CN102060384B - Underwater lawn capable of removing phosphorous and inhibiting algae and construction method thereof - Google Patents

Underwater lawn capable of removing phosphorous and inhibiting algae and construction method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102060384B
CN102060384B CN2010105297143A CN201010529714A CN102060384B CN 102060384 B CN102060384 B CN 102060384B CN 2010105297143 A CN2010105297143 A CN 2010105297143A CN 201010529714 A CN201010529714 A CN 201010529714A CN 102060384 B CN102060384 B CN 102060384B
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China
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matrix
submerged plant
water
phosphorus
growth
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CN2010105297143A
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CN102060384A (en
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种云霄
张珺蓉
吕丹
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South China Agricultural University
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South China Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention discloses an underwater lawn capable of removing phosphorous and inhibiting algae and a construction method thereof. The underwater lawn contains a dwarf submerged plant and a composite growth medium, wherein the composite growth medium contains a medium which is suitable for the growth of the submerged plant and a P-adsorption medium. The underwater lawn contains the medium suitable for the growth of the submerged plant, the P-adsorption medium and the dwarf submerged plant which grows and is covered on the composite growth medium, in turn from the lower part of water body to the upper part of water body. The underwater lawn provided by the invention is used for preventing the eutrophication of the landscape water body and has the advantages that the nitrogen and phosphorus level of water can be reduced, the suspension of bottom material particles can be controlled, the growth of unicellular algae can be inhibited, the upper part of water body can be clear and transparent and the like.

