CN106856918A - In the method that southern tide wetland plants reed - Google Patents

In the method that southern tide wetland plants reed Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106856918A
CN106856918A CN201710062487.XA CN201710062487A CN106856918A CN 106856918 A CN106856918 A CN 106856918A CN 201710062487 A CN201710062487 A CN 201710062487A CN 106856918 A CN106856918 A CN 106856918A
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China
Prior art keywords
reed
southern
seedling
tide
beach
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CN201710062487.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
赖廷和
何斌源
陈圆
刘俐
刘昕明
莫珍妮
黄中坚
朱婷
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Guangxi Academy Of Oceangraphy
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Guangxi Academy Of Oceangraphy
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Priority to CN201710062487.XA priority Critical patent/CN106856918A/en
Publication of CN106856918A publication Critical patent/CN106856918A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method for planting reed in southern tide wetland, mainly include the following steps that:<1>Land construction of nursery garden;<2>Method for culturing seedlings;<3>Salt tolerant is resistance to before field planting floods hardening;<4>Preferably the selection of grass beach and tidal creek are built;<5>Selected implantation time;<6>Implantation method;<7>Base manure and topdress;<8>Pipe irrigation project.Practice confirmed, reed is planted in southern tide wetland using the present invention, is remarkably improved the reed survival rate and the speed of growth being implanted in tide wetland, result of the seedling germination rate up to survival rate 92% after 100%, field planting 1 year.Therefore, effective recovery that the present invention is conducive to promoting the seashore wetland ecosystem is widely popularized, maintenance area Harmony between economy and ecology sustainable development can also obtain certain economic interests.

Description

In the method that southern tide wetland plants reed
Technical field
The invention belongs to tide wetland eco-reconstruction technical field, more particularly to one kind reed is planted in southern tide wetland Method.
Background technology
Reed (Phragmites autralis Trin.ex Steud.) is that one kind is grown in pond, lake, marsh, small stream Salt-marsh plants in the habitat such as stream or river bank wetland, seashore shallow water marsh or river mouth.Reed community has Gu Tan Bao Di, U.S. Change landscape, increase productivity, improve the important Ecology Actions such as salt-soda soil, pollution remission and abundant bio-diversity.Reed stalk Fiber content is high, is good paper making raw material;Its tender stem, blade can make domestic animal greenfeed;Root-like stock can be used as medicine, and have diuresis to detoxify Effect.It is reed light, drought-enduring and water-fast wet, it is less demanding to weather, soil, to the strong adaptability of habitats, Chinese each Provinces and regions are distributed.
Reed growth is rapid, and, up to 2.5m, biomass is high, well developed root system for plant height, and capacity of anti-storm is protruded.Plantation reed salt Natural pond not only harvests paper making raw material and greenfeed, plays the efficient comprehensive ecological effect of reed sabkha, builds new strand protection System, expands ocean blue carbon and biological pollution treatment space, will be the important development direction of following seashore wetland ecological recovery.Reed people Work post is planted and is more common in the north, in south almost blank.In September, 2010, applicant carries out area about 400m in Guangxi Beilun Estuary2 Reed directly transplanting experiment, " quickly planted on tidal flat, expand numerous reed using the patent of invention with Shandong Fresh Water Aquatic Product Research Institute The method of reed " (201310073068.8 publication date of application number 2014 on September 10) analogous technical is carried out, and result of the test is transplanting Reed germination rate only has 21% at 30 days, and almost all is dead after passing the winter.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide that a kind of survival rate is higher, the speed of growth is wet in southern tide faster The method of ground plantation reed, to effectively facilitate the ecological recovery of seashore wetland, while certain economic interests can be obtained again.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention uses following technical scheme:
In the method that southern tide wetland plants reed, mainly include the following steps that:
<1>Land construction of nursery garden;<2>Method for culturing seedlings;<3>Salt tolerant is resistance to before field planting floods hardening;
<4>Preferably the selection of grass beach and tidal creek are built;<5>Selected implantation time;<6>Implantation method;
<7>Base manure and topdress;<8>Pipe irrigation project.
