生植物所产生气体的综合利用设备及方法参见 201210529862. 4, 填埋速生植物所产生恶臭的处理设备及方法参见 201210529822. X。 这些文献的内容被引入本文作为参考, 就像在本文中详细描 述一样。  In addition, the comprehensive utilization equipment and method for the heat generated by landfill fast-growing plants can be found in 201210588028. 2 . The comprehensive utilization equipment and method for the gas generated by landfill fast-growing plants can be found in 201210529862. 4, The treatment equipment and method for producing malodor caused by landfill fast-growing plants See 201210529822. X. The contents of these documents are incorporated herein by reference as if they were described in detail herein.
实施例 6-填埋场的恢复  Example 6 - Landfill Recovery
所述植物填埋场植被恢复方法: (1) 种植土准备: The plant landfill vegetation restoration method: (1) Planting soil preparation:
取填埋场周边的土壤, 去除砂石后粉碎, 过 1〜3 目网筛, 再与植物枝叶、 杂草、 农作物秸杆一起燃烧, 经烟熏火烤后土壤结构得到改善、 肥力提高, 形成 草炭土。 填埋场周边的普通土壤、 草炭土与腐熟的有机质按 3〜5: 1〜2: 1混合 均匀就形成种植土。  Take the soil around the landfill, remove the sand and crush it, pass it through the 1~3 mesh screen, and then burn it with the plant leaves, weeds and crop straws. After the smoked fire, the soil structure is improved and the fertility is improved. Forming peat soil. The common soil around the landfill, the peat soil and the decomposed organic matter are mixed according to 3~5: 1~2: 1 to form the planting soil.
(2)植物填埋后, 覆盖普通土壤 10cm以上。 1年后再在覆土上铺 5〜 100cm 种植土, 气候适宜时播种画眉草、 牛筋草、 知风草、 三叶草或苜蓿等草本植物种 子。  (2) After the landfill is planted, it covers more than 10 cm of ordinary soil. After 1 year, plant 5~100cm of planting soil on the soil, and plant herbaceous plants such as teff, goosegrass, zephyr, clover or alfalfa when the climate is suitable.
(3) 按株行距 (2〜3) mX (2〜3) m开挖 (20〜30) cmX (20〜30) cmX (20〜30) cm的种植穴, 内填 10〜20cm的种植土,在该种植土上栽植灌木植物; 按株行距 (5〜10) mX (5〜10) m 开挖 (50〜80) cmX (50〜80) cmX (50〜 80) cm的种植穴, 内填 20〜40cm的种植土, 在该种植土上栽植雪松、 冬青等乔 木树种。  (3) Excavation (20~30) cmX (20~30) cmX (20~30) cm planting hole according to plant spacing (2~3) mX (2~3) m, filling 10~20cm planting soil Planting shrub plants on the planting soil; excavating (50~80) cmX (50~80) cmX (50~80) cm planting holes according to plant spacing (5~10) mX (5~10) m Fill the 20~40cm planting soil, and plant arbor trees such as cedar and holly on the planting soil.
实施例 7-填埋场的植被恢复  Example 7 - Vegetation Restoration in Landfills
所述填埋植物的填埋场植被恢复方法:  Landfill vegetation restoration method for the landfill plant:
(1) 种植土准备:  (1) Planting soil preparation:
取填埋场周边的土壤, 去除砂石后粉碎, 过 1〜3 目网筛, 再与植物枝叶、 杂草、 农作物秸杆一起燃烧, 经烟熏火烤后土壤结构得到改善、 肥力提高, 形成 草炭土。 填埋场周边的普通土壤、 草炭土与腐熟的有机质按 3〜5: 1〜2: 1混合 均匀就形成种植土。  Take the soil around the landfill, remove the sand and crush it, pass it through the 1~3 mesh screen, and then burn it with the plant leaves, weeds and crop straws. After the smoked fire, the soil structure is improved and the fertility is improved. Forming peat soil. The common soil around the landfill, the peat soil and the decomposed organic matter are mixed according to 3~5: 1~2: 1 to form the planting soil.