Description

A kind of " underwater lawn " and construction process of phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting
Technical field
The invention belongs to the body eutrophication prevention and control field, be specifically related to a kind of method of utilizing dwarf form submerged plant and composite growth matrix to carry out phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting.
Background technology
Because atmospheric precipitation, rainwash import and unprocessed sewage is omitted in printing, a large amount of nutritive substances such as nitrogen phosphorus are brought into the urban landscape river Lake Water Body by these face sources, and these water bodys often flow velocity are slower; The water exchange rate is low, so nitrogen phosphorus level is prone to raise gradually eutrophication, algae raised growth even outburst occur; The havoc quality of water environment; The water landscape sight reduces greatly simultaneously, presses for technological effectively nitrogen phosphorus level rising in the water, the control algae grows of suppressing of development; Make the river Lake Water Body as clear as crystal, keep higher quality of water environment.
Except the face source that enters is administered, is cut down the input of exogenous nitrogen phosphorus; The competitive inhibitory effect of utilizing submerged plant also can be in moderate even the height eutrophic water is realized the control to algal grown at ordinary times at nitrogen phosphorus; Mainly be through in water body, developing submerged vegetation, utilizing the physiological ecological function of submerged plant to realize.The control to the eutrophication algae outburst is realized through recovering submerged vegetation in some natural lakes as in Denmark and Holland; Taihu Lake and part lake region, Dian Chi in China; And the West Lake of Guangdong Huizhou, also attempted through fostering submerged vegetation to control alga eruption.No matter be artificial constructed or recovery naturally, the formed submerged vegetation of prior art is many with the taller and bigger kind of plant, is main like watermifoil, eel grass, black algae etc.; Plant height can reach 2 meters usually; And landscape water body often the depth of water is more shallow, how below 2 meters, fill up whole water body space through regular meeting by the luxuriant submerged vegetation that these kinds form; Make water body have the danger of paludification, the view that also can influence water body is ornamental.How this ecotechnology is improved, the sight that it not only can have been reached remove nitrogen phosphorus, suppresses algal grown but also do not influence landscape water body becomes needs the problem that solves.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the deficiency to existing ecotechnology, and a kind of " underwater lawn " of phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting is provided, and not only can reach to remove nitrogen phosphorus, suppress algal grown but also do not influence the sight of landscape water body.
The construction process that another object of the present invention provides said " underwater lawn " (vegetation system under water).
The object of the invention is achieved through following technical scheme:
A kind of " underwater lawn " of phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting is provided; Comprise dwarf form submerged plant and composite growth matrix; Said dwarf form submerged plant growth covers on the composite interstitial substance; Keep comprehensive actions such as water body is aerobic, the matrix adsorption and dephosphorization reduces phosphorus concentration in the water, the suspension of submerged plant covering inhibition substrate PM for particulate matter respectively through submerged plant photosynthesis; Realization makes water body keep as clear as crystal state to the sedimentation of algal grown inhibition, suspended particulate in the water, and has good quality of water environment and view sight.
Wherein the dwarf form submerged plant is selected for use and can sink aquatic length, plant is shorter and smaller, plant height is no more than 30cm large-scale vascular bundle waterplant kind, and preferred short arrowhead, water sieve or najas marina belong to kind.The composite growth matrix that the phosphorus adsorptivity is stronger is that the matrix that is suitable for submerged plant growth forms with the substrate combination with stronger phosphorus absorption property.Be suitable for the more rich rice soil of matrix optimization nitrogen phosphorus nutrition or the pond sludge of submerged plant growth, latosol or the iron sand of particle diameter about 0.1mm that red earth that the matrix optimization South China that the phosphorus adsorptivity is stronger is common or Irish touchstone are grown, wherein; The abundant matrix of nitrogen phosphorus nutrition is tiled in the bottom, above phosphorus adsorptivity matrix is tiled in, and both not blending; Growth matrix is minimum, and to reach 3~5cm thick; And between the phosphorus adsorbing base portfolio ratio 1: 1 to 1: 3, the plant underground roots stem is tied in and absorbs growth desired nutritional material in the lower substrate, and the continuous mitogenetic cauline leaf that makes new advances; Cauline leaf is endured out top substrate and is contacted with water; In water, carry out photosynthesis, and cover matrix gradually, form " underwater lawn ".
The present invention utilizes dwarf form submerged plant and a kind of " underwater lawn " that is layed in Lake Water Body bottom, view river of composite growth matrix exploitation; Its growth scope remains on 1/3rd places, water body bottom; Can make water body top keep the clear state, play the effect of improving quality of water environment, strengthening the water landscape sight.
The present invention provides the construction process of said " underwater lawn " simultaneously, can be made up by dual mode to form:
A kind of is that dystopy is built into preliminary lawn, moves into the target water body then, develops into gradually to cover good " underwater lawn " again, is applicable to that the water yield is bigger, is difficult for the extensive view river Lake Water Body that water is drained.
Preferably reach the season more than 20 ℃ at temperature on average; The strange land makes up the dark open dug reservoir of 0.3m (or a plurality of floorage 1 square meter left and right sides plastic box) as culture facility; The seedling vinyl disc carrying underwater lawn with certain area is laid in the bottom; It is thick that the seedling dish is spread the nutritious rice soil about 3.5cm of matrix such as (or adopting original nutritious bed mud), then with dwarf form submerged plant nutrition propagule (the single plant that root, stem and leaf is more complete) take root in into, about about 20 strains of every square meter; Water level is maintained on the matrix about 10cm, and top hides black sunshade net makes intensity of illumination maintain 2000lx.About about 10~20 days, submerged plant removed the sunshade net after taking root the seedling that makes new advances that grows fully; The position even spreading phosphorus adsorbing base latosol that matrix exposes in the submerged plant gap etc., the about 3.5cm of thickness is on the matrix of flooding then about 20cm; Let the lawn grow naturally, after about 30 days, submerged plant about coverage reaches 50% on the phosphorus adsorbing base after; Can bleed off top water; Plastics seedling pan arrest risen transports to the target water body, slowly sink to and be layered on water bottom, the submerged plant continued growth can form about 30 days have dephosphorization, " underwater lawn " of algal control and clarification water quality function.
Another kind is for lake, small-scale view river, can directly make up formation " underwater lawn " in position.
Concrete construction process is following: preferably reach the season more than 20 ℃ at temperature on average; Target water body water level is reduced to about 0.1m; It is thick that the nutritious rice soil about 3.5cm of matrix such as (or adopting original nutritious bed mud or pond sludge) is spread at the bottom, then with dwarf form submerged plant nutrition propagule (the single plant that root, stem and leaf is more complete) take root in into, about about 20 strains of every square meter; Water level is maintained on the matrix about 10cm, and top hides black sunshade net makes intensity of illumination maintain 2000lx.About about 10~20 days, submerged plant removed the sunshade net after taking root the seedling that makes new advances that grows fully; The position even spreading phosphorus adsorbing base latosol that matrix exposes in the submerged plant gap etc.; The about 3.5cm of thickness about 20cm, lets the lawn grow naturally on the matrix of flooding then; After about 30 days; Submerged plant about coverage reaches 50% on the phosphorus adsorbing base after, water level is brought up to normal level, the submerged plant continued growth can form about 30 days have dephosphorization, algal control and the clarification water quality function " underwater lawn ".
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
(1) underwater lawn provided by the present invention is used for landscape water body eutrophication control, has nitrogen phosphorus level in the water of reduction, control substrate PM for particulate matter and suspends, suppresses the unicellular algae growth, keeps advantage such as water body top clear.
(2) underwater lawn provided by the present invention and construction process have solved when utilizing submerged vegetation control eutrophication at present, and the easy problem of being filled up by pasture and water in whole water body space is specially adapted to view river Lake Water Body, help its view sight to improve.
(3) underwater lawn provided by the present invention; When being used for view river Lake Water Body; Nitrogen phosphorus for sewage is omitted in printing, runoff carries the face source and intermittence is brought into as supplementary feed with the water outlet of municipal sewage plant one-level A standard has the ability of removing preferably, can make overlying water nitrogen phosphorus get back to lower level fast.
(4) underwater lawn provided by the present invention and constructing technology, the plant of using and substrate material obtain easily, with low cost, be applied to view river Lake Water Body and can prevent and treat to continuous and effective eutrophication.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the synoptic diagram that the present invention's " underwater lawn " forms
In the accompanying drawing 1,1 for being suitable for the matrix of submerged plant growth, and 2 is phosphorus adsorptivity matrix, and 3 is the dwarf form root system of plant, and 4 is the dwarf form axis, and 5 is the dwarf form plant leaf.
Embodiment
Further specify technical scheme of the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and specific embodiment.
Embodiment 1
At the beginning of 4 months spring in 2009; The outdoor experiment of the Agricultural University Of South China place in Guangzhou is the little landscape pond of PVC plastic cistern simulation of 200 * 100 * 50cm with the length and width height, and whole water tank bottom makes up underwater lawn; Spread the thick rice soil of 3.5cm in the case earlier; Implant then about short arrowhead 10 strains of the about 10cm of plant height, add tap water and make water level at the above 10cm of rice soil, plastic box top hides black sunshade net.After 20 days, short arrowhead takes root and has new seedling to sprout, and removes the sunshade net; The thick latosol of the even spreading 3.5cm in the position that matrix exposes in the plant gap is on the matrix of flooding then about 20cm, after about 30 days; After short arrowhead coverage reaches about 50%; Add tap water and make water level bring up to 50cm (water tank is filled it up with state), after 30 days, short arrowhead coverage reaches 100%.After short arrowhead coverage reaches 50%; System is because of after evaporating water level decline; Moisturizing in per 10 days is once arrived 50cm with water level promoting; Mending the water of going into is the artificial mimic one-level A of sewage work of cities of secondary grade standard water outlet (nitrate nitrogen concentration 10mg/L, total phosphorus concentration 0.5mg/L), with saltpetre, potassium primary phosphate and tap water configuration.By summer in 2010; Short arrowhead plant height is up to the above 20cm of matrix in the water tank, and total phosphorus maintains about 0.01mg/L always in the overlying water, and total nitrogen maintains about 3mg/L; But chlorophyll concentration is in below the sensing range, and water is kept state so clear that you can see the bottom always.