Step<1>Carried out by following operation:Nursery should be built near the land of plantation beach, be divided into several seedbeds, Seedbed spacing 1m or so, is easy to management to operate;The length in seedbed is determined that be advisable with 20m~40m long, 1m wide or so is advisable by landform; After nursery lot is smooth, build real with native ridging along the length and width position in default seedbed, ridge 30cm high or so, can row spacing with Support depending on the shaping of seedbed, aided in plank if necessary;With the aquaculture film shop fixtures of pond antiseepage, impermeable groove is formed Shape seedbed;Shade net is drawn above seedbed, prevents high light to be exposed to the sun, drawn yarn net prevents poultry from trampleing on kind of pecking at around nursery surrounding Seedling.
Step<2>Carried out by following operation:Seedling can use root-like stock or seed;Growth selection is luxuriant, no disease and pests harm, in flakes The larger natural reed population of area as introduces a collection, with the salinity of provenance, tidal regime, medium property and plantation destination phase Closely it is advisable;Root-like stock of the collection with fibrous root part is seedling, and length is unified in 30cm or so;Container for plant growth uses film nursery Bag, solves the problems, such as that directly transplanting germination rate and survival rate are extremely low, Seedling bag height 20cm, width 15cm;Artificial nutrition soil is The paddy soils of fertilizer are added, every bag of Nutrition Soil is mixed applies 30g~50g composite fertilizers;Seedling bag is placed in seedbed after filling Nutrition Soil In, it is often capable about 20;The implantation depth of root-like stock seedling about 15cm, seed then program request about 0.5cm under native table;After seedling implantation Auxin is sprayed, concentration and consumption are used by the recommendation of draft in various growth-promoting root growths element;Day, conventional fresh water was poured, seedbed Middle holding depth of water 1cm~5cm.
Step<3>Carried out by following operation:It is new emerge it is long to 30cm or so when, carry out that salt tolerant is resistance to be flooded adaptation and take exercise, point Not in salinity 5,10 and 15 (can take the circumstances into consideration to expand or shrink hardening salinity depending on growing area actual conditions) each treatment successively from low to high 10 days or so;Natural sea-water to seedbed is being extracted with water pumper at the incoming tide, need are being calculated according to natural sea-water salinity and target salinity The amount of fresh water is added, the exercise treatment water of required salinity is made;The seedbed depth of water is maintained at soil surface in Seedling bag Position.
Step<4>Carried out by following operation:Careful must make an on-the-spot survey and measure, grasp beach elevation, tide dynamic force, matrix class The present situations such as type, salinity and soil fertility, it is comprehensive to determine suitable preferably grass beach;Growing area beach elevation should be in local mean sea level More than line, tide dynamic force is weaker;The matrix granule of growing area should be relatively thin, from sandy to Muddy Bottoms;Matrix gap salinity water 0 ~20 beach, it is relatively low to be advisable;The beach gradient is preferably small, and draining should be good, and artificial tidal creek is excavated if necessary, after being easy to ebb Rapid draining;It is as follows that artificial tidal creek builds principle:In detail observation using main tidal creek distribution situation existing in growing area as according to According to the trend and scale of carrying out designer's workers' demonstration ditch;Main tidal creek sets 1~3,2m~4m wide, depth be 70cm under beach surface~ 100cm;Branch tidal creek needs to set according to draining, 1m wide or so, and depth is 30cm~40cm under beach surface;With pond antiseepage Aquaculture film shop fixtures, places the weights such as stone stone bar and is pressed in corner and ditch bed of film etc., is arranged in time in daily management and supported Film and press mold weight are grown, tidal creek shape is kept.
Step<5>Carried out by following operation:Annual March to November all portable reed seedlings, April to June is convenient, this When light and temperature condition preferably, and rainfall, runoff zones come fresh water fully, alleviate salt damage degree, be conducive to field planting after seedling early growth; Specific transplant time selection is advisable in the temperature of exposure and dry of beach on daytime less than the date of flooding time, overcast and rainy optimal, reduces too Sun is exposed to the sun injury.