(2) 填埋场封场后, 将填埋植物表面进行修整, 形成坡顶和坡面, 再覆盖 30〜150cm的土壤。 结合覆土修整, 在生物质填埋场覆盖的土壤上铺一层厚 2〜 100cm种植土。 气候适宜时播种画眉草、 牛筋草、 知风草、 三叶草或苜蓿等草本 植物种子。  (2) After the landfill is closed, the surface of the landfill will be trimmed to form the slope top and slope, and then cover the soil of 30~150cm. In combination with soil dressing, a layer of 2~100cm thick planting soil is laid on the soil covered by the biomass landfill. Seeds of herbaceous plants such as teff, goosegrass, sage, clover or alfalfa are sown when the climate is right.
(3) 在坡顶采用正常植树方法, 坡面采用 "鱼鳞坑"形式并沿等高线等距 幵挖栽植穴, 以便截留自然降水和灌溉用水, 防止水土流失。  (3) The normal tree planting method is adopted at the top of the slope. The slope surface is in the form of “fish scale pit” and the planting points are equally spaced along the contour line to intercept natural precipitation and irrigation water to prevent soil erosion.
(4) 按株行距 (2〜3) mX (2〜3) m开挖 (20〜30) cmX (20〜30) cmX (20〜30) cm的种植穴, 内填 10〜20cm的种植土,在该种植土上栽植灌木植物; 按株行距 (5〜10) mX (5〜10) m 开挖 (50〜80) craX (50〜80) cmX (50〜 80) cm的种植穴, 内填 20〜40cm的种植土, 在该种植土上栽植雪松、 冬青等乔 木树种。 (4) Planting spacing (2~3) mX (2~3) m excavation (20~30) cmX (20~30) cmX (20~30) cm planting hole, filling 10~20cm planting soil Planting shrub plants on the planting soil; excavating (50~80) craX (50~80) cmX (50~80) cm planting holes according to plant spacing (5~10) mX (5~10) m Fill 20~40cm of planting soil, plant cedar, holly, etc. on the planting soil. Wood species.

Claims

权利要求书 Claim
1、 利用速生草本植物, 速生藻类, 地衣或苔藓来固碳的方法, 该方法包括:1. A method of fixing carbon by using fast-growing herbs, fast-growing algae, lichens or moss, the method comprising:
(1)、在选定的陆地区域或水体区域中种植和 /或培育速生草本植物,速生藻 类, 地衣或苔藓; (1) Planting and/or cultivating fast-growing herbaceous plants, fast-growing algae, lichens or moss in selected land areas or water bodies;
(2)、 在植物, 藻类, 地衣或苔藓经过一段时间生长到合适的高度或尺寸后 进行收割或采收, 并且, 当收割或采收的植物是在陆地区域中种植和 /或培育的 速生草本植物时,控制该草本植物的收割或采收高度以便保留该草本植物的根和 保留该草本植物的茎的下部分, 或当收割或采收的植物是在水体区域中种植和 / 或培育的速生草本植物或速生藻类时,在水体区域中保留一部分的草本植株或一 部分的藻类, 或当收割或采收的植物是在陆地区域中种植和 /或培育的地衣或苔 藓时, 在陆地区域中保留一部分的地衣或苔藓;  (2) Harvesting or harvesting plants, algae, lichens or mosses after a period of growth to a suitable height or size, and when the harvested or harvested plants are fast growing and/or cultivating in the land area In the case of a herb, the harvesting or harvesting height of the herb is controlled in order to retain the root of the herb and to retain the lower part of the stem of the herb, or when the harvested or harvested plant is planted and/or cultivated in the body of water a fast-growing herb or fast-growing algae that retains a portion of the herbaceous plant or part of the algae in the water body, or when the harvested or harvested plant is a lichens or moss that is grown and/or cultivated in the land area, in the land area Retain a portion of the lichens or moss;
(3)、 对于收割或采收的植物进行干燥, 优选自然干燥如晒干或风干, 以获 得干燥的植物、 藻类、 地衣或苔藓;  (3) drying the harvested or harvested plants, preferably drying naturally, such as drying or air drying, to obtain dried plants, algae, lichens or moss;
(4)、 将干燥的植物、 藻类、 地衣或苔藓运输到填埋场并进行填埋。  (4) Transport dry plants, algae, lichens or moss to the landfill and landfill.