Embodiment 2
Select near make a leapleap forward the northern farm 150 square metres of areas of Guangzhou Agricultural University Of South China, dark 1 meter discarded fish pond transform 1 as #, 2 #With 3 #Two each ponds of 50 square metres, three ponds link to each other with the farm Irrigation Ditch through pipeline, with the farm irrigation water as the nourishment source.Spring in 2010 by the end of March, 1 #With 3 #Pond Zhong Shui bleeds off, and exposes bed mud.Wherein 1 #Pond in-situ construction underwater lawn: directly implant about short arrowhead 1000 strains of the about 10cm of plant height on the black bed mud, pour into the rainwater that water channel is accumulated, make water level at the above 10cm of bed mud, top, pond is set up black sunshade net and is hidden.After 20 days, short arrowhead takes root and sprouts the seedling that makes new advances gradually, removes the sunshade net; The thick iron sand of even spreading 3.5cm at the pond sludge position that exposes, pouring water then makes water level to the iron sand about 20cm, after about 30 days; After short arrowhead coverage reaches about 50%; Pouring water makes water level bring up to 80cm, and short arrowhead grows naturally, and coverage reaches 100% at the beginning of 6 months.2 #The pond dystopy makes up underwater lawn: earlier water level is adjusted to about 80cm, placed 40 of the PVC plastic cisterns of high 100 * 100 * 40cm of length and width on the bank, lay at the bottom of each case and have 1m 2The seedling vinyl disc; It is thick that the seedling dish is spread the about 3.5cm of rice soil, then with the short arrowhead of the about 10cm of plant height take root in into, about about 20 strains of each seedling dish; Water level is maintained on the rice soil about 10cm, and top hides black sunshade net makes intensity of illumination maintain 2000lx.About about 10~20 days, short arrowhead took root the seedling that growth makes new advances, and removes the sunshade net; The even spreading latosol in the position that matrix exposes in the submerged plant gap, the about 3.5cm of thickness is on the matrix of flooding then about 20cm; After letting the lawn grow about 30 days naturally; After short arrowhead coverage reached about 50%, water bled off in the plastic box, plastics seedling pan arrest is risen slowly sink to and be layered on 2 #The bottom, pond, short arrowhead grows naturally, and left and right sides coverage reaches 100% by the end of June.
3 #The pond does not make up underwater lawn but pours water scheme and 1 #Identical.Three ponds make water level maintain 80cm through using water channel irrigation water or natural precipitation afterwards, and per 10 days in three ponds and Irrigation Ditch gather water sample monitoring total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll concentration.The farm irrigation water is rich in nitrogen phosphorus because of compiling the farmland rainwash: total nitrogen 1~3mg/L, total phosphorus 0.1~0.5mg/L.From year September at experiment initial stage to 2010, plantation " underwater lawn " 1 #With 2 #Pond total phosphorus level is at 0.01~0.03mg/L, and total nitrogen level is at 0.5~1mg/L, chlorophyll concentration 0.01mg/L, and whole water body keeps state so clear that you can see the bottom always.And do not plant 3 of underwater lawn #Pond total phosphorus horizontal extent is at 0.03~0.1mg/L, and total nitrogen maintains 1~2mg/L, and chlorophyll concentration 0.12~0.15mg/L, water body appear muddy green, and Sa formula dish transparency has only about 10cm.
Embodiment 3
At the beginning of 4 months spring in 2009; The outdoor experiment of the Agricultural University Of South China place in Guangzhou is the little landscape pond of PVC plastic cistern simulation of 200 * 100 * 50cm with the length and width height, and whole bottom makes up underwater lawn; Spread the thick rice soil of 3.5cm in the case earlier; Implant then about about 15cm water sieve 15 strains of plant height, add tap water and make water level at the above 10cm of rice soil, plastic box top hides black sunshade net.After 20 days, water sieve is taken root and is had new seedling to sprout, and removes the sunshade net; The thick red earth of the even spreading 3.5cm in the position that matrix exposes in the plant gap is on the matrix of flooding then about 20cm, after about 30 days; After the water sieve coverage reaches about 50%; Add tap water and make water level bring up to 50cm (water tank is filled it up with state), after 30 days, the water sieve coverage reaches 100%.After the water sieve coverage reaches 50%; System is because of after evaporating water level decline; Moisturizing in per 10 days is once arrived 50cm with water level promoting; Mending the water of going into is the artificial mimic one-level A of sewage work of cities of secondary grade standard water outlet (nitrate nitrogen concentration 10mg/L, total phosphorus concentration 0.5mg/L), with saltpetre, potassium primary phosphate and tap water configuration.By summer in 2010, the water sieve plant height was up to the above 25cm of matrix in the water tank, and total phosphorus maintains about 0.01mg/L always in the overlying water, and total nitrogen maintains about 3mg/L, but chlorophyll concentration be in below the sensing range, water is kept state so clear that you can see the bottom always.