Step<6>Carried out by following operation:Selection is grown fine after hardening, the plant of no disease and pests harm is used as transplanting kind Seedling;Seedling goes out garden and is tightly connected with plantation operation, and the seedling same day field planting that the same day goes out garden is finished, and improves survival rate;Drawn during field planting Straight tape measure determines seeding row spacing, can 50cm × 50cm to 100cm × 100cm;Seedling first is well placed beside mark where seeding row spacing, Dig again and cheated slightly larger than the cave of nutrition bag shape, peel off polybag and seedling is put into cave, teasing periphery with pin dissipates soil pressure tightly.
Step<7>Carried out by following operation:Fully, reed applies fertilizer emphasis for nitrogen, phosphate fertilizer to the sylvite that seawater brings, in addition zinc Fertilizer can promote bud to sprout and aerial stem of plant Zhongchang;Base manure is discharged when planting back soil, every 100 seedlings apply carbon ammonium 200g, calcium superphosphate 100g and zinc sulfate 10g;Topdressing can discharge in March to May, and every 100 seedlings apply carbon ammonium 200g;Take and apply slow-release fertilizer mode, Cave buriing is dug by plant.
Step<8>Carried out by following operation:1. purse seine construction;Fence is support with timber or concrete stake, hangs up nylon wire, Prevent people and animals from entering the careless beach of destruction, while intercepting external rubbish, deadwood withered grass and macro etc.;Purse seine highly should be higher than that works as Ground maximum more than high-water mark 50cm;2. Enteromorpha preventing and treating;Annual March in December to next year often breaks out the macros such as Enteromorpha, seriously Field planting reed existence soon is threatened, copper-bath can be taken to splash preventing and treating, if necessary artificial removing;3. gather in;With ecology Artificial alfa beach for the purpose of recovery, only every two years should gather in once, and answer toothing 5cm or so in the autumn and winter.
It is not suitable for southern problem for existing northern reed artificial method for planting, inventor has carried out early-stage Study, ties Fruit shows, in addition to meeting beach elevation and tidal conditions, hardening, artificial tidal creek are built and applied fertilizer before land nursery, field planting It is probably the key link for determining to be planted in southern tide wetland reed success or not etc. technological means.Accordingly, inventor considers The growth characteristics of reed simultaneously combine southern tide Characteristics of Wetland, establish a kind of side that reed is planted in southern tide wetland Method, mainly includes the following steps that:<1>Land construction of nursery garden;<2>Method for culturing seedlings;<3>Salt tolerant is resistance to before field planting floods hardening;<4>It is preferably careless Beach is selected and tidal creek is built;<5>Selected implantation time;<6>Implantation method;<7>Base manure and topdress;<8>Pipe irrigation project.Practice Confirm, reed is planted in southern tide wetland using the present invention, be remarkably improved the reed survival rate being implanted in tide wetland And the speed of growth, seedling germination rate is up to 100%, after field planting 1 year survival rate 92% result.Therefore, it is widely popularized the present invention Being conducive to promoting effective recovery of the seashore wetland ecosystem, maintenance area Harmony between economy and ecology sustainable development can also obtain Certain economic interests.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment
With reference to preceding method, inventor is in 2013 in Guangxi Beilun Estuary growing plants on beach reed 1000m2, specific plantation Situation is as follows:
1. reed planting area is the fine sand matter beach that artificial hydraulic reclamation is formed, flatter, and beach elevation is approximately higher than local average Sea 5cm~10cm.Because tidal scour causes internal beach slightly lower, impeded drainage, therefore built artificial Creek system.Build Make method as follows:Observed according to growing area tide flow rate and direction, there is provided 1 main tidal creek, 2m~4m wide, depth 70~ 100cm;It is another to have 4 main tidal creeks of connection of branch tidal creek, 1m wide or so, depth 30cm~40cm.Supported in tidal creek two sides and bottom of trench laying Film is grown, the weights such as stone, stone bar is placed and is pressed on film, daily inspection in time maintains tidal creek shape, it is ensured that growing area is arranged on the whole Water is good., in seawater salinity 5~26 at the incoming tide, the low-solids water or fresh water of Bei Lunhe are from by-pass flow after ebb for growing area.