2、根据权利要求 1项的方法,其中在步骤 (2)中收割或采收在陆地区域中生 长的速生草本植物时, 所保留的 "茎的下部分"具有至少一个节理, 以促进植物 迅速发芽或长出新叶。  2. A method according to claim 1 wherein when the fast-growing herb grown in the terrestrial region is harvested or harvested in step (2), the retained "lower portion of the stem" has at least one joint to promote rapid plant growth Sprouting or growing new leaves.
3、 根据权利要求 1项的方法, 其中在步骤(1)的植物培育或生长过程中和 / 或在步骤 (2)的收割或采收之后,对于作为种植和 /或培育区域的陆地区域,通过 灌溉种植和 /或培育区域 (或称作生长区域)来保持这些区域中土壤水分平衡, 并 且在这些区域中定期或周期性地施加肥料, 或对于作为种植和 /或培育区域的水 体区域, 在这些水体区域中定期或周期性地施加肥料。  3. A method according to claim 1 wherein, during the plant cultivation or growth of step (1) and/or after harvesting or harvesting of step (2), for a land area as a planting and/or growing area, Maintaining soil water balance in these areas by irrigating planting and/or growing areas (or areas of growth), and applying fertilizers periodically or periodically in these areas, or for areas of water that are planting and/or growing areas, Fertilizers are applied periodically or periodically in these water bodies.
4、 根据权利要求 1或 2或 3项的方法, 其中步骤(1) - (4)或步骤 (2) - (4)能 够在一年中重复多次。  4. A method according to claim 1 or 2 or 3, wherein steps (1) - (4) or steps (2) - (4) can be repeated multiple times a year.
5、根据权利要求 1-4项中任何一项所述的方法,其中作为种植和 /或培育区 域的陆地区域或水体区域是指位于热带、 亚热带、温热带、温带或寒带地区的陆 地区域, 淡水型的水体区域, 或海洋区域。  The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the land area or the water body area as a planting and/or cultivation area refers to a land area located in a tropical, subtropical, warm tropical, temperate or cold zone , freshwater water bodies, or marine areas.
6、 根据权利要求 1项所述的方法, 其中通过对城市生活垃圾进行处理, 获 得有机肥料, 用于在步骤(1)的植物培育或生长过程中和 /或在步骤 (2)的收割或 采收之后对所述种植和 /或培育区域中的速生草本植物、 速生藻类、 地衣或苔藓 施加肥料以便进行培育。 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the municipal solid waste is processed and obtained An organic fertilizer for use in the plant cultivation or growth of step (1) and/or for the fast-growing herb, fast-growing algae in the planting and/or growing area after harvesting or harvesting in step (2), Fertilizers are applied to the lichens or moss for cultivation.
7、 根据权利要求 6项所述的方法, 其中所述的处理包括:  7. The method of claim 6 wherein said processing comprises:
a)对垃圾进行人工拣选或机械拣选, 以除去杂物;  a) manual or mechanical picking of waste to remove debris;
b)使用城市生活垃圾分选装置或系统和方法对城市生活垃圾和 /或餐厨垃圾 进行分选, 获得富含有机质或营养物的垃圾;  b) Sort municipal solid waste and/or kitchen waste using municipal solid waste sorting devices or systems and methods to obtain waste rich in organic matter or nutrients;
c)对于富含有机质 (或营养物)的垃圾进行生化处理和制造有机肥料,该生化 处理包括好氧发酵和 /或厌氧发酵, 和任选的堆肥处理。  c) Biochemical treatment of organic matter (or nutrient-rich) waste and the manufacture of organic fertilizers, including aerobic fermentation and/or anaerobic fermentation, and optional composting.