Claims (8)

1. " underwater lawn " of a phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting is characterized in that comprising dwarf form submerged plant and composite growth matrix, and said composite growth matrix comprises matrix and the phosphorus adsorptivity matrix that is suitable for submerged plant growth; Said " underwater lawn " comprises successively that from the water body bottom to the water body upper direction matrix, phosphorus adsorptivity matrix and the growth that are suitable for submerged plant growth cover the dwarf form submerged plant on the composite growth matrix.
2. according to " underwater lawn " of the said phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting of claim 1, it is characterized in that said dwarf form submerged plant is for sinking aquatic length, plant is shorter and smaller, plant height is no more than 30cm large-scale vascular bundle waterplant kind.
3. according to " underwater lawn " of claim 1 or 2 said phosphorus-removing algae-inhibitings, it is characterized in that said dwarf form submerged plant is that short arrowhead, water sieve or najas marina belong to kind.
4. according to " underwater lawn " of the said phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting of claim 1, it is characterized in that the said matrix that is suitable for submerged plant growth is rice soil or pond sludge.
5. according to " underwater lawn " of the said phosphorus-removing algae-inhibiting of claim 1, it is characterized in that said phosphorus adsorptivity matrix is red earth, latosol or iron sand.
6. the construction process of " underwater lawn " of a claim 1,2,4 or 5 said phosphorus-removing algae-inhibitings is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
(1) dystopy is built into preliminary lawn; Lay the seedling dish in the open at the bottom of pond or the little plastic box, on the seedling dish, spread the matrix that is suitable for submerged plant growth, then with dwarf form submerged plant nutrition propagule take root in into;
(2) treat that the dwarf form submerged plant takes root the seedling that makes new advances of growth fully after, the position even spreading phosphorus adsorbing base that matrix exposes in the submerged plant gap;
(3) treat submerged plant after coverage reaches 40%~60% on the phosphorus adsorbing base, plastics seedling pan arrest is risen transport to the target water body, be layered on the target water bottom, develop into and cover good " underwater lawn ".
7. construction process according to claim 6 is characterized in that dark 0.3~0.5 meter of said open dug reservoir; The said thick 3~4cm of growth matrix that is suitable for submerged plant; Said phosphorus adsorptivity stromal thickness is 1~3 times of a said growth matrix.
8. the construction process of " underwater lawn " of a claim 1,2,4 or 5 said phosphorus-removing algae-inhibitings is characterized in that may further comprise the steps:
(1) target water body water level is reduced to 0.1~0.15m, the matrix that is suitable for submerged plant growth is spread at the bottom, with dwarf form submerged plant nutrition propagule take root in into;
(2) treat that the dwarf form submerged plant takes root the seedling that makes new advances of growth fully after, the position even spreading phosphorus adsorbing base that matrix exposes in the submerged plant gap;
(3) 20~25cm on the matrix that floods, grow naturally on the lawn, treats that submerged plant after coverage reaches 50% on the phosphorus adsorptivity matrix, brings up to normal level with water level, and the submerged plant continued growth forms " underwater lawn ".
CN2010105297143A 2010-10-29 2010-10-29 Underwater lawn capable of removing phosphorous and inhibiting algae and construction method thereof Expired - Fee Related CN102060384B (en)

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CN102498910A (en) * 2011-11-21 2012-06-20 中国科学院水生生物研究所 Preparation method of submerged vegetation patch
CN103636428B (en) * 2013-12-09 2016-05-04 中国水电顾问集团华东勘测设计研究院有限公司 A kind of submerged plant growth bag and Production and application method thereof
CN105265211B (en) * 2015-10-20 2017-11-21 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所 A kind of submerged plant artificial grass culture system and cultivation method for transplanting
CN105409625A (en) * 2015-11-20 2016-03-23 宁波市农业科学研究院 Submerged plant degradable planting system
CN108840437B (en) * 2018-05-30 2021-04-23 华南农业大学 Application of paddy field weed submerged plants in black and odorous water body treatment

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CN101700934A (en) * 2009-11-17 2010-05-05 山东建筑大学 Adjustable recovering method and device of submerged plant in polluted shallow lake
CN101830565A (en) * 2010-05-24 2010-09-15 河海大学 Device for three-dimensional coupling and purification of water quality by lifting plant sinker and floater

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CN101700934A (en) * 2009-11-17 2010-05-05 山东建筑大学 Adjustable recovering method and device of submerged plant in polluted shallow lake
CN101830565A (en) * 2010-05-24 2010-09-15 河海大学 Device for three-dimensional coupling and purification of water quality by lifting plant sinker and floater

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