2. provenance and seedling.Seedling picks up from the natural reed wetland of a piece of riotous growth of Guangxi Sha Tanjiang, no disease and pests harm, Take root-like stock, cut into one section of about 30cm with fibrous root for seedling, lash transport to the nursery for being located at Beilun Estuary bank.
3. method for culturing seedlings.Nursery starts from March.Container for plant growth uses film Seedling bag, and specification is:20cm high, width 15cm. Packed after paddy soils are crushed, every bag of Nutrition Soil Hun Shi 30g composite fertilizer.Seedling implantation depth about 15cm.After seedling implantation, by peace The concentration and volume value recommended in the root taking sprout strengthening agent of celebrating company of city production spray auxin.Day, conventional fresh water was poured, seedbed Middle holding depth of water 1cm~5cm.
4. salt tolerant is resistance to before kind of plant floods hardening.Germination rate is most of newly to go out height of seedling about 30cm up to 100% during nursery 30 days, this Shi Kaizhan salt tolerants are resistance to flood adaptation exercise, has respectively been taken exercise 10 days in salinity 5,10 and 15 respectively, and the seedbed depth of water is maintained in Seedling bag The position of soil surface.Natural sea-water is being extracted to seedbed with water pumper at the incoming tide, according to natural sea-water salinity and target salinity Calculating needs to add the amount of fresh water, produces the treatment water of required salinity.
5. implantation methods.Plantation month is May to June, and on daytime, the temperature of exposure and dry date of 4 to 5 hours of beach transplants seedlings. It is required that the seedling same day plantation that the same day goes out garden is finished.Seeding row spacing is 50cm × 50cm, tape measure is stretched during plantation and ensures to embark on journey in column. Seedling is first well placed beside seeding row spacing position, then digs the cave hole slightly larger than nutrition bag shape, peel off polybag by seedling It is put into cave, dialling periphery with pin dissipates the tight grass block of soil pressure.
6. base manure and topdress.Base manure is discharged while planting back soil, every 100 seedlings apply carbon ammonium 200g, calcium superphosphate 100g and zinc sulfate 10g.March next year spraying fertilizer, every 100 seedlings apply carbon ammonium 200g;Take and apply slow-release fertilizer mode, in spring season Dig cave buriing.
7. pipe irrigation project.1. purse seine seals beach.Plantation kind after seedling is built purse seine envelope beach and is fostered immediately, and fence is with eucalyptus stake as post Son, hangs up net 3.5m high, the nylon wire of mesh 5cm.2. Enteromorpha is prevented and treated.The Enteromorpha on March December to next year close observation beach A situation arises, just prepares 40 times of copper-baths at the Enteromorpha outburst initial stage and splashes planting area beach, and extracts winding by hand Algal filament on reed plant.3. gather in.In in December, 2014 harvesting once, toothing 5cm or so.
As a result:Seedling germination rate is up to 100% in nursery, survival rate 92%, average plant height 120cm after field planting 1 year;2 years After form closed grassland.

Claims (9)

1. it is a kind of southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that mainly include the following steps that:
<1>Land construction of nursery garden;<2>Method for culturing seedlings;<3>Salt tolerant is resistance to before field planting floods hardening;
<4>Preferably the selection of grass beach and tidal creek are built;<5>Selected implantation time;<6>Implantation method;
<7>Base manure and topdress;<8>Pipe irrigation project.
2. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<1>By following Operation is carried out:Nursery is built near the land of plantation beach, is divided into several seedbeds, seedbed spacing 1m;Seedbed 20m long~ 40m, 1m wide;After nursery lot is smooth, build real with native ridging along the length and width position in default seedbed, ridge 30cm high;Use pond The aquaculture film shop fixtures of antiseepage, forms impermeable groove-like seedbed;Shade net is drawn above seedbed, drawn yarn net is around nursery Surrounding.
3. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<2>By following Operation is carried out:Seedling root-like stock or seed;Growth selection is luxuriant, no disease and pests harm, the in flakes larger natural reed population of area Used as introduces a collection, the salinity of provenance, tidal regime, medium property are close with plantation destination;Root shape of the collection with fibrous root part Stem is seedling, and length is unified in 30cm;Container for plant growth uses film Seedling bag, Seedling bag height 20cm, width 15cm;Artificial battalion Soil is supported to add the paddy soils of fertilizer, every bag of Nutrition Soil is mixed applies 30g~50g composite fertilizers;Seedling bag is put after filling Nutrition Soil In seedbed, every row 20;The implantation depth 15cm of root-like stock seedling, seed then program request 0.5cm under native table;After seedling implantation Auxin is sprayed, day, conventional fresh water was poured, and depth of water 1cm~5cm is kept in seedbed.
4. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<3>By following Operation is carried out:It is new emerge it is long to 30cm when, carry out that salt tolerant is resistance to be flooded adaptation and take exercise, respectively salinity 5,10 and 15 from low to high according to Secondary each treatment 10 days;The seedbed depth of water is maintained at the position of soil surface in Seedling bag.
5. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<4>By following Operation is carried out:Growing area beach elevation is more than local mean sea level line, and tide dynamic force is weaker;The matrix granule of growing area is from sand Matter is to Muddy Bottoms;The beach of matrix gap salinity water 0~20;The beach gradient is preferably small, and draining should be good;Artificial tidal creek Build using main tidal creek distribution situation existing in growing area as according to the trend and scale for carrying out designer's workers' demonstration ditch;Main tidal creek If 1~3,2m~4m wide, depth is 70cm~100cm under beach surface;Branch tidal creek needs to set according to draining, and 1m wide is deep It is 30cm~40cm under beach surface to spend;With the aquaculture film shop fixtures of pond antiseepage, the corner that stone stone bar is pressed in film is placed With ditch bed.
6. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<5>By following Operation is carried out:Annual March to November transplanting reed seedling;Specific transplant time selection daytime beach temperature of exposure and dry less than flooding The busy date.
7. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<6>By following Operation is carried out:Selection is grown fine after hardening, the plant of no disease and pests harm is used as transplanting seedling;The seedling that the same day goes out garden ought be preordained Plant is finished;Tape measure is stretched during field planting and determines seeding row spacing 50cm × 50cm to 100cm × 100cm.
8. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<7>By following Operation is carried out:Base manure is discharged when planting back soil, every 100 seedlings apply carbon ammonium 200g, calcium superphosphate 100g and zinc sulfate 10g;Chase after Fertilizer is discharged in March to May, and every 100 seedlings apply carbon ammonium 200g;Take and apply slow-release fertilizer mode, cave buriing is dug by plant.
9. it is according to claim 1 southern tide wetland plant reed method, it is characterised in that step<8>By following Operation is carried out:1. purse seine construction;Fence is support with timber or concrete stake, hangs up nylon wire;Purse seine is highly maximum higher than local More than high-water mark 50cm;2. Enteromorpha preventing and treating;Copper-bath is taken to splash preventing and treating;3. gather in;Every two years in autumn and winter harvesting once, And toothing 5cm.
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CN109819817A (en) * 2017-11-23 2019-05-31 深圳市铁汉生态环境股份有限公司 A method of tidal water body is repaired using ornamental draft
CN111657123A (en) * 2020-06-04 2020-09-15 银川爱必达园艺有限公司 Method for tidal irrigation of ground

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107371436A (en) * 2017-07-14 2017-11-24 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 A kind of method that severe Saline-Sodic establishes reed vegetation on the ground
CN107821132A (en) * 2017-11-01 2018-03-23 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所 A kind of optimal water salt threshold value breeding method of Reed rhizome budding
CN109819817A (en) * 2017-11-23 2019-05-31 深圳市铁汉生态环境股份有限公司 A method of tidal water body is repaired using ornamental draft
CN111657123A (en) * 2020-06-04 2020-09-15 银川爱必达园艺有限公司 Method for tidal irrigation of ground

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Application publication date: 20170620