8、 根据权利要求 6或 7项的方法, 所获得的有机肥料被直接铺在种植和 / 或培育区域的土地上或者与客土即其它地方的土壤掺混后被铺在种植和 /或培育 区域的土地上作为种植土; 或种植和 /或培育区域中的土壤通过施用上述有机肥 料来改善土壤结构, 能增加土壤团聚体, 增大土壤团聚体表面积, 增强土壤固碳 能力。  8. The method according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the obtained organic fertilizer is directly laid on the land of the planting and/or cultivation area or is mixed with the soil of the guest soil, that is, other places, and then planted and/or cultivated. The soil in the area is used as planting soil; or the soil in the growing and/or growing area is improved by applying the above organic fertilizer to increase soil structure, increase soil aggregates, increase soil agglomerate surface area, and enhance soil carbon sequestration capacity.
9、 根据权利要求 1-8中任何一项所述的方法, 其中通过对城市生活污水或 废水进行处理, 获得处理后的富含营养物或有机质的污水, 后者用于在步骤(1) 的植物培育或生长过程中和 /或在步骤 (2)的收割或采收之后对所述种植和 /或培 育区域中的速生草本植物、 速生藻类、 地衣或苔藓施加肥料进行培育; 或, 所述 富含营养物的污水用于浇灌陆地区域中种植和 /或培育的速生草本植物。  9. A method according to any one of claims 1-8, wherein the treated nutrient- or organic-rich sewage is obtained by treating municipal sewage or wastewater, the latter being used in step (1) Incubating fertilizers in fast growing herbs, fast-growing algae, lichens or mosses in the planting and/or growing areas during plant cultivation or growth and/or after harvesting or harvesting in step (2); The nutrient-rich sewage is used to water fast-growing herbs grown and/or cultivated in land areas.
10、 根据权利要求 9项的方法, 其中污水处理包括: 过滤, 和任选的除臭处 理。  10. The method of claim 9 wherein the sewage treatment comprises: filtration, and optionally deodorization treatment.
11、根据权利要求 1一 10项中任何一项所述的方法,其中在陆地区域中种植 和 /或培育的速生草本植物是: 香根草, 黑麦草, 苏丹草, 假高粱, 墨西哥玉米 草, 空心莲子草, 青蒿, 加拿大一枝黄花, 豚草, 松香草, 聚合草, 紫花苜蓿, 山苦荬, 沙打旺, 籽粒苋, 龙须草, 欧洲菊苣, 稗, 芦苇, 荻, 草高粱, 大米草, 互花米草, 狐米草, 大绳草, 海王神草, 喜盐草, 海菖蒲, 狼尾草, 象草, 皇竹 草, 巨象草、 甜象草, 杂交狼尾草, 杜牧一号或苏杂 2号;  The method according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the fast-growing herbaceous plants grown and/or cultivated in the land area are: vetiver, ryegrass, sudangrass, false sorghum, Mexican corn grass , Alternanthera philoxeroides, Artemisia annua L., Solidago canadensis, Ragweed, Pine herb, Polymer grass, Alfalfa, Mountain bitter, Sandawan, Amaranthus, Eulaliopsis, European chicory, Pelican, Reed, Alfalfa, Grass stilt , rice grass, Spartina alterniflora, foxtail grass, big rope grass, sea king grass, salt grass, sea iris, pennisetum, grassy, king bamboo grass, giant grass, sweet grass, hybrid pennisetum , Du Mu 1 or Su Za 2;
或在水体区域中种植和 /或培育的速生草本植物是: 凤眼莲, 水藻, 芦苇或 荻。 Or fast-growing herbs grown and/or cultivated in water bodies are: Eichhornia crassipes, algae, reeds or alfalfa.
12、根据权利要求 1-11中任何一项的方法,其中在步骤(1)中,使用狼尾草、 象草、 皇竹草、 甜象草、 杂交狼尾草、 空心莲子草、 豚草、 芦苇、 荻、 大米草、 互花米草、 狐米草、 大绳草、 海王神草、 喜盐草、 海菖蒲、 假高粱或龙须草作为 速生草本植物, 用它们的根或茎杆进行无性繁殖; 或使用香根草、 黑麦草、 苏丹 草、 假高粱、 墨西哥玉米草、 青蒿、 加拿大一枝黄花、 松香草、 聚合草、 紫花苜 蓿、 山苦荬、 沙打旺、 籽粒苋、 欧洲菊苣、 稗或草高粱作为速生草本植物, 用它 们的种子进行繁殖。 The method according to any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein in the step (1), the use of Pennisetum, grassy grass, yarrow grass, sweet grass, hybrid pennisetum, hollow lotus grass, ragweed , reeds, alfalfa, rice grass, Spartina alterniflora, foxtail grass, big rope grass, sea king grass, hi salt grass, sea iris, fake sorghum or Eulaliopsis, as fast-growing herb, using their roots or stems For asexual reproduction; or use vetiver, ryegrass, sudangrass, fake sorghum, Mexican corn grass, Artemisia annua L., Solidago canadensis, pine vanilla, polymeric grass, alfalfa, mountain bitter, sand sorghum, grain sorghum, European chicory, alfalfa or grass sorghum is used as a fast-growing herb to reproduce with their seeds.
13、 根据权利要求 1一 12项中任何一项所述的方法, 其中填埋场是: 山谷型 填埋场, 或平地型填埋场。  13. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the landfill is: a valley type landfill, or a flat landfill.
14、 根据权利要求 13项的方法, 其中山谷型填埋场或平地型填埋场包括: 填埋空间单元 (26), 填埋空间单元的底部及边坡(1)上设有 A压实粘土层 (5), 所述 A压实粘土层 (5) 中设有防渗衬垫层 (6), 所述坑底 A压实粘土层(5)上 设有砂砾层(3), 所述砂砾层 (3)上设有土壤层 (2); 所述填埋空间单元(26) 由山谷的空间和上、 下游拦截坝组成, 或由低洼地或人工挖掘的坑构成。  14. The method of claim 13 wherein the valley type landfill or the landfill type landfill comprises: a landfill unit (26), a bottom of the landfill unit and an A compaction on the slope (1) a clay layer (5), wherein the A compacted clay layer (5) is provided with a barrier liner layer (6), and the pit bottom A compacted clay layer (5) is provided with a gravel layer (3). The gravel layer (3) is provided with a soil layer (2); the landfill unit (26) consists of a valley space and an upstream and downstream intercepting dam, or a low-lying or artificially excavated pit.
15、 根据权利要求 14项的方法, 其中所述填埋空间单元 (26) 表层设有 B 压实粘土层 (33), 所述 B粘土层 (33) 上设有防水层 (18), 所述防水层 (18) 上设有覆盖土层 (17); 覆盖土层 (17) 边缘设有横向排水沟 (19)。  The method according to claim 14, wherein said landfill unit (26) is provided with a B compacted clay layer (33), and said B clay layer (33) is provided with a waterproof layer (18). The waterproof layer (18) is provided with a covering soil layer (17); the covering soil layer (17) has a lateral drainage groove (19) at the edge.
16、 根据权利要求 15项的方法, 其中所述填埋空间单元 (26) 中设有渗滤 液回灌管 (16), 若干个填埋气体收集井 (20) 和填埋热量收集井 (21);  16. The method according to claim 15, wherein the landfill unit (26) is provided with a leachate recirculation pipe (16), a plurality of landfill gas collection wells (20) and a landfill heat collection well (21). );
所述砂砾层 (3) 中设有渗滤液抽取管(7), 所述渗滤液抽取管(7)与渗滤 液处理利用设备(9)连接, 所述渗滤液处理利用设备(9)与渗滤液回灌管(16) 连接,所述渗滤液抽取管(7)上设有渗滤液抽取泵(8),所述渗滤液回灌管(16) 上设有渗滤液回灌泵 (15);  a leachate extraction pipe (7) is disposed in the gravel layer (3), and the leachate extraction pipe (7) is connected with the leachate treatment utilization device (9), and the leachate treatment and utilization device (9) is infiltrated The filtrate recirculation pipe (16) is connected, the leachate extraction pipe (7) is provided with a leachate extraction pump (8), and the leachate recirculation pipe (16) is provided with a leachate recirculation pump (15) ;
所述覆盖土层( 17 )中设有插入填埋热量收集井( 21 )内的地热井出水管( 13 ) 和地热井回水管 (14), 所述地热井出水管 (13) 与填埋热量利用设备 (10) 连 接, 所述填埋